Moral Theology道德神學

General Information 一般信息

Moral theology, or ethics, explores the moral dimensions of the religious life.道德神學,或道德,探討了道德層面的宗教生活。

Practical theology, interprets the forms of worship, styles of organization, and modes of interpersonal relationship within religious communities.實踐神學,解釋各種形式的崇拜,作風,組織,模式內人際關係宗教社區。

Although different questions have preoccupied theologians at different times, certain topics have established themselves as basic to theological study.雖然不同的問題,全神貫注的神學在不同時期,某些議題已成為基本的神學研究。 These include the basis for humans' knowledge of God, the being and attributes of God, the relation of God to the world and of the world to God.這些問題包括基礎人類知識的上帝,正在和屬性的上帝,對上帝的關係對世界和世界的上帝。

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Moral Theology道德神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Moral Theology is the Roman Catholic equivalent to what Protestants commonly call Christian ethics.道德神學是羅馬天主教相當於新教徒普遍呼籲基督教道德。 It is related to dogmatic theology and moral philosophy in Catholic tradition in ways parallel to the Protestant relationship of Christian ethics to systematic theology and philosophical ethics.這是有關教條神學和道德哲學在天主教會傳統的方式平行關係的新教基督教道德系統的神學和哲學的道德。 General moral theology deals with the broad questions of what, from the point of view of moral agency and moral action, it means to live as a Christian.一般的道德神學涉及廣泛的問題是,從的角度來看,道德機構和道義上的行動,這意味著生活的作為一個基督徒。 Its questions address methods of moral discernment, the definitions of good and evil, right and wrong, sin and virtue, and the goal or end of the Christian life.其問題的解決方法的道德鑑別力的定義,善惡,正確和錯誤的,罪惡和美德,以及目標或結束的基督徒的生活。 Special moral theology addresses specific issues of life such as justice, sexuality, truth telling, and the sanctity of life.特別道德神學處理具體問題的生活,如司法,性行為,講真理,和生命的神聖。

While the first five centuries of the church provided important guidance (above all in the works of Augustine) in the development of Catholic moral theology, even more influential was the rise in importance during the sixth century of the sacrament of reconciliation.雖然前5世紀的教堂提供了重要的指導(以上所有的作品奧古斯丁)的發展天主教的道德神學,甚至更有影響力的崛起過程中的重要性六世紀的聖和解。 A series of compendiums known as penitential books was prepared to assist priest - confessors in determining appropriate penance for various individual sins.一系列的彙編稱為悔罪書準備協助神父-c onfessors確定適當的懺悔的各種個人的罪孽。 Despite the great achievement of Bonaventure and Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century in developing a systematic, unified philosophy and theology, the tendency to treat morality as a discipline separate from dogmatics was continued and confirmed by the Counter Reformation, which emphasized the connection between moral teaching and canon law.儘管偉大成就文德和托馬斯阿奎那在13世紀的發展有系統的,統一的哲學和神學的傾向對待道德作為一門學科分開的教義學是繼續並證實了反改革,其中強調道德之間的聯繫教學和教會法。

During the seventeenth and eighteenth century debates about Jansenism and the precise meaning of the law, Alphonsus Liguori emerged as the most famous and influential moral theologian. Liguori's manuals noted the various alternatives and then urged a prudent, reasonable middle course on various questions. Casuistry in the style of these manuals, aimed primarily toward the preparation of priests for their role as confessors, remained the dominant approach to moral theology in Catholic circles into the 20th century.在第十七和十八世紀的辯論和詹森主義的確切含義的法律,阿方利顧理成為最有名的和有影響力的道德神學。利顧理的手冊指出,各種替代辦法,然後敦促謹慎,合理的課程中的各種問題。詭辯中作風這些手冊,主要目的是向神父編寫的作用作為confessors ,仍然佔主導地位的做法在道德神學天主教界人士進入20世紀。

The renewal and reformation of Catholic moral theology that has become so visible since Vatican II is the fruition of the work of such moral theologians as John Michael Sailor (1750 - 1832), John Baptist Hirscher (1788 - 1865), Joseph Mausbach (1861 - 1931), Th. Steinbuchel (1888 - 1949), and contemporaries Bernard Haring and Josef Fuchs.更新和改造的天主教神學的道德已變得如此明顯,因為梵蒂岡第二是取得成果的工作,例如道德的神學家約翰邁克爾水手( 1850至32年) ,約翰浸禮會Hirscher ( 1788年至1865年) ,約瑟夫Mausbach ( 1861年- 1931年) ,釷。 Steinbuchel ( 1888年至1949年) ,以及同時代的伯納德哈林約瑟夫和富克斯。 The new spirit in moral theology since Vatican II is represented by scholars such as Fuchs, Haring, Charles Curran, Timothy O'Connell, Edward Schillebeeckx, and Rudolf Schnackenburg.新的精神道德神學梵二以來所代表的學者,如福克斯,哈林,查爾斯柯倫,蒂莫奧康內爾,愛德華Schillebeeckx ,並魯道夫Schnackenburg 。

Traditionally moral theology was based on the authority of reason, natural law, canon law, and the tradition and authority of the Roman Catholic Church and its magisterium.傳統的道德神學的基礎是權威的原因,自然法,教會法,以及傳統和權威的羅馬天主教會和magisterium 。 While Scripture has always been acknowledged as divine revelation, it is only in the new Catholic moral theology that the whole shape as well as specific content of moral theology has been aggressively reworked in relationship to authoritative Scripture.雖然聖經一向被認為是神聖的啟示,它只是在新的道德天主教神學,整個形狀以及具體內容的道德神學一直在積極改造的關係,以權威的聖經。 Natural law (or general revelation) continues to be important but is now supplemented by attention to the human and social sciences.自然法(或一般的啟示)仍然是重要的,但現在是輔之以重視人文科學和社會科學。

The parochialism and separatism of the past have given way to ongoing ecumenical dialogue with Protestant ethicists.的本位主義和分裂主義的過去已經讓位給正在進行的對話,基督教新教倫理學。 The traditional preoccupation with specific sins and the role of moral guidance in the confessional have been subsumed in a broader inquiry about the total and positive meaning of the Christian life.傳統的專注於特定的罪孽和作用的道德指導的懺悔已歸入更廣泛的詢問完全和積極的意義,基督徒的生活。 The legalism, formalism, rationalism, and traditionalism which used to characterize Catholic ethics are no longer present in anything to the same degree.在法制,形式主義,理性,和傳統使用的特點天主教倫理已不再存在任何相同程度。 The prospects have never been better and the need more urgent for Protestants and Catholics to work together on a biblical base, informed by the whole history of the church and responsive to the massive challenges of a secular world.的前景從來沒有更好的和更迫切需要的新教徒和天主教徒共同努力,一個聖經的基礎,通報了整個歷史的教堂和應對大規模挑戰的一個世俗的世界。

DW Gill德國之聲樂平
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography: 參考書目:
CC Curran, New Perspectives in Moral Theology; JM Gustafson, Protestant and Roman Catholic Ethics; B Haring, Free and Faithful in Christ; TE O'Connell, Principles for a Catholic Morality.連鑄柯倫,新觀點在道德神學; JM古斯塔夫森,新教和羅馬天主教倫理;乙哈林,自由和忠實的基督;電子奧康內爾,原則的天主教道德。


Moral Theology道德神學

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction between natural and supernatural theology rests on a solid foundation.道德神學是一門神學,科學的上帝和神聖的東西。之間的區別自然和超自然的神學在於奠定了堅實的基礎。 Natural theology is the science of God Himself, in as far as the human mind can by its own efforts reach a definite conclusion about God and His nature: it is always designated by the adjective natural.自然神學是科學的上帝,在盡可能人的頭腦可以通過自己的努力達到一個明確的結論,上帝和他的性質:它始終是指定的形容詞自然的。 Theology, without any further modification, is invariably understood to mean supernatural theology, that is, the science of God and Divine things, in as far as it is based on supernatural Revelation.神學,沒有任何進一步的修改,是必然的理解為是指超自然的神學,這就是科學的上帝和神聖的事情,在盡可能的基礎是超自然的啟示。 Its subject-matter embraces not only God and His essence, but also His actions and His works of salvation and the guidance by which we are led to God, our supernatural end.它的標的物不僅包括上帝和他的精髓,而且還他的行動和他的作品拯救和指導,使我們的領導上帝,我們的超自然結束。 Consequently, it extends much farther than natural theology; for, though the latter informs us of God's essence and attributes, yet it can tell us nothing about His free works of salvation.因此,它延伸遠超過自然神學;為,但後者告訴我們上帝的本質和屬性,但它可以告訴我們有關他的任何自由的拯救工程。 The knowledge of all these truths is necessary for every man, at least in its broad outlines, and is acquired by Christian faith.知識所有這些真理是必要的每個人,至少在其廣泛的概述,並收購了基督教信仰。 But this is not yet a science.但是這還不是一門科學。 The science of theology demands that the knowledge won through faith, be deepened, expanded, and strengthened, so that the articles of faith be understood and defended by their reasons and be, together with their conclusions, arranged systematically.科學神學要求獲得的知識通過信念,深化,擴大和加強,從而使文章的信仰得到理解和捍衛他們的理由,並同他們得出的結論,系統地安排。

The entire field of theology proper is divided into dogmatic and moral theology, which differ in subject-matter and in method.整個領域的神學適當分為教條主義和道德神學,而不同的主題和方法。 Dogmatic theology has as its end the scientific discussion and establishment of the doctrines of faith, moral theology of the moral precepts.教條式的神學,其最終的科學討論,並建立了理論的信仰,道德神學的道德戒律。 The precepts of Christian morals are also part of the doctrines of faith, for they were announced or confirmed by Divine Revelation.戒律的基督教道德也部分理論的信仰,因為他們宣布或確認的神聖啟示。 The subject-matter of dogmatic theology is those doctrines which serve to enrich the knowledge necessary or convenient for man, whose destination is supernatural.該標的物的教條神學是這些理論,有助於充實必要的知識或方便的男子,其目的地是超自然的。 Moral theology, on the other hand, is limited to those doctrines which discuss the relations of man and his free actions to God and his supernatural end, and propose the means instituted by God for the attainment of that end.道德神學,另一方面,是僅限於那些理論討論的關係,男子和他的自由行動,以上帝和他的超自然的目的,並提議建立的手段上帝為實現這一目的。 Consequently, dogmatic and moral theology are two closely related parts of universal theology.因此,教條和道德神學是兩個密切相關的部分普遍神學。 Inasmuch as a considerable number of individual doctrines may be claimed by either discipline, no sharp line of demarcation can be drawn between the subject-matter of dogma and morals.由於有相當數量的個人理論可能是任何人的紀律,沒有尖銳分界線可以得出之間的標的物的教條和道德。 In actual practice, however, a division and limitation must be made in accordance with practical needs.在實際的做法,但是,一個部門和限制必須按照實際需要。 Of a similar nature is the relation between moral theology and ethics. The subject-matter of natural morals or ethics, as contained in the Decalogue, has been included in positive, Divine Revelation, and hence has passed into moral theology.類似性質的關係,神學和道德倫理。標的物的自然道德或倫理,載於十誡,已被列入積極的,神聖的啟示,因而已成為道德神學。 Nevertheless, the argumentative processes differ in the two sciences, and for this reason a large portion of the matter is disregarded in moral theology and referred to ethics.然而,不同的論證過程中的兩個科學,為此,大部分問題是無視道德神學,並提到道德。 For instance, the refutation of the false systems of the modern ethicists is generally treated under ethics, especially because these systems are refuted by arguments drawn not so much from faith, as from reason.比如,駁斥假制度的現代倫理學家通常是根據道德對待,尤其是因為這些系統的論據駁斥了制定不是從信仰,從原因。 Only in as far as moral theology requires a defence of revealed doctrines, does it concern itself with false systems.只有在盡可能的道德神學需要辯護的理論揭示,它本身的關注與虛假制度。 However, it must discuss the various requirements of the natural law, not only because this law has been confirmed and defined by positive revelation, but also because every violation of it entails a disturbance of the supernatural moral order, the treatment of which is an essential part of moral theology.但是,必須討論各種所需的自然法則,不僅是因為這項法律已經確認和界定的積極啟示,而且還因為每一個違反這意味著擾亂超自然的道德秩序,對待這是一個重要的一部分道德神學。

The field of moral theology, its contents, and the boundaries which separate it from kindred subjects, may be briefly indicated as follows: moral theology includes everything relating to man's free actions and the last, or supreme, end to be attained through them, as far as we know the same by Divine Revelation; in other words, it includes the supernatural end, the rule, or norm, of the moral order, human actions as such, their harmony or disharmony with the laws of the moral order, their consequences, the Divine aids for their right performance.外地的道德神學,其內容,範圍和單獨從同類科目,可簡要說明如下:道德神學包括有關的一切人的自由行動,並在過去,或最高權力機構,年底要實現通過他們,因為據我們所知相同的神的啟示;換句話說,它包括超自然的目的,規則,或規範,在道德秩序,人的行動,例如,他們的和諧或不和諧的法律,道德秩序,其後果,艾滋病神聖的權利性能。 A detailed treatment of these subjects may be found in the second part of St. Thomas's "Summa theologica", a work still unrivalled as a treatise of moral theology.一份詳細的處理這些問題中可以找到的第二部分,聖托馬斯的“神學大全”的工作仍然無可匹敵的論文作為道德神學。

The position of moral theology in universal theology is briefly sketched by St. Thomas in the "Summa theol.", I, Q. i, a.的立場,道德神學普遍神學簡要勾勒了聖托馬斯在“神學theol 。 ” ,我問:我,字母a. 7 and Q. ii in the proemium and in the prologus of I-II; likewise by Fr. 7日和二問:在proemium和prologus的第一項和第二項;同樣的神父。 Suàrez in the proemium of his commentaries on the I-II of St. Thomas.蘇亞雷斯在proemium他的評注的第一和第二的聖托馬斯。 The subject-matter of the entire second part of the "Summa theol."該標的物的整個第二部分“神學theol 。 ” is, man as a free agent.是,人作為一個自由球員。 "Man was made after the image of God, by his intellect, his free will, and a certain power to act of his own accord. Hence, after we have spoken of the pattern, viz. of God, and of those things which proceeded from His Divine power according to His will, we must now turn our attention to His image, that is, man, inasmuch as he also is the principle or his actions in virtue of his free will and his power over his own actions." He includes all this in theology, not only because it is viewed as the object of positive Divine Revelation (I, Q. i, a. 3), but also because God always is the principal object, for "theology treats all things in their relation to God, either in as far as they are God Himself or are directed towards God as their origin or last end" (I, Q. i, a. 7). “人後作出的形象,上帝,他的智慧,他的自由意志,並有一定權力的行為自己的協議。因此,在我們談到的模式,即。上帝,和那些事物進行從他的神聖權力,以他的意志,我們現在必須把注意力轉向他的形象,就是男人,因為他也是原則或他的行動,憑藉其自由意志和他的權力,他自己的行動。 “他所有這一切包括在神學,這不僅是因為它被看作是對象的積極神聖的啟示(一,問:我,字母a. 3 ) ,而且還因為上帝永遠是主要的對象,為“神學對待一切事物的關係上帝,無論是在盡可能他們是上帝或者是針對上帝作為其原產地或最後結束“ (一,問:我,字母a. 7 ) 。 "Since it is the chief aim of theology to communicate the knowledge of God, not only as He is in Himself but also as the beginning and end of all things and particularly of rational creatures . . ., we shall speak first of God, secondly of the tendency of the rational creature towards God", etc. (I, Q. ii, proem.). “由於這是主要目的,以溝通神學知識的上帝,不僅是他在自己而且也開始和結束時的一切事物,尤其是理性的動物。 。 。 ,我們應首先發言的上帝,其次的趨勢,實現合理的造物神“等(我,問二,諸言。 ) 。 These words point out the scope and the subject-matter of the moral part of theology.這些話指出,範圍和標的物的道德神學的一部分。 Francisco Suárez, who pregnantly calls this tendency of the creatures towards God "the return of the creatures to God", shows that there is no contradiction in designating man created after the image of God, endowed with reason and free will and exercising these faculties, as the object of moral theology, and God as the object of entire theology.弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,誰pregnantly呼籲這一趨勢的動物走向上帝“的返回動物上帝” ,這表明沒有任何矛盾,在指定之後創建的男子的形象,上帝,賦有理性和自由意志和行使這些學院,為對象的道德神學,上帝為對象的整個神學。 "If we are asked to name the proximate object of moral theology, we shall undoubtedly say that it is man as a free agent, who seeks his happiness by his free actions; but if we are asked in what respect this object must be treated chiefly, we shall answer that this must be done with respect to God as his last end." “如果我們被要求名稱近似對象的道德神學,我們將毫無疑問說,這是人作為一個自由球員,誰要求他的幸福,他自由行動,但如果我們問什麼尊重這個對象必須是主要治療,我們將回答這個問題必須這樣做對他的上帝去年年底。 “

