Origen奧利

General Information 一般信息

Origen, c.185-c.254, is generally considered the greatest theologian and biblical scholar of the early Eastern church.奧利, c.185 - c.254 ,通常被認為是最偉大的神學和聖經學者的早期東方教會。 He was probably born in Egypt, perhaps in Alexandria, to a Christian family.他可能是出生在埃及,也許在亞歷山德里亞,在基督教家庭。 His father died in the persecution of 202, and he himself narrowly escaped the same fate.他的父親死於迫害的202 ,和他本人僥倖逃過同樣的命運。 At the age of 18, Origen was appointed to succeed Clement of Alexandria as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, where he had been a student.在18歲以下的人,奧利被任命接替克萊門特亞歷山大擔任問答學校的亞歷山大,在那裡他一直是學生。

Between 203 and 231, Origen attracted large numbers of students through his manner of life as much as through his teaching.從203和231 ,奧利吸引了大批學生通過自己的方式生活多達通過他的教學。 According to Eusebius, he took the command in Matt.根據優西比烏,他命令在馬特。 19:12 to mean that he should castrate himself. During this period Origen traveled widely and while in Palestine (c.215) was invited to preach by local bishops even though he was not ordained. 19:12意味著他應該閹割自己。在此期間,俄利根前往廣泛而在巴勒斯坦( c.215 )應邀到當地傳教主教,即使他不祝。 Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, regarded this activity as a breach of custom and discipline and ordered him to return to Alexandria.德梅,主教亞歷山德里亞,把這項活動視為違反習俗和紀律,並命令他返回亞歷山德里亞。 The period following, from 218 to 230, was one of Origen's most productive as a writer.之後的一段時間裡,從218到230 ,是奧利的最有成效的作為一個作家。

In 230 he returned to Palestine, where he was ordained priest by the bishops of Jerusalem and Caesarea.在230他返回巴勒斯坦,在那裡他晉鐸的主教耶路撒冷和愷撒。 Demetrius then excommunicated Origen, deprived him of his priesthood, and sent him into exile.德梅然後逐出教會奧利,剝奪了他晉鐸,並送他流亡國外。 Origen returned to the security of Caesarea (231), and there established a school of theology, over which he presided for 20 years.奧利回到安全的愷撒( 231 ) ,並成立了一個學校的神學,他在主持了20年。 Among his students was Saint Gregory Thaumaturgus, whose Panegyric to Origen is an important source for the period.在他的學生是聖格里高利Thaumaturgus ,其頌,以奧利是一個重要的來源的時期。 Persecution was renewed in 250, and Origen was severely tortured.迫害再次在250和奧利遭到嚴刑拷打。 He died of the effects a few years later.他去世的影響在幾年之後。

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Although most of his writings have disappeared, Origen's literary productivity was enormous.雖然他的大部分著作已經消失,俄利根的文學生產力是巨大的。 The Hexapla was the first attempt to establish a critical text of the Old Testament; the commentaries on Matthew and John establish him as the first major biblical scholar of the Christian church; the De Principiis (or Peri Archon) is a dogmatic treatise on God and the world; and the Contra Celsum is a refutation of paganism.該Hexapla是第一個試圖建立一個關鍵文字舊約;評注馬修和約翰建立他的第一次重大聖經學者的基督教教堂;的德Principiis (或圍執政官)是一種教條的論文上帝世界;和魂斗羅Celsum是駁斥異教。

Origen attempted to synthesize Christian scriptural interpretation and belief with Greek philosophy, especially Neoplatonism and Stoicism.奧利試圖合成基督教聖經的解釋和信仰與希臘哲學,尤其是新柏拉圖主義,生活儉樸。 His theology was an expression of Alexandrian reflection on the Trinity, and, prior to Saint Augustine, he was the most influential theologian of the church.他的神學表達了亞歷山大思考三一,並之前,聖奧古斯丁,他是最有影響力的神學教會。 Some of Origen's ideas remained a source of controversy long after his death, and "Origenism" was condemned at the fifth ecumenical council in 553 (Council of Constantinople).一些俄利根的想法仍然是一個來源的爭議長期去世後,和“ Origenism ”譴責在第五屆基督教理事會在553 (理事會君士坦丁堡) 。 Origen is one of the best examples of early Christian mysticism: the highest good is to become as like God as possible through progressive illumination.奧利是一個最好的例子早期基督教的神秘主義:最高的善是要成為像上帝盡可能通過逐步照明。 Despite their sometimes controversial character, his writings helped to create a Christian theology that blended biblical and philosophical categories.儘管他們有時也會引起爭議性質,他的著作有助於建立一個基督教神學的混合聖經和哲學類。

Ross Mackenzie羅斯麥肯齊

Bibliography 目錄
Bigg, Charles, The Christian Platonists of Alexandria (1886; repr. 1970); Burghardt, WJ, et al., eds., Origen, Prayer, Exhortation to Martyrdom (1954); Caspary, GE, Politics and Exegesis: Origen and the Two Swords (1979); Chadwick, Henry, Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement and Origen (1966); Danielou, Jean, Origen, trans. Bigg ,查爾斯,基督教Platonists的亞歷山大( 1886年; repr 。 1970年) ;瑞光, WJ通訊公司等。合編。 ,奧利,祈禱,勸殉難( 1954年) ; Caspary ,通用電氣,政治和訓詁學:奧利和兩把劍( 1979年) ;查德威克,亨利,早期基督教思想與古典傳統:研究上,克萊門特和奧利( 1966年) ; Danielou ,讓,俄利根,轉。 by Walter Mitchell (1955); Drewery, B., Origen and the Doctrine of Grace (1960); Hanson, RPC, Origen's Doctrine of Tradition (1954); Kannengiesser, C., ed., Origen of Alexandria (1988).由沃爾特米切爾( 1955年) ; Drewery灣,奧利和學說的恩典( 1960年) ;漢森的RPC ,俄利根的傳統學說( 1954年) ; Kannengiesser角,編輯。 ,俄利根的亞歷山大( 1988年) 。


Origen and Origenism奧利和Origenism

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. LIFE AND WORK OF ORIGEN一,生活和工作的奧利

A. BIOGRAPHY字母a.生平

Origen, most modest of writers, hardly ever alludes to himself in his own works; but Eusebius has devoted to him almost the entire sixth book of "Ecclesiastical History".奧利,最微薄的作家,幾乎都提到了自己在自己的作品,但優西比烏花了他幾乎全部的第六本書“教會史” 。 Eusebius was thoroughly acquainted with the life of his hero; he had collected a hundred of his letters; in collaboration with the martyr Pamphilus he had composed the "Apology for Origen"; he dwelt at Caesarea where Origen's library was preserved, and where his memory still lingered; if at times he may be thought somewhat partial, he is undoubtedly well informed.優西比烏被徹底熟悉的生活,他的英雄;他已收集了100他的信件;與烈士Pamphilus他組成的“道歉奧利” ,他住在愷撒在那裡奧利的圖書館保存,並在他的記憶餘悸仍存,如果有時他可能會認為有些部分,他無疑是非常了解。 We find some details also in the "Farewell Address" of St. Gregory Thaumaturgus to his master, in the controversies of St. Jerome and Rufinus, in St. Epiphanius (Haeres., LXIV), and in Photius (Biblioth. Cod. 118).我們找到了一些細節也“告別演說”格里高利聖Thaumaturgus向他的主人,在爭議的聖杰羅姆和Rufinus ,在聖埃皮法尼烏斯( Haeres. , LXIV ) ,並在Photius ( Biblioth.鱈魚。 118 ) 。

(1) Origen at Alexandria (185-232) ( 1 )奧利在亞歷山德里亞( 185-232 )

Born in 185, Origen was barely seventeen when a bloody persecution of the Church of Alexandrian broke out.出生於185 ,奧利幾乎17時,一場血腥的迫害教會的亞歷山大爆發了。 His father Leonides, who admired his precocious genius was charmed with his virtuous life, had given him an excellent literary education.他的父親Leonides ,誰崇拜他的早熟的天才是他的魅力與良性生活,給他一個很好的文學教育。 When Leonides was cast into prison, Origen would fain have shared his lot, but being unable to carry out his resolution, as his mother had hidden his clothes, he wrote an ardent, enthusiastic letter to his father exhorting him to persevere courageously.當Leonides被拋入監獄,奧利將欣然分享他的很多,但無法履行其決議,他的母親隱藏他的衣服,他寫了熱情,熱情的寫信給他的父親勸告他堅持勇敢。 When Leonides had won the martyr's crown and his fortune had been confiscated by the imperial authorities, the heroic child laboured to support himself, his mother, and his six younger brothers.當Leonides贏得了烈士的王冠和他的財產被沒收的帝國當局,兒童的英勇勞動,以支持自己,他的母親和他的六個弟弟。 This he successfully accomplished by becoming a teacher, selling his manuscripts, and by the generous aid of a certain rich lady, who admired his talents.這一點,他成功地完成了成為一名教師,推銷自己的手稿,以及慷慨的援助某豐富的夫人,誰佩服他的才華。 He assumed, of his own accord, the direction of the catechetical school, on the withdrawal of Clement, and in the following year was confirmed in his office by the patriarch Demetrius (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", VI, ii; St. Jerome, "De viris illust.", liv).他認為,自己的協議,方向問答上學,關於撤回克萊門特,並在第二年被證實在他的辦公室由家長德梅(優西比烏“ ,組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,六,二;聖。杰羅姆, “德viris illust 。 ”貓) 。 Origen's school, which was frequented by pagans, soon became a nursery of neophytes, confessors, and martyrs.奧利的學校,這是經常光顧的異教徒,很快成為一個托兒所的新手, confessors ,並烈士。 Among the latter were Plutarch, Serenus, Heraclides, Heron, another Serenus, and a female catechumen, Herais (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", VI, iv).其中後者是普魯塔克, Serenus ,赫拉克利德,蒼鷺,另一Serenus ,和一名女信徒, Herais (優西比烏“ ,組織胺。傳道書。 ”六,四) 。 He accompanied them to the scene of their victories encouraging them by his exhortations.他陪同他們到現場對他們的勝利鼓勵他們通過他的規勸。 There is nothing more touching than this picture Eusebius has drawn of Origen's youth, so studious, disinterested, austere and pure, ardent and zealous even to indiscretion (VI, iii and vi).沒有什麼比更感人此圖片優西比烏已制定的奧利的青年,所以好學,無私,樸素和純潔的,熱情和熱心甚至輕率(六,三,六) 。 Thrust thus at so early an age into the teacher's chair, he recognized the necessity of completing his education.推力從而使年齡提前到老師的椅子上,他認識到必須完成他的教育。 Frequenting the philosophic schools, especially that of Ammonius Saccas, he devoted himself to a study of the philosophers, particularly Plato and the Stoics.光顧學校的哲學,尤其是Ammonius Saccas ,他獻身於研究的哲學家,特別是柏拉圖和Stoics 。 In this he was but following the example of his predecessors Pantenus and Clement, and of Heracles, who was to succeed him. Afterwards, when the latter shared his labours in the catechetical school, he learned Hebrew, and communicated frequently with certain Jews who helped him to solve his difficulties.在此,但他效仿他的前任Pantenus和克萊門特和赫拉克勒斯,誰應該接替他。此後,當後者分享他的勞動在問答學校,他學會希伯來文,並通報經常與某些猶太人誰幫助他解決他的困難。

