Major World Philosophers世界主要哲學家

General Information 一般信息

Abelard, Peter 亞伯拉德,彼得
(1079 - 1142). ( 1079至1142年) 。 French philosopher.法國哲學家。 One of the most influential medieval logicians and theologians. Around 1113, while teaching theology in Paris, Abelard fell in love with his student Heloise, whom he secretly married; he was condemned for heresy a few years later because of his nominalist views about universals.其中最有影響力的中世紀的邏輯學家和神學家。約有1113年,而教學神學在巴黎,亞伯拉德愛上了他的學生愛洛伊絲,他秘密結婚,他是譴責異端幾年後因為他的唯名論者的看法共性。
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Anaxagoras 阿那克薩哥拉
(c. 500 - 428 BC). (角500 -4 28年) 。 Greek Presocratic philosopher who is said to have made Athens the center of philosophy and to have been Socrates' teacher; he rejected the four elements theory of Empedocles and posited instead an infinite number of unique particles of which all objects are composed.希臘哲學家Presocratic誰據說已取得雅典奧運會的中心哲學,並已蘇格拉底的老師,他拒絕了四個要素理論的恩培多克勒和假定而不是無限的獨特粒子的所有物體的組成。
Anselm, St. 安瑟倫,聖
(1033 - 1109). (一〇三三年至1109年) 。 Italian monk and Scholastic theologian who became archbishop of Canterbury.意大利僧人和學術神學誰成為坎特伯雷大主教。 St. Anselm founded Scholasticism, integrated Aristotelian logic into theology, and believed that reason and revelation are compatible.聖安瑟倫成立士林,綜合亞里士多德邏輯到神學,並認為原因及啟示是兼容的。 He is most famous for his influential ontological argument for God's existence.他是最有名的有影響的本體論論證上帝的存在。
Aquinas, St. Thomas 阿奎那,聖托馬斯
(1225 - 74). ( 1225年至1274年) 。 The greatest thinker of the Scholastic School.最偉大的思想家學術學校。 His ideas were, in 1879, made the official Catholic philosophy.他的想法是,在1879年,使官方天主教哲學。 He incorporated Greek ideas into Christianity by showing Aristotle's thought to be compatible with church doctrine.他將希臘思想統一到基督教表明亞里士多德的思想必須符合教會原則。 In his system, reason and faith (revelation) form two separate but harmonious realms whose truths complement rather than oppose one another.在他的系統,理性與信仰(啟示)形成兩個單獨的和諧境界,但其真理補充而不是互相反對。 He presented influential philosophical proofs for the existence of God.他介紹有影響力的哲學證明存在的上帝。
Aristotle 亞里士多德
(384 - 322 BC). ( 384 -3 22年) 。 Greek philosopher, scientist, logician, and student of many disciplines. Aristotle studied under Plato and became the tutor of Alexander the Great.希臘哲學家,科學家, logician ,學生的許多學科。亞里士多德根據柏拉圖的研究,成為教師的亞歷山大大帝。 In 335 he opened the Lyceum, a major philosophical and scientific school in Athens.在335 ,他打開了中學,一個重要的哲學和科學的學校在雅典。 Aristotle emphasized the observation of nature and analyzed all things in terms of "the four causes."亞里士多德強調,觀察自然和分析所有的事情在“四個原因。 ” In ethics, he stressed that virtue is a mean between extremes and that man's highest goal should be the use of his intellect.在職業道德,他強調說,美德是一種極端之間的意思和那個男人的最高目標應該是利用他的智慧。 Most of Aristotle's works were lost to Christian civilization from the fifth through the twelfth centuries.大多數亞里士多德的作品失去了基督教文明的第五次通過的12世紀。
Augustine of Hippo, St. 奧古斯丁的河馬,聖
(354 - 430). ( 354 -4 30) 。 The greatest of the Latin church fathers and possibly the most influential Christian thinker after St. Paul.其中最大的拉丁教會的父親,並可能最有影響力的基督教思想家後,聖保羅。 St. Augustine emphasized man's need for grace.聖奧古斯丁強調人的需要的寬限期。 His Confessions and The City of God were highly influential.他的懺悔和上帝之城非常有影響力的。
Averroes 阿威羅伊