A detailed account of the wide range of moral theology may be found in the analytical index of Pars Secunda of St. Thomas's "Summa theologica".詳細敘述了廣泛的道德神學可能會發現在分析指數的帕爾斯塞康達的聖托馬斯的“神學大全” 。 We must confine ourselves to a brief summary.我們必須僅限於簡要介紹。 The first question treats of man's last end, eternal happiness, Its nature and possession.第一個問題對待人的最後目的,永恆的幸福,其性質和佔有。 Then follows an examination of human acts in themselves and their various subdivisions, of voluntary and involuntary acts, of the moral uprightness or malice of both interior and exterior acts and their consequences; the passions in general and in particular; the habits or permanent qualities of the human soul, and the general questions about virtues, vices, and sins.接著檢查人的行為本身及其各個分支,在自願和非自願行為的道德正氣,或惡意的內部和外部行為及其後果;的激情在一般和特殊的習慣或永久素質人的靈魂,和一般問題的美德,惡習,並罪孽。 Under this last title, while enquiring into the causes of sin, the author embodies the doctrine on original sin and its consequences.在這最後冠軍,而詢問的原因罪孽,體現了作者的理論對原罪及其後果。 This portion might, however, be with equal right assigned to dogmatic theology in the stricter meaning of the word.這部分可能,不過,與平等的權利分配給神學教條式的嚴格一詞的含義。 Although St. Thomas regards sin chiefly as a transgression of the law, and in particular of the "lex æterna" (Q. ii, a. 6), still he places the chapters on the laws after the section on sin; because sin, a free human act like any other human act, is first discussed from the standpoint of its subjective principles, viz.雖然聖托馬斯關於罪孽主要是海侵的法律,特別是在“永恆法” (問:二A 6人) ,還有他的章節地方的法律後,一節罪惡,因為罪惡,一個自由人的行為像任何其他人的行為,首先是討論的角度主觀原則,即。 knowledge, will, and the tendency of the will; only after this are the human actions viewed with regard to their objective or exterior principles, and the exterior principle, by which human actions are judged not merely as human, but as moral actions, either morally good or morally bad, is the law.知識,意志和傾向的意願;只有在這是人的行動視為對他們的目標或外部的原則,和外部的原則,其中人類活動的判斷而不僅僅是人類,而是作為道德行為,無論良好的道德或道義上不好,就是法律。 Since morality is conceived by him as supernatural morality, which exceeds the nature and the faculties of man, Divine grace, the other exterior principle of man's morally good actions, is discussed after the law.由於道德是他所構想的超自然的道德,這超過了該性質和院系的人,神的恩典,其他外部原則人的道德良好的行動,討論後的法律。 In the exordium to Q. xc, St. Thomas states his division briefly as follows: "The exterior principle which moves us to good actions is God; He instructs us by His law and aids us with His grace.在緒論,以問:坐標,聖托馬斯指出他簡要分工如下: “外表的原則,使我們良好的行動是上帝;他指示我們,他的法律和艾滋病給我們他的寬限期。

Hence we shall speak first of the law, secondly of grace.因此,我們應首先發言的法律,其次的寬限期。 "

The following volume is wholly devoted to the special questions, in the order given by St. Thomas in the prologue: "After a cursory glance at the virtues, vices, and the moral principles in general, it is incumbent on us to consider the various points in detail. Moral discussions, if satisfied with generalities, are of little value, because actions touch particular, individual things. When there is question of morals, we may consider individual actions in two ways: one, by examining the matter, ie, by discussing the different virtues and vices; another, by inquiring into the various avocations of individuals and their states of life."下卷是完全致力於的特殊問題,在該命令所提供聖托馬斯的開場白: “經過粗略地看了一眼美德,惡習,和道德的一般原則,這是我們有義務考慮各種詳細點。德育的討論,如果泛泛滿意,是沒有什麼價值,因為觸摸特別行動,個人的事情。當有道德問題,我們會考慮個別行動的方式有兩種:一,通過審查的問題,即:通過討論不同的優點和缺點;另外,通過查詢到的各種興趣和愛好的個人和他們的生活狀態。 “ St. Thomas then goes on to discuss the whole range of moral theology from both these standpoints.聖托馬斯接著討論了一系列的道德神學從這些觀點。 First, he closely scrutinizes the various virtues, keeping in view the Divine aids, and the sins and vices opposed to the respective virtues.首先,他密切合作,認真審查各項美德,同時考慮到神聖的艾滋病,罪過和惡習反對各自的美德。 He examines first the three Divine virtues which are wholly supernatural and embrace the vast field of charity and its actual practice; then he passes to the cardinal virtues with their auxiliary and allied virtues.他第一次檢查的三個神聖的美德是完全擁護和超自然的巨大領域的慈善機構和其實際的做法;然後他傳球的美德紅衣主教的輔助和盟軍美德。 The volume concludes with a discussion of the particular states of life in the Church of God, including those which suppose an extraordinary, Divine guidance.該卷最後討論的特定國家的生活上帝的教會,其中包括假設一個非凡的,神聖的指導。 This last part, therefore, discusses subjects which specifically belong to mystical or ascetical theology, such as prophecy and extraordinary modes of prayer, but above all the active and the contemplative life, Christian perfection, and the religious state in the Church.這最後一部分,因此,討論主題明確屬於神秘或ascetical神學,如預言和特殊模式的祈禱,但最重要的積極和沉思的生活,基督教完善,以及宗教國家的教會。 The contents of a modern work on moral theology, as, for instance, that of Slater (London, 1909), are: Human acts, conscience, law, sin, the virtues of faith, hope, charity; the precepts of the Decalogue, including a special treatise on justice; the commandments of the Church; duties attached to particular states or offices; the sacraments, in so far as their administration and reception are a means of moral reform and rectitude; ecclesiastical laws and penalties, only in so far as they affect conscience; these laws forming properly the subject-matter of canon law, in so far as they govern and regulate the Church as an organization, Its membership, ministry, the relations between hierarchy, clergy, religious orders, laity, or of spiritual and temporal authority.內容的現代德育工作的神學,因為,例如,對斯萊特(倫敦, 1909年) ,它們是:人權的行為,良心,法律,罪孽,美德的信念,希望,慈善機構;戒律的十誡,其中包括一個特殊的論文正義;的誡命的教會;職責重視特別是國家或辦事處;的聖禮,只要其管理和接待是一種手段,道德改革和正直;教會的法律和懲罰,只有在迄今因為它們影響到的良知;這些法律形成正確的事由教會法,只要他們指導和規範教會作為一個組織,它的成員,部,之間的關係層次,神職人員,宗教命令,俗人,或精神和時間的權威。

One circumstance must not be overlooked.一個情況不容忽視。 Moral theology considers free human actions only in their relation to the supreme order, and to the last and highest end, not in their relation to the proximate ends which man may and must pursue, as for instance political, social, economical.道德神學認為人的行動自由只有在它們之間的關係的最高秩序,最後和最高端的,而不是在它們之間的關係的近似目的的男子可能和必須追求,例如政治,社會,經濟效益。 Economics, politics, social science are separate fields of science, not subdivisions of moral science. Nevertheless, these special sciences must also be guided by morals, and must subordinate their specific principles to those of moral theology, at least so far as not to clash with the latter.經濟,政治,社會科學是分開的科學領域,而不是下屬的道德科學。儘管如此,這些特殊的科學還必須遵循的道德,必須服從他們的具體原則,這些道德神學,至少到目前為止不衝突後者。 Man is one being, and all his actions must finally lead him to his last and highest end.人是其中之一是,和他的所有行動必須最終導致他的最後和最高目的。 Therefore, various proximate ends must not turn him from this end, but must be made subservient to it and its attainment.因此,各種近似目的絕不能把他從這一目的,但必須屈從於它和它的實現。 Hence moral theology surveys all the individual relations of man and passes judgment on political, economical, social questions, not with regard to their bearings on politics and economy, but with regard to their influence upon a moral life.因此,道德神學的調查,所有的個人關係的男子和判決的政治,經濟,社會問題,而不是對他們的軸承政治和經濟,但就其影響的道德生活。 This is also the reason why there is hardly another science that touches other spheres so closely as does moral theology, and why its sphere is more extensive than that of any other.這也是為什麼幾乎沒有其他的科學,涉及其他領域的密切合作,以便一樣的道德神學,為什麼是其職權範圍內更廣泛地比任何其他。 This is true inasmuch as moral theology has the eminently practical scope of instructing and forming spiritual directors and confessors, who must be familiar with human conditions in their relation to the moral law, and advise persons in every state and situation.這是因為真正的道德神學具有突出的實用範圍指示精神,形成董事和confessors ,誰必須熟悉人的條件在其有關道德的法律,並建議在每個人狀態和情況。

The manner in which moral theology treats its subject-matter, must be, as in theology generally, chiefly positive, that is, drawing from Revelation and theological sources.以何種方式對待道德神學的標的物,必須是在神學普遍,主要是積極的,就是借鑒和啟示神學來源。 Starting from this positive foundation, reason also comes into play quite extensively, especially since the whole subject-matter of natural ethics has been raised to the level of supernatural morals.從這一積極的基礎,因此也開始發揮相當廣泛,尤其是因為整個標的物的自然倫理已提高到一級的超自然的道德。 It is true reason must be illumined by supernatural faith, but when illumined its duty is to explain, prove, and defend most of the principles of moral theology. From what has been said it is manifest that the chief source of moral theology is Sacred Scripture and Tradition together with the teachings of the Church. however, the following points must be observed regarding the Old Testament.這是真正的原因必須照亮了超自然的信仰,但是當照亮其職責是解釋,證明,並維護多數的原則,道德神學。從什麼已經說這是明顯的主要來源的道德神學是聖經與傳統與教義的教會。然而,以下幾點必須遵守有關舊約。 Not all precepts contained in it are universally valid, as many belong to the ritual and special law of the Jews.並非所有的戒律中都是放之四海而皆準的,因為許多屬於儀式和特別法的猶太人。 These statutes never obliged the non-Jewish world and have simply been abrogated by the New Covenant, so that now the ritual observances proper are illicit.這些法規沒有規定的非猶太世界只是被廢除的新公約,因此,現在的慶祝儀式適當是非法的。 The Decalogue, however, with the sole change in the law enjoining the celebration of the Sabbath, has passed Into the New Covenant a positive Divine confirmation of the natural law, and now constitutes the principal subject matter of Christian morality.十誡,然而,唯一的變化,法律責令慶祝安息日,已成為新的盟約一個積極的神聖確認的自然法則,而現在的主要標的物的基督教道德。 Moreover, we must remember that the Old Covenant did not stand on the high moral level to which Christ elevated the New Covenant.此外,我們必須記住,老公約並沒有站在高道德水平的提高基督新盟約。 Jesus Himself mentions things which were permitted to the Jews "on account of the hardness of their hearts", but against which He applied again the law at first imposed by God.耶穌提到自己的事情被允許猶太人“的帳戶的硬度他們的心” ,但他對這些適用的法律再次在第一個強加的上帝。 Hence, not everything that was tolerated in the Old Testament and its writings, is tolerated now; on the contrary, many of the usages approved and established there would be counter to Christian perfection as counselled by Christ.因此,並非一切都不能容忍的是在舊約及其著作,現在是不能容忍的,相反,許多習慣批准,並建立將有反基督教完善的諮詢基督。 With these limitations the writings of the Old Testament are sources of moral theology, containing examples of and exhortations to heroic virtues, from which the Christian moralist, following in the footsteps of Christ and His Apostles, may well draw superb models of sanctity.有了這些限制的著作舊約的來源,道德神學,含有的例子,並告誡英雄的美德,從基督教道德,下列的足跡,基督和他的門徒,很可能吸引優秀的神聖模式。

Apart from Sacred Scripture, the Church recognizes also Tradition as a source of revealed truths, and hence of Christian morals.除了聖經,教會還認識到傳統的一個來源揭示的真理,因此,基督教道德。 It has assumed a concrete shape chiefly in the writings of the Fathers.它承擔了具體的形式主要是在寫作的父親。 Furthermore, the decisions of the Church must be regarded as a source, since they are based on the Bible and Tradition, they are the proximate source of moral theology, because they contain the final judgment about the meaning of Sacred Scripture as well as the teachings of the Fathers.此外,該決定的教會必須被視為一個來源,因為它們是基於聖經和傳統,他們是直接來源,道德神學,因為它們包含最終判決的意義聖經以及教義的父親。 These include the long list of condemned propositions, which must be considered as danger signals along the boundary between lawful and illicit, not only when the condemnation has been pronounced by virtue of the highest Apostolic authority, but also when the congregation instituted by the pope has issued a general, doctrinal decision in questions bearing on morals.這些措施包括一長串的譴責主張,它必須被視為危險信號沿邊界的合法和非法的,不僅在譴責已經宣布,由於使徒的最高權威,而且還聚集時所建立的教皇發表一般來說,理論問題的決定,同時對道德。 What Pius IX wrote concerning the meetings of scholars in Munich in the year 1863 may also be applied here: "Since there is question of that subjection which binds all Catholics in conscience who desire to advance the interests of the Church by devoting themselves to the speculative sciences; let the members of this assembly recall that it is not sufficient for Catholic scholars to accept and esteem the above-mentioned dogmas, but that they are also obliged to submit to the decisions of the papal congregations as well as to those teachings which are, by the constant and universal consent of Catholics, so held as theological truths and certain conclusions that the opposite opinion even when not heretical, still deserves some theological censure."什麼庇護九寫的關於會議的學者在慕尼黑的一年1863年也可應用在這裡: “既然問題是隸屬約束力的所有天主教徒良心誰的願望推動的利益,教會投身投機科學;讓大會成員記得,它是不夠的天主教學者接受和尊重上述教條,但他們也有義務向的決定教皇的教會以及那些教義是通過不斷的和普遍同意的天主教徒,所以舉行神學真理和某些結論,相反的意見,即使不是邪教,仍然值得一些神學的譴責。 “ If this is true of the dogmatic doctrines in the strict sense of the word, we might say that it is still more true of moral questions, because for them not only absolute and infallibility certain, but also morally certain decisions must be accounted as obligatory norms.如果是這樣的教條的理論在嚴格意義上的一句話,我們可以說,它仍然是更加真實的道德問題,因為他們不僅絕對絕對肯定的,但也道義上作出某些決定,必須佔的強制性規範。

The words of Pius IX just quoted, point to another source of theological doctrines, and hence of morals, viz., the universal teachings of the Catholic schools.的話碧岳九剛才引用,指向另一個來源的神學理論,因此,道德,即。的普遍教義的天主教學校。 For these are the channels by which the Catholic doctrines on faith and morals must be transmitted without error, and which have consequently the nature of a source.對於這些渠道,其中天主教教義的信仰和道德必須轉沒有錯誤,並已因此性質的一個來源。 From the unanimous doctrine of the Catholic schools follows naturally the conviction of the universal Church.從一致的原則,天主教學校如下自然的信念普世教會。 But since it is a dogmatic principle that the whole Church cannot err in matters of faith and morals, the consent of the various Catholic schools must offer the guarantee of infallibility in these questions.但是,因為它是教條式的原則,即整個教會不能犯錯誤事項的信念和道德,同意各天主教學校必須提供保證犯錯誤的這些問題。