The course of his work at Alexandria was interrupted by five journeys.他在亞歷山德里亞的工作被迫中斷由五個行程。 About 213, under Pope Zephyrinus and the emperor Caracalla, he desired "to see the very ancient Church of Rome", but he did not remain there long (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", VI xiv).約213下,教皇Zephyrinus皇帝卡拉卡拉,他期望“看到非常古老的羅馬教會” ,但他沒有留長(尤塞比烏斯“ ,組織胺。傳道書。 ”六十四) 。 Shortly afterwards he was invited to Arabia by the governor who was desirous of meeting him (VI, xix).此後不久,他應邀到沙特阿拉伯的省長是誰希望他會面(六,十九) 。 It was probably in 215 or 216 when the persecution of Caracalla was raging in Egypt that he visited Palestine, where Theoctistus of Caesarea and Alexander of Jerusalem, invited him to preach though he was still a layman.這可能是在215或216時,迫害卡拉卡拉是在埃及肆虐,他訪問了巴勒斯坦,在那裡Theoctistus的愷撒和亞歷山大耶路撒冷,邀請他去宣講儘管他仍然是一個門外漢。 Towards 218, it would appear, the empress Mammaea, mother of Alexander Severus, brought him to Antioch (VI, xxi).建立218個,看來,皇后Mammaea ,母親亞歷山大塞維魯,使他安提阿(六, 21 ) 。 Finally, at a much later period, under Pontian of Rome and Zebinus of Antioch (Eusebius, VI, xxiii), he journeyed into Greece, passing through Caesarea where Theoctistus, Bishop of that city, assisted by Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem, raised him to the priesthood.最後,在更晚的時期,在笨珍的羅馬和Zebinus的安提阿(優西比烏,六,二十三) ,他journeyed到希臘,通過愷撒在那裡Theoctistus ,主教這個城市的協助下,亞歷山大,耶路撒冷的主教,他提出在神父。 Demetrius, although he had given letters of recommendation to Origen, was very much offended by this ordination, which had taken place without his knowledge and, as he thought, in derogation of his rights.德梅,儘管他已推薦信,以奧利,非常生氣的這種協調,這在沒有他的學識和,因為他認為,減損自己的權利。 If Eusebius (VI, viii) is to be believed, he was envious of the increasing influence of his catechist.如果優西比烏(六,八)要相信,他是羨慕的越來越大的影響,他講授。 So, on his return to Alexandria, Origen soon perceived that his bishop was rather unfriendly towards him.所以,他返回亞歷山德里亞,奧利很快察覺,他的主教,而對他不友善。 He yielded to the storm and quitted Egypt (231).他取得的風暴,離開埃及( 231 ) 。 The details of this affair were recorded by Eusebius in the lost second book of the "Apology for Origen"; according to Photius, who had read the work, two councils were held at Alexandria, one of which pronounced a decree of banishment against Origen while the other deposed him from the priesthood (Biblioth. cod. 118).的細節,這件事記錄了優西比烏在失去了第二本書的“道歉奧利” ;根據Photius ,誰讀過的工作,兩個市政局被關押在亞歷山德里亞,其中一個明顯的一項法令,流放,而對奧利其他廢黜他的司鐸( Biblioth.鱈魚。 118 ) 。 St. Jerome declares expressly that he was not condemned on a point of doctrine.聖杰羅姆明確宣布,他沒有譴責一個問題的理論。

(2) Origen at Caesarea (232) ( 2 )奧利在該撒利亞( 232 )

Expelled from Alexandria, Origen fixed his abode at Caesarea in Palestine (232), with his protector and friend Theoctistus, founded a new school there, and resumed his "Commentary on St. John" at the point where it had been interrupted. He was soon surrounded by pupils.逐出亞歷山大,俄利根固定在他的居留權愷撒在巴勒斯坦( 232 ) ,他的保護者和朋友Theoctistus ,成立一所新學校,並恢復了他“評聖約翰”的地步,已經中斷。他很快周圍的學生。 The most distinguished of these, without doubt, was St. Gregory Thaumaturgus who, with his brother Apollodorus, attended Origen's lectures for five years and delivered on leaving him a celebrated "Farewell Address".最傑出的這些,毫無疑問,是聖格雷戈里Thaumaturgus誰,與他的哥哥阿波羅多羅斯,參加奧利的講座五年和交付離開他著名的“告別演說” 。 During the persecution of Maximinus (235-37) Origen visited his friend, St. Firmilian, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, who made him remain for a long period.在迫害Maximinus ( 235-37 )奧利訪問他的朋友,聖Firmilian ,主教愷撒在卡帕多西亞,誰使他仍然很長一段。 On this occasion he was hospitably entertained by a Christian lady of Caesarea, named Juliana, who had inherited the writing of Symmachus, the translator of the Old Testament (Palladius, "Hist. Laus.", 147).在此之際,他hospitably不受理女士基督教的愷撒,命名茱莉安娜,誰繼承了寫作Symmachus ,翻譯舊約(帕拉丟斯“ ,組織胺。 Laus 。 ” 147 ) 。 The years following were devoted almost uninterruptedly to the composition of the "Commentaries".之後的幾年中,專門幾乎不間斷的組成“評” 。 Mention is made only of a few excursions to Holy Places, a journey to Athens (Eusebius, VI, xxxii), and two voyages to Arabia, one of which was undertaken for the conversion of Beryllus, a Patripassian (Eusebius, VI, xxxiii; St. Jerome, "De viris ill.", lx), the other to refute certain heretics who denied the Resurrection (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", VI, xxxvii).提到了只有少數遊覽聖地,一個旅程雅典(優西比烏,六,三十二) ,兩個航程,以沙特阿拉伯,其中之一是進行轉換的Beryllus ,一個Patripassian (優西比烏,六,三十三;聖杰羅姆, “德viris生病。 ” LX )號,其他駁斥某些異端誰剝奪了復活(優西比烏“ ,組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,六,三十七) 。 Age did not diminish his activities.年齡沒有削弱他的活動。 He was over sixty when he wrote his "Contra Celsum" and his "Commentary on St. Matthew".他是在60時,他寫他的“魂斗羅Celsum ”和他的“評馬太” 。 The persecution of Decius (250) prevented him from continuing these works.迫害修( 250 )阻止他繼續進行這些工程。 Origen was imprisoned and barbarously tortured, but his courage was unshaken and from his prison he wrote letters breathing the spirit of the martyrs (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", VI, xxxix).奧利被監禁和野蠻折磨,但他的勇氣不動搖,從獄中寫信給他的精神呼吸的烈士(優西比烏“ ,組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,第六章,三十九) 。 He was still alive on the death of Decius (251), but only lingering on, and he died, probably, from the results of the sufferings endured during the persecution (253 or 254), at the age of sixty-nine (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", VII, i).他還活著的死亡德西烏斯( 251 ) ,但只有揮之不去的,他死了,也許,從結果的過程中經受的苦難迫害( 253或254 ) ,在年齡69 (優西比烏, “組織胺。傳道書。 ”七,一) 。 His last days were spent at Tyr, though his reason for retiring thither is unknown.他的最後幾天支出在酪氨酸,儘管他的理由是退休那兒不明。 He was buried with honour as a confessor of the Faith.他被安葬在履行作為一個懺悔的信仰。 For a long time his sepulchre, behind the high-altar of the cathedral of Tyr, was visited by pilgrims.很長一段時間他的墳墓,背後的高壇的大教堂酪氨酸,訪問了朝聖者。 Today, as nothing remains of this cathedral except a mass of ruins, the exact location of his tomb is unknown.今天,仍然沒有這個教堂除了大量的廢墟,的確切位置,他的陵墓是未知的。

B. WORKS灣工程

Very few authors were as fertile as Origen.只有極少數的作者分別為肥沃的奧利。 St. Epiphanius estimates at six thousand the number of his writings, counting separately, without doubt, the different books of a single work, his homilies, letters, and his smallest treatises (Haeres., LXIV, lxiii).聖埃皮法尼烏斯估計在6000的數目他的著作,分別計票,毫無疑問,不同的書籍,一個單一的工作,他的講道詞,書信,他最小的論文( Haeres. , LXIV , LXIII )號決議。 This figure, repeated by many ecclesiastical writers, seems greatly exaggerated.這個數字,重複了許多教會作家,似乎大大誇大了。 St. Jerome assures us that the list of Origen's writings drawn up by St. Pamphilus did not contain even two thousand titles (Contra Rufin., II, xxii; III, xxiii); but this list was evidently incomplete.聖杰羅姆向我們保證,名單的奧利的作品得出了街Pamphilus沒有包含甚至2000標題(魂斗羅魯芬。 ,二,二十二;三,二十三) ,但這一名單顯然是不完整的。 Eusebius ("Hist. eccl.", VI, xxxii) had inserted it in his biography of St. Pamphilus and St. Jerome inserted it in a letter to Paula.優西比烏( “組織胺。傳道書。 ”第六,三十二)已插入在他的傳記街Pamphilus和聖杰羅姆插入它在信保。