(1126 - 98). ( 1126年至1198年) 。 Spanish-born Arabian philosopher, lawyer, and physician whose detailed commentaries on Aristotle were influential for over 300 years. He emphasized the compatibility of faith and reason but believed philosophical knowledge to be derived from reason.西班牙出生的阿拉伯哲學家,律師,醫師,其詳細的評論亞里士多德的影響力超過300年。他強調,相容性信仰與理性,但認為哲學的知識,來自理由。 The Church condemned his views.教會譴責他的觀點。
Avicenna 阿維森納
(980 - 1037). ( 980 -1 037年) 。 Islamic medieval philosopher born in Persia.伊斯蘭中世紀的哲學家出生於波斯。 His Neoplatonist interpretation of Aristotle greatly influenced medieval philosophers, including St. Thomas Aquinas.他解釋Neoplatonist亞里士多德極大地影響中世紀的哲學家,包括多瑪斯。 Avicenna was also a physician; his writings on medicine were important for nearly 500 years.阿維森納也是一名醫生,他的醫學著作是重要的近500年。
Bacon, Sir Francis 培根,柯羅馬蒂
(1561 - 1626). ( 1561年至1626年) 。 English statesman, essayist, and philosopher, one of the great precursors of the tradition of British empiricism and of belief in the importance of scientific method.英國的政治家,散文家和哲學家,一個偉大的前兆傳統的英國經驗主義和信仰的重要性,科學的方法。 He emphasized the use of inductive reasoning in the pursuit of knowledge.他強調,使用歸納推理在追求知識。
Boethius Boethius
(c. 475 - 535). (角475 -5 35) 。 Roman statesman, philosopher, and translator of Aristotle, whose Consolation of Philosophy (written in prison) was widely read throughout the Middle Ages; it showed reason's role in the face of misfortune and was the link between the ancient philosophers and the Scholastics.羅馬政治家,哲學家,翻譯和亞里士多德,他們安慰的哲學(寫在監獄中)被廣泛閱讀在整個中世紀,它表明原因的作用,面對不幸和之間的聯繫,古代哲人和Scholastics 。
Descartes, Rene 笛卡爾,雷
(1596 - 1650). ( 1596至1650年) 。 French philosopher and scientist, considered the father of modern philosophical inquiry.法國哲學家和科學家,認為父親的現代哲學探究。 Descartes tried to extend mathematical method to all knowledge in his search for certainty.笛卡爾試圖延長數學方法對所有的知識在他尋找確定性。 Discarding the medieval appeal to authority, he began with "universal doubt," finding that the only thing that could not be doubted was his own thinking.丟棄的中世紀呼籲當局,他開始與“普遍懷疑, ”發現的唯一一件事不能懷疑是他自己的想法。 The result was his famous "Cogito, ergo sum," or "I think, therefore I am."結果是他著名的“我思故” ,或“我想,故我在。 ”
Dewey, John 杜威,約翰
(1859 - 1952). ( 1859年至1952年) 。 Leading American philosopher, psychologist, and educational theorist.領先的美國哲學家,心理學家和教育理論家。 Dewey developed the views of Charles S. Peirce (1839 - 1914) and William James into his own version of pragmatism.杜威發達國家的意見,查爾斯皮爾斯( 1839年至1914年)和威廉詹姆斯到自己的版本的實用主義。 He emphasized the importance of inquiry in gaining knowledge and attacked the view that knowledge is passive.他強調,必須把調查獲得的知識和襲擊認為,知識是被動的。
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 黑格爾,格奧爾格弗里德里希威廉
(1770 - 1831). ( 1770年至1831年) 。 German philosopher whose idealistic system of metaphysics was highly influential; it was based on a concept of the world as a single organism developing by its own inner logic through trios of stages called "thesis, antithesis, and synthesis" and gradually coming to embody reason. Hegel held the monarchy to be the highest development of the state.德國哲學家的理想制度的形而上學是非常有影響力的,它是基於一個概念的世界作為一個單一的有機體發展自己的內在邏輯通過三人的階段稱為“論文,對立面,與合成” ,並逐漸體現的原因。黑格爾舉行了君主立憲制是最高的發展狀態。
Heidegger, Martin 海德格爾,馬丁
(1889 - 1976). ( 1889年至1976年) 。 German philosopher who studied with Husserl.德國哲學家誰研究胡塞爾。 Heidegger's own philosophy, which was influenced by Kierkegaard, emphasized the need to understand "being," especially the unique ways that humans act in and relate to the world.海德格爾自己的哲學,這是克爾凱郭爾的影響,強調必須理解“正在” ,尤其是獨特的方式,人類的行為和涉及到的世界。