Moral theology, to be complete in every respect, must accomplish in moral questions what dogmatic theology does in questions pertaining to dogma.道德神學,將完成在各方面都必須完成的道德問題是不教條神學中有關問題的教條。 The latter has to explain clearly the truths of faith and prove them to be such; it must also, as far as possible, show their accordance with reason, defend them against objections, trace their connection with other truths, and, by means of theological argumentation, deduce further truths.後者解釋清楚的真理的信仰和證明他們是這樣,它也必須盡可能展示其根據原因,捍衛他們對反對,追查他們涉嫌與其他真理, ,並通過神學論證,進一步推導出的真理。 Moral theology must follow the same processive questions of morals.道德神學必須遵循相同的processive的道德問題。 -- It is evident that this cannot be done in all branches of moral theology in such a way as to exhaust the subject, except by a series of monographs. -很顯然,這不能做所有分支機構的道德神學的方式用盡的問題,除進行了一系列專著。 It would take volumes to sketch but the beauty and the harmony of God's dispositions, which transcend the natural law, but which God enacted in order to elevate man to a higher plane and to lead him to his supernatural end in a future life -- and yet all this is embraced in the subject of supernatural morals.這需要大量勾畫,但美與和諧的上帝的處分,這超越了自然法則,但上帝頒布,以提高人更高的飛機,導致他結束他的超自然在未來的生活-與但所有這一切都是在擁抱的主題超自然的道德。 Nor is moral theology confined to the exposition of those duties and virtues which cannot be shirked if man wishes to attain his last end; it includes all virtues, even those which mark the height of Christian perfection, and their practice, not only in the ordinary degree, but also in the ascetical and mystical life.也不是道義上的神學限於論述這些義務和美德不能迴避,如果人的願望實現他最後結束,它包括所有的美德,甚至那些標誌的高度基督教完善,他們的做法,不僅在普通程度,而且在ascetical和神秘的生活。 Hence, it is entirely correct to designate asceticism and mysticism as parts of Christian moral theology, though ordinarily they are treated as distinct sciences.因此,它是完全正確的,指定的禁慾主義和神秘主義的部分基督教神學的道德,儘管他們通常被視為獨特的科學。

The task of the moral theologian is by no means completed when he has explained the questions indicated.這項任務的道德神學絕不是當他完成了解釋說明的問題。 Moral theology, in more than one respect, is essentially a practical science.道德神學,在多個方面,基本上是一個切實可行的科學。 Its instructions must extend to moral character, moral behaviour, the completion and issue of moral aspirations, so that it can offer a definite norm for the complex situations of human life.其指示必須擴大到品德高尚,道德行為,完成和道德問題的願望,因此,它可提供一個明確的規範複雜的情況下人的生命。 For this purpose, it must examine the individual cases which arise and determine the limits and the gravity of the obligation in each.為此,必須審查個別案件產生和確定的範圍和嚴重性的義務在每個。 Particularly those whose office and position in the Church demand the cultivation of theological science, and who are called to be the teachers and counsellors, must find in it a practical guide.尤其是那些辦公室和立場在教會的種植需求的神學科學,誰被稱為是教師和輔導員,必須找到它的實用指南。 As jurisprudence must enable the future judge and lawyer to administer justice in individual cases, so must moral theology enable the spiritual director or confessor to decide matters of conscience in varied cases of everyday life; to weigh the violations of the natural law in the balance of Divine justice; it must enable the spiritual guide to distinguish correctly and to advise others as to what is sin and what is not, what is counselled and what not, what is good and what is better; it must provide a scientific training for the shepherd of the flock, so that he can direct all to a life of duty and virtue, warn them against sin and danger, lead from good to better those who are endowed with necessary light and moral power, raise up and strengthen those who have fallen from the moral level.作為判例法必須使未來的法官,律師管理司法在個別情況下,因此必須使道德神學的精神董事或懺悔,決定事項的良心在不同情況下的日常生活;權衡違反自然法則的平衡神聖的正義,它必須使精神指導正確區分和向他人以什麼是罪惡,哪些不是,什麼是諮詢,沒有什麼,什麼是好,什麼是更好的,它必須提供科學訓練的牧羊犬的羊群,使他能夠直接所有的生活責任和美德,提醒他們對罪惡和危險,導致從善,以更好地那些誰賦有必要根據和道義上的力量,提高和加強這些誰已經從道德水平。 Many of these tasks are assigned to the collateral science of pastoral theology; but this also treats a special part of the duties of moral theology, and falls, therefore, within the scope of moral theology in its widest sense.許多這些任務分配給抵押畜牧科學神學,但是這也把一個特殊組成部分的職責道德神學,和跌倒,因此,範圍內的道德神學在其最廣泛的意義。 The purely theoretical and speculative treatment of the moral questions must be supplemented by casuistry.在純理論和投機性治療的道德問題,必須輔之以詭辯。 Whether this should be done separately, that is, whether the subject matter should be taken casuistically before or after its theoretical treatment, or whether the method should be at the same time both theoretical and casuistical, is unimportant for the matter itself; the practical feasibility will decide this point, while for written works on moral theology the special aim of the author will determine it. However, he who teaches or writes moral theology for the training of Catholic priests, would not do full justice to the end at which he must aim, if he did not unite the casuistical with the theoretical and speculative element. What has been said so far, sufficiently outlines the concept of moral theology in its widest sense.這是否應該分開,這是,無論是標的物應當採取casuistically之前或之後其理論的待遇,還是方法應在同一時間從理論和詭辯,是不重要的問題本身;的實際可行性將決定這一點,而對作品的道德神學的特殊目的的作者,將決定它。然而,他任教或誰寫的道德神學的訓練天主教神職人員,不會做完全正義的結尾時,他必須目的,如果他不團結詭辯的理論和投機因素。什麼已經說,到目前為止,充分概括的概念,道德神學在其最廣泛的意義。 Our next task is to follow up its actual formation and development.我們的下一個任務是貫徹它的實際形成和發展。

Moral theology, correctly understood, means the science of supernaturally revealed morals.道德神學,正確理解,是指科學supernaturally透露道德。 Hence, they cannot speak of moral theology who reject supernatural Revelation; the most they can do is to discourse on natural ethics. But to distinguish between moral theology and ethics is sooner or later to admit a science of ethics without God and religion.因此,他們不能講道德神學誰拒絕超自然的啟示;最,他們可以做到的,是話語自然道德。但是,要區分道德和倫理神學是遲早會承認一個科學的道德沒有上帝和宗教。 That this contains an essential contradiction, is plain to everyone who analyzes the ideas of moral rectitude and moral perversion, or the concept of an absolute duty which forces itself with unrelenting persistency on all who have attained the use of reason.這包含的一個重要矛盾,是每個人都清楚地分析誰的思想道德和道義上的墮落,或概念的絕對義務本身的力量與持久不懈的所有誰已達到使用的原因。 Without God, an absolute duty is inconceivable, because there is nobody to impose obligation.如果沒有上帝,一個絕對的責任是不可想像的,因為那裡沒有人強加的義務。 I cannot oblige myself, because I cannot be my own superior; still less can I oblige the whole human race, and yet I feel myself obliged to many things, and cannot but feel myself absolutely obliged as man, and hence cannot but regard all those who share human nature with me as obliged likewise.我不能強迫自己,因為我不能被我自己的優勢;仍然不足我可以迫使整個人類,但我覺得自己有義務很多東西,並不能不感到自己絕對有義務為男子,因此不能不認為,所有這些誰共享人類的本性與我有義務這樣做。 It is plain then that this obligation must proceed from a higher being who is superior to all men, not only to those who live at present, but to all who have been and will be, nay, in a certain sense even to those who are merely possible, This superior being is the Lord of all, God.這是平原然後,這個義務必須從更高的被誰優於所有的人,不僅是為了那些生活在誰,但誰所有已經和將,不,在一定意義上什至是那些誰只是有可能,這是優於目前主所有,上帝。 It is also plain that although this Supreme lawgiver can be known by natural reason, neither He nor His law can be sufficiently known without a revelation on His part.這也是平原,雖然這種最高立法者可以被稱為自然的原因,無論是他和他的法律可以有足夠的了解沒有對他的啟示的一部分。 Hence if is that moral theology, the study of this Divine law is actually cultivated only by those who faithfully cling to a Divine Revelation, and by the sects which sever their connection with the Church, only as long as they retain the belief in a supernatural Revelation through Jesus Christ.因此,如果是,道德神學,研究這一神聖的法律實際上是耕地只有那些誰忠實地抱住了神聖的啟示,以及該教派方面切斷他們與教會,只有只要保持信念,一個超自然啟示通過耶穌基督。

Wherever Protestantism has thrown this belief overboard, there the study of moral theology as a science has suffered shipwreck.只要新教已拋出這一信念外,還有研究的道德神學作為一門科學遭受了沉船。 Today it would be merely lost labour to look for an advancement of it on the part of a non-Catholic denomination.今天,它不僅將失去勞動力尋找一個提高它的一部分,非天主教教會。 In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there were still men to be found who made an attempt at it.在17和18世紀還有人要找到誰做了嘗試它。 JA Dorner states in Herzog, "Real-Encyklopädie", IV, 364 sqq.茉莉Dorner州赫爾佐格, “實時Encyklopädie ” ,四, 364 sqq 。 (sv "Ethik"), that prominent Protestant writers upholding "theological morals" have grown very scarce since the eighteenth century. (希沃特“倫理學” ) ,即著名的基督教作家堅持“神學的道德”已經非常稀缺的,因為在十八世紀。 However, this is not quite correct.但是,這並不是十分正確的。 Of those who still cling to a positive Protestantism, we may name Martensen, who recently entered the lists with deep conviction for "Christian Ethics"; the same, though in his own peculiar manner, is done by Lemme in his "Christliche Ethik" (1905); both attribute to it a scope wider and objectively other than that of natural ethics. A few names from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries may here suffice: Hugo Grotius (d. 1645), Pufendorf (d. 1694) and Christian Thomasius (d. 1728), all see the difference between theological and natural morals in that the former is also positive, ie Divinely revealed, but with the same subject matter as the latter.這些誰仍堅持積極的基督教,我們可能會名稱馬敦生,誰最近進入名單的深刻信念的“基督教倫理” ;相同,但在他自己的特殊方式,是由Lemme在他的“基督教倫理學” ( 1905年) ;兩個屬性給它的範圍更廣泛,客觀以外的其他自然道德。幾個名字從17和18世紀可以在這裡就夠了:雨果格勞秀斯(草16時45分) ,道夫(草1694 )和基督教托馬修斯( d. 1728 ) ,所有看到的區別自然神學和道德的,前者是積極的,即神透露,但同一主題事項的,因為後者。 This last assertion could spring only from the Protestant view which has staked its all on the "fides fiducialis"; but it can hardly acknowledge a range of duties widened by Christ and Christianity.這最後一個春天可以斷言只能從新教認為這賭注其所有的“信心fiducialis ” ;但它也難以承認的職責範圍擴大了基督和基督教。 Other writers of a "theologia moralis" based on this "fides fiducialis", are Buddeus, Chr.其他作家的“道德神學”在此基礎上“誠意fiducialis ” ,是Buddeus ,染色體。 A. Crusius, and Jerem.字母a. Crusius ,和傑里。 Fr.神父。 Reuss.羅伊斯。 A logical result of Kantianism was the denial of the very possibility of moral theology, since Kant had made autonomous reason the only source of obligation.一個合乎邏輯的結果,康德哲學是否定的可能性道德神學,因為康德提出了自主的理由的唯一來源的義務。 On this point Dorner says (loc. cit.): "It is true that the autonomy and the autocracy of the moral being separates morals and religion"; he would have been nearer the mark, had he said: "they destroy all morals".在這一點上說, Dorner (如上。 ) : “這是真正的自主權和專制的道德被分隔道德和宗教” ; ,他將已接近大關,已他說: “他們摧毀一切道德” 。 Generally speaking the modern Liberal Protestants hardly know any other than autonomous morals; even when they do speak of "religious" morals, they find its last explanation in man, religion, and God or Divine Revelation being taken in their Modernistic sense, that is subjective notions of whose objective value we have no knowledge and no certainty.一般來說現代自由新教徒幾乎不知道任何其他比自治區道德;即使他們不說話的“宗教”道德,他們找到最後解釋男子,宗教和上帝或神的啟示正在採取在其現代意義,這是主觀的的概念,其目標價值,我們沒有知識,沒有確定性。

This being the case, there remains only one question to be discussed: What has been the actual development and method of moral theology in the Church?在這種情況下,仍然存在著只有一個問題加以討論:有什麼實際的發展和方法的道德神學在教會? and here we must first of all remember that the Church is not an educational institution or a school for the advancement of the sciences.在此,我們首先必須記住,教會不是一個教育機構或學校為提高科學。 True, she esteems and promotes the sciences, especially theology, and scientific schools are founded by her; but this is not her only, or even her chief task.誠然,她推崇和提倡科學,特別是神學和科學學校建立了她;但這不是她唯一的,甚至是她的首要任務。 She is the authoritative institution, founded by Christ for the salvation of mankind; she speaks with power and authority to the whole human race, to all nations, to all classes of society, to every age, communicates to them the doctrine of salvation unadulterated and.她是權威機構,成立由基督為拯救人類,她說話的權力和權限全人類,所有國家,所有類別的社會,每個年齡,傳達給他們的理論和拯救十足。 offers them her aids.為他們提供了她的教具。 It is her mission to urge upon educated and uneducated persons alike the acceptance of truth, without regard to its scientific study and establishment.這是她的訪問,敦促各國受過教育和未受過教育的人都接受的真理,而不考慮其科學的研究和建立。 After this has been accepted on faith, she also promotes and urges, according to times and circumstances, the scientific investigation of the truth, but she retains supervision over it and stands above all scientific aspirations and labours.在此已被接受的信仰,她還推動並敦促,根據時代和形勢下,科學調查的真相,但她保留了監督,並隨時上述所有科學的願望和勞動。 As a result, we see the subject matter of moral theology, though laid down and positively communicated by the Church, treated differently by ecclesiastical writers according to the requirements of times and circumstances.因此,我們看到的標的物的道德神學,但放下並積極通報教會,區別對待的教會作家要按照時代和環境。

In the first years of the early Church, when the Divine seed, nourished by the blood of the martyrs, was seen to sprout in spite of the chilling frosts of persecution, when, to the amazement of the hostile world, it grew into a mighty tree of heavenly plantation, there was hardly leisure for the scientific study of Christian doctrine.在頭幾年,初期教會,當神聖的種子,營養殉道者的鮮血,被視為發芽,儘管低溫霜凍的迫害,當時的驚訝的敵對的世界,成長為一支威武天堂樹種植園,但幾乎沒有休閒科學研究基督教教義。 Hence morals were at first treated in a popular, parenetic form.因此,道德是在第一次治療的普及, parenetic形式。 Throughout the Patristic period, hardly any other method for moral questions was in vogue, though this method might consist now in a concise exposition, now in a more detailed discussion of individual virtues and duties. One of the earliest works of Christian tradition, if not the earliest after the Sacred Scripture, the "Didache" or "Teaching of the Apostles", is chiefly of a moral-theological nature.整個教父時期,幾乎沒有任何其他方法的道德問題是盛行,但這種方法可能包括現在在一份簡明的論述,現在有更詳細的討論個人的美德和義務。最早的一個作品的基督教傳統,如果不是最早在聖經中, “十二使徒遺訓”或“教學中的使徒” ,主要是一種道德神學的性質。 It Is hardly more than a code of laws an enlarged decalogue, to which are added the principal duties arising from the Divine institution of the means of salvation and from the Apostolic institutions of a common worship -- in this respect valuable for dogmatic theology in its narrow sense.很難超過法典擴大十誡,其中新增的主要職責所產生的神聖機構的手段拯救和使徒機構的一個共同的崇拜-在這方面有價值的教條式的神學狹義的。 The "Pastor" of Hermas, composed a little later, is of a moral character, that is, it contains an ascetical exhortation to Christian morality and to serious penance if one should have relapsed into sin.在“牧師”的書,由一點後,是一個品格高尚,也就是說,它包含了ascetical告誡基督教道德和嚴重的懺悔,如果一個應該有復發成罪孽。