(1) Exegetical Writings ( 1 )訓詁著作

Origen had devoted three kinds of works to the explanation of the Holy Scripture: commentaries, homilies, and scholia (St. Jerome, "Prologus interpret. homiliar. Orig. in Ezechiel").奧利花了三種作品的解釋聖經:評注,講道詞,並scholia (聖杰羅姆, “ Prologus解釋。 homiliar 。原始。中Ezechiel ” ) 。 The commentaries (tomoi libri, volumina) were a continuous and well-developed interpretation of the inspired text.評注( tomoi書, volumina )是一個持續的和相當發達的解釋文字的靈感。 An idea of their magnitude may be formed from the fact that the words of St. John: "In the beginning was the Word", furnished material for a whole roll.一個想法,其規模可能是形成這一事實的話聖約翰: “在開始的詞” ,家具材料的一個整體推出。 There remain in Greek only eight books of the "Commentary on St. Matthew", and nine books of the "Commentary on St. John"; in Latin an anonymous translation of the "Commentary on St. Matthew" beginning with chapter xvi, three books and a half of the "Commentary on the Canticle of Canticles" translated by Rufinus, and an abridgment of the "Commentary on the Epistles to the Romans" by the same translator.還有在希臘只有8本書的“評馬太” , 9本書的“評聖約翰” ;在拉丁美洲的匿名翻譯“評馬太”開始,第十六章, 3書籍和一半的“評注的頌歌的Canticles ”翻譯Rufinus ,並縮短了“評注的書信向羅馬人”在同一翻譯。 The homilies (homiliai, homiliae, tractatus) were familiar discourses on texts of Scripture, often extemporary and recorded as well as possible by stenographers.在講道詞( homiliai , homiliae , tractatus )很熟悉話語對案文的聖經,往往extemporary和記錄,以及可能的速記員。 The list is long and undoubtedly must have been longer if it be true that Origen, as St. Pamphilus declares in his "Apology" preached almost every day.這份名單是漫長的,毫無疑問,必須已不再,如果確實奧利,作為街Pamphilus宣布在他的“道歉”鼓吹幾乎每天都有。 There remain in Greek twenty-one (twenty on Jeremias and the celebrated homily on the witch of Endor); in Latin, one hundred and eighteen translated by Rufinus, seventy-eight translated by St. Jerome and some others of more of less doubtful authenticity, preserved in a collection of homilies.還有在希臘21 ( 21對Jeremias和慶祝講道的巫婆的恩) ;在拉丁美洲, 118翻譯Rufinus , 78翻譯的聖杰羅姆和其他一些更多的少懷疑真實性,保存在收集講道詞。 The twenty "Tractatus Origenis" recently discovered are not the work of Origen, though use has been made of his writings.第二十三“ Tractatus Origenis ”最近發現沒有工作的奧利,但利用了他的著作。 Origen has been called the father of the homily; it was he who contributed most to popularize this species of literature in which are to be found so many instructive details on the customs of the primitive Church, its institutions, discipline, liturgy, and sacraments.奧利被稱為父親的講道,這是誰的貢獻,他最普及這一物種的文學是要找到這麼多有啟發性的細節海關的原始教會,其機構,紀律,禮儀和聖禮。 The scholia (scholia, excerpta, commaticum interpretandi genus) were exegetical, philological, or historical notes, on words or passages of the Bible, like the annotations of the Alexandria grammarians on the profane writers.該scholia ( scholia ,文摘, commaticum interpretandi屬)是訓詁,語文學,或歷史說明,對字詞或段落的聖經一樣,說明了亞歷山大文法學家對世俗的作家。 Except some few short fragments all of these have perished.除了一些短短的片段所有這些已經腐壞。

Other Writings其他創作

We now possess only two of Origen's letters: one addressed to St. Gregory Thaumaturgus on the reading of Holy Scripture, the other to Julius Africanus on the Greek additions to the Book of Daniel.我們現在擁有只有兩個奧利的信:一個給聖格雷戈里Thaumaturgus的閱讀聖經,另一個是朱利葉斯西庇阿對希臘補充但以理書。 Two opuscula have been preserved entire in the original form; an excellent treatise "On Prayer" and an "Exhortation to Martyrdom", sent by Origen to his friend Ambrose, then a prisoner for the Faith.兩個opuscula已全部保存在原來的形式;良好的論文“論祈禱”和“勸殉難” ,發出的奧利他的朋友,劉漢銓,然後一名囚犯的信仰。 Finally two large works have escaped the ravages of time: the "Contra Celsum" in the original text, and the "De principiis" in a Latin translation by Rufinus and in the citations of the "Philocalia" which might equal in contents one-sixth of the whole work.最後兩個大型工程已經逃脫的破壞時間: “魂斗羅Celsum ”的原始文本,以及“德principiis ”在拉丁美洲翻譯Rufinus和引用的“ Philocalia ”這可能平等內容的六分之一整個工作。 In the eight books of the "Contra Celsum" Origen follows his adversary point by point, refuting in detail each of his false imputations.在八個書籍的“魂斗羅Celsum ”奧利如下的對手逐點,詳細反駁他的每一個虛假的估算。 It is a model of reasoning, erudition, and honest polemic.這是一個模型的推理,博學,和誠實的論戰。 The "De principiis", composed at Alexandria, and which, it seems, got into the hands of the public before its completion, treated successively in its four books, allowing for numerous digressions, of: (a) God and the Trinity, (b) the world and its relation to God, (c) man and his free will, (d) Scripture, its inspiration and interpretation.在“德principiis ”組成,在亞歷山德里亞,其中,似乎有落入公眾面前完成,治療先後在四本書,讓無數digressions ,包括: ( a )上帝和三一, ( b )在世界及其與上帝, (三)男子和他的自由意志, (四)聖經,其靈感和解釋。 Many other works of Origen have been entirely lost: for instance, the treatise in two books "On the Resurrection", a treatise "On Free Will", and ten books of "Miscellaneous Writings" (Stromateis).許多其他作品的奧利已經完全失去了:例如,該論文在兩本書“論復活”的論文“論自由意志” , 10本書的“雜項寫作” ( Stromateis ) 。 For Origen's critical work see HEXAPLA.對於奧利的重要工作見HEXAPLA 。

C. POSTHUMOUS INFLUENCE OF ORIGEN角追授影響奧利

During his lifetime Origen by his writings, teaching, and intercourse exercised very great influence.在他的一生奧利他的著作,教學和性交行使很大的影響。 St. Firmilian of Caesarea in Cappadocia, who regarded himself as his disciple, made him remain with him for a long period to profit by his learning (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", VI, xxvi; Palladius, "Hist. Laus.", 147). St.聖Firmilian的愷撒在卡帕多西亞,誰認為自己是他的弟子,他與他保持相當長一段時間內的利潤,他學習(優西比烏“ ,組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,六,二十六;帕拉丟斯“ ,組織胺。 Laus 。 “ 147 ) 。街 Alexander of Jerusalem his fellow pupil at the catechetical school was his intimate faithful friend (Eusebius, VI, xiv), as was Theoctistus of Caesarea in Palestine, who ordained him (Photius, cod. 118).亞歷山大耶路撒冷他的學生在學校的問答是他親密的忠實朋友(優西比烏,六,十四) ,如Theoctistus的愷撒在巴勒斯坦,誰祝他( Photius ,鱈魚。 118 ) 。 Beryllus of Bostra, whom he had won back from heresy, was deeply attached to him (Eusebius, VI, xxxiii; St. Jerome, "De viris ill.", lx). Beryllus的Bostra ,他已經贏得了來自異端邪說,是深深依戀他(優西比烏,六,三十三;聖杰羅姆, “德viris生病。 ”光照) 。 St. Anatolus of Laodicea sang his praises in his "Carmen Paschale" (PG, X, 210).聖Anatolus的老底嘉唱歌頌他在他的“卡門Paschale ” (前列腺素,第十, 210 ) 。 The learned Julius Africanus consulted him, Origen's reply being extant (PG, XI, 41-85).朱利葉斯的教訓西庇阿徵詢他,奧利的答复是現存(前列腺素,十一, 41-85 ) 。 St. Hippolytus highly appreciated his talents (St. Jerome, "De viris ill.", lxi).聖西波呂高度讚賞他的才華(聖杰羅姆, “德viris生病。 ” lxi ) 。 St. Dionysius, his pupil and successor in the catechetical school, when Patriarch of Alexandria, dedicated to him his treatise "On the Persecution" (Eusebius, VI, xlvi), and on learning of his death wrote a letter filled with his praises (Photius, cod. 232).聖狄奧尼修斯,他的學生和繼承的問答學校時,亞歷山大主教,致力於他的論文“論迫害” (優西比烏,六,四十六) ,並學習他去世寫了一封信充滿了他的讚揚( Photius ,鱈魚。 232 ) 。 St. Gregory Thaumaturgus, who had been his pupil for five years at Caesarea, before leaving addressed to him his celebrated "Farewell Address" (PG, X, 1049-1104), an enthusiastic panegyric.聖格雷戈里Thaumaturgus ,誰是他的學生五年在該撒利亞,然後給他慶祝“告別演說” (前列腺素,第十, 1149至04年) ,熱情頌。 There is no proof that Heracles, his disciple, colleague, and successor in the catechetical school, before being raised to the Patriarchate of Alexandria, wavered in his sworn friendship. Origen's name was so highly esteemed that when there was a question of putting an end to a schism or rooting out a heresy, appeal was made to it.目前沒有證據表明赫拉克勒斯,他的弟子,同事,和繼承的問答學校,然後被提高到宗主亞歷山大,動搖他宣誓就職的友誼。奧利的名字,所以倍受尊敬,當有一個問題結束一個分裂或剷除邪教,呼籲向它提出的。