Hobbes, Thomas 霍布斯,托馬斯
(1588 - 1679). ( 1588年至1679年) 。 English materialist and empiricist, one of the founders of modern political philosophy. In the Leviathan, Hobbes argued that because men are selfish by nature, a powerful absolute ruler is necessary.英文唯物主義和經驗主義的奠基人之一的現代政治哲學。在利維坦,霍布斯認為,由於男人是自私的性質,一個強大的絕對統治者是必要的。 In a "social contract," men agree to give up many personal liberties and accept such rule.在“社會契約” ,男子同意放棄許多個人自由和接受這樣的規則。
Hume, David 休謨,大衛
(1711 - 76). ( 1711年至1776年) 。 British empiricist whose arguments against the proofs for God's existence are still influential.英國經驗主義的論點,反對的證明上帝的存在仍具有影響力。 Hume held that moral beliefs have no basis in reason, but are based solely on custom.休謨認為,道德觀念沒有根據的原因,但完全是基於自定義。
James, William 詹姆斯,威廉
(1842 - 1910). ( 1842年至1910年) 。 American philosopher and psychologist, one of the founders of Pragmatism, and one of the most influential thinkers of his era.美國哲學家和心理學家的創始人之一實用主義,其中一個最有影響力的思想家,他的時代。 James viewed consciousness as actively shaping reality, defined truth as "the expedient" way of thinking, and held that ideas are tools for guiding our future actions rather than reproductions of our past experiences.詹姆斯認為意識,積極塑造現實,界定真理的“權宜之計”的思維方式,並認為思想的工具,指導我們今後行動的複製品,而不是我們過去的經驗。
Kant, Immanuel 康德,康德
(1724 - 1804). ( 1724年至1804年) 。 German philosopher, possibly the most influential of modern times.德國哲學家,可能最有影響力的現代倍。 He synthesized Leibniz's rationalism and Hume's skepticism into his "critical philosophy": that ideas do not conform to the external world, but rather the world can be known only insofar as it conforms to the mind's own structure.他合成了萊布尼茲的理性主義和休謨的懷疑到他的“批判哲學” :即思想不符合外部世界,而是世界上只知道,因為它符合牢記自己的結構。 Kant claimed that morality requires a belief in God, freedom, and immortality, although these can be proved neither scientifically nor by metaphysics.康德說,道德需要信仰的上帝,自由和不朽,儘管這些可以證明既不科學也不是形而上學。
Kierkegaard, Soren 克爾凱郭爾,索倫
(1813 - 55). ( 1813年至1855年) 。 Danish philosopher, religious thinker, and extraordinarily influential founder of existentialism.丹麥哲學家,宗教思想家,而且非常有影響力的存在主義的創始人。 Kierkegaard held that "truth is subjectivity," that religion is an individual matter, and that man's relationship to God requires suffering.克爾凱郭爾認為, “真理是主體, ”宗教是個人的事,那個男人的關係,需要上帝的痛苦。
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 萊布尼茨,戈特弗里德威廉
(1646 - 1716). ( 1646年至1716年) 。 German philosopher, diplomat, and mathematician, one of the great minds of all time. Leibniz was an inventor (with Sir Isaac Newton) of the calculus and a forefather of modern mathematical logic.德國哲學家,外交家,數學家,一個偉大的頭腦中所有的時間。萊布尼茨發明是一個(與艾薩克牛頓爵士)的演算和祖先的現代數理邏輯。 He held that the entire universe is one large system expressing God's plan.他認為,整個宇宙是一個大的系統表達上帝的計劃。
Locke, John 洛克,約翰
(1632 - 1704). ( 1632年至1704年) 。 Highly influential founder of British empiricism.很有影響力的創始人英國的經驗主義。 Locke believed that all ideas come to mind from experience and that none are innate.洛克認為,所有的想法想到的經驗,而且都沒有天生的。 He also held that authority derives solely from the consent of the governed, a view that deeply influenced the American Revolution and the writing of the US Constitution.他還認為,當局只從產生的同意,管轄,一種意見認為,深深地影響了美國革命和書面美國憲法。
Machiavelli, Niccolo 馬基雅維尼克洛