There exists a long series of occasional writings bearing on moral theology, from the first period of the Christian era; their purpose was either to recommend a certain virtue, or to exhort the faithful in general for certain times and circumstances.存在著長期的一系列著作同時不定期的道德神學,從第一時期的公元;其目的是不是建議有一定的美德,或勸告信徒一般為某些時代和環境。 Thus, from Tertullian (d. about 240) we have: "De spectaculis", "De idololatria", "De corona militis", "De patientia", "De oratione", "De poenitentia", "Ad uxorem", not to take into consideration the works which he wrote after his defection to Montanism and which are indeed of interest for the history of Christian morals, but cannot serve as guides in it. Of Origen (d. 254) we still possess two minor works which bear on our question, viz., "Demartyrio", parenetic in character, and "De oratione", moral and dogmatic in content; the latter meets the objections which are advanced or rather reiterated even today against the efficacy of prayer.因此,從良(草約240 )我們有: “德spectaculis ” , “德idololatria ” , “德冠militis ” , “德酸模” , “德oratione ” , “德poenitentia ” , “廣告uxorem ” ,而不是考慮到工程後,他寫道他叛逃到孟他努的,哪些是確實的利益為基督教歷史上的道德,但不能充當導遊它。其中俄利根(草254 ) ,我們仍然擁有兩個小工程,承擔我們的問題,即。 “ Demartyrio ” , parenetic性質, “德oratione ” ,道德和教條式的內容,後者滿足了反對的,而先進或即使在今天重申對療效的祈禱。 Occasional writings and monographs are offered to us in the precious works of St. Cyprian (d. 258); among the former must be numbered: "De mortalitate" and "De martyrio", in a certain sense also "De lapsis", though it bears rather a disciplinary and judicial character; to the latter class belong: "De habitu virginum", "De oratione", "De opere et eleemosynis", "De bono patientiæ", and "De zelo et livore".不定期的著作和專著提供給我們的珍貴作品的聖塞浦路斯(草258 ) ;之間的前必須編號: “德mortalitate ”和“德martyrio ” ,在一定意義上也是“德lapsis ” ,雖然而它承擔的紀律和司法性質;後者屬於類: “德habitu virginum ” , “德oratione ” , “德opere等eleemosynis ” , “德博諾patientiæ ”和“德zelo等livore ” 。 A clearer title to be classed among moral-theological books seems to belong to an earlier work, the "Pædagogus" of Clement of Alexandria (d. about 217).有一個明確的標題中被列為道德神學書籍似乎屬於一個以前的工作中, “ Pædagogus ”的克萊門特亞歷山大(草約217 ) 。 It is a detailed account of a genuine Christian's daily life, in which ordinary and everyday actions are measured by the standard of supernatural morality.這是一個詳細敘述了一個真正的基督徒的生活,其中普通和日常行動來衡量的標準,超自然的道德準則。 The same author touches upon Christian morals also in his other works, particularly in the "Stromata"; but this work is principally written from the apologetic standpoint, since it was intended to vindicate the entire Christian doctrine, both faith and morals, against pagan and Jewish philosophies. In subsequent years, when the persecutions ceased, and patristic literature began to flourish, we find not only exegetical writings and apologies written to defend Christian doctrine against various heresies, but also numerous moral-theological works, principally sermons, homilies, and monographs.同一作者涉及基督教道德也是在他的其他作品,尤其是在“ Stromata ” ,但這項工作主要是書面的道歉的立場,因為它的目的是維護整個基督教教義,無論信仰和道德,對異教徒和猶太哲學。在隨後的幾年,當迫害停止,教父文學開始蓬勃發展,我們發現不僅訓詁著作和書面道歉捍衛基督教教義對各種歪理邪說,而且還多次道德神學的作品,主要是布道,講道詞,並專著。 First of these are the orations of St. Gregory of Nazianzus (d. 391), of St. Gregory of Nyssa (d. 395), of St. John Chrysostom (d. 406), of St. Augustine (d. 430), and above all the "Catecheses" of St. Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386).首先,這些演說辭聖格雷戈里的高利(草391 ) ,聖格雷戈里的紫(草395 ) ,聖約翰金口(草406 ) ,在聖奧古斯丁(草430 )和上述所有“ Catecheses ”聖西里爾耶路撒冷(草386 ) 。 Of St. John Chrysostom we have "De sacerdotio"; of St. Augustine, "Confessiones", "Soliloquia", "De cathechizandis rudibus", "De patientia", "De continentia", "De bono coniugali", "De adulterinis coniugiis", "De sancta virginitate", "De bono viduitatis", "De mendacio", "De cura pro mortuis gerenda", so that the titles alone suffice to give an intimation of the wealth of subjects discussed with no less unction than originality and depth of thought.聖約翰金口我們有“德sacerdotio ” ;的聖奧古斯丁, “ Confessiones ” , “ Soliloquia ” , “德cathechizandis rudibus ” , “德酸模” , “德continentia ” , “德博諾coniugali ” , “德adulterinis coniugiis “ , ”德聖virginitate “ , ”德博諾viduitatis “ , ”德mendacio “ , ”德庫拉mortuis gerenda親“ ,使遊戲本身足以讓一個暗示的財富討論的主題沒有那麼多原創性油膏和深度的思考。 A separate treatment of the supernatural morality of Christians was attempted by St. Ambrose (d. 397) in his books "De officiis", a work which, imitating Cicero's "De officiis", forms a Christian counterpart of the pagan's purely natural discussions.另一項治療超自然道德的基督徒試圖聖劉漢銓(草397 )在他的著作“德officiis ”的工作,模仿西塞羅的“德officiis ” ,形成了一個基督教國家的異教徒的純天然的討論。 A work of an entirely different stamp and of larger proportions is the "Expositio in Job, seu moralium lib. XXV", of Gregory the Great (d. 604).一項工作的一個完全不同的郵票和較大的比例是“ Expositio就業,請輸入您的moralium解放。二十五”的格里高利大(草604 ) 。 It is not a systematic arrangement of the various Christian duties, but a collection of moral instructions and exhortations based on the Book of Job; Alzog (Handbuch der Patrologie, 92) calls it a "fairly complete repertory of morals".它不是一個系統的安排的各種基督教的職責,但收集的指示和道義上的規勸基礎上約伯記; Alzog ( Patrologie手冊, 92 )稱為“比較完整的劇目道德” 。 More systematic is his work "De cura pastorali" which was intended primarily for the pastor and which is considered even today a classical work in pastoral theology.更系統的工作是他的“德庫拉pastorali ” ,這是主要的牧師認為這是即使在今天的經典牧區工作的神學。

Having broadly outlined the general progress of moral theology during the Patristic era proper, we must supplement it by detailing the development of a very special branch of moral theology and its practical application.概述了廣泛的一般進展的道德神學在教父時代的正確,我們必須補充它的詳細發展的一個非常特殊的分支機構的道德神學和其實際應用。 For moral theology must necessarily assume a peculiar form when its purpose is restricted to the administration of the Sacrament of Penance.道德神學必須承擔特殊的形式時,其目的是限制的行政聖懺悔。 The chief result to be attained was a clear notion of the various sins and their species, of their relative grievousness and importance, and of the penance to be imposed for them. In order to ensure uniform procedure, it was necessary for ecclesiastical superiors to lay down more detailed directions; this they did either of their own accord or in answer to inquiries.首席結果要實現是一個明確的概念,各種罪孽和他們的物種,其相對grievousness和重要性,以及懺悔強加他們。為了確保統一的程序,有必要對教會的上級奠定下跌更詳細的指示,這不是他們自己的協議,或在回答詢問。 Writings of this kind are the pastoral or canonical letters of St. Cyprian, St. Peter of Alexandria, St. Basil of Cappadocia, and St. Gregory of Nyssa; the decretals and synodal letters of a number of popes, as Siricius, Innocent, Celestine, Leo I, etc.; canons of several oecumenical councils.寫作這種是典型畜牧或信件的聖塞浦路斯,聖彼得亞歷山大,聖巴西爾的卡帕多西亞和聖格雷戈里的果樹;的decretals和信件主教會議的一些教皇,如Siricius ,無辜的,巴巴亞羅,利奧一世等;大砲的幾個oecumenical理事會。 These decrees were collected at an early date and used by the bishops and priests as a norm in distinguishing sins and in imposing ecclesiastical penance for them.這些法令收集早日和使用的主教和司鐸作為一個規範的區分罪過和實行教會為他們懺悔。

The ascendancy of the so-called "penitential books" dated from the seventh century, when a change took place in the practice of ecclesiastical penance. Till then it had been a time-honoured law in the Church that the three capital crimes: apostasy, murder, and adultery, were to be atoned for by an accurately determined penance, which was public at least for public sins.佔支配地位的所謂“悔罪書”日期從7世紀,當發生變化的實踐中教會懺悔。至此這是一個歷史悠久的法律在教會,這三個資本罪:叛教謀殺,通姦,被懲罰的準確確定懺悔,這是公眾至少在公眾的罪孽。 This atonement, which consisted chiefly in severe fasts and public, humiliating practices, was accompanied by various religious ceremonies under the strict supervision of the Church; it included four distinct stations or classes of penitents and at times lasted from fifteen to twenty years.這贖罪,其中包括嚴重的主要是在齋戒和公眾,羞辱的做法,伴隨著各種宗教儀式下,嚴格監督的教會;它包括四個不同的站或類別的penitents ,有時長達十五年至二十年。 At an early period, however, the capital sins mentioned above were divided into sections, according as the circumstances were either aggravating or attenuating;, and a correspondingly longer or shorter period of penance was set down for them.在早期階段,但是,資本的罪孽上述分成部分,根據的情況下被加重或減輕; ,並相應較長或較短時期是懺悔的規定,為他們。 When in the course of centuries, entire nations, uncivilized and dominated by fierce passions, were received into the bosom of the Church, and when, as a result, heinous crimes began to multiply, many offences, akin to those mentioned above, were included among sins which were subject to canonical penances, while for others, especially for secret sins, the priest determined the penance, its duration and mode, by the canons. The seventh century brought with It a relaxation, not indeed in canonical penance, but in the ecclesiastical control; on the other hand, there was an increase in the number of crimes which demanded a fixed penance if discipline was to be maintained; besides, many hereditary rights of a particular nature, which had led to a certain mitigation of the universal norm of penance, had to be taken into consideration; substitutes and so-called redemptiones, which consisted in pecuniary donations to the poor or to public utilities, gradually gained entrance and vogue; all this necessitated the drawing up of comprehensive lists of the various crimes and of the penances to be imposed for them, so that a certain uniformity among confessors might be reached as to the treatment of penitents and the administration of the sacraments.當過程中世紀以來,整個國家,不文明和主導的激烈激情,共收到到胸前的教會,當,因此,令人髮指的罪行開始繁殖,許多罪行,類似於上述,被列入這之間的罪孽受到典型penances ,而另一些人,尤其是秘密罪,神父決定懺悔,其期限和方式,由大砲。第七世紀帶來了一個放鬆,而不是實際上在典型的懺悔,但在教會控制;另一方面,有越來越多的罪行,要求一個固定的懺悔,如果紀律是要保持,而且,許多遺傳性權利的特殊性質,這導致了一定緩解的普遍規範的懺悔,不得不加以考慮;替代品和所謂的redemptiones ,其中包括在金錢捐獻給窮人或公共事業,逐步入口和時尚;所有這一切,必須制定全面列出的各種罪行和penances強加的,所以在一定程度上的統一性confessors之間可能達成的待遇penitents和管理聖禮。

There appeared a number of "penitential books" Some of them, bearing the sanction of the Church, closely followed the ancient canonical decrees of the popes and the councils, and the approved statutes of St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nyssa, and others; others were merely private works, which, recommended by the renown of their authors, found a wide circulation, others again went too far in their decisions and hence constrained ecclesiastical superiors either to reprehend or condemn them.似乎有一些“悔罪書” ,其中一些人,同時批准的教會,密切注視著古老的典型法令教皇和議會,批准和章程的聖巴西爾,聖格雷戈里的果樹及其他其他僅僅是私人的作品,其中所建議的著名的作家,找到了廣泛流通,其他再次走得太遠的決定,因而教會上級限制或者非難或譴責他們。 A more detailed account of these works will be found in another article.更詳細到這些作品將在另一篇文章。

These books were not written for a scientific, but for a practical juridical purpose.這些書籍沒有寫入有一個科學的,但實際的司法目的。 Nor do they mark an advance in the science of moral theology, but rather a standing-still, nay, even a decadence.他們也沒有提前標誌著在科學的道德神學,而是一個長期,仍然,不,甚至頹廢。 Those centuries of migrations, of social and political upheavals, offered a soil little adapted for a successful cultivation of the sciences, and though in the ninth century a fresh attempt was made to raise scientific studies to a higher level, still the work of the subsequent centuries consisted rather in collecting and renewing treasures of former centuries than in adding to them.這些百年的移民,社會和政治動盪,提供了一個不大適應土壤的成功種植的科學,雖然在第九世紀的一個新嘗試,提高科學研究水平,仍然是工作以後百年組成,而在收集和更新珍寶百年前相比增加了他們。 This is true of moral-theological questions, no less than of other scientific branches.這是真正的道德神學的問題,不低於其他科學分支。 From this stagnation theology in general and moral theology in particular rose again to new life towards the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth century.從這個停滯在一般神學和道德神學尤其是再次上升到新的生活即將結束的第十二屆和年初的13世紀。 A new current of healthy development was noticeable in moral theology and that in two directions: one in the new strength infused into the practice of the confessors, the other in renewed vigour given to the speculative portion. With the gradual dying out of the public penances, the "penitential books" lost their importance more and more.目前一種新的健康發展是顯著的道德神學,並在兩個方向:一個在新的力量注入的做法confessors ,其他在新的活力給予投機的部分。隨著逐步消亡的公共penances的“悔罪書”失去了其重要性越來越多。 The confessors grew less concerned about the exact measure of penances than about the essential object of the sacrament, which is the reconciliation of the sinner with God.該confessors增長不太擔心的確切衡量penances超過基本對象的聖禮,這是和解與上帝的罪人。 Besides, the "penitential books" were by far too defective for teaching confessors how to judge about the various sins, their consequences and remedies.此外, “悔罪書”是由太多缺陷的教學confessors如何判斷的各種罪孽,其後果和補救措施。 In order to meet this need, St. Raymond of Peñafort wrote towards the year 1235 the "Summa de poenitentia et matrimonio".為了滿足這一需要,聖雷蒙德Peñafort寫道實現1235年的“神學的poenitentia等婚姻” 。 Like his famous collection of decretals, it is a repertory of canons on various matters, ie important passages from the Fathers, councils, and papal decisions.像他著名的收集decretals ,這是一個劇目的大砲就各種事項,如重要段落的父親,理事會和教宗的決定。 More immediately adapted for actual use was the "Summa de casibus conscientiæ", which was written about 1317 by an unknown member of the Order of St. Francis at Asti in Upper Italy, and which is, therefore, known as "Summa Astensana" or "Summa Astensis".更直接的適合實際使用的是“神學的casibus conscientiæ ” ,這是1317年寫的未知成員的命令聖弗朗西斯在上阿斯蒂意大利,並因此,被稱為“神學Astensana ”或“大全Astensis ” 。 Its eight books cover the whole subject matter of moral theology and the canonical decrees, both indispensable for the pastor and confessor: Book I, the Divine commandments; II, virtues and vices; III, contracts and wills; IV-VI, sacraments, except matrimony; VII, ecclesiastical censures; VIII, matrimony. 8圖書涵蓋整個主題事項的神學和道德的規範法令,都不可缺少的牧師和懺悔:圖書一,神的誡命;二,品德和惡習;三,合同和遺囑;四,六,聖禮,除了婚姻;七,教會指責;八,婚姻關係。 The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries produced a number of similar summoe for confessors; all of them, however, discarded the arrangement in books and chapters, and adopted the alphabetical order.第十四屆和第十五世紀產生了一些類似的summoe為confessors ;所有的人,然而,拋棄了安排,書籍和章節,並通過了按字母順序排列。 Their value is, of course, widely different.它們的價值,當然是大不相同。 The following are the most important and most popular among them: The "Summa confessorum" of the Dominican Johannes of Freiburg (d. 1314) which was published a few years previous to the "Summa Astensis"; its high reputation and wide circulation was due to its revision by another member of the Dominican Order, Bartholomæus of Pisa (d. 1347) who arranged it alphabetically and supplemented its canonical parts; it is commonly known as the "Summa Pisana".以下是最重要和最流行的其中包括:在“大全confessorum ”多米尼加約翰內斯弗賴堡(草1314年) ,它是出版了一本幾年前的“大全Astensis ” ;其較高的聲譽和廣泛流傳的原因其修訂的另一名成員多米尼加秩序, Bartholomæus比薩(草1347 )誰該字母順序排列,並補充了其典型的部分,它通常被稱為的“比薩大全” 。 This work served as the foundation for the "Summa. angelica", a clear and concise treatise, composed about 1476 by the Franciscan Angelus Cerletus, called "Angelus a Clavasio" after his native city, Chiavasso.這項工作作為基礎的“大全。當歸” ,簡明扼要的論述,關於1476年組成的方濟鐘Cerletus ,所謂“一Clavasio鐘”之後他的城市, Chiavasso 。 Its great popularity is attested by the fact that it went through at least thirty-one editions from 1476 to 1520.其受歡迎的程度是證明了一個事實,即它經歷了至少31版1576至20年。 A like popularity was enjoyed by the "Summa casuum" of the Franciscan, JB Trovamala, which appeared a few years later (1484) and, after being revised by the author himself, in 1495, bore the title of "Summa rosella".就像是享有聲望的“ casuum大全”的弗朗西斯,巴頓Trovamala ,似乎幾年後( 1484年) ,以及正在修訂後,由作者本人在1495年,承擔“稱號大全羅塞拉” 。 One of the last and most renowned of these summoe was probably the "Summa Silvestrina" of the Dominican Silvester Prierias (d. 1523), after which moral theology began to be treated in a different manner.其中去年和最負盛名的這些summoe可能是“大全Silvestrina ”多米尼加西爾維斯特Prierias (草1523 )之後,道德神學開始接受治療以不同的方式。 The summoe here mentioned, being exclusively written for the practical use of confessors, did not spurn the more elementary form; but they represented the results of a thorough, scientific study, which produced not only writings of this kind, but also other systematic works of a profound scholarship.這裡的summoe提到,目前只寫的實際使用confessors ,沒有鄙夷的形式更多的小學,但他們所代表的結果,徹底,科學的研究,生產不僅著作的這種,但也有其他系統的工程深刻的獎學金。