After his death his reputation continued to spread.去世後他的名聲繼續蔓延。 St. Pamphilus, martyred in 307, composes with Eusebius an "Apology for Origen" in six books the first alone of which has been preserved in a Latin translation by Rufinus (PG, XVII, 541-616).聖Pamphilus ,殺害了307名,構成的優西比烏的“道歉奧利”六本書的第一單已被保存在拉丁美洲翻譯Rufinus (前列腺素,十七, 541-616 ) 。 Origen had at that time many other apologists whose names are unknown to us (Photius, cod. 117 and 118).奧利了,當時許多其他辯護士其姓名不詳,我們( Photius ,鱈魚。 117和118 ) 。 The directors of the catechetical school continued to walk in his footsteps.董事問答學校繼續走他的腳步。 Theognostus, in his "Hypotyposes", followed him even too closely, according to Photius (cod. 106), though his action was approved by St. Athanasius. Theognostus ,在他的“ Hypotyposes ” ,跟著他甚至過於密切,根據Photius ( cod. 106 ) ,雖然他的行動是批准了聖亞他那修。 Pierius was called by St. Jerome "Origenes junior" (De viris ill., lxxvi). Pierius被稱為聖杰羅姆“ Origenes初中” (德viris生病。 , lxxvi ) 。 Didymus the Blind composed a work to explain and justify the teaching of the "De principiis" (St. Jerome, "Adv. Rufin.", I, vi). Didymus盲人組成的工作,解釋和說明的教學“德principiis ” (聖杰羅姆, “腺病毒。魯芬。 ”我,六) 。 St. Athanasius does not hesitate to cite him with praise (Epist. IV ad Serapion., 9 and 10) and points out that he must be interpreted generously (De decretis Nic., 27).聖亞他那修不毫不猶豫地引用他的讚美(四Epist.廣告謝拉皮翁。 ,第9和第10條) ,並指出,他必須解釋慷慨(德decretis的NIC 。 , 27 ) 。

Nor was the admiration for the great Alexandrian less outside of Egypt.也不是欽佩偉大的亞歷山大少以外的埃及。 St. Gregory of Nazianzus gave significant expression to his opinion (Suidas, "Lexicon", ed. Bernhardy, II, 1274: Origenes he panton hemon achone).聖格雷戈里的高利重大表達了他的意見( Suidas , “詞典”主編。 Bernhardy ,二, 1274年: Origenes他潘頓hemon achone ) 。 In collaboration with St. Basil, he had published, under the title "Philocalia", a volume of selections from the master.在與聖巴西爾,他已出版,題為“ Philocalia ” ,一冊選擇從主。 In his "Panegyric on St. Gregory Thaumaturgus", St. Gregory of Nyssa called Origen the prince of Christian learning in the third century (PG, XLVI, 905).在他的“頌聖格雷戈里Thaumaturgus ” ,聖格雷戈里的果樹所謂奧利王子學習基督教在第三世紀(前列腺素,四十六, 905 ) 。 At Caesarea in Palestine the admiration of the learned for Origen became a passion.在愷撒在巴勒斯坦的欽佩的教訓奧利成為激情。 St. Pamphilus wrote his "Apology", Euzoius had his writings transcribed on parchment (St. Jerome, "De viris ill.", xciii).聖Pamphilus寫他的“道歉” , Euzoius了他的著作的羊皮紙抄寫(聖杰羅姆, “德viris生病。 ” xciii ) 。 Eusebius catalogued them carefully and drew upon them largely.優西比烏編目仔細,並提請他們基本上。 Nor were the Latins less enthusiastic than the Greeks.也不是那麼熱情的拉丁人比希臘人。 According to St. Jerome, the principal Latin imitators of Origen are St. Eusebius of Verceil, St. Hilary of Poitiers, and St. Ambrose of Milan; St. Victorinus of Pettau had set them the example (St. Jerome, "Adv. Rufin.", I, ii; "Ad Augustin. Epist.", cxii, 20).據聖杰羅姆,拉丁美洲的主要模仿的奧利是聖的優西比烏Verceil ,聖希拉里的普瓦捷,和聖劉漢銓米蘭;街Victorinus的Pettau已成立他們的榜樣(聖杰羅姆, “腺病毒。魯芬。 “一,二, ”廣告奧古斯丁。 Epist 。 “ cxii , 20 ) 。 Origen's writings were so much drawn upon that the solitary of Bethlehem called it plagiarism, furta Latinarum.俄利根的著作有這麼多吸取的孤立伯利恆稱為剽竊, furta Latinarum 。 However, excepting Rufinus, who is practically only a translator, St. Jerome is perhaps the Latin writer who is most indebted to Origen.然而,除Rufinus ,誰實際上只有一名翻譯,聖杰羅姆也許是拉丁美洲作家誰最感激奧利。 Before the Origenist controversies he willingly admitted this, and even afterwards, he did not entirely repudiate it; cf.在Origenist爭議,他心甘情願地承認了這一點,即使事後,他並沒有完全否定它;比照。 the prologues to his translations of Origen (Homilies on St. Luke, Jeremias, and Ezechiel, the Canticle of Canticles), and also the prefaces to his own "Commentaries" (on Micheas, the Epistles to the Galatians, and to the Ephesians etc.).在prologues他翻譯的奧利(講道詞的聖盧克, Jeremias ,並Ezechiel的頌歌的Canticles ) ,還有前言,以自己的“評” (上Micheas的書信給加拉太,以及以弗所書等。 ) 。

Amidst these expressions of admiration and praise, a few discordant voices were heard.面對這些表達的欽佩和讚揚,一些不和諧的聲音是。 St. Methodius, bishop and martyr (311), had written several works against Origen, amongst others a treatise "On the Resurrection", of which St. Epiphanius cites a long extract (Haeres., LXVI, xii-lxii).聖迪烏斯,主教和烈士( 311 ) ,寫了一些對奧利的作品,其中包括別人的論文“論復活” ,其中列舉聖埃皮法尼烏斯長期提取物( Haeres. , LXVI ,十二, lxii ) 。 St. Eustathius of Antioch, who died in exile about 337, criticized his allegorism (PG, XVIII, 613-673).聖Eustathius安提阿的,誰死在流亡約337 ,批評他的allegorism (前列腺素,十八, 613-673 ) 。 St. Alexander of Alexandria, martyred in 311, also attacked him, if we are to credit Leontius of Byzantium and the emperor Justinian.聖亞歷山大的亞歷山大,犧牲在311 ,還攻擊他,如果我們的信貸Leontius的拜占庭皇帝查士丁尼。 But his chief adversaries were the heretics, Sabellians, Arians, Pelagians, Nestorians, Apollinarists.但是,他的主要對手是異端, Sabellians , Arians , Pelagians , Nestorians , Apollinarists 。

II.二。 ORIGENISM

By this term is understood not so much Origen's theology and the body of his teachings, as a certain number of doctrines, rightly or wrongly attributed to him, and which by their novelty or their danger called forth at an early period a refutation from orthodox writers.通過這個詞的理解沒有這麼多奧利的神學和身體他的教誨,因為一定數量的理論,正確或錯誤歸咎於他,而他們的新穎性或其所謂的危險提出在早期期間,從正統的駁斥作家。 They are chiefly:它們主要是:

Allegorism in the interpretation of Scripture Allegorism在解釋聖經

Subordination of the Divine Persons處於從屬地位的神人

The theory of successive trials and a final restoration.該理論的連續試驗,最終恢復。

Before examining how far Origen is responsible for these theories, a word must be said of the directive principle of his theology.在審查多遠奧利負責這些理論,一個字必須指出的指導原則,他的神學。

The Church and the Rule of Faith教會和法治的信仰

In the preface to the "De principiis" Origen laid down a rule thus formulated in the translation of Rufinus: "Illa sola credenda est veritas quae in nullo ab ecclesiastica et apostolica discordat traditione".在序言“德principiis ”奧利奠定了制定規則從而在翻譯Rufinus : “ Illa惟獨credenda就是真理quae在nullo從頭ecclesiastica等apostolica discordat traditione ” 。 The same norm is expressed almost in equivalent terms n many other passages, eg, "non debemus credere nisi quemadmodum per successionem Ecclesiae Dei tradiderunt nobis (In Matt., ser. 46, Migne, XIII, 1667). In accordance with those principles Origen constantly appeals to ecclesiastical preaching, ecclesiastical teaching, and the ecclesiastical rule of faith (kanon). He accepts only four Canonical Gospels because tradition does not receive more; he admits the necessity of baptism of infants because it is in accordance with the practice of the Church founded on Apostolic tradition; he warns the interpreter of the Holy Scripture, not to rely on his own judgment, but "on the rule of the Church instituted by Christ". For, he adds, we have only two lights to guide us here below, Christ and the Church; the Church reflects faithfully the light received from Christ, as the moon reflects the rays of the sun. The distinctive mark of the Catholic is to belong to the Church, to depend on the Church outside of which there is no salvation; on the contrary, he who leaves the Church walks in darkness, he is a heretic. It is through the principle of authority that Origen is wont to unmask and combat doctrinal errors. It is the principle of authority, too, that he invokes when he enumerates the dogmas of faith. A man animated with such sentiments may have made mistakes, because he is human, but his disposition of mind is essentially Catholic and he does not deserve to be ranked among the promoters of heresy.同樣的規範幾乎是表示在同等條件ñ其他許多段落,如“ debemus credere非暫準如鹿渴慕溪水每successionem教會棣tradiderunt諾比斯(在馬特。 ,服務。 46 ,米涅,十三, 1667年) 。根據這些原則奧利不斷呼籲教會講道,教會教學,教會和法治的信仰(卡農) 。他只接受4個福音,因為典型的傳統沒有得到更多;他承認有必要的洗禮的嬰兒,因為它是根據實踐教會成立於使徒傳統;他警告說翻譯的聖經,而不是依靠自己的判斷,但“上的統治教會的基督提起。 ”對於他補充說,我們只有兩個燈,指引我們在這裡下面,基督和教會;教會忠實地反映了根據收到的基督,因為月亮反映了射線的太陽。特色標誌的天主教是屬於教會,依靠教會以外的有沒有救贖,相反,誰離開他的教會在黑暗中行走,他是一個邪教。正是通過的原則,權威,奧利是慣於揭露和打擊理論上的錯誤。這是原則的權威,也說,他叫他列舉了教條的信念。一個人的動畫與這種情緒可能已經犯過錯誤,因為他是人,但他考慮到處置基本上是天主教會和他不應該列為發起人的異端。