(1469 - 1527). ( 1469年至1527年) 。 Italian Renaissance statesman and political writer.意大利文藝復興時期的政治家和政治作家。 In The Prince, one of the most influential political books of modern times, Machiavelli argues that any act of a ruler designed to gain and hold power is permissible.在王子,其中最有影響力的政治書籍,近代以來,馬基雅維裡認為,任何行為的一把尺子旨在增益和掌權是允許的。 The term Machiavellian is used to refer to any political tactics that are cunning and power-oriented.任期權謀用來指任何政治策略,是狡猾和電力為主。
Maimonides 邁蒙尼德
(1135 - 1204). ( 1135年至1204年) 。 Spanish-born medieval Jewish philosopher and thinker.西班牙出生的中世紀的猶太哲學家和思想家。 Maimonides tried to synthesize Aristotelian and Judaic thought.邁蒙尼德試圖合成亞里士多德和猶太思想。 His works had enormous influence on Jewish and Christian thought.他的作品有著巨大的影響猶太教和基督教思想。
Marx, Karl 馬克思,卡爾
(1818 - 83). ( 1818年至1883年) 。 German revolutionary thinker, social philosopher, and economist.德國的革命思想家,社會哲學家和經濟學家。 His ideas, formulated with Engels, laid the foundation for nineteenth-century socialism and twentieth-century communism.他的想法,制定與恩格斯,奠定了19世紀的社會主義與二十世紀的共產主義。 Although Marx was initially influenced by Hegel, he soon rejected Hegel's idealism in favor of materialism.雖然馬克思最初是受黑格爾,他很快就拒絕了黑格爾的唯心主義主張唯物論。 His Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital are among the most important writings of the last 200 years.他的共產黨宣言和資本論是最重要的著作在過去的200年。
Mill, John Stuart 軋機,約翰斯圖亞特
(1806 - 73). ( 1806年至1873年) 。 English empiricist philosopher, logician, economist, and social reformer.英國經驗主義哲學家, logician ,經濟學家和社會的改革者。 His System of Logic described the basic rules for all scientific reasoning.他的邏輯系統描述的基本規則對所有的科學推理。 As a student of Jeremy Bentham, he elaborated on utilitarian ethics; in On Liberty, he presented a plea for the sanctity of individual rights against the power of any government.作為一個學生,本瑟姆,他詳細闡述了功利主義的道德;在論自由,他提出了一種懇求神聖的個人權利,防止權力的任何政府。
Moore, GE (George Edward) 摩爾,通用電氣公司(喬治愛德華)
(1873 - 1958). ( 1873年至1958年) 。 British philosopher who emphasized the "common sense" view of the reality of material objects.英國哲學家誰強調, “常識”認為現實的物質對象。 In ethics, Moore held that goodness is a quality known directly by moral intuition and that it is a fallacy to try to define it in terms of anything else.在職業道德,穆爾認為,善良是一種已知的質量直接由道義上的直覺,它是一種謬論來界定它在別的。
More, Sir Thomas 此外,托馬斯先生
(1478 - 1535). ( 1478年至1535年) 。 A leading Renaissance humanist and statesman, Lord Chancellor of England.文藝復興時期的著名人道主義者和政治家,大法官英格蘭。 More was beheaded for refusing to accept the king as head of the Church.更多的被斬首拒絕接受國王擔任教會。 Influenced by Greek thinking, he believed in social reform and drew a picture of an ideal peaceful state in his Utopia.受希臘思想,他認為在社會改革,並提請圖片的一個理想的和平狀態中的烏托邦。
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm 尼采,弗里德里希
(1844 - 1900). ( 1844年至○○年) 。 German philosopher, philologist, and poet.德國哲學家, philologist ,和詩人。 As a moralist, he rejected Christian values and championed a "Superman" who would create a new, life-affirming, heroic ethic by his "will to power."作為一個衛道士,他拒絕了基督教的價值觀和倡導的“超人”誰將創建一個新的,生活肯定,英雄的道德他的“權力意志。 ”
Pascal, Blaise 帕斯卡爾,布萊斯
(1623 - 62). ( 1623年至1662年) 。 French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and theologian.法國哲學家,數學家,科學家,和神學家。 His posthumous Pensees ("Thoughts") argues that reason is by itself inadequate for man's spiritual needs and cannot bring man to God, who can be known only through mystic understanding.他死後Pensees ( “思考” )認為,原因是其本身不足以人的精神需求,並不能帶來人的上帝,誰可以被稱為只有通過神秘的理解。
Plato 柏拉圖