The twelfth century witnessed a busy activity in speculative theology, which centered about the cathedral and monastic schools.在12世紀見證了繁忙的投機活動的神學,而中心的大教堂和修道院學校。 These produced men like Hugh and Richard of St. Victor, and especially Hugh's pupil, Peter the Lombard, called the Master of the Sentences, who flourished in the cathedral school of Paris towards the middle of the century, and whose "Libri sententiarum" served for several centuries as the standard text-book in theological lecture-halls.這些男人一樣生產和理查德休聖維克多,特別是休的學生,彼得的倫巴第,稱為主句,誰蓬勃發展中的大教堂巴黎的學校實現到本世紀中葉,其“利布里sententiarum ”服務數百年的標準教科書中的神學講座大廳。 In those days, however, when dangerous heresies against the fundamental dogmas and mysteries of the Christian faith began to appear, the moral part of the Christian doctrine received scant treatment; Peter the Lombard incidentally discusses a few moral questions, as eg, about sin, while speaking of creation and the original state of man, or more in particular, while treating of original sin.在那些日子,然而,當危險的異端邪說危害的基本教條和神秘的基督教信仰開始出現,道德的一部分,基督教教義很少受到的待遇;彼得的倫巴第順便討論一些道德問題,例如,對罪惡,同時談到建立和原始狀態的人,或者更特別,而治療原罪。 Other questions, eg, about the freedom of our actions and the nature of human actions in general, are answered in the doctrine on Christ, where he discusses the knowledge and the will of Christ.其他問題,例如,對自由和我們的行動的性質,人類活動的一般是在回答關於基督的學說,在那裡他討論了知識和意志的基督。 Even the renowned commentator of the "Sentences", Alexander of Hales, O. Min., does not yet seriously enter into Christian morals.即使是著名評論家的“句” ,亞歷山大黑爾斯,我國民。 ,還沒有認真地進入基督教道德。 The work of constructing moral theology as a speculative science was at last undertaken and completed by that great luminary of theology, St.工作神學道德建設作為一個投機性科學是在去年開展並完成了這一偉大的靈魂人物神學,聖 Thomas of Aquin, to whose "Summa theologica" we referred above.托馬斯阿奎那,以他們的“神學大全”我們上面提到。 Aside from this masterpiece, of which the second part and portions of the third pertain to morals, there are several minor works extant which bear a moral and ascetical character; the last-named branch was cultivated with extraordinary skill by St. Bonaventure of the Franciscan Order, though he did not equal the systematic genius of St. Thomas.除了這一傑作,其中的第二部分和部分的三分之一涉及到道德,有幾個現存的小型工程負有道義和ascetical性質;最後被命名為分行以非凡的種植技能的聖文德的弗朗西斯令,但他並沒有平等地天才聖托馬斯。

This and the subsequent centuries produced a number of prominent theologians, some of whom contested various doctrines of Aquinas, as Duns Scotus and his adherents, while others followed in his footsteps and wrote commentaries on his works, as Ægidius Romanus and Capreolus.這和隨後的幾個世紀產生了一些著名的神學家,其中一些有爭議的各種理論的阿奎那,因為鄧司各脫和他的追隨者,而其他遵循他的腳步,寫評論他的作品,如Ægidius羅馬和Capreolus 。 Nevertheless, purely moral-theological questions were rarely made the subject of controversy during this time; a new epoch in the method of moral theology did not dawn until after the Council of Trent.然而,純粹的道德神學的問題,很少爭論的主題在這段時間;了一個新的時代方法的道德神學沒有到來之前,安理會的遄達。 However, there are two extremely fertile writers of the fifteenth century who not only exerted a powerful influence on the advancement of theology but raised the standard of practical life.不過,有兩個非常肥沃的作家15世紀誰不僅產生了強大的影響力提高神學,但提出了標準的實際生活。 They are Dionysius the Carthusian and St. Antoninus, Bishop of Florence.他們是狄奧尼修斯Carthusian和聖安東尼,佛羅倫薩主教。 The former is well known for his ascetical works, while the latter devoted himself to the practice of the confessional and the ordinary work of the pastor.前者是眾所周知的,他ascetical作品,後者則投身於實踐的懺悔和普通工作的牧師。 His "Summa theologica" belongs specially to our subject.他的“神學大全”專屬於我們的主題。 It went through several editions, and A. Ballerini's revision of it, which appeared in 1740 at Florence, contains four folios.它經歷了幾個版本,和A.巴萊里尼的修改,這出現在1740年在佛羅倫薩,包含四個黹。 The third volume treats chiefly of ecclesiastical law; it discusses at great length the legal position of the Church and its penal code.第三卷的治療主要是教會法;討論了很長時間的法律地位,教會和刑法。 A few chapters of the first volume are devoted to the psychological side of man and his actions.有幾個章節的第一冊是專門的心理一側的男子和他的行動。 The remainder of the whole work is a commentary, from the purely moral standpoint, on the second part of St. Thomas's "Summa theologica", to which it constantly refers.其餘的整個工作是一個評注,從純粹的道德的角度來看,對第二部分的聖托馬斯的“神學大全” ,它不斷提及。 It is not a mere theoretical explanation, but is so replete with juridical and casuistical details that it may be called an inexhaustible fountain for manuals of casuistry.它不僅僅是一個理論解釋,但如此充滿法人和詭辯的細節,它可被稱為一個取之不盡的源泉手冊的詭辯。 How highly the practical wisdom of Antoninus was esteemed even during his lifetime is attested by the surname "Antoninus consiliorum", Antoninus of good counsel, given to him in the Roman Breviary.如何切實高度智慧的安東尼尊敬甚至是在他的一生是證明了這姓“安東尼consiliorum ” ,安東尼良好的律師,給他在羅馬祈禱。

A new life was breathed into the Catholic Church by the Council of Trent. Reformation of morals gave a fresh impetus to theological science.一種新的生活是呼吸到天主教教會理事會的遄達。改革的道德了新的動力,神學的科學。 These had gradually fallen from the high level to which they had risen at the time of St. Thomas; the desire of solid advancement had frequently given place to seeking after clever argumentations on unimportant questions.這些已逐漸下降到高水平它們已經上升時,聖托馬斯;的願望堅實的進步給予了頻繁的地方,尋求聰明的論證後,對不重要的問題。 The sixteenth century witnessed a complete change. 16世紀發生了徹底改變。 Even before the council convened, there were eminent scholars of a serious turn of mind as Thomas of Vio (usually called Cajetanus), Victoria, and the two Sotos, all men whose solid knowledge of theology proved of immense benefit to the Council itself.即使擺在安理會面前的召開,有知名學者的嚴重之交的態度托馬斯Vio (通常稱為Cajetanus ) ,維多利亞,兩個索托斯扎克,所有的人,其堅實的知識證明神學帶來巨大的好處向安理會本身。 Their example was followed by a long series of excellent scholars, especially Dominicans and members of the newly-founded Society of Jesus.他們的榜樣隨後進行了一系列優秀的學者,尤其是多米尼加和成員的新創立的耶穌會。 It was above all the systematic side of moral theology which was now taken up with renewed zeal.這是上述所有系統方面的道德神學現在是採取行動以新的熱情。 In former centuries, Peter the Lombard's "Sentences" had been the universal text-book, and more prominent theological works of subsequent ages professed to be nothing else than commentaries upon them; henceforth, however, the "Summa theologica" of St. Thomas was followed as guide in theology and a large number of the best theological works, written after the Council of Trent, were entitled "Commentarii in Summam Sti. Thomæ''. The natural result was a more extensive treatment of moral questions, since these constituted by far the largest portion of St. Thomas's "Summa". Among the earliest classical works of this kind is the "Commentariorum theologicorum tomi quattuor" of Gregory of Valentia. It is well thought out and shows great accuracy; vols. III and IV contain the explanation of the "Prima Secundæ" and the "Secunda Secundæ" of St. Thomas. This work was succeeded, at the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century, by a number of similar commentaries; among them stand out most prominently those of Gabriel Vásquez", Lessius, Francisco Suárez, Becanus, and the works of Thomas Sanchez "In decalogum" as well as "Consilia moralia", which are more casuistical in their method; the commentaries of Dominic Bánez, which had appeared some time before; and those of Medina (see MEDINA, BARTHOLOMEW, PROBABILISM).在數百年前,彼得的倫巴第的“句”已普遍教科書,並更加突出的神學作品,後來年齡宣稱將沒有別的比對他們的評注;從此以後,然而, “神學大全”的聖托馬斯是其次為導向的神學和大量的最好的神學作品,撰寫後,理事會的遄達,是題為“ Commentarii於Summam植被。 Thomæ '' 。自然的結果是更廣泛的處理道德問題,因為這些構成到目前為止,最大的一部分聖托馬斯的“大全” 。其中最早的經典作品,這種是“ Commentariorum theologicorum托米quattuor ”的格里高利的倫蒂亞。這是深思熟慮的,並顯示巨大的準確性;第一卷和第二卷。三和四載解釋“初步Secundæ ”和“塞康達Secundæ ”的聖托馬斯。這項工作是成功地結束時,第十六屆和年初的17世紀,一些類似的評論,其中脫穎而出最突出這些加布里埃爾斯克斯“ , Lessius ,弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯, Becanus ,以及作品的托馬斯桑切斯”在decalogum “以及” Consilia道德“ ,這是更詭辯的方法;評星Bánez的,其中出現了一些時間前;和梅迪納(見梅迪納,巴塞洛繆,然論) 。

Prominent among all those mentioned is Francis Francisco Suárez, SJ, in whose voluminous works the principle questions of the "Seounda" of St. Thomas are developed with great accuracy and a wealth of positive knowledge.突出的所有這些提及的是弗朗西斯弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,律政司司長,在其浩繁工程的原則問題的“ Seounda ”的聖托馬斯的發展以極大的準確性和豐富的正面知識。 Almost every question is searchingly examined, and brought nearer its final solution; the most varied opinions of former theologians are extensively discussed, subjected to a close scrutiny, and the final decision is given with great circumspection, moderation, and modesty.幾乎每一個問題是探索研究,並提請接近其最終的解決辦法;最不同的意見,前神學的廣泛討論,經過仔細檢查,並在作出最後決定給予懷著極大的謹慎,溫和,以及謙虛。 A large folio treats the fundamental questions of moral theology in general:大開本對待的基本問題的道德神學一般:

(1) De fine et beatitudine; ( 1 )德等beatitudine罰款;

(2) De voluntario et involuntario, et de actibus humanis; ( 2 )德voluntario等involuntario ,德等actibus humanis ;

(3) De bonitate et malitia humanorum actuum; ( 3 )德bonitate等malitia humanorum actuum ;

(4) De passionibus et vitiis. ( 4 )德passionibus等vitiis 。

Another volume treats of "Laws": several folio volumes are devoted to treatises which do indeed belong to morals, but which are inseparably connected with other strictly dogmatic questions about God and His attributes, viz., "De gratia divina"; they are today assigned everywhere to dogma proper; a third series gives the entire doctrine of the sacraments (with the exception of matrimony) from their dogmatic and moral side.另一種體積對待的“規律” :幾個開本卷專門論述這確實屬於道德的,但是這是密不可分的其他嚴格教條的問題,上帝和他的屬性,即。 “德特惠神聖” ,他們是今天各地指定適當的教條;第三一系列使整個學說的聖禮(除婚姻)由他們的教條和道德方面。 Not all of the various virtues were examined by Francisco Suárez; besides the treatise on the theological virtues, we possess only that on the virtue of religion.並非所有的各種美德進行了舊金山蘇亞雷斯;除了論文的神學美德,我們只擁有的美德的宗教。 But if any of Francisco Suárez's works may be called classical it is the last-named, which discusses in four volumes the whole subject "De religione" Within the whole range of "religio", including its notion and relative position, its various acts and practices, as prayers, vows, oaths, etc., the sins against it, there can hardly be found a dogmatic or casuistic question that has not been either solved or whose solution has not at least been attempted.但是,如果任何弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯的作品,可稱為經典,是去年命名,其中討論了四卷整個主題為“德宗教”在一系列的“宗教” ,包括其概念和相對位置,其各種行為和做法,祈禱,發誓,宣誓等,針對它的罪孽,就很難找到了教條主義的或詭辯的問題沒有得到任何解決或解決辦法,至少沒有嘗試過。 Of the last two volumes one treats of religious orders in general, the other of the "Institute" of the Society of Jesus.最後兩卷之一對待宗教的訂單一般,其他的“研究所”的耶穌會。

In the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth century, there appeared a number of similar, though conciser, works which treat moral-theological questions as a part of universal theology with the genuine spirit of Scholastic science.在第十七和十八世紀,出現了一些類似,但conciser ,工程對待道德的神學問題的一部分,普遍神學的真正精神,學習科學。 There are those of Tanner, Coninck, Platel, Gotti, Billuart, and many others, the mere enumeration of whom would lead us too far afield.有那些唐納,不知不覺,普拉特,戈蒂, Billuart ,和許多其他國家一樣,僅僅列舉其中將引導我們太遙遠。 We must, however, mention one to whom nobody can deny the honour of having advanced both speculative and practical theology, and especially practical morals, John de Lugo.但是,我們必須提到一個人沒有人可以否認的榮譽都擁有先進的投機性和實用神學,尤其是實際道德,約翰德薩蘭盧戈。 Endowed with uncommon, speculative genius and clear, practical judgment, he in many instances pointed out entirely new paths towards the solution of moral questions.賦予少見,投機天才和明確的,實際的判斷,他在許多情況下指出,全新的路徑為解決道德問題。 Speaking of his moral theology, St. Alphonsus styles him "by all odds leader after St. Thomas".在談到他的道德神學,聖阿方風格他“的領導人克服種種困難後,聖托馬斯” 。 The works that have come down to us are: "De fide", "De Incarnatione", "De justitia et jure", "De sacramentis", viz., "De sacramentis in genere", "De baptismo et eucharistia", and "De poenitentia".該工程已下降到我們的是: “德善意” , “德Incarnatione ” , “德正義與法律” , “德sacramentis ” ,即。 “德sacramentis在genere ” , “德baptismo等eucharistia ” ,並“德poenitentia ” 。 It is above all the volume "De poenitentia" which, through its sixteenth disputation, has become the classical handbook for casuistical moral theology and particularly for the specific distinction of sins; to the same subject belong the posthumous "Responsa moralia", a collection of answers given by de Lugo in complicated cases of conscience.它首先是數量“德poenitentia ” ,通過其第十六爭論,已成為經典的手冊詭辯神學和道德特別是對於具體的區別的罪孽;同一主題的遺屬於“ Responsa道德” ,收集所給出的答案的盧戈在複雜情況下的良知。 This is not the place to point out his eminence as a dogmatist; suffice it to say that many far-reaching questions receive original solutions, which, though not universally accepted, have yet shed considerable light on these subjects.這是不適合他指出,作為一個傑出教條主義;我只想說,許多影響深遠的問題得到原來的解決方案,這雖然不是普遍接受,尚未擺脫大量輕就這些問題。