A. Scriptural Allegorism字母a.聖經Allegorism

The principal passages on the inspiration, meaning, and interpretation of the Scriptures are preserved in Greek in the first fifteen chapters of the "Philocalia".主要通道的靈感,意義,解釋聖經保存在希臘的第一15章的“ Philocalia ” 。 According to Origen, Scripture is inspired because it is the word and work of God.據俄利根,聖經的啟發,因為它是這個詞和工作的上帝。 But, far from being an inert instrument, the inspired author has full possession of his faculties, he is conscious of what he is writing; he is physically free to deliver his message or not; he is not seized by a passing delirium like the pagan oracles, for bodily disorder, disturbance of the senses, momentary loss of reason are but so many proofs of the action of the evil spirit.但是,遠遠沒有一種惰性的手段,激勵作者完全擁有他院系,他意識到他的寫作,他是身體自由地發表消息或沒有,他是不是抓住路過的譫妄像異教徒神諭,身體障礙,干擾了理智,一時失去理智的,但如此多的證據所採取的行動邪惡的精神。 Since Scripture is from God, it ought to have the distinctive characteristics of the Divine works: truth, unity, and fullness.由於聖經是上帝,那就應該有特色的神聖工程:真理,團結,豐滿。 The word of God cannot possibly be untrue; hence no errors or contradictions can be admitted in Scripture (In Joan., X, iii).上帝的話,不可能是不真實的,因此任何錯誤或矛盾可以被接納的聖經(在瓊。 ,十,三) 。 The author of the Scriptures being one, the Bible is less a collection of books than one and the same book (Philoc., V, iv-vii), a perfect harmonious instrument (Philoc., VI, i-ii).的作者之一聖經,聖經少藏書超過同一本書( Philoc. ,五,四,七) ,是一個完美和諧的文書( Philoc. ,六,第一項和第二項) 。 But the most Divine note of Scripture is its fullness: "There is not in the Holy Books the smallest passage (cheraia) but reflects the wisdom of God" (Philoc., I, xxviii, cf. X, i).但是,最神聖的說明聖經是它的豐滿: “我們不是在圖書聖城最小的通道( cheraia ) ,而是反映了上帝的智慧” ( Philoc. ,我,二十八,比照。十,一) 。 True there are imperfections in the Bible: antilogies, repetitions, want of continuity; but these imperfections become perfections by leading us to the allegory and the spiritual meaning (Philoc., X, i-ii).真有不完善的聖經: antilogies ,重複,缺乏連續性;但這些不完善成為完善的領導我們的寓言和精神含義( Philoc. ,第十,第一項和第二項) 。

At one time Origen, starting from the Platonic trichotomy, distinguishes the body, the soul, and the spirit of Holy Scripture; at another, following a more rational terminology, he distinguishes only between the letter and the spirit. In reality, the soul, or the psychic signification, or moral meaning (that is the moral parts of Scripture, and the moral applications of the other parts) plays only a very secondary rôle, and we can confine ourselves to the antithesis: letter (or body) and spirit.有一段時間,俄利根,從柏拉圖三分法,區分的機構,靈魂,精神的聖經;在另一個之後,更合理的術語,他只之間的區別的文字和精神。在現實中,靈魂,或心理的意義,或道義上的意義(這是道義上的部分經文,並在道義上應用的其他部分)只發揮了非常次要作用,我們不能僅限於對立面:信(或機構)和精神。 Unfortunately this antithesis is not free from equivocation.不幸的是,這種對立是沒有擺脫含糊。 Origen does not understand by letter (or body) what we mean today by the literal sense, but the grammatical sense, the proper as opposed to the figurative meaning.奧利不明白的信(或機構)的意思是我們今天的字面意義,但語法意義上說,適當的而不是比喻的含義。 Just so he does not attach to the words spiritual meaning the same signification as we do: for him they mean the spiritual sense properly so called (the meaning added to the literal sense by the express wish of God attaching a special signification to the fact related or the manner of relating them), or the figurative as contrasted with the proper sense, or the accommodative sense, often an arbitrary invention of the interpreter, or even the literal sense when it is treating of things spiritual. If this terminology is kept in mind there is nothing absurd in the principle he repeats so often: "Such a passage of the Scripture as no corporal meaning."只要他不重視精神文明字的含義相同的意義,我們做的事:他的意思,他們的精神意義上所謂的正確(含義添加到字面意義所表示願上帝的同時附上一份特殊意義的事實有關或的方式與他們) ,或比喻作為對照的是適當的意義,或寬鬆的意義上說,往往一個任意發明的翻譯,甚至字面意義時,它是治療精神的東西。如果這個術語是存放在考慮到沒有什麼荒唐的原則,他常常重複: “這種通過聖經沒有體罰的意義。 ” As examples Origen cites the anthropomorphisms, metaphors, and symbols which ought indeed to be understood figuratively.作為例子奧利引用anthropomorphisms ,隱喻和符號,應該確實可以理解比喻。

Though he warns us that these passages are the exceptions, it must be confessed that he allows too many cases in which the Scripture is not to be understood according to the letter; but, remembering his terminology, his principle is unimpeachable.雖然他警告我們這些通道是例外,它必須承認,他讓太多的案件中,聖經是不可理解的文字,但是記住他的術語,他的原則是無可指責的。 The two great rules of interpretation laid sown by the Alexandria catechist, taken by themselves and independently of erroneous applications, are proof against criticism.兩個偉大的解釋規則規定播種面積由亞歷山大講授,採取自己獨立的錯誤應用,證明對批評。 They may be formulated thus:他們可能會制定如下:

Scripture must be interpreted in a manner worthy of God, the author of Scripture.必須聖經的方式來解釋值得上帝,聖經的作者。

The corporal sense or the letter of Scripture must not be adopted, when it would entail anything impossible, absurd, or unworthy of God.體罰意義的文字或聖經不得通過時,會引起什麼不可能的,荒謬的,或不配上帝。

The abuse arises from the application of these rules.濫用源自適用這些規則。 Origen has recourse too easily to allegorism to explain purely apparent antilogies or antinomies.奧利訴諸太容易allegorism解釋純粹明顯antilogies或antinomies 。 He considers that certain narratives or ordinances of the Bible would be unworthy of God if they had to be taken according to the letter, or if they were to be taken solely according to the letter.他認為,某些說明或法令的聖經將愧對上帝如果他們將要採取的文字,或如果他們要採取純粹的文字。 He justifies the allegorism by the fact that otherwise certain accounts or certain precepts now abrogated would be useless and profitless for the reader: a fact which appears to him contrary to the providence of the Divine inspirer and the dignity of Holy Writ.他的理由allegorism的事實,否則某些帳戶或某些戒律現在廢除將是無用和無益的讀者:這一點似乎對他違反了普羅維登斯的神聖鼓舞和尊嚴的聖經。 It will thus be seen that though the criticisms directed against his allegorical method by St.因此,可以看出,儘管針對批評他的寓言的方法街 Epiphanius and St. Methodius were not groundless, yet many of the complaints arise from a misunderstanding.埃皮法尼烏斯和聖迪烏斯沒有根據的,但是許多人的投訴引起的一種誤解。

B. Subordination of the Divine Persons灣處於從屬地位的神人

The three Persons of the Trinity are distinguished from all creatures by the three following characteristics: absolute immateriality, omniscience, and substantial sanctity.三人的三一是區別於動物的所有以下三個特點:絕對immateriality ,全知,和大量的神聖不可侵犯。 As is well known many ancient ecclesiastical writers attributed to created spirits an aerial or ethereal envelope without which they could not act.眾所周知許多古老的教會作家歸因於創造精神架空信封或空靈沒有他們不能採取行動。 Though he does not venture to decide categorically, Origen inclines to this view, but, as soon as there is a question of the Divine Persons, he is perfectly sure that they have no body and are not in a body; and this characteristic belongs to the Trinity alone (De princip., IV, 27; I, vi, II, ii, 2; II, iv, 3 etc.).雖然他並不合資斷然決定,奧利傾向於這種觀點,但是,只要有一個問題,神人,他是完全可以相信,他們沒有機構,而不是在一個機構;和這一特點屬於三一獨立(德原理。 ,四, 27 ;一,六,二,二, 2 ;二,四, 3等) 。 Again the knowledge of every creature, being essentially limited, is always imperfect and capable of being increased.同樣的知識,每一個生物,基本上是有限的,始終是不完善的,能夠增加。 But it would be repugnant for the Divine Persons to pass from the state of ignorance to knowledge.但是,如果令人厭惡的神聖者通過從無知狀態的知識。 How could the Son, who is the Wisdom of the Father, be ignorant of anything ("In Joan.", 1,27; "Contra Cels.", VI, xvii).如何才能兒子,誰是智慧之父,是無知的事情( “在瓊。 ” 1,27 “ ;魂斗羅細胞。 ” ,六,十七) 。 Nor can we admit ignorance in the Spirit who "searcheth the deep things of God" (De princip., I, v, 4; I, vi, 2; I, vii, 3; "In Num. him.", XI, 8 etc.).我們也不能承認無知的精神誰“ searcheth深的東西上帝” (德原理。 ,我,五, 4 ;一,六, 2 ;第一,第七, 3 ; “在數。他。 ” ,十一,八等) 。 As substantial holiness is the exclusive privilege of the Trinity so also is it the only source of all created holiness.由於大量的聖潔是獨有特權三位一體,以便它也是唯一來源的所有創造神聖。 Sin is forgiven only by the simultaneous concurrence of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; no one is sanctified at baptism save through their common action; the soul in which the Holy Ghost indwells possesses likewise the Son and the Father.單是情有可原只有同時同意父親,兒子,和聖靈;沒有一個是聖潔的洗禮保存在通過他們的共同行動;的靈魂在其中聖靈indwells擁有同樣的兒子和父親。 In a word the three Persons of the Trinity are indivisible in their being, their presence, and their operation.總之三人的三一是不可分割的福利,他們的存在,他們的行動。

Along with these perfectly orthodox texts there are some which must be interpreted with diligence, remembering as we ought that the language of theology was not yet fixed and that Origen was often the first to face these difficult problems.隨著這些完全正統的文本有一些必須加以解釋,勤奮,記住,我們應該說,語言的神學還沒有固定和奧利往往是第一次面對這些困難的問題。 It will then appear that the subordination of the Divine Persons, so much urged against Origen, generally consists in differences of appropriation (the Father creator, the Son redeemer, the Spirit sanctifier) which seem to attribute to the Persons an unequal sphere of action, or in the liturgical practice of praying the Father through the Son in the Holy Ghost, or in the theory so widespread in the Greek Church of the first five centuries, that the Father has a pre-eminence of rank (taxis) over the two other Persons, inasmuch as in mentioning them He ordinarily has the first place, and of dignity (axioma) because He represents the whole Divinity, of which He is the principle (arche), the origin (aitios), and the source (pege).然後似乎是處於從屬地位的神人,這麼多要求對奧利,一般包括在不同的撥款(作者父親的兒子,救主,精神sanctifier )這似乎屬性的人是不平等的行動範圍,或在禮儀做法祈禱父親的兒子在聖靈,或在理論非常普遍,在希臘教會的第一個五年百年來,父親有一個至高無上的排名(的士)的另外兩個人,因為他們中提到,他通常放在第一位,尊嚴( axioma ) ,因為他代表整個神,其中有他的原則是(凱旋門) ,原產地( aitios ) ,以及源( pege ) 。 That is why St. Athanasius defends Origen's orthodoxy concerning the Trinity and why St. Basil and St. Gregory of Nazianzus replied to the heretics who claimed the support of his authority that they misunderstood him.這就是為什麼聖亞他那修捍衛俄利根的正統關於三一,為什麼聖巴茲爾和聖格雷戈里的高利答复異端誰聲稱支持他的權威,他們誤解了他。

C. The Origin and Destiny of Rational Beings角的起源和命運的理性的人

Here we encounter an unfortunate amalgam of philosophy and theology.在這裡,我們遇到的一個令人遺憾的汞合金的哲學和神學。 The system that results is not coherent, for Origen, frankly recognizing the contradiction of the incompatible elements that he is trying to unify, recoils from the consequences, protests against the logical conclusions, and oftentimes corrects by orthodox professions of faith the heterodoxy of his speculations.該系統的結果並不一致,為俄利根,坦率地承認矛盾的不相容元素,他正試圖統一, recoils的後果,抗議合乎邏輯的結論,並經常修正正統專業的信仰的異端,他揣測。 It must be said that almost all the texts about to be treated of, are contained in the "De principiis", where the author treads on most dangerous ground.必須指出,幾乎所有的文本將要處理的,載於“德principiis ” ,其中作者胎面上最危險的地面。 They system may be reduced to a few hypotheses, the error and danger of which were not recognized by Origen.這些系統可減少幾個假設,錯誤和危險的是不承認的奧利。

(1) Eternity of Creation ( 1 )永恆的創作

Whatever exists outside of God was created by Him: the Alexandrian catechist always defended this thesis most energetically against the pagan philosophers who admitted an uncreated matter ("De princip.", II, i, 5; "In Genes.", I, 12, in Migne, XII, 48-9).無論以外的存在是上帝創造的他說:在亞歷山大講授始終捍衛這一論斷最有力的異教徒哲學家誰承認一個uncreated事項( “德原理。 ” ,二,一, 5 ; “基因。 ” ,我12在米涅,十二, 48-9 ) 。 But he believes that God created from eternity, for "it is absurd", he says, "to imagine the nature of God inactive, or His goodness inefficacious, or His dominion without subjects" (De princip., III, v, 3). Consequently he is forced to admit a double infinite series of worlds before and after the present world.但他認為,上帝創造的永恆,因為“這是荒謬的” ,他說, “想像的性質上帝無效,或者他的善良無效,或者沒有他的統治主體” (德原理。 ,第三,第五, 3 ) 。因此,他不得不承認雙重無窮級數的世界之前和之後的目前世界。

(2) Original Equality of the Created Spirits. ( 2 )原件平等的創建精神。

"In the beginning all intellectual natures were created equal and alike, as God had no motive for creating them otherwise" (De princip., II, ix, 6). “一開始所有的智慧性創造了平等,均一視同仁,為上帝沒有任何動機,否則他們創造” (德原理。 ,二,九, 6 ) 。 Their present differences arise solely from their different use of the gift of free will.他們目前只出現分歧從他們不同的用途禮物的自由意志。 The spirits created good and happy grew tired of their happiness (op. cit., I, iii, 8), and, though carelessness, fell, some more some less (I, vi, 2).神創造了良好的成長和幸福厭倦了他們的幸福(同前。 ,第一,三, 8 ) , ,雖然粗心大意,下跌,一些比較少一些(一,六, 2 ) 。 Hence the hierarchy of the angels; hence also the four categories of created intellects: angels, stars (supposing, as is probable, that they are animated, "De princip., I, vii, 3), men, and demons. But their rôles may be one day changed; for what free will has done, free will can undo, and the Trinity alone is essentially immutable in good.因此,等級的天使,因此也四類創造智力:天使,星級(假設,這是可能的,他們是動畫片, “德原理。 ,我七, 3 ) ,男人和惡魔。但他們角色可有一天改變;為自由意志所做的那樣,自由意志可以復原,並單獨三位一體基本上是一成不變的好。

(3) Essence and Raison d'Être of Matter ( 3 )本質和存在的理由物質

Matter exists only for the spiritual; if the spiritual did not need it, matter would not exist, for its finality is not in itself.只存在問題的精神,如果沒有精神的需要,此事將不存在,其終局本身並不是。 But it seems to Origen - though he does not venture to declare so expressly - that created spirits even the most perfect cannot do without an extremely diluted and subtle matter which serves them as a vehicle and means of action (De princip., II, ii, 1; I, vi, 4 etc.).但它似乎奧利-雖然他並不合資企業宣布如此明確-創造精神即使是最完美的,不能沒有一個極其微妙的稀釋和服務事項它們作為一種工具和手段的行動(德原理。,二,二, 1 ;一,六, 4等) 。 Matter was, therefore, created simultaneously with the spiritual, although the spiritual is logically prior; and matter will never cease to be because the spiritual, however perfect, will always need it.問題是,因此,同時創造的精神,雖然精神是合乎邏輯之前和問題將永遠不會停止,因為精神,但是完美,將永遠需要它。 But matter which is susceptible of indefinite transformations is adapted to the varying condition of the spirits.但問題是有可能無限期變革是適應不同條件的精神。 "When intended for the more imperfect spirits, it becomes solidified, thickens, and forms the bodies of this visible world. If it is serving higher intelligences, it shines with the brightness of the celestial bodies and serves as a garb for the angels of God, and the children of the Resurrection" (op. cit., II, ii, 2). “當打算,更完美的精神,成為凝固,變厚,並形成了機構的這一可見的世界。如果是高智能服務,它閃耀的亮度和天體充當外衣的上帝的天使和兒童的復活“ (同前。 ,二,二, 2 ) 。

(4) Universality of the Redemption and the Final Restoration ( 4 )普遍性的贖回和最終恢復

Certain Scriptural texts, eg, I Cor.某些聖經文本,例如,我肺心病。 xv, 25-28, seem to extend to all rational beings the benefit of the Redemption, and Origen allows himself to be led also by the philosophical principle which he enunciates several times, without ever proving it, that the end is always like the beginning: "We think that the goodness of God, through the mediation of Christ, will bring all creatures to one and the same end" (De princip., I, vi, 1-3).十五, 25日至28日,似乎擴大到所有合理的人的利益,贖回和奧利允許自己被領導也受到哲學的原則,他闡述了好幾次,沒有以往任何時候都證明這一點,最終總是一樣的開始: “我們認為,上帝的善良,通過調解的基督,將所有的動物之一,並同樣的目的” (德原理。 ,我,六, 1-3 ) 。 The universal restoration (apokatastasis) follows necessarily from these principles.普遍恢復( apokatastasis )如下必然從這些原則。

On the least reflection, it will be seen that these hypotheses, starting from contrary points of view, are irreconcilable: for the theory of a final restoration is diametrically opposed to the theory of successive indefinite trials.關於最不反思,可以看到,這些假設,從相反的觀點,是不可調和的:理論最終恢復是截然相反的理論連續無限期的審判。 It would be easy to find in the writings of Origen a mass of texts contradicting these principles and destroying the resulting conclusions.這將是容易找到的著作奧利大量的文本違背這些原則和破壞造成的結論。 He affirms, for instance, that the charity of the elect in heaven does not fail; in their case "the freedom of the will will be bound so that sin will be impossible" (In Roman., V, 10).他申明,例如,慈善機構的選舉在天上不會失敗;在他們的案件“的自由意願的約束,使罪惡將是不可能的” (在羅馬。 ,五, 10 ) 。 So, too, the reprobate will always be fixed in evil, less from the inability to free themselves from it, than because they wish to be evil (De princip., I, viii, 4), for malice has become natural to them, it is as a second nature in them (In Joann., xx, 19).同樣,對壞人將永遠固定在邪惡的,那麼從無法擺脫它,而不是因為他們希望被邪惡(德原理。 ,我八, 4 ) ,對惡意已成為自然給他們,它是作為第二性質的人(在脫掉。 , XX條, 19條) 。 Origen grew angry when accused of teaching the eternal salvation of the devil.奧利增長憤怒的指責時,教學的永恆的拯救魔鬼。 But the hypotheses which he lays down here and there are none the less worthy of censure.但是,假設這奠定了他在這裡沒有人不值得譴責。 What can be said in his defence, if it be not with St. Athanasius (De decretis Nic., 27), that we must not seek to find his real opinion in the works in which he discusses the arguments for and against doctrine as an intellectual exercise or amusement; or, with St. Jerome (Ad Pammach. Epist., XLVIII, 12), that it is one thing to dogmatize and another to enunciate hypothetical opinions which will be cleared up by discussion?什麼可以說在他的辯護律師,如果它不與聖亞他那修(德decretis的NIC 。 , 27歲) ,我們決不能尋求他的真實意見的作品,其中他討論了贊成和反對的理論作為智力活動或娛樂,或者與聖杰羅姆(廣告Pammach 。 Epist 。 ,四十八, 12 ) ,這是一件事獨斷和闡明假設的意見將被清除了討論?

III.三。 ORIGENIST CONTROVERSIES ORIGENIST爭議

The discussions concerning Origen and his teaching are of a very singular and very complex character.討論有關俄利根和他的教學是一個非常獨特的和非常複雜的性質。 They break out unexpectedly, at long intervals, and assume an immense importance quite unforeseen in their humble beginnings.他們打破出乎意料的是,在長期的間隔,並承擔了巨大的重要性相當意外的謙卑的開端。 They are complicated by so many personal disputes and so many questions foreign to the fundamental subject in controversy that a brief and rapid exposé of the polemics is difficult and well-nigh impossible.它們是複雜的如此多的個人糾紛和這麼多的問題外交的根本問題的爭論,一個簡短而迅速暴露的爭辯是困難的,也幾乎是不可能的。 Finally they abate so suddenly that one is forced to conclude that the controversy was superficial and that Origen's orthodoxy was not the sole point in dispute.最後,他們消減如此突然,一個是被迫得出這樣的結論是膚淺的爭議和奧利的正統是不是唯一的爭議點。

A. FIRST ORIGENIST CRISIS答:首先ORIGENIST危機

It broke out in the deserts of Egypt, raged in Palestine, and ended at Constantinople with the condemnation of St. Chrysostom (392-404).它發生在沙漠的埃及,巴勒斯坦肆虐,並收於君士坦丁堡的聖譴責金口( 392-404 ) 。 During the second half of the fourth century the monks of Nitria professed an exaggerated enthusiasm for Origen, whilst the neighbouring brethren of Sceta, as a result of an unwarranted reaction and an excessive fear of allegorism, fell into Anthropomorphism.在下半年的第四世紀的修道士Nitria宣稱誇大的熱情奧利,而鄰近的兄弟Sceta ,由於不必要的反應和過度恐懼allegorism ,墜入擬人化。 These doctrinal discussions gradually invaded the monasteries of Palestine, which were under the care of St. Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis, who, convinced of the dangers of Origenism, had combatted it in his works and was determined to prevent its spread and to extirpate it completely.這些理論上的討論,逐步入侵巴勒斯坦寺廟,其中的關懷下街埃皮法尼烏斯,薩拉米斯主教,誰深信的危險Origenism ,已combatted在他的作品,並決心防止其蔓延,並消滅它完全。 Having gone to Jerusalem in 394, he preached vehemently against Origen's errors, in presence of the bishop of that city, John, who was deemed an Origenist.在前往耶路撒冷的394 ,他鼓吹強烈反對,俄利根的失誤,在存在的主教城市,約翰,誰被認為是一個Origenist 。 John in turn spoke against Anthropomorphism, directing his discourse so clearly against Epiphanius that no on could be mistaken.約翰反過來對以擬人化,指揮他的話語如此明確對埃皮法尼烏斯,沒有對可能被誤。 Another incident soon helped to embitter the dispute.另一起事件中盡快幫助激怒爭端。 Epiphanius had raised Paulinian, brother of St. Jerome, to the priesthood in a place subject to the See of Jerusalem.埃皮法尼烏斯提出了Paulinian ,兄弟的聖杰羅姆,向神父在一個地方受見耶路撒冷。 John complained bitterly of this violation of his rights, and the reply of Epiphanius was not of a nature to appease him.約翰抱怨這種侵犯他的權利,並答复埃皮法尼烏斯沒有的性質來安撫他。

Two new combatants were now ready to enter the lists.兩個新的戰鬥人員,現在已經準備好進入名單。 From the time when Jerome and Rufinus settled, one at Bethlehem and the other at Mt.從當時杰羅姆和Rufinus解決,一個在伯利恆和其他在金剛山。 Olivet, they had lived in brotherly friendship.奧利韋,他們生活在兄弟般的友誼。 Both admired, imitated, and translated Origen, and were on most amicable terms with their bishop, when in 392 Aterbius, a monk of Sceta, came to Jerusalem and accused them of both of Origenism.這兩種崇拜,模仿,翻譯奧利,並在條件最友好的主教時,在392 Aterbius ,一名僧人的Sceta ,來到耶路撒冷,指控他們都Origenism 。 St. Jerome, very sensitive to the question of orthodoxy, was much hurt by the insinuation of Aterbius and two years later sided with St. Epiphanius, whose reply to John of Jerusalem he translated into Latin.聖杰羅姆,非常敏感的問題,正統,大大傷害了含沙射影的Aterbius ,兩年後站在聖埃皮法尼烏斯,其答复約翰耶路撒冷,他翻譯成拉丁文。 Rufinus learnt, it is not known how, of this translation, which was not intended for the public, and Jerome suspected him of having obtained it by fraud. Rufinus據悉,這是不知道如何進行,這一翻譯,這是不打算為公眾,杰羅姆懷疑他獲得了它的欺詐行為。 A reconciliation was effected sometime later, but it was not lasting.和解是稍後的某個時候生效,但它不是持久的。 In 397 Rufinus, then at Rome, had translated Origen's "De principiis" into Latin, and in his preface followed the example of St. Jerome, whose dithyrambic eulogy addressed to the Alexandrian catechist he remembered. The solitary of Bethlehem, grievously hurt at this action, wrote to his friends to refute the perfidious implication of Rufinus, denounced Origen's errors to Pope Anastasius, tried to win the Patriarch of Alexandria over to the anti-Origenist cause, and began a discussion with Rufinus, marked with great bitterness on both sides.在397 Rufinus ,然後在羅馬,翻譯,俄利根的“德principiis ”到拉丁美洲,並在他的序言效法聖杰羅姆,其dithyrambic悼詞給亞歷山大講授,他記得。孤立伯利恆,嚴重傷害在此行動,寫信給他的朋友駁斥背信棄義的含義Rufinus ,譴責俄利根的錯誤,教皇達西,試圖贏得亞歷山大主教向反Origenist事業,並開始討論與Rufinus ,標誌著以極大的痛苦雙方。

Until 400 Theophilus of Alexandria was an acknowledged Origenist.直到400提阿亞歷山大是一個承認Origenist 。 His confident was Isidore, a former monk of Nitria, and his friends, "the Tall Brothers", the accredited leaders of the Origenist party.他的自信是伊西多爾是前喇嘛的Nitria ,和他的朋友, “在高層兄弟” ,經認證的領導人Origenist黨。 He had supported John of Jerusalem against St. Epiphanius, whose Anthropomorphism he denounced to Pope Siricius. Suddenly he changed his views, exactly why was never known.他曾支持美國對耶路撒冷的聖埃皮法尼烏斯,其擬人化,他譴責教宗Siricius 。突然,他改變了他的看法,確切原因是不知道。 It is said that the monks of Sceta, displeased with his paschal letter of 399, forcibly invaded his episcopal residence and threatened him with death if he did not chant the palinody.這是說,僧侶的Sceta ,不滿他逾越的信399 ,強行侵入他的主教府,並威脅他的死亡,如果他不唱palinody 。 What is certain is that he had quarreled with St. Isidore over money matters and with "the Tall Brothers", who blamed his avarice and his worldliness.可以肯定的是,他曾吵架聖伊西多爾與金錢事項和與“高兄弟” ,誰指責他的貪婪和他的俗氣。 As Isidore and "the Tall Brothers" had retired to Constantinople, where Chrysostom extended his hospitality to them and interceded for them, without, however, admitting them to communion till the censures pronounced against them had been raised, the irascible Patriarch of Alexandria determined on this plan: to suppress Origenism everywhere, and under this pretext ruin Chrysostom, whom he hated and envied.由於伊西多爾和“高層兄弟”已經退休,以君士坦丁堡,在那裡,他金口接待他們,並制止他們,但不承認他們的共融,直到譴責對他們的宣判提出了的暴躁亞歷山大主教確定這項計劃:制止Origenism各地,並在以此為藉口破壞金口,他痛恨和羨慕。 For four years he was mercilessly active: he condemned Origen's books at the Council of Alexandria (400), with an armed band he expelled the monks from Nitria, he wrote to the bishops of Cyprus and Palestine to win them over to his anti-Origenist crusade, issued paschal letters in 401, 402, and 404 against Origen's doctrine, and sent a missive to Pope Anastasius asking for the condemnation of Origenism.四年來,他無情地活躍:他譴責俄利根的書籍在安理會的亞歷山大( 400 ) ,與武裝帶他驅逐出境僧人從Nitria ,他寫信給主教塞浦路斯和巴勒斯坦人贏得了他的反Origenist十字軍東征,發出逾越信件401 , 402和404對奧里的理論,並發出了missive ,教皇達西要求譴責Origenism 。 He was successful beyond his hopes; the bishops of Cyprus accepted his invitation.他是成功的超越他的希望;的主教塞浦路斯地接受了邀請。 Those of Palestine, assembled at Jerusalem, condemned the errors pointed out to them, adding that they were not taught amongst them.這些巴勒斯坦,聚集在耶路撒冷,譴責錯誤指出,他們補充說,他們沒有告訴他們中間。 Anastasius, while declaring that Origen was entirely unknown to him, condemned the propositions extracted from his books. St.達西,同時宣布,俄利根是完全陌生的他,譴責主張提取他的書。街 Jerome undertook to translate into Latin the various elucubrations of the patriarch, even his virulent diatribe against Chrysostom.杰羅姆承諾轉化為拉丁美洲的各種elucubrations的家長,甚至謾罵他的致命打擊金口。 St. Epiphanius, preceding Theophilus to Constantinople, treated St. Chrysostom as temerarious, and almost heretical, until the day the truth began to dawn on him, and suspecting that he might have been deceived, he suddenly left Constantinople and died at sea before arriving at Salamis.聖埃皮法尼烏斯,前提阿君士坦丁堡,治療金口街作為temerarious ,幾乎異端邪說,直到有一天真相開始對他的到來,並懷疑他可能已經受騙,他突然離開君士坦丁堡死在海上到達在薩拉米斯。