(c. 428 - c. 348 BC). (角428 -公元前3 48角) 。 Athenian father of Western philosophy and student of Socrates, after whose death he traveled widely.雅典父親的西方哲學和蘇格拉底的學生,其死亡後,他來到廣。 On returning to Athens, he founded an Academy, where he taught until he died.在返回雅典,他創立的一個學院,在那裡他教,直到他去世。 His writings are in the form of dialogues between Socrates and other Athenians.他的著作的形式之間的對話蘇格拉底和其他雅典。 Many of Plato's views are set forth in The Republic, where an ideal state postulates philosopher kings, specially trained at the highest levels of moral and mathematical knowledge.許多柏拉圖的意見中提出的共和國,在一個理想的狀態假設哲學家國王,受過專門訓練的最高級別的道義和數學知識。 Plato's other works analyzed moral virtues, the nature of knowledge, and the immortality of the soul.柏拉圖的其他作品分析道德的性質,知識,和不朽的靈魂。 His views on cosmology strongly influenced the next two thousand years of scientific thinking.他的看法宇宙的強烈影響未來二千年的科學思維。
Plotinus 普羅提諾
(205 - 270). ( 205 -2 70) 。 Egyptian-born founder of Neoplatonism, who synthesized the ideas of Plato and other Greek philosophers.埃及出生的新柏拉圖主義的創始人,誰的想法合成柏拉圖和其他希臘哲學家。 Plotinus believed all reality is caused by a series of outpourings (called emanations) from the divine source.普羅提諾認為所有的現實是造成了一系列的outpourings (稱為emanations )由神聖的來源。 Although not himself a Christian, he was a major influence on Christianity.雖然不是自己一個基督徒,他是一個重大影響的基督教。
Rousseau, Jean Jacques 盧梭,讓雅克
(1712 - 78). ( 1712年至1778年) 。 Swiss-French thinker, born in Geneva. Rousseau has been enormously influential in political philosophy, educational theory, and the Romantic movement.瑞士的法國思想家,出生在日內瓦舉行。盧梭一直非常有影響力的政治哲學,教育理論,以及浪漫的運動。 In The Social Contract (1762), he viewed governments as being expressions of the people's "general will," or rational men's choice for the common good.在社會契約論( 1762年) ,他認為政府為表達人民群眾的“普遍意志” ,或合理的男子的選擇,謀求共同利益。 Rousseau emphasized man's natural goodness.盧梭強調人的自然善良。
Russell, Bertrand 拉塞爾,貝特朗
(1872 - 1970). ( 1972至70年) 。 English philosopher and logician influential as an agnostic and a pacifist.英國哲學家和logician作為一個有影響力的不可知和和平主義者。 Early work with Alfred North Whitehead gave birth to modern logic.早期工作阿爾弗雷德北白石生下了現代邏輯。 Russell changed his views numerous times but always sought to establish philosophy, especially epistemology, as a science.羅素改變了他的意見,無數次,但總是設法建立哲學,特別是認識論,作為一門科學。
Santayana, George 桑塔亞那,喬治
(1863 - 1952). ( 1863年至1952年) 。 Spanish-born American philosopher and poet; a student of William James.西班牙裔美國哲學家和詩人;的學生威廉詹姆斯。 Santayana attempted to reconcile Platonism and materialism, studied how reason works, and found "animal faith," or impulse, to be the basis of reason and belief.桑塔亞納試圖調和柏拉圖和唯物論,研究如何工作的原因,發現“動物信仰” ,或衝動,為基礎,理智和信念。
Sartre, Jean-Paul 薩特,讓保羅
(1905 - 80). ( 〇五年至1980年) 。 French philosopher, novelist, and dramatist; one of the founders of existentialism. Sartre was a Marxist through much of his life.法國哲學家,小說家和戲劇家;的創始人之一存在。薩特是一個馬克思主義通過他的大部分生活。 He held that man is "condemned to be free" and to bear the responsibility of making free choices.他認為,人是“譴責自由” ,並承擔責任作出自由選擇。
Schopenhauer, Arthur 叔本華,阿瑟
(1788 - 1860). ( 1788至1860年) 。 German post-Kantian philosopher who held that although irrational will is the driving force in human affairs, it is doomed not to be satisfied.德國後誰哲學家康德認為,雖然不合理的將是動力在人類事務中,它是注定不會得到滿足。 He believed that only art and contemplation could offer escape from determinism and pessimism.他認為,只有藝術和沉思可以提供擺脫宿命論和悲觀情緒。 Schopenhauer strongly influenced Nietzsche, Freud, Tolstoy, Proust, and Thomas Mann.叔本華強烈影響尼采,弗洛伊德,托爾斯泰,普魯斯特,托馬斯曼和。