The method which Lugo applies to moral theological questions, may well be called mixed, that is, it is both speculative and casuistical.該方法適用於Lugo的道德神學的問題,很可能是所謂的混合,也就是說,它既是投機性和詭辯。 Such works of a mixed character now grow common, they treat the whole subject-matter of moral theology, in as far as it is serviceable for the confessor and the pastor, in this mixed manner, though they insist more on casuistry than did Lugo.這些工程的一個混合的性質現在共同成長,他們對待整個標的物的道德神學,在盡可能它是可用的懺悔和牧師,在這種混合的方式,但他們堅持更多的詭辯比盧戈。 A type of this kind is the "Theologia moralis" of Paul Laymann (d. 1635); in this category may also be numbered the "Theologia decalogalis" and "Theologia sacramentalis" of Sporer (d. 1683), the "Conferentiæ" of Elbel (d. 1756), and the "Theologia moralis" of Reuter (d. 1762). A型這一類是“道德神學”保羅Laymann (草1635 ) ;在此類別中也可編號的“神學decalogalis ”和“神學sacramentalis ”的Sporer (草1683 )中, “ Conferentiæ ”的Elbel (草1756年)和“神學道德”的羅伊特(草1762年) 。 Almost numberless are the manuals for confessors, written in a simple casuistical form, though even these justify their conclusions by internal reasons after legitimatizing them by an appeal to external authority.幾乎無數的手冊confessors ,寫一個簡單的詭辯的形式,但即使是這些證明其結論的內部原因後legitimatizing他們呼籲外部的權威。 They are not unfrequently the fruit of thorough, speculative knowledge and extensive reading.他們不是unfrequently的成果,徹底,投機性的知識和廣泛閱讀。 One of the most solid is probably the "Manuale confessariorum et poenitentium" of Azpilcueta (1494-1586), the great canonist, commonly known as "Doctor Navarrus"; furthermore, the "Instructio sacerdotum" or "Summa casuum conscientiæ" of Cardinal Tolet (d. 1596), which was highly recommended by St. Francis of Sales.其中一個最堅實的大概是“ Manuale confessariorum等poenitentium ”的Azpilcueta ( 1494年至1586年) ,偉大的canonist ,通常被稱為“醫生Navarrus ” ;此外, “使ஷ sacerdotum ”或“大全casuum conscientiæ ”紅衣主教Tolet (草第1596號) ,這是高度推薦的聖弗朗西斯的銷售。 One other work must also be mentioned, viz., the so-called "Medulla theologiæ moralis" of Hermann Busenbaum (d. 1688), which has become famous on account of its very extensive use (forty editions in less than twenty years during the lifetime of the author) and the number of its commentators.另一項工作還必須提到,即。 ,所謂的“髓質神學道德”的赫爾曼Busenbaum (草1688年) ,這已成為著名考慮到其本身的廣泛使用(第四十二版本在不到二十年的一生的作者)和一些評論家。 Among these are included Claude Lacroix, whose moral theology is considered as one of the most valuable of the eighteenth century, and St. Alphonsus Liguori, with whom, however, an entirely new epoch of moral theology commences.其中包括克勞德拉克魯瓦,其道德神學被視為最寶貴的18世紀,和聖阿方利顧理,和誰在一起,但是,一個完全新的時代的道德神學的開始。

Before entering upon this new phase, let us glance at the development of the so-called systems of morals and the controversies which sprang up among Catholic scholars, as well as at the casuistical method of treating moral theology in general.在進入這個新的階段,讓我們看一下發展所謂的系統的道德和爭論,興起之間的天主教學者,以及在詭辯的方法治療的道德神學一般。 For it is precisely the casuistry of moral theology around which these controversies centre, and which has experienced severe attacks in our own day. These attacks were for the most part confined to Germany.因為它恰恰是詭辯的道德神學圍繞著這些爭議中心,並已經歷了嚴重的襲擊事件在我們自己的一天。這些攻擊大部分是僅限於德國。 The champions of the adversaries are JB Hirscher (d. 1865), Döllinger, Reusch, and a group of Catholic scholars who, in the years 1901 and 1902, demanded a "reform of Catholic moral theology", though all were not moved by the same spirit.衛冕冠軍的對手是巴頓Hirscher (草1865年) ,多林格, Reusch ,和一群天主教學者誰,在未來的1901年和1902年,要求“改革的天主教神學的道德” ,但都沒有打動了本著同樣的精神。 In Hirscher it was the zeal for a supposedly good cause, though he was implicated in theological errors; Döllinger and Reusch attempted to cover their defection from the Church and their refusal to acknowledge the papal infallibility by holding up to the ridicule of the world ecclesiastical conditions and affairs which they thought militated against that infallibility; the latest phase of this opposition is mainly the result of misunderstandings.在Hirscher ,這是一個熱情理應良好的事業,但他牽連的神學錯誤;多林格和Reusch企圖掩飾他們的叛逃由教會和他們拒絕承認羅馬教皇舉行犯錯誤最多的嘲笑世界教會的條件和內政,他們認為不適合的犯錯誤;的最新階段的反對,主要是由於誤解。 In order to elucidate the accusations brought against casuistry, we use the wholly unjustifiable criticism which Hirscher launched against Scholastic theology in general in his work of 1832, "On the Relation between the Gospel and Theological Scholasticism"; it is quoted approvingly by Döllinger and Reusch (Moralstreitigkeiten, 13 sqq.):為了闡明的指控提起詭辯,我們使用的全無理批評Hirscher發動士林神學一般在他1832年的工作, “論關係的福音和神士林” ,這是引用讚許的多林格和Reusch ( Moralstreitigkeiten , 13 sqq 。 ) :

(1) "Instead of penetrating into the spirit which makes virtue what it is and underlies everything that is good in this world, in other words, instead of beginning with the one indivisible nature of all goodness, they begin with the material of the various moral precepts and prohibitions without adverting to where these originate, on what foundation they rest, and what is their life-giving principle." ( 1 ) “而不是滲透到精神這使得憑藉它是什麼,並強調一切是好的在這個世界上,換句話說,不是開始,是一個不可分割的性質,所有善良,他們開始與物質的各種道德戒律和禁令沒有adverting到這些來自於什麼基礎,他們休息,什麼是他們的生命原則“ 。 This means that Scholastics and casuists know only individual things, see nothing universal and uniform in the virtues and duties.這意味著, Scholastics和casuists只知道個人的事情,見沒有普遍和統一的美德和義務。

(2) "Instead of deriving these precepts and prohibitions from the one, individual essence of all goodness and thereby creating certainty in the moral judgments of their audience, they, rejecting principles, string 'shalt' to 'shalt', provide them with innumerable statutes and clauses, confuse and oppress the hearer by the overflowing measure of duties, half-duties, non-duties." ( 2 ) “而不是產生這些戒律和禁令從一,個別實質的所有善良和從而創造確定性,道德判斷他們的觀眾,他們拒絕的原則,字符串' shalt '至' shalt ' ,為他們提供了無數法規和條款,混淆和壓迫聽者的氾濫程度的職責,半關稅,非關稅。 “ In other words, the Scholastics oppress and confuse by an unnecessary multiplication of duties and non-duties.換言之, Scholastics壓迫和混淆的不必要的乘法關稅和非關稅。

(3) "It is more in accordance with the spirit of Mosaism than with that of Christianity when Christian morality is treated less as a doctrine of virtues than of laws and duties, and when by adding commandment to commandment, prohibition to prohibition, it gives us a full and shaken measure of moral rules instead of building up on the Christian spirit, deriving everything from it and pointing out all particular virtues in its light." ( 3 ) “這是更符合精神Mosaism比與基督教在基督教道德是處理不到作為一個理論的美德,而不是法律和職責,以及何時加入誡,以戒律,禁止禁止,它使我們有充分和動搖衡量道德規則而不是建立在基督教精神,一切從產生,並指出特別是所有美德在其輕。 “ Or briefly, casuistry promotes exterior sanctimoniousness without the interior spirit.或簡單,決疑外觀sanctimoniousness促進的內部精神。

(4) "Those who treat morals from the standpoint of casuistry, assign an important part to the distinction between grave and light laws grave and light duties, serious and slight transgressions, mortal and venial sins. . . . Now, the distinction between grievous and venial sins is not without a solid foundation, and if it is chiefly based on the different qualities of the will, and if, besides, the various degrees of goodness and malice are measured by the presence, eg, of a purely good and strong will, of one less pure and less strong, of a weak, inert, impure, malicious, perverted will, then nobody will raise his voice against it. But it is wholly different when the distinction between mortal and venial sins is taken objectively, and based on the gravity and lightness of the commandments. . . . Such a distinction between mortal and venial sins, founded on the material differences of the commandments and the prohibitions, is a source of torment and anxiety for many. . . . True morality cannot be advanced through such an anxiety. . . . The mass of the people will derive only this one profit from such a method: many will refrain from what is forbidden under pain of mortal sin and will do what is commanded under the same penalty, but they will care little for what is commanded or forbidden under pain of venial sin only; on the contrary they will seek a compensation in the latter for what they sacrificed to the grave commandments. But can we call the lives of such men Christian?" ( 4 ) “誰對待道德的角度詭辯,轉讓的一個重要組成部分之間的區別,嚴重和輕法律的嚴重和輕職責,嚴重和輕微越軌,凡人和venial罪孽。 。 。 。現在,區分嚴重和venial的罪孽是沒有一個堅實的基礎,如果主要是基於不同素質的意願,如果再說,在不同程度的善良和測量惡意的存在,例如,一個純粹的良好和強大會,少了一個純粹的少強,弱的,惰性的,不純的,惡意的,扭曲的意願,那麼沒有人會提高他的聲音反對。但這是完全不同的區分和venial致命的罪孽是採取客觀的,並根據嚴重性和輕盈的誡命。 。 。 。這樣的區分和venial致命的罪孽,建立在物質的分歧,命令和禁令,是一個令人痛苦和焦慮很多。 。 。 。真正的道德不能通過將先進的這樣一種焦慮。 。 。 。大眾的人將得到只有這樣一個利潤從這樣的方法:許多人會不要什麼是禁止痛苦的彌天大罪,並將盡一切指揮下,同樣的刑罰,但他們會照顧小的是什麼命令或禁止的痛苦只有venial罪過,相反,他們將尋求補償,後者為他們犧牲的嚴重戒律。但是,我們稱之為生命的這種男女基督徒嗎? “ In other words, casuistry falsifies the consciences by distinguishing objectively between mortal and venial sins, leads to a contempt of the latter, and renders a genuinely Christian life impossible.換言之,詭辯偽造良知的客觀之間的區別和venial致命的罪孽,導致了蔑視後者,並使一個真正的基督徒的生活是不可能的。

It is not difficult to refute all these accusations.不難駁斥所有這些指控。 One glance at the "Summa theologica" of St. Thomas will prove how incorrect is the first charge that Scholasticism and casuistry know only individual good acts and individual virtues, without inquiring into the foundation common to all virtues.一個一目了然的“神學大全”的聖托馬斯將證明是不正確如何第一項控罪的士林和詭辯只知道良好的個人行為和個人的美德,沒有詢問的基礎共同的美德。 Before treating the individual virtues and the individual duties, St. Thomas gives us a whole volume of discussions of a general nature, of which we may note the profound speculations on the last end, the goodness and malice of human actions, the eternal law.在處理個人的美德和個人職責,聖托馬斯為我們提供了整個卷的討論一般性質的,我們可以注意到深刻的投機的最後目的,善良和人的惡意行為,永恆的法律。

The second accusation, that the Scholastic casuistry confuses the mind by its mass of duties and non-duties, can only mean that the Scholastic casuistry sets these up arbitrarily and contrary to truth.第二項指控,認為學術詭辯混淆到其大規模的職責和非關稅,只能意味著學業詭辯了兩套這些武斷和違背事實真相。 The complaint can only refer to those works and lectures which aim at the instruction of the clergy, pastors, and confessors.投訴只能是指那些作品和講座,旨在指導神職人員,牧師,和confessors 。 The reader or hearer who is confused or oppressed by this "mass of duties etc."讀者或聽者誰是混淆或壓迫的這種“大規模的義務等” shows by this very fact that he has not the talent necessary for the office of confessor or spiritual guide, that he should therefore choose another vocation.

The third charge, directed against Judaical hypocrisy which neglects the fostering of the interior life, is refuted by every work on casuistry, however meagre, for every one of them states most emphatically that, without the state of grace and a good intention, all external works, no matter how difficult and heroic, are valueless in the sight of God.第三項控罪針對這Judaical虛偽忽略了培養內部的生活,是每個駁斥了工作的詭辯術,但微薄的,因為他們每個人最強烈的國家,如果沒有國家的寬限期和良好的意圖,所有外部作品,不管多麼困難和英勇的,是毫無價值的忽視上帝。 Can the necessity of the internal spirit be brought out more clearly?可以的必要性內部的精神是闡述得更清楚? And even if, in some cases, the external fulfilment of a certain work is laid down as the minimum demanded by God or the Church, without which the Christian would incur eternal damnation, yet this is not banishing the internal spirit, but designating the external fulfilment as the low-water mark of morality.而且,即使在某些情況下,外部實現某項工作是放下的最低要求由上帝或教會,如果沒有這些基督教會招致永恆的詛咒,但是這不是取締的內部精神,但指定的外部實現低水位線的道德。

Lastly, the fourth charge springs from a very grave theological error.最後,第四負責源自一個非常嚴重的神學錯誤。 There can be no doubt that, in judging the heinousness of sin and in distinguishing between mortal and venial sins, the subjective element must be taken into consideration, However, every compendium of moral theology, no matter how casuistical, meets this requirement.毫無疑問,在判斷heinousness的罪孽,並區分和venial致命的罪孽,主觀因素必須考慮到,但是,每一個彙編的道德神學,無論多麼詭辯的,符合這一要求。 Every manual distinguishes sins which arise from ignorance, weakness, malice, without, however, labelling all sins of weakness as venial sins, or all sins of malice as mortal sins; for there are surely minor acts of malice which cannot be said to cause the death of the soul. Every manual also takes cognizance of sins which are committed without sufficient deliberation, knowledge, or freedom: all these, even though the matter be grave, are counted as venial sins.每一個與眾不同的罪孽手冊所產生的無知,軟弱,惡意,但不貼標籤的所有罪孽的弱點作為venial的罪孽,或所有的罪孽惡意作為凡人的罪孽;為有一定行為的未成年人的惡意,不能說造成的死亡的靈魂。每個手冊還需要認識到這是罪孽承諾沒有足夠的討論,知識,或自由:所有這些,即使是嚴重的問題,都算作venial罪孽。 On the other hand, every manual recognizes venial and grievous sins which are such by the gravity of the matter alone.另一方面,每一個人工確認venial和嚴重的罪孽是這樣的問題的嚴重性,僅僅。 Or who would, abstracting from everything else, put a jocose lie on a par with the denial of faith?或誰將抽象的一切,把jocose謊言等同於被剝奪的信仰? But even in these sins, mortal or venial according to their object, the casuists lay stress on the personal dispositions in which the sin was actually committed.但即使在這些罪過,凡人或venial根據自己的對象, casuists突出的個人處分,其中的罪惡實際上是承諾。 Hence, their universal principle: the result of a subjectively erroneous conscience may be that an action which is in itself only venial, becomes a mortal sin, and vice versa, that an action which is in itself mortally sinful, that is, constitutes a grave violation of the moral law, may be only a venial sin.因此,它們的普遍性原則:由於主觀錯誤的良心可能是一個行動,這本身就是只venial ,成為一個彌天大罪,反之亦然,即一個行動,這本身就是致命的罪過,即構成了嚴重違反道德法律,可能只是venial罪孽。 Nevertheless, all theologians, also casuists, consider a correct conscience a great boon and hence endeavour, by their casuistic discussions, to contribute towards the formation of correct consciences, so that the subjective estimate of the morality of certain actions may coincide, as far as possible, with the objective norm of morality.然而,所有的神學家,也casuists ,考慮一個正確的良心非常實惠,從而努力,他們的詭辯的討論,有助於形成正確的良心,使主觀估計的道德的某些行動可能同時盡可能盡可能為目標,規範的道德。