It is well known how Theophilus, having been called by the emperor to explain his conduct towards Isidore and "the Tall Brothers", cleverly succeeded by his machinations in changing the rôles.眾所周知,如何提阿,被稱為皇帝來解釋他的行為對伊西多爾和“高層兄弟” ,巧妙地接替了他的詭計改變的作用。 Instead of being the accused, he became the accuser, and summoned Chrysostom to appear before the conciliabule of the Oak (ad Quercum), at which Chrysostom was condemned.而不是被告,他成為原告,並傳喚金口出庭conciliabule的橡樹(廣告Quercum ) ,在金口譴責。 As soon as the vengeance of Theophilus was satiated nothing more was heard of Origenism.當復仇的是飽滿的提阿只不過是聽說Origenism 。 The Patriarch of Alexandria began to read Origen, pretending that he could cull the roses from among the thorns.牧首亞歷山大開始閱讀奧利,假裝,他可以宰殺的玫瑰花從荊棘。 He became reconciled with "the Tall Brothers" without asking them to retract.他成為調和“的高層兄弟”沒有要求他們收回。 Hardly had the personal quarrels abated when the spectre of Origenism vanished.很難有個人的爭吵時,減少的幽靈Origenism消失。

B. SECOND ORIGENISTIC CRISIS B.第二ORIGENISTIC危機

In 514 certain heterodox doctrines of a very singular character had already spread among the monks of Jerusalem and its environs.中514一定非正統理論的一個非常獨特的性質已經蔓延之間的僧侶在耶路撒冷及其周圍地區。 Possibly the seeds of the dispute may have been sown by Stephen Bar-Sudaili, a troublesome monk expelled from Edessa, who joined to an Origenism of his own brand certain clearly pantheistic views.可能的種子糾紛可能已播下的斯蒂芬酒吧, Sudaili ,一個棘手的和尚趕出埃德薩,誰加入了Origenism自己的品牌某些明確pantheistic意見。 Plotting and intriguing continued for about thirty years, the monks suspected of Origenism being in turn expelled from their monasteries, then readmitted, only to be driven out anew.策劃和迷人的持續了大約三十年,僧侶涉嫌Origenism又被趕出寺院,然後接納,只有被趕出新。 Their leaders and protectors were Nonnus, who till his death in 547 kept the party together, Theodore Askidas and Domitian who had won the favour of the emperor and were named bishops, one to the See of Ancyra in Galatia, the other to that of Caesarea in Cappadocia, though they continued to reside at court (537).其領導人和被保護者Nonnus ,誰到他去世的547保持黨合作,西奧多Askidas和多米提安誰贏得了贊成票,天皇和命名主教,一到見的Ancyra在加拉太,其他到該撒利亞在卡帕多西亞,儘管他們繼續居住在法院( 537 ) 。 In these circumstances a report against Origenism was addressed to Justinian, by whom and on what occasion it is not known, for the two accounts that have come down to us are at variance (Cyrillus of Scythopolis, "Vita Sabae"; and Liberatus, "Breviarium", xxiii).在這種情況下,一份報告,對Origenism給查士丁尼,是誰和什麼場合不知道,這兩個帳戶,已下降到我們有差異( Cyrillus的Scythopolis , “簡歷鯖江” ;和Liberatus “ Breviarium “ ,二十三) 。 At all events, the emperor then wrote his "Liber adversus Origenem", containing in addition to an exposé of the reasons for condemning it twenty-four censurable texts taken from the "De principiis", and lastly ten propositions to be anathematized.在所有的事件,然後皇帝寫他的“書adversus Origenem ” ,載此外,一個暴露的理由譴責24責備的文本取自“德principiis ” ,最後10個命題是anathematized 。 Justinian ordered the patriarch Mennas to call together all the bishops present in Constantinople and make them subscribe to these anathemas. This was the local synod (synodos endemousa) of 543.查士丁尼下令家長Mennas召集所有的主教在君士坦丁堡,使他們訂閱這些anathemas 。這是當地主教( synodos endemousa )的543 。 A copy of the imperial edict had been addressed to the other patriarchs, including Pope Vigilius, and all gave their adhesion to it.一份詔書已經給其他主教,包括教皇Vigilius ,以及所有給予他們的粘附它。 In the case of Vigilius especially we have the testimony of Liberatus (Breviar., xxiii) and Cassiodorus (Institutiones, 1). It had been expected that Domitian and Theodore Askidas, by their refusal to condemn Origenism, would fall into disfavour at Court; but they signed whatever they were asked to sign and remained more powerful than ever.在Vigilius特別是我們的證詞Liberatus ( Breviar. ,二十三)和Cassiodorus ( Institutiones , 1 ) 。有人預計,多米田和西奧多Askidas ,他們拒絕譴責Origenism ,將落入謫在法院;但他們簽署不管他們被要求簽署和更強大的仍然是比以往任何時候。 Askidas even took revenge by persuading the emperor to have Theodore of Mopsuestia, who was deemed the sworn enemy of Origen, condemned (Liberatus, "Breviar.", xxiv; Facundas of Hermianus, "Defensio trium capitul.", I, ii; Evagrius, "Hist.", IV, xxxviii). Justinian's new edict, which is not extant, resulted in the assembling of the fifth ecumenical council, in which Theodore of Mopsuestia, Ibas, and Theodoretus were condemned (553). Askidas甚至採取了報復說服皇帝有西奧多的Mopsuestia ,誰被視為死敵奧利譴責( Liberatus , “ Breviar 。 ”二十四; Facundas的Hermianus , “ Defensio trium capitul 。 ”一,二; Evagrius “組織胺。 ” ,四,三十八) 。查士丁尼新的法令,這不是現存的,造成裝配第五屆基督教理事會,其中西奧多的Mopsuestia , Ibas ,並譴責Theodoretus ( 553 ) 。

Were Origen and Origenism anathematized?被奧利和Origenism anathematized ? Many learned writers believe so; an equal number deny that they were condemned; most modern authorities are either undecided or reply with reservations.許多教訓作家這樣認為;同等數量否認,他們譴責;最現代化當局要么猶豫不決或答辯保留。 Relying on the most recent studies on the question it may be held that:依靠最近研究的問題可以認為:

It is certain that the fifth general council was convoked exclusively to deal with the affair of the Three Chapters, and that neither Origen nor Origenism were the cause of it.可以肯定的是,第五次總理事會是召集專門來處理這件事的三個章節,這既不奧利也不Origenism的原因了。

It is certain that the council opened on 5 May, 553, in spite of the protestations of Pope Vigilius, who though at Constantinople refused to attend it, and that in the eight conciliary sessions (from 5 May to 2 June), the Acts of which we possess, only the question of the Three Chapters is treated. Finally it is certain that only the Acts concerning the affair of the Three Chapters were submitted to the pope for his approval, which was given on 8 December, 553, and 23 February, 554.可以肯定的是,安理會開幕5月5日, 553 ,儘管抗議教皇Vigilius ,誰在君士坦丁堡雖然拒絕參加,並在8 conciliary會議( 5月5日至6月2日)的行為我們擁有,只有問題的三個章節處理。最後是肯定的,只有行為的有關事件的三個章節已提交給教宗的批准,這是由於12月8日, 553 ,和2月23日, 554 。

It is a fact that Popes Vigilius, Pelagius I (556-61), Pelagius II (579-90), Gregory the Great (590-604), in treating of the fifth council deal only with the Three Chapters, make no mention of Origenism, and speak as if they did not know of its condemnation.這是一個事實,即教皇Vigilius ,伯拉糾口( 556-61 ) ,伯拉糾二( 579-90 ) ,格里高利大( 590-604 ) ,在治療第五屆理事會只處理三個章節,使沒有提到Origenism ,說話,彷彿他們不知道它的譴責。

It must be admitted that before the opening of the council, which had been delayed by the resistance of the pope, the bishops already assembled at Constantinople had to consider, by order of the emperor, a form of Origenism that had practically nothing in common with Origen, but which was held, we know, by one of the Origenist parties in Palestine.必須承認,開幕前,安理會已經推遲了阻力,教皇,主教們已經聚集在君士坦丁堡必須考慮的命令皇帝,某種形式的Origenism已經幾乎沒有什麼共同的奧利,但這次會議,我們都知道,由一個Origenist各方在巴勒斯坦。 The arguments in corroboration of this hypothesis may be found in Dickamp (op. cit., 66-141). The bishops certainly subscribed to the fifteen anathemas proposed by the emperor (ibid., 90-96); and admitted Origenist, Theodore of Scythopolis, was forced to retract (ibid., 125-129); but there is no proof that the approbation of the pope, who was at that time protesting against the convocation of the council, was asked.的論點佐證這一假設中可以找到Dickamp (同前。 , 66-141 ) 。主教肯定訂閱15 anathemas提出的皇帝(同上,第90-96號) ;並承認Origenist ,西奧多的Scythopolis ,被迫收回(同上, 125-129 ) ;但沒有證據表明,讚許的教宗,誰當時抗議召開理事會,有人問。

It is easy to understand how this extra-conciliary sentence was mistaken at a later period for a decree of the actual ecumenical council.這是不難理解這一課外conciliary一句是錯在稍後時期的一項法令的實際基督教理事會。

Publication information Written by F. Prat.出版信息撰稿:樓寶。 Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.轉錄由安東尼基林。 Aeterna non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.非caduca永恆的天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat二月一日1911 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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