Scotus, John Duns 司各脫,約翰鄧
(c. 1266 - 1308). (角1266年至1308年) 。 Scottish-born Scholastic philosopher who tried to integrate Aristotelian ideas into Christian theology.蘇格蘭出生的士林哲學家誰試圖把亞里士多德思想統一到基督教神學。 Scotus emphasized that all things depend not just on God's intellect but on divine will as well.司各脫強調,所有的事情不僅取決於對上帝的智慧,但神會的。
Smith, Adam 史密斯,亞當
(1723 - 1790). ( 1723年至1790年) 。 Scottish philosopher and economist. He believed that if government left the marketplace to its own devices, an "invisible hand" would guarantee that the results would benefit the populace.蘇格蘭哲學家和經濟學家。他認為,如果政府離開了市場,自己的設備,一個“看不見的手”將保證其結果將有利於民眾。 Smith has had enormous influence on economists into the present day.史密斯了巨大的影響經濟學家到今天。
Socrates 蘇格拉底
(464 - 399 BC). ( 464 -3 99年) 。 Athenian philosopher who allegedly wrote down none of his views, supposedly from his belief that writing distorts ideas.雅典哲學家誰據稱,寫下沒有他的意見,理應由他認為,書面歪曲的想法。 His chief student, Plato, is the major source of knowledge of what is known of his life.他的首席學生,柏拉圖,是主要的知識來源所謂的生命。 Socrates questioned Athenians about their moral, political, and religious beliefs, as depicted in Plato's dialogues; his questioning technique, called dialectic, has greatly influenced western philosophy.蘇格拉底雅典質疑他們的道德,政治和宗教信仰,所描繪柏拉圖的對話;他詢問技術,所謂的辯證,極大地影響了西方哲學。 Socrates is alleged to have said that "the unexamined life is not worth living."蘇格拉底被指控犯有的說: “未經審查的生活是不值得的生活。 ” In 399 BC, he was brought to trial on charges of corrupting the youth and religious heresy. Sentenced to die, he drank poison.公元前399年,他被交付審判,罪名是敗壞的青年和宗教異端。被判死了,他喝毒藥。
Spinoza, Benedict (Baruch) 斯賓諾莎,篤(巴魯)
(1623 - 77). ( 1623年至1677年) 。 Dutch-born philosopher expelled from the Amsterdam Jewish community for heresy in 1656; he was attacked by Christian theologians 14 years later.荷蘭出生的哲學家趕出阿姆斯特丹猶太社區為異端在1656年,他曾遭到了基督教神學家14年後。 In Ethics, Spinoza presents his views in a mathematical system of deductive reasoning.在倫理,斯賓諾莎提出自己的看法一個數學體系的演繹推理。 A proponent of monism, he held-in contrast to Descartes-that mind and body are aspects of a single substance, which he called God or nature.主張一元論,他持有相反,笛卡爾,即身體和精神方面的是一個單一的物質,他所謂的上帝或性質。
Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) 伏爾泰(法國瑪麗阿魯埃)
(1694 - 1778). ( 1694年至1778年) 。 French philosopher, essayist, and historian; one of the major thinkers of the Enlightenment.法國哲學家,散文家和歷史學家;的一個主要思想家的啟示。 A Deist who was anti-Christian, Voltaire widely advocated tolerance of liberal ideas and called for positive social action.阿自然神論者誰是反基督教,伏爾泰廣泛提倡寬容的自由思想,並呼籲積極的社會行動。 His novel Cyandide is a parody of the optimism of Leibniz.他的小說Cyandide是模仿樂觀萊布尼茨。
Whitehead, Alfred North 懷特黑德,阿爾弗雷德北
(1861 - 1947). ( 1861年至1947年) 。 British philosopher and mathematician who worked with Bertrand Russell. Whitehead tried to integrate twentieth-century physics into a metaphysics of nature.英國哲學家和數學家誰與羅素。白石試圖把二十世紀的物理學成為一個形而上學的性質。
William of Ockham (Occam) 奧卡姆的威廉(奧康)
(c. 1285 - c. 1349). (角1285 -角1 349) 。 Franciscan monk and important English theologian and philosopher.濟和尚和重要的英文神學家和哲學家。 In his nominalism, he opposed much of the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas and of medieval Aristotelianism; he also rejected the Pope's power in the secular realm.在他的唯名論,他反對大量的思想多瑪斯和中世紀的亞里士多德,他還拒絕了教皇的力量在世俗的境界。

Famous Quotes著名的競標

How to Argue Logically如何主張的邏輯

We like to think that we speak logically all the time, but we are aware that we sometimes use illogical means to persuade others of our point of view. In the heat of an impassioned argument, or when we are afraid our disputant has a stronger case, or when we don't quite have all the facts we'd like to have, we are prone to engage in faulty processes of reasoning, using arguments we hope will appear sound.我們喜歡認為我們說話的邏輯所有的時間,但我們知道,我們有時使用不符合邏輯的手段來說服他人的觀點。 在激烈的慷慨激昂的論點,或者當我們擔心我們的爭論者具有較強案件時,或當我們不完全具有的一切事實,我們想,我們很容易進行錯誤的推理過程,使用的論據,我們希望會出現聲音。

Such defective arguments are called fallacies by philosophers who, starting with Aristotle, have catalogued and classified these fallacious arguments. There are now over 125 separate fallacies, most with their own impressive-sounding names, many of them in Latin.這種有缺陷的論點被稱為謬論誰的哲學家,從亞里士多德,已編目和分類這些荒謬的論點。 現在有超過125個單獨的謬論,大多數用自己令人印象深刻的冠冕堂皇的名稱,其中許多是在拉丁美洲。

Some arguments have easily recognizable defects. For instance, in the argument ad hominem, a person's views are criticized because of a logically irrelevant personal defect: "You can't take Smith's advice on the stock market; he's a known philanderer."有些論點,很容易辨認的缺陷。例如,在廣告人身攻擊的說法,一個人的意見批評,因為一個邏輯無關的個人缺陷: “你不能把史密斯的意見,股票市場;他是一個眾所周知philanderer 。 ” In the genetic fallacy, something is mistakenly reduced to its origins: "We know that emotions are nothing more than physiology; after all, medical research has shown emotions involve the secretion of hormones." Another illogical argument is named for the erroneous thinking a wagering person may fall prey to, the gambler's fallacy (also called the Monte Carlo fallacy ): "I'm betting on heads; it's got to come up since we've just had nine straight tails."遺傳的謬誤,什麼是錯誤減少到它的起源: “我們知道,感情只不過是生理;畢竟,醫學研究已經表明涉及情緒的荷爾蒙分泌。 ”另一個不合邏輯的說法是命名為錯誤思想一博彩人可犧牲品,在賭徒的謬論 (也稱為蒙特卡羅謬論 ) : “我很看好元首,它得來,因為我們剛剛已經連續九尾巴。 ”

Some fallacies may not be recognized as erroneous reasoning because they are such commonly used forms of argument.一些歪理邪說可能不會被承認錯誤的推理,因為他們常用這種形式的論點。 For instance, if we say, "I'm sure my cold is due to the weather; I started sneezing right after it went from 60 degrees to 31 degrees in three hours," we are committing the fallacy with the Latin name of post hoc ergo propter hoc ("after this, therefore because of this").舉例來說,如果我們說: “我敢肯定,我的感冒是由於天氣;我開始打噴嚏權後,從60度至31度,三個小時, ”我們正在實施的謬論與拉丁美洲名稱事後前置propter特設 ( “本次比賽之後,因此,因為這個” ) 。 Many a political argument exemplifies the fallacy of arguing in a circle ; for instance: "Only wealthy men are capable of leading the country; after all, leadership can be learned only if you have had money to exercise power."許多政治觀點體現了謬誤的爭論在一個圓圈 ,例如: “只有男人有錢有能力領導國家;畢竟,領導可以學到只有當您有資金行使權力。 ” Many prejudicial or stereotypical arguments commit the fallacy of division , or of applying to the part what may be true of the whole: "North Dakota has wide-open spaces; since Jack's farm is there, it must be quite large."許多偏見或成見的論點犯下的分裂謬論 ,或適用於部分可能是真實的整個: “北達科他州有廣闊空間;因為傑克的農場已經存在,它必須相當大。 ” The converse of this is the fallacy of composition , where properties of the parts are erroneously attributed to the whole: "Every apple on this tree is rotten; therefore, the tree itself is hopelessly diseased."相反的這是謬誤 ,而性能的部件被錯誤歸因於整個: “每個蘋果在此樹的腐爛,因此,樹本身是無可救藥病。 ”

It may be a surprise to realize that some widely accepted forms of argument are just as fallacious as the most logically defective reasoning.它可能是一個意外認識到,一些廣為接受形式的論點一樣荒謬的最合乎邏輯推理有缺陷。 When we appeal to the beliefs or behavior of the majority to prove the truth of something, we are committing the fallacy of consensus gentium : "Imbibing alcohol cannot be bad for people, since all cultures studied have used alcohol."當我們呼籲信仰或行為的多數來證明真理的東西,我們正在實施謬論萬民法的共識 : “ Imbibing酒精不能壞的人,因為所有的文化研究使用酒精。 ” Or consider the person who argues that "Tragedy is the highest form of literature; after all, didn't Aristotle consider it such?"或考慮誰的人認為, “悲劇是最高形式的文學;畢竟,沒有亞里士多德認為這樣? ” This is a form of the fallacy of arguing from authority .這是一種謬誤的爭論從權威。 There is also the fallacy of ignoratio elenchus , which has nothing to do with ignorance; its name means that the point made is irrelevant to the issue at hand, as in the untenable view of a lawyer who says, "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, you cannot convict my client of manslaughter while driving under the influence; after all, advertisements for alcohol exist everywhere in our culture."也有謬誤ignoratio詭辯 ,這沒有任何關係無知;其名稱意味著,提出的觀點是無關緊要的問題,如站不住腳的觀點,誰的律師說, “女士們,先生們的陪審團,你不能判定我的當事人的過失殺人罪,而酒後駕車;畢竟,廣告的酒精都存在於我們的文化。 “

Fallacy謬誤

In logic, a fallacy is a form of reasoning that is illogical or that violates the rules of valid argumentation.在邏輯上,一個謬論是一種形式的推理,是不合邏輯的,或者違反規則的有效論證。 A formal fallacy makes strict violations of the rules of logic.正式的謬論使嚴格的行為規則的邏輯。 An informal fallacy does not violate the rules of logic, but it violates the rules of valid reasoning or arrives at unsound conclusions, because of unsound reasoning.一個非正式的謬誤不違反規則的邏輯,但它違反了規則,有效的推理或到達不合理的結論,因為不健全的推理。

A common formal fallacy involves affirming the consequent or denying the antecedent in hypothetical reasoning.一個共同的正式謬誤涉及申明由此或否定先行在假設的推理。 That is, if A, then B, affirming B as the proof of A, or denying A as the basis for denying B. In either case, it does not follow that the affirmation or the denial proves what is claimed.也就是說,如果A ,然後乙,乙肯定的證明,或者拒絕為基礎,否定B.在兩種情況下,但這並不意味著肯定或否定證明是什麼人。 Thus, if all Americans are bald (A), then all Americans require no hairdressers (B)--the affirmation of A, that is, saying it is true, does not prove B; neither does the denial of B prove the denial of A.因此,如果所有美國人都禿(甲) ,然後所有的美國人不需要理髮店(乙) -的一種肯定,這是說,這是真的,並不證明B組;也沒有拒絕的B證明剝奪字母a.

Two other kinds of formal fallacies that are important are the argument from the undistributed middle and the conversion of a universal positive proposition.其他兩個類型的正式謬論非常重要的論點是從未分配利潤中,轉化一項普遍的積極主張。 In the first, it is argued that "all A is B" and "all C is B"; therefore, "all A is C."在第一,有人認為, “所有A是B ”和“所有C是B ” ,因此, “所有A是角” If "Americans" is substituted for "A", "human beings" for "B", and "Hungarians" for "C", it is easily seen that the argument is fallacious.如果“美國人”取代的“ A ” , “人”為有“ B ”和“匈牙利”的的“ C ” ,這是容易看到的說法是荒謬的。 In the other case, it is argued that if "all A is B," then "all B is A"; this is obviously fallacious if the same substitutions are made.在其他情況下,有人認為,如果“所有A是B ” ,那麼“所有的B是一個” ;這顯然是荒謬的,如果同樣的替換了。

Because informal fallacies occur much more frequently in ordinary discussions, in political speeches, and in advertising, they are, in some ways, more important.由於非正式謬論發生更頻繁的普通討論,在政治演說,和廣告中,他們在某些方面,更重要的。 Some of these fallacies are a result of the ambiguity of the terms used; people often slip unconsciously from one meaning of a term to another.這些謬論是由於含糊的用語;人們往往不自覺地滑從一個意義的任期相同。 Other major informal fallacies are the ignoratio elenchi, that is, arguing for something different from the question asked; and the tu quoque argument, in which an unsound argument is justified by claiming the unsoundness of another.其他主要的非正式的歪理邪說是ignoratio elenchi ,就是主張不同的東西從提問和土quoque的論點,在一個不健全的論點是有道理的聲稱不健全的另一個。 These soon degenerate into the argument ad hominem, in which the argument of an opponent is countered by pointing to his or her personal faults rather than by considering the substance of the argument; and the argument from authority, which appeals to famous or important people who agree with a particular point of view.這些很快演變成的論點廣告人身攻擊,其中的論點是對手的反擊指著他或她的個人錯誤,而不是考慮的是實質的論點和論據的權威,從而呼籲著名的或重要的人誰同意某個觀點。

Richard H Popkin理查德H金

Bibliography 目錄
Engel, S. Morris, With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies, 3d ed.恩格爾,美國莫里斯,有很好的理由:介紹非正式謬誤,三維版。 (1985); Fearnside, W. Ward, and Holther, William B., Fallacy: The Counterfeit of Argument (1959). ( 1985年) ; Fearnside ,美國區,並Holther ,威廉B ,謬誤:冒牌的論證( 1959年) 。


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