When, lastly, various opponents of the casuistical method object that the moralist occupies himself exclusively with sins and their analysis, with the "dark side" of human life, let them remember that it is physically impossible to say everything in one breath, that, just as in many other arts and sciences, a division of labour may also be advantageous for the science of moral theology, that the particular purpose of manuals and lectures may be limited to the education of skilled confessors and that this purpose may very well be fulfilled by centering attention on the dark side of human life.當最後,各種反對詭辯的方法物件,道德完全佔有自己的罪孽和他們的分析,與“黑暗的一面”人的生命,讓他們記住,這是不可能說一切一口氣,說,就像許多其他藝術和科學,分工也可能是有利的科學道德神學,該特定用途的手冊和講座可能是有限的教育技能confessors ,並為此很可能實現圍繞關注的黑暗面人的生命。 Nevertheless, it must be granted that this cannot be the only purpose of moral theology: a thorough discussion of all Christian virtues and the means of acquiring them is Indispensable.然而,必須理所當然地認為這不能成為唯一的目的,道德神學:全面討論了所有基督教的美德和手段獲取他們是不可或缺的。 If at any time this part of moral theology should be pushed to the background, moral theology would become one-sided and would need a revision, not by cutting down casuistry, but by devoting more time and energy to the doctrine of virtues in their scientific, parenetical, and ascetical aspect. In all these branches of moral theology, a great advance was noticeable at the time of the Council of Trent.如果在任何時候這一部分的道德神學應該被推到背景下,道德神學將成為片面的,將需要修改,而不是削減詭辯,而是把更多的時間和精力的理論,美德在他們的科學, parenetical ,並ascetical方面的問題。在所有這些部門的道德神學的偉大進步是顯著的時候,安理會的遄達。 That more stress was laid on casuistry in particular, finds its explanation in the growing frequency of sacramental confession.更多的壓力放在特別是詭辯,認為其解釋日益頻繁聖事的供詞。 This is freely conceded by our adversaries.這是自由承認我們的敵人。 Döllinger and Reusch say (op. cit., 19 sqq.): "The fact that casuistry underwent a further development after the sixteenth century, is connected with further changes in the penitential discipline. From that time on the custom prevailed of approaching the confessional more frequently, regularly before Communion, of confessing not only grievous, but also venial sins, and of asking the confessor's advice for all troubles of the spiritual life, so that the confessor became more and more a spiritual father and guide."多林格和Reusch說(同前。 , 19 sqq 。 )說: “事實是詭辯進行了進一步的發展後,十六世紀,是與進一步改變悔罪的紀律。從那時起,對普遍存在的習俗接近懺悔更經常地,定期交流前的懺悔不僅嚴重,而且還venial的罪孽,並要求懺悔的意見對所有故障的精神生活,使懺悔變得越來越精神的父親和引導。 “ The confessor needed this schooling and scientific training, which alone could enable him to give correct decisions in complex cases of human life, to form a correct estimate of moral goodness or defect, duty or violation of duty, virtue or vice.該懺悔需要這種教育和科學的訓練,這本身就可以使他能給予正確的決定,在複雜的案件,人的生命,形成一個正確的估計的道德善良或缺陷,職責或違反職責,憑藉或副主席。 Now, it was inevitable that the confessor should meet cases where the existence or exact measure of the obligation remained obscure even after careful examination, where the moralist was therefore confronted by the question what the final decision in these cases should be: whether one was obliged to consider oneself bound when the duty was obscure and doubtful, or how one could remove this doubt and arrive at the definite conclusion that there was no strict obligation.現在,它是不可避免的懺悔應滿足的情況下存在或確切衡量的義務仍掩蓋甚至在經過仔細檢查,那裡的衛道士,因此所面臨的問題是最終決定在這些情況下,應該是:是否有義務考慮自我約束的義務時,模糊和懷疑,或如何可以移除這個疑問並達成了明確的結論,即沒有嚴格的義務。 That the former could not be the case, but that an obligation, to exist, must first be proved, had always been known and had been variously expressed in practical rules: "In dubiis benigniora sequenda", "odiosa sunt restringenda", etc. The basic principle, however, for solving such dubious cases and attaining the certitude necessary for the morality of an action was not always kept clearly in view.前者可能並非如此,而是一種義務,不存在,必須首先證明,一直是已知的,並已分別表示在實際的規則: “在dubiis benigniora sequenda ” , “ odiosa必須遵守restringenda ”等的基本原則,但對解決這些可疑病例和實現確信必要的道德行動並非總是保持明確的觀點。 To establish this universal principle, was equivalent to establishing a moral system; and the various systems were distinguished by the principle to which each adhered.建立這一普遍原則,相當於建立一個道德體系;和各系統的傑出的原則,每個堅持。

The history of Probabilism is given under this title, suffice it to say here that from the middle of the seventeenth century when the violent discussion of this question begins, the development of moral theology coincides with that of Probabilism and of other Probabilistic systems; although these systems touch only a small portion of morals and of moral truths and nothing is farther from the truth than the opinion, so wide-spread among the adversaries of Catholic morals, that Probabilism gave a new shape and a new spirit to the whole of moral theology.歷史的或然論是根據本書名,只需在這裡說,從中間17世紀的暴力時討論這一問題開始,發展相吻合的道德神學與然論和其他概率系統;儘管這些系統只涉及一小部分的道德和道義上的真理,什麼是大吉比認為,這樣廣泛的對手之間的天主教道德,即然論提供了新的形態和新的精神對整個道德神學。 Probabilism and the other systems of morals are concerned only about cases which are objectively doubtful; hence they abstract entirely from the wide sphere of certain, established truths.然論和其他系統的道德是只關心案件,在客觀上值得懷疑,因此,他們完全從抽象的廣泛領域的某些設立的真理。 Now, the latter class is by far the larger in moral theology also; were it not so, human reason would be in a sorry plight, and Divine providence would have bestowed little care on the noblest of its visible creatures and on their highest goods, even in the supernatural order, in which a full measure of gifts and graces was showered upon those ransomed in Christ.現在,後者類是迄今為止較大的道德神學也;如果不是這樣,人的理智將在一個抱歉的困境,並神會照顧很少賦予的崇高其明顯的生物以及它們最高的商品,即使是在超自然的秩序,在充分的禮物和青睞是對這些歌曲在基督贖。 The certain and undoubted portion includes all the fundamental questions of Christian morals; it comprises those principles of the moral order by which the relations of man to himself, to God, to his neighbour, and to the various communities are regulated; it embraces the doctrine of the last end of man and of the supernatural means of attaining this end.在某些和無可置疑的部分包括了所有的基本問題,基督教道德的需要;它包括這些原則的道德秩序,其中關係人對自己,對上帝,他的鄰居,和各社區的規範,它包含了理論最後結束的男子和超自然的手段實現這一目的。 There is only a comparatively small number of objectively obscure and doubtful laws or duties that appeal to Probabilism or Antiprobabilism for a decision.只有一個相對小一些客觀地掩蓋和可疑的法律或職責,呼籲然論或Antiprobabilism決定。 However, as has been said, since the middle of the seventeenth century, the interest of moral theologians centered in the question about Probabilism or Antiprobabilism.然而,正如人們所說,因為中間的17世紀,利益的道德神學中心的問題,然論或Antiprobabilism 。

Just as far from the truth is the second opinion of the adversaries of Probabilism, vix., that this system induces people to evade the laws and hardens them into callousness.正如遠離真理是第二個意見,然論敵人,波動率指數。 ,該系統誘導人逃避法律和變硬成冷酷。 On the contrary, to moot the question of Probabilism at all, was the sign of a severely conscientious soul.與此相反,以無實際意義的問題在所有或然論,是標誌嚴重良心的靈魂。 He who proposes the question at all knows and confesses by that very fact: first, that it is not lawful to act with a doubtful conscience, that he who performs an action without being firmly convinced of its being allowed, commits sin in the sight of God; secondly, that a law, above all the Divine law, obliges us to take cognizance of it and that, therefore, whenever doubts arise about the probable existence of an obligation we must apply sufficient care in order to arrive at certainty, so that a frivolous disregard of reasonable doubts is in itself a sin against the submission due to God.他誰的問題提出了在所有知道和承認這一事實:第一,它不是合法的行為可疑的良知,他誰執行的行動,而堅信它被允許,即在罪惡的情景上帝;其次,一項法律,首先是神聖的法律,迫使我們認識到它,因此,產生懷疑時,對可能存在的一項義務,我們必須適用於足夠的照顧,以達成確定性,因此, 1輕率不顧合理的懷疑,這本身就是一種罪過提交對由於上帝。 In spite of all this, it may happen that all our pains and inquiries do not lead us to certainty, that solid reasons are found both for and against the existence of an obligation: under these circumstances, a conscientious man will naturally ask whether he must consider himself bound by the law or whether he can, by further reflections -- reflex principles, as they are called -- come to the plain conclusion that there is no obligation either to do or to omit the act in question.儘管這一切,可能會發生,我們的所有痛苦和調查不會導致我們的確定性,這堅實的原因是為發現和打擊存在的一項義務:在這種情況下,一個有良知的人自然會問他是否必須考慮自己的約束,法律或他是否可以通過進一步的思考-反射性原則,因為他們被稱為-來到平原的結論,即沒有義務這樣做可以省略或行為問題。 Were we obliged to consider ourselves bound in every doubt, the result, obviously, would be an intolerable severity.如果我們不得不考慮自己的約束在每一個疑問的結果,顯然將是一個不能容忍的程度。 But since before performing an action the final verdict of our conscience must be free from doubt, the necessity of removing in one way or another such doubts as may have arisen, is self-evident.但是,由於前表演行動的最後裁決,我們的良心必須擺脫毫無疑問,必須消除這種或那種方式這種懷疑可能出現的,是不言自明的。

At first there was a lack of clearness with regard to Probabilism and the questions connected with it.起初有一個缺乏清晰關於然論的問題和與它相連。 Conflicting definitions of opinion, probability, and certitude, could not but cause confusion.衝突的定義認為,概率,並確信,不能不引起混亂。 When works on moral theology and practical manuals began to multiply, it was inevitable that some individuals should take the word "probable" in too wide or in too lax a sense, although there can be no doubt that in itself it means "something acceptable to reason", in other words, since reason can accept nothing unless it has the appearance of truth, "something based on reasons which generally lead to the truth".當工程道德神學和實用手冊開始繁殖,這是不可避免的,有些人應該採取改為“可能”在太寬或太鬆懈的感覺,但毫無疑問這本身就意味著“可以接受的某種理由“ ,換言之,因為理由可以接受什麼,除非它已出現了真相, ”基於某種原因導致普遍的真理“ 。 Hence it is that opinions were actually advanced and spread as practicable which were little in accord with the demands of the Christian Faith, and which brought down upon them the censure of the Holy See.因此,該意見實際上是先進的和切實可行的蔓延是什麼符合要求的基督教信仰,並降低對他們的指責羅馬教廷。 We refer particularly to the theses condemned by Alexander VII on 24 Sept., 1665, and on 18 March, 1666, and by Innocent XI on 2 March, 1679.我們尤其要提到的論文譴責亞歷山大第七1665年9月24號,並於3月18日1666年,和對無辜第十一1679年3月2日。 It is not Probabilism that must be made responsible for them, but the vagaries of a few Probabilists.它不是或然論,必須負責,但變幻莫測的幾個Probabilists 。

As a result of these condemnations, some theologians thought themselves obliged to oppose the system itself and to side with Probabiliorism.由於這些譴責,一些神學家認為自己有義務反對該系統本身並與Probabiliorism一邊。 Previous to this turn of affairs, the Jansenists had been the most pronounced adversaries of Probabilism.前此之交的事務,詹森主義一直是最明顯的敵人或然論。 But they, too, had received a setback when Innocent X condemned (31 May, 1653) in the "Augustinus" of Jansenius, then recently deceased, the proposition: "Just men, with the strength now at their disposal, cannot keep certain commandments of God even if they wish and endeavour to do so; besides, they are without the help of grace which might make it possible for them", was taken from the work and rejected as heretical and blasphemous.但是,他們也收到了挫折時,無辜的X譴責( 1653年5月31日)在“奧古斯丁”的Jansenius ,然後最近去世的命題: “只要男性,現在的實力在他們的處置,不能保持一定的誡命上帝,即使他們的願望和努力這樣做,而且,他們的幫助,寬限期這可能使他們有可能“ ,是從工作和拒絕邪教和褻瀆。 Now Probabilism was least reconcilable with this Jansenistic thesis, which could be maintained the easier, the stricter the moral obligations laid upon man's conscience were and the severer the system proclaimed as solely justified was.現在然論是最不調和與此Jansenistic論文,可以保持更方便,更嚴格的道德義務的規定對人類良知的人的嚴厲系統宣布為是完全有道理的。 Consequently, the adherents of the Jansenistic doctrine endeavoured to attack Probabilism, to throw suspicion on it as an innovation, to represent it even as leading to sin. The exaggerations of a few Probabilists who went too far in their laxity, gave an opportunity to the Jansenists to attack the system, and soon a number of scholars, notably among the Dominicans abandoned Probabilism, which they had defended till then, attacked it and stood up for Probabiliorism; some Jesuits also opposed Probabilism.因此,信徒的Jansenistic理論盡力攻擊或然論,把懷疑這是一個創新,代表它甚至會導致犯罪。的誇張少數Probabilists誰走的太遠的鬆懈,給了一個機會向詹森主義者攻擊的系統,不久的一些學者,特別是在被遺棄的或然論道明,他們到了捍衛然後,攻擊,並站起來為Probabiliorism ;一些耶穌也反對或然論。 But by far, the majority of the Jesuit writers as well as a vast number of other orders and of the secular clergy, adhered to Probabilism.但是,迄今為止,多數耶穌作家以及眾多的其他命令和世俗的神職人員,堅持然論。 An entire century was taken up with this controversy, which probably has not its equal in the history of Catholic theology.整個世紀被帶到了這一爭議,這可能已經不是平等的歷史上的天主教神學。

Fortunately, the works on either side of this controversy were not popular writings.幸運的是,工程兩邊的這場爭論不是受歡迎的著作。 Nevertheless, exaggerated theories caused a glaring inequality and much confusion in the administration of the Sacrament of Penance and in the guidance of souls.然而,誇大理論造成了明顯的不平等和許多混亂的管理聖懺悔和指導的靈魂。 This seems to have been the case particularly in France and Italy; Germany probably suffered less from Rigorism.這似乎已經案件特別是在法國和意大利,德國可能遭受來自Rigorism少。 Hence it was a blessing of Divine Providence that there arose a man in the middle of the eighteenth century, who again insisted on a gentler and milder practice, and who, owing to the eminent sanctity which he combined with solid learning, and which raised him soon after his death to the honour of the altar, received the ecclesiastical approbation of his doctrine, thereby definitively establishing the milder practice in moral theology.因此這是一個神聖的祝福普羅維登斯,有一個人出現在中間的十八世紀,誰再堅持溫和的和溫和的做法,以及誰,由於傑出的神聖,他結合堅實的學習,並提出了他之後不久去世的榮幸地壇,收到了教會的讚許他的學說,從而最終建立了比較溫和的做法在道德神學。

This man is Alphonsus Maria Liguori, who died in 1787 at the age of 91, was beatified in 1816, canonized in 1839, and declared Doctor Ecclesiæ in 1871.這名男子阿瑪麗亞利顧理,誰在1787年去世時91歲,是福在1816年, 1839年冊封,並宣布教會博士於1871年。 In his youth Liguori had been imbued with the stricter principles of moral theology; but, as he himself confesses, the experience which a missionary life extending over fifteen years gave him, and careful study, brought him to a realization of their falseness and evil consequences.在他的青年利顧理已經充滿了嚴格的道德原則,神學,但是,正如他自己承認,其中的經驗傳教生命延續15年來給了他,並仔細研究,使他以實現他們的虛偽和邪惡的後果。 Chiefly for the younger members of the religious congregation which owed its existence to his fervent zeal, he worked out a manual of moral theology, basing it on the widely used "Medulla" of the Jesuit Hermann Busenbaum, whose theses he subjected to a thorough examination, confirmed by internal reasons and external authority, illustrated by adverse opinions, and here and there modified.主要是對年輕成員的宗教教徒其中欠它的存在對他熱切的熱情,他制定了一本手冊的道德神學,立足於廣泛使用的“延髓”的耶穌赫爾曼Busenbaum ,他的論文受到了徹底的檢查所確認的內部原因和外部的權威,說明了不利的意見,在這裡或那裡修改。 The work, entirely Probabilistic in its principles, was first published in 1748.這項工作,完全概率的原則,是首次出版,在1748年。 Received with universal applause and lauded even by popes, it went through its second edition in 1753; edition after edition then followed, nearly every one showing the revising hand of the author; the last, ninth, edition, published during the lifetime of the saint, appeared in 1785.收到普遍的掌聲和稱讚甚至教皇,它經歷了它的第二版在1753年;版出版後,接著,幾乎每個人都顯示了修訂一方面作者;最後,第九,版本,出版了一生的聖,出現在1785年。 After his beatification and canonization his "Theologia moralis" found an even wider circulation.在他宣福和冊封他的“道德神學”找到了一個更廣泛的流通。 Not only were various editions arranged, but it almost seemed as though the further growth of moral theology would be restricted to a reiteration and to compendious revisions of the works of St. Alphonsus.不僅有各種版本的安排,但它幾乎彷彿進一步增長的道德神學將限於重申和修訂,以簡明的作品街阿。 An excellent critical edition of the "Theologia moralis Sti. Alphonsi" is that of Léonard Gaudé, C.SS.R.一個很好的關鍵版的“神學道德植被。 Alphonsi ”是萊昂納爾Gaudé , C.SS.R. (Rome, 1905), who has verified all the quotations in the work and illustrated it with scholarly annotations. (羅馬, 1905年) ,誰也核實了所有報價的工作並舉例說明它的學術說明。

No future work on practical moral theology can pass without ample references to the writings of St. Alphonsus.今後的工作沒有實際的道德神學可以傳遞不充分的參考著作的聖阿方。 Hence it would be impossible to gain a clear insight into the present state of moral theology and its development without being more or less conversant with the system of the saint, as narrated in the article PROBABILISM.因此,就不可能獲得一個明確的了解目前的狀況神學和道德的發展,而或多或少精通系統的聖人,作為敘述在文章中或然論。 The controversy, which is still being waged about Probabilism and Æquiprobabilism, has no significance unless the latter oversteps the limits set to it by St. Alphonsus and merges into Probabiliorism.爭議,這仍然是發動約然論和Æquiprobabilism已毫無意義,除非後者超越規定的限制它的聖阿方,並合併成Probabiliorism 。 However, though the controversy has not yet been abandoned theoretically, still in everyday practice it is doubtful if there is any one who follows other rules in deciding doubtful cases than those of Probabilism.然而,儘管爭議尚未被遺棄在理論上,還是在日常的做法令人懷疑的是,如果有任何一個誰的其他規則如下決定可疑病例比然論。 This ascendancy of the milder school in moral theology over the more rigorous gained new impetus when Alphonsus was canonized and when the Church pointed out in particular that Divine Providence had raised him up as a bulwark against the errors of Jansenism, and that by his numerous writings he had blazed a more reliable path which the guides of souls might safely follow amid the conflicting opinions either too lax or too strict.這種優勢的學校,溫和的道德神學的更嚴格的獲得新的動力時,阿方被冊封時,教會特別指出,神聖的普羅維登斯提出了他作為一個抵禦錯誤的詹森主義,而且他的許多著作他開闢了更可靠的道路導遊的靈魂可能因安全後續衝突的意見要么過於寬鬆或過於嚴格。 During his lifetime the saint was forced to enter several literary disputes on account of his works on moral theology; his chief adversaries were Concina and Patuzzi, both of the Dominican Order, and champions of Probabiliorism.在他的一生的聖被迫進入了文學爭端到他的作品的道德神學;他的主要對手是Concina和Patuzzi ,無論多米尼加秩序, Probabiliorism冠軍。

The last decades of the eighteenth century may well be called a period of general decadence as far as the sacred sciences, moral theology included, are concerned.在過去幾十年的18世紀很可能是所謂的期限一般頹廢盡可能神聖的科學,道德神學包括關注。 The frivolous spirit of the French Encyclopedists had infected, as it were, the whole of Europe.在無意義的精神,法國Encyclopedists已經感染了,因為它是,整個歐洲。 The Revolution, which was its offspring, choked all scientific life.革命,這是它的後代,堵塞一切科學的生活。 A few words about the state of moral theology during this period may suffice.談談國家的道德神學在此期間,可能就夠了。 Italy was torn asunder by the dispute about Rigorism and a milder practice; in France, Rigorism had received the full rights of citizenship through the Jansenistic movement and held its own till late in the nineteenth century; Germany was swayed by a spirit of shallowness which threatened to dislodge Christian morals by rationalistic and natural principles.意大利是四分五裂的爭議Rigorism和溫和的做法;在法國, Rigorism收到了充分的公民權利通過Jansenistic運動和舉辦自己的直至深夜在十九世紀,德國是動搖的精神膚淺威脅趕走基督教道德的理性和自然的原則。 The "general seminaries" which Joseph II established in the Austrian states, engaged professors who did not blush to advance heretical doctrines and to exclude Christian self-restraint from the catalogue of moral obligations. “一般神”的約瑟夫二世設在奧地利的國家,從事教授誰沒有臉紅,推動邪教理論和排除基督教自我克制,從目錄的道義上的義務。 Other German institutions, too, offered their chairs of theology to professors who had imbibed the ideas of "enlightenment", neglected to insist on Catholic doctrines of faith and putting aside the supernatural life, sought the end and aim of education in a merely natural morality.德國其他機構,也提供了椅子神學教授吸脹了誰的思想“啟蒙” ,忽視堅持天主教教義的信仰和撇開超自然的生活,尋求結束,目的在於教育,只是自然的道德。 But in the second decade of the nineteenth century the French Revolution had spent itself, quiet had again followed the turmoil, the political restoration of Europe had been begun.但在第二個十年的十九世紀法國大革命花了本身,安靜之後再次動盪,政治恢復歐洲已經開始。 A restoration also of the ecclesiastical spirit and learning was also inaugurated and the gradual rise of moral theology became noticeable.恢復還教會精神和學習也落成並逐步上升的道德神學成為引人注目。 Apart from the purely ascetical side there are three divisions in which this new life was plainly visible: catechism, popular instruction, pastoral work.除了純粹的ascetical一方有三個司在這新的生活顯然可見:理,流行的指示,畜牧工作。

Though it is the purpose of catechetical teaching to instruct the faithful in the entire range of Christian religion, in the doctrines of faith no less than in those of morals, yet the former may also be conceived and discussed with respect to the duties and the way by which man is destined to obtain his last end.雖然它的目的是問答的教學指示忠實的全部範圍內基督教,在理論的信仰不低於在這些道德,但前者還可以設想,並討論有關的職責和方式其中人是注定要獲得他最後結束。 Hence, the catechetical treatment of religious questions may be regarded as a portion of moral theology.因此,問答對待宗教問題,可被視為一部分的道德神學。 During the period of "enlightenment", this branch had been degraded to a shallow moralizing along natural lines.在此期間的“啟示” ,這個分支已經退化到淺說教沿線自然線。 But that it rose again in the course of the past century to a lucid explanation of the sum-total of the Christian doctrine, is attested by numerous excellent works, both catechisms and extensive discussions.但是,它再次上升過程中,在過去一個世紀了明晰的解釋,總結總額的基督教教義,是證明了許多優秀的作品,均catechisms和廣泛的討論。 To these may be added the more thorough manuals of Christian doctrine intended for higher schools, in which the apologetical and moral portions of religious instruction are treated scientifically and adapted to the needs of the time.這些可能是添加了更為徹底手冊基督教教義為較高的學校,其中apologetical和道義上的部分宗教教育的處理科學和適應需要的時間。 There is nothing, however, which prevents us from placing these writings in the second of the above-mentioned classes, since their aim is the instruction of the Christian people, though principally the educated laymen.沒有什麼,但是,這使我們無法將這些著作在第二上述課程,因為他們的目標是教學的基督教的人,但主要是受過教育的門外漢。 It is true these works belong exclusively, even less than the catechetical, to moral theology, since their subject-matter embraces the whole of the Christian doctrine, yet the morally destructive tendencies of Atheism and the new moral questions brought forward by the conditions of our times, impressed upon writers the importance of moral instruction in manuals of Catholic faith.這是真正的這些作品屬於,甚至低於問答,道德神學,因為它們的標的物包括整個基督教教義,但在道義上破壞性傾向的無神論和新的道德問題所提出的條件我們倍,對作家的印象的重要性,道德教學手冊信仰天主教。 The last decades in particular prove that this side of theology has been well taken care of.在過去幾十年特別是證明了這一側的神學一直被照顧得很好。 Various questions bearing on Christian morals were extensively treated in monographs, as eg, the social question, the significance of money, the Church's doctrine on usury, the woman question, etc. To quote single works or to enter on the different subjects in detail would exceed the limits of this article.各種問題的影響基督教道德進行了廣泛的治療專著,作為例如,社會問題,錢的意義,教會的學說的高利貸,婦女問題等,報價單工程或進入就不同的主題將詳細超過限額的這一條。

The third line along which we noted an advance was called the pastoral, that is, instruction which has as its special aim the education and aid of pastors and confessors.第三條生產線的沿線,我們注意到,推動被稱為牧場,就是指令為其特殊目的的教育和援助的牧師和confessors 。 That this instruction is necessarily, though not exclusively, casuistic, was mentioned above.這一指示是必然,但不完全是詭辯,如上所述。 The scarcity of priests, which was keenly felt in many places, occasioned a lack of time necessary for an all-round scientific education of the candidates for the priesthood.缺乏司鐸,這是敏銳地感覺到在許多地方,引致缺乏所需的時間全面科學教育的候選人鐸。 This circumstance explains why scientific manuals of moral theology, for decades, were merely casuistic compendia, containing indeed the gist of scientific investigations, but lacking in scientific argumentation.這種情況說明了為什麼科學道德手冊神學,幾十年來,僅僅是詭辯彙編,確實含有精神的科學調查,但缺乏科學的論證。 The correctness of ecclesiastical doctrine had been insured and facilitated by the approbation with which the Church distinguished the works of St. Alphonsus.的正確性,教會學說已投保,並提供便利的認可與尊敬教會的作品街阿。 Hence, many of these compendia are nothing else than recapitulations of St. Alphonsus's "Theologia moralis", or, if following a plan of their own, betray on every page that their authors had it always ready at hand.因此,許多的這些簡是沒有別的比recapitulations聖阿方的“道德神學” ,或者,如果下面的計劃自己,背叛在每個網頁上,其作者有它隨時在手。 Two works may here find mention which enjoyed a wider circulation than any other book on moral theology and which are frequently used even today: the Scavini's "Theologia moralis universa", and the shorter "Compendium theologiæ moralis" by Jean-Pierre Gury, together with the numerous revisions which appeared in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and North America.兩件作品可以在這裡找到提及享有更廣泛的流通比任何其他書的道德神學,這是經常使用即使在今天:該Scavini的“神學道德通用” ,以及較短的“簡神學道德”的讓皮埃爾Gury ,連同眾多的修改出現在法國,德國,意大利,西班牙,和北美。

We must not, however, deceive ourselves by concluding that, owing to the ecclesiastical approbation of St. Alphonsus and his moral writings, moral theology is now settled forever and, so to speak, crystallized.我們絕不能然而,自欺欺人的結論是,由於教會認可的聖阿方和他的道德文章,道德神學現在是永遠和解決,這麼說吧,結晶。 Nor does this approbation assure us that all individual questions have been solved correctly, and therefore the discussion of certain moral questions remains still open.也沒有這個讚許向我們保證,所有個人的問題已經解決正確,因此,在討論的某些道德問題仍然仍然開放。 The Apostolic See itself, or rather the Sacred Penitentiary, when asked, "Whether a professor of moral theology may quietly follow and teach the opinions which St. Alphonsus Liguori teaches in his Moral Theology", gave indeed an affirmative answer on 5 July, 1831; it added, however, "but those must not be reprehended who defend other opinions supported by the authority of reliable doctors".使徒見本身,還是神聖感化,當被問及“ ,無論是教授的道德神學可能會悄悄地跟踪和教授的意見街阿利顧理教授在他的道德神學”了確實是一個肯定的回答關於1831年7月5日它補充說,不過, “但這些絕不能reprehended誰保衛其他意見支持的權威,可靠的醫生。 ” He who would conclude the guarantee of absolute correctness from the ecclesiastical approbation of the saint's works, would make the Church contradict herself.他將結束誰保證絕對正確的教會認可的聖的作品,將使自己教會矛盾。 St. Thomas of Aquin was at least as solemnly approved for the whole field of theology as St. Alphonsus for moral theology.聖托馬斯阿奎那是,至少核准莊嚴的整個領域的神學作為聖阿方的道德神學。 Yet, e.然而,即 g, on the subject of the efficacy of grace, which enters deeply into morals, St. Thomas and St. Alphonsus defend wholly contradictory opinions; both cannot be right, and so may be freely discussed.克,關於這一主題的療效的寬限期,進入深入道德,聖托馬斯和聖阿方完全矛盾的辯護意見;都不可能是正確的,所以可以自由討論。 The same may be said of other questions.同樣可以說其他問題。 In our own days, Antonio Ballerini above all made a simple use of this freedom of discussion, first in his annotations to Gury's "Compendium", then in his "Opus theologicum morale", which was recast and edited after his death by Dominic Palmieri.在我們自己的時間,安東尼奧巴萊里尼首先提出了簡單的利用這個自由的討論,首先在他的說明Gury的“簡編” ,然後在他的“作品theologicum士氣” ,這是改寫和編輯去世後由多米尼帕爾米耶。 It rendered an eminent service to casuistry; for though we cannot approve of everything, yet the authority of various opinions has been carefully sifted and fully discussed.它作出了傑出的服務,以詭辯;為雖然我們不能同意的一切,但權力的各種意見已經仔細篩選和充分的討論。

Lately, attempts have been made to develop moral theology along other lines.最近,有人企圖制定的道德神學其他線路沿線。 The reformers assert that the casuistical method has choked every other and that it must give place to a more scientific, systematic treatment.改革者斷言,詭辯的方法哽咽所有其他,它必須讓位於一個更科學,系統的治療。 It is evident that a merely casuistical treatment does not come up to the demands of moral theology, and as a matter of fact, during the last decades, the speculative element was more and more insisted on even in works chiefly casuistic.很明顯,只是一個詭辯的待遇不達到要求的道德神學,並作為事實上,在過去幾十年中,投機因素是越來越多的堅持即使是在工程主要是詭辯。 Whether the one or the other element should prevail, must be determined according to the proximate aim which the work intends to satisfy.至於一方或另一方要素應佔上風,必須確定根據近期目標的工作打算滿足。 If there is question of a purely scientific explanation of moral theology which does not intend to exceed the limits of speculation, then the casuistical element is without doubt speculative, systematic discussion of the questions belonging to moral theology; casuistry then serves only to illustrate the theoretical explanations.如果有問題,一個純粹的科學解釋的道德神學這並不打算超過限額的猜測,然後詭辯的因素是毫無疑問的投機性,系統性討論的問題屬於道德神學;詭辯然後只能說明理論解釋。 But if there is question of a manual which is intended for the practical needs of a pastor and confessor and for their education, then the solid, scientific portion of general moral-theological questions must be supplemented by an extensive casuistry.但是,如果有問題,一本手冊,目的是為實際需要,牧師和懺悔,並為他們的教育,那麼堅實,科學的部分普通道德神學的問題,必須輔之以廣泛的詭辯。 Nay, when time and leisure are wanting to add ample theoretical explanations to an extensive casuistical drill, we should not criticize him who would under these circumstances insist on the latter at the expense of the former; it is the more necessary in actual practice.不,當時間和休閒是要增加大量的理論解釋了廣泛的詭辯的演練,我們不應該批評他誰會在這種情況下,堅持後者在犧牲前,它更需要在實踐中。

Publication information Written by Aug. Lehmkuhl.出版信息撰稿專家稱8月。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特普頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

SLATER, A Short History of Moral Theology (New York. 1909); BOUQUILLON, Theologia moralis fundamentalis, (3rd ed., Bruges, 1903), Introductio; BUCCERONI, Commentar.斯萊特簡史道德神學(紐約。 1909年) ; BOUQUILLON ,神學道德fundamentalis , (第三版。 ,布魯日, 1903年) ,引; BUCCERONI , Commentar 。 de natura theologioe moralis (Rome, 1910); SCHMITT, Zur Gesch.德自然theologioe道德(羅馬, 1910 ) ; SCHMITT ,論Gesch 。 des Probabilismus (1904); MAUSBACH, Die kathol.萬Probabilismus ( 1904年) ; MAUSBACH ,模具kathol 。 Moral, ihre Methoden, Grundsätze und Aufgaben (2nd ed. 1902); MEYENBERG, Die kath.德育, ihre Methoden , Grundsätze與Aufgaben (第二版。 1902年) ; MEYENBERG ,模具kath 。 Moral als Angeklagte (2nd ed. 1902); KRAWUTZKI, Einleitung in das Studium der kath. Moraltheologie (2nd. ed. 1898); GERIGK, