Neo - Thomism新-T homism

General Information 一般信息

Early in the 19th century in Italy certain Catholic professors of philosophy began to see in Thomas Aquinas's teaching basic principles that might resolve the problems associated with Kantian and Hegelian Idealism, British Empiricism, current Rationalism, Skepticism, and Liberalism. By 1850, neo Thomism or neoscholasticism began to be heard through the writings of Gaetano Sanseverino in Naples, Matteo Liberatore in Rome, and the Jesuit periodical Civilita Cattolica founded in Naples in 1850.早在19世紀在意大利的某些天主教哲學教授開始看到在托馬斯阿奎那的教學基本原則,可以解決相關問題的康德和黑格爾的唯心主義,英國經驗主義,當前的理性,懷疑主義,與自由主義。到1850年,新Thomism或neoscholasticism開始通過聽取著作加埃塔諾Sanseverino在那不勒斯,利瑪竇Liberatore在羅馬,和耶穌期刊Civilita天主教在那不勒斯成立於1850年。 These efforts were brought to a head by Josef Kleutgen in Germany, Henri LaCordaire in France, Zeferino Gonzales in the Philippines and Spain, and Tommaso Zigliara and Pope Leo XIII in Italy.這些努力使頭由約瑟夫Kleutgen在德國,法國拉科代爾在法國, Zeferino岡薩雷斯在菲律賓和西班牙,和托馬索Zigliara和教皇利奧十三世在意大利。 The charter of this neo Thomism was Leo's Aeterni Patris (1879).該憲章的這一新Thomism是獅子座的Aeterni祖國報( 1879年) 。 Through subsequent encyclicals, Leo exemplified the applicability of Thomistic ideas to contemporary problems. All subsequent popes, including John Paul II, reiterated the need for a Christian philosophy based on Thomistic principles.通過以後的通諭, 利奧體現的適用性Thomistic思想對當代的問題。所有教皇隨後,包括約翰保羅二世,重申需要一個基督教哲學的基礎上Thomistic原則。

The rise of Modernism in the Roman Catholic church after 1900, however, resulted in a multiplicity of ecclesiastical condemnations, a legislated Thomism, and a failure to realize the hopes of Leo XIII.崛起的現代主義在羅馬天主教後, 1900年,但是,由於多種宗教的譴責,法律規定的Thomism ,並未能實現的希望利奧十三世。 Despite this and two world wars, much fruitful work was accomplished by outstanding scholars, numerous periodicals, and editors of historical texts, including the critical edition of the works of Aquinas (the Leonine Edition).儘管這和兩次世界大戰,大量卓有成效的工作是由傑出的學者,許多期刊,和編輯的歷史文本,其中包括關鍵的版本的作品阿奎那(在Leonine版) 。 Among the great number of modern scholars who called themselves Thomists (but not neo Thomists or neoscholastics) were Jacques Maritain, Etienne Gilson, Martin Grabmann, and Yves Congar.在大量的現代學者的人稱自己是誰Thomists (但不是新Thomists或neoscholastics )是雅克馬里丹,艾蒂安吉爾森,馬丁Grabmann ,和Yves Congar 。

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For reasons still not fully understood, a decided reaction against Aquinas and neoscholasticism occurred in the 1960s.出於還沒有完全理解,一個決定對阿奎那的反應和neoscholasticism發生在20世紀60年代。 Some have erroneously associated this with the Second Vatican Council, which turned people's minds toward social rather than doctrinal issues.有些人誤與此相關的第二次梵蒂岡會議之際,人們的思想走向社會,而不是理論上的問題。 Aquinas was, however, the only scholastic doctor mentioned by name in all the conciliar documents.阿奎那然而,只有學習的醫生中點名提到的所有conciliar文件。 The real reasons for the decline of neoscholasticism must be sought in the wider sociological and psychological concerns of contemporary society.真正的原因,下降neoscholasticism必須尋求在更廣泛的社會和心理關注的當代社會。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Y Congar, A History of Theology (1968); E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1957); RM McInerny, ed., New Themes in Christian Philosophy (1968); B Smalley, The Becket Conflict and the Schools: A Study of Intellectuals in Politics (1973) Y Congar ,歷史神學( 1968 ) ;電子郵件吉爾森,基督教哲學的聖托馬斯阿奎那( 1957 ) ;產品McInerny ,編輯。 ,新的主題在基督教哲學( 1968 ) ;乙斯莫利,貝克特衝突與學校:研究知識分子在政治( 1973 )


Neo - Thomism新-T homism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Neo-Thomism is a twentieth century revival of the thought of Thomas Aquinas. Thomism had been the dominant philosophy undergirding Roman Catholic theology from the fifteenth century.新Thomism是二十世紀復興的思想多瑪斯。 Thomism一直佔主導地位的哲學undergirding羅馬天主教神學從十五世紀。 Under the pace setting interpretations of such thinkers as Cajetan in the early sixteenth century a complex system which spoke to the needs of both theology and contemporary philosophical questions developed.根據設定的速度的解釋,例如作為Cajetan思想家在16世紀初一個複雜的系統,以向需要的神學和哲學問題的當代發達國家。 Thomism appeared to have triumphed in 1880 when Pope Leo XIII declared it to be the official (though not exclusive) philosophy of Catholic schools. Thomism似乎已經於1880年取得勝利時,教皇利奧十三世宣布將官方(雖然不是唯一的)哲學的天主教學校。

However, at the same time it became clear that Thomism's posture was threatened by the increasing popularity of Kantian philosophical principles.然而,在同一時間可以看出, Thomism的姿態受到威脅的日益普及康德哲學的原則。 In the twentieth century the movement bifurcated. Transcendental Thomism, represented by Joseph Marechal, Bernard Lonergan, and Karl Rahner, self consciously adapted itself to Kantian thought.在二十世紀的運動岔。先驗Thomism ,由約瑟夫馬雷夏爾,伯納德根和卡爾拉內,自我自覺適應康德思想。 But another wing, under the leadership of Etienne Gilson and Jacques Maritain, sought to recover a pure version of the teachings of Aquinas himself.但另一翼的領導下,艾蒂安吉爾森和雅克馬里丹,想追回一個純粹的版本的教誨,阿奎那本人。 Eventually this understanding crossed confessional boundaries to include such Protestants as EL Mascall.最終越過這一諒解教派界限,包括新教徒作為發光Mascall 。 This article will concentrate on this latter movement.本文將集中於後者的運動。

The metaphysical distinctive of neo Thomism may be found in its insistence on the maxim that "existence precedes essence."獨特的形而上學的新Thomism可能會發現在其堅持的格言說, “存在先於本質。 ” For that reason Maritain has claimed that Thomism is the original existentialism.出於這一原因旦聲稱, Thomism是原始存在。 Put simply, this means that one has to know that something exists before one knows what it is, and before one knows that something exists, one has to accept that anything exists.簡而言之,這意味著人們必須知道,以前存在的一些人知道它是什麼,和前一個知道的東西存在,人們必須接受任何存在。 This latter conviction is not the result of a rational deduction; it is an immediate awareness.這後一種信念並非由於合理的扣減;這是一個直接的認識。 Thus the act of being, apprehended in a direct intuition, precedes its various modalities.這樣的行為被逮捕直接直覺,之前的各種方式。

This apprehension of being leads the Thomist to posit the existence of God via the cosmological argument.這被逮捕的領導托馬斯主義,以斷定上帝存在通過宇宙的論點。 For even though the reality of being is an inescapable fact, it is not a logically necessary truth.對於即使被現實是一個不可避免的事實,它不是一個必要的邏輯真理。 Being exists, but need not exist.目前確實存在,但沒有必要存在。 Thus being is inherently contingent, and its contingency makes it finite.因此,目前本來就是特遣隊,其應急使得有限的。 If it exists in view of having no inherent necessity to do so, it must be caused to exist.如果它的存在,鑑於沒有內在需要做到這一點,必須引起存在。 Also, the very forms which being assumes are due to the interplay of various causes; and the fact of change, so characteristic of being, must be the result of causal actions as well.此外,非常形式被假定是由於相互作用的各種原因和事實的變化,因此目前的特點,必須是由於因果關係以及行為。 Thus being is bounded by causes wherever it appears.因此,目前的範圍是由原因的地方出現。

However, since it is a logical absurdity for anything to cause itself, there must be an external cause of being.然而,由於這是一個合乎邏輯的荒謬的任何事業本身,就必須有一個外部原因福祉。 Now if that cause is also finite, we have not grounded finite being yet, and it still should not exist.現在,如果這一事業也是有限的,我們沒有理由被尚未有限,它仍然不應該存在的。 A chain of finite causes would carry the same problem with it. A鏈有限的原因將進行同樣的問題的。 Hence the Thomist posits an original uncaused cause of all being, viz.因此,托馬斯主義假定的原始獨立自存的事業,所有的福利,即。 God.上帝。 It must be noted that this argument is based on the metaphysical necessity for a cause of being, not on a need for explanation, as would be the case with Leibniz's principle of sufficient reason.必須指出的是,這一論點是基於形而上的必要性的一個原因,而不是一個需要解釋,因為將情況萊布尼茲的原則,充分的理由。

The understanding of God as unconditioned necessary existence goes far in providing the basis for Thomistic natural theology.認識上帝作為必要的生存無條件遠遠在提供了依據Thomistic自然神學。 For if God is uncaused, he is unlimited.如果上帝是獨立自存的,他是無限的。 Then he contains all perfections infinitely; eg, he is all - good, omnipresent, omniscient, all - loving, perfect person, etc. There can be only one such God, since a God who possesses all perfections cannot differ from any other God who would also possess all the identical possessions. Thus Thomists feel confident that their philosophical arguments concern the same God whom they worship in church.然後,他包含了所有無限完善;例如,他是所有-好,無所不在,無所不知,所有的-愛,完美的人等只能有一個這樣的上帝,因為上帝誰擁有所有完善不能不同於其他任何上帝誰也將擁有相同的所有財產。因此Thomists自信地認為,他們的哲學觀點相同的關切上帝他們在教堂禮拜。

Thomism understands the relationship between God the Creator and the created order to be analogical. Thomism理解之間的關係上帝造物主和創造才能類比。 God is the source of all being, and finitude participates in his being, but only with limitations. In the matter of applying language to God, predication proceeds analogically as well.神是源泉所有正在和有限參與他的福利,但只限制。在這個問題上的應用語言上帝,收益預測,以及analogically 。 Language is derived from the finite world. But then it is applied to God with the understanding that he is the source of all named properties and that he posseses all those properties without limitation.語言是來自有限的世界。但後來將它應用到上帝的理解是,他是所有來源的命名屬性,他擁有所有這些屬性沒有限制。 For example, one may apply the word "love" to God, even though it is a word learned within human finite relationships, because God is pure love and the originator of all human love.例如,一個可申請改為“愛”的上帝,即使它是一個字的經驗教訓在人類有限的關係,因為上帝是純潔的愛和發端所有人類的愛。

The insistence on being over essence also makes itself felt in Thomism's understanding of the human person.堅持超過本質也使自己感受到Thomism的理解人。 Thomism avoids both a Platonic mind - body dualism and a reductive materialism. Thomism避免既考慮到柏拉圖-身體的兩重性和還原性物質。 With the understanding of the soul as the form of the body, the human is seen as a unit, composed of soul and body in mutual dependence.隨著了解的靈魂作為形式的機構,人類被看作是一個單位組成的靈魂和身體的相互依存。 Thus, for instance, cognition combines both the physical / empirical (sensation) and the spiritual (abstraction).因此,例如,認知相結合的物理/經驗(感覺)和精神(抽象) 。 Thomistic writings have consistently defended the dignity and integrity of human personhood, particularly against totalitarian ideologies. Thomistic著作一貫捍衛尊嚴和人格的完整人格,尤其是對極權主義意識形態。

In theology Thomism has usually been linked to conservative expressions of orthodox doctrines, partially due to the close dependence on Aquinas's own formulations.在神學Thomism通常是與保守正統的表達理論,部分原因密切依賴於阿奎那自己的配方。 Since the Second Vatican Council it has lost much ground in Catholic circles to philosophies of more recent origin, eg, phenomenology or process thought, due to a certain impatience with Thomism's supposedly outmoded Aristotelianism.自從梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議已經失去了很多,在天主教界的理念更近原產地,例如,現象或過程認為,由於某種不耐煩Thomism的理應過時的亞里士多德。 At the same time there has been some movement in evangelical Protestantism to adopt Thomistic philosophical principles for purposes of apologetics and theological enhancement, eg, by Norman L Geisler.與此同時出現了一些運動的福音派新教通過Thomistic哲學原則為目的的護教學和神學增強,例如,諾曼L蓋。

W Corduan W Corduan
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
NL Geisler, Philosophy of Religion; E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas; J Maritain, The Degrees of Knowledge and Scholasticism and Politics; EL Mascall, Existence and Analogy.聯蓋,宗教哲學;電子郵件吉爾森,基督教哲學多瑪斯; J旦,程度的知識和經院哲學和政治;發光Mascall ,生存和類比。


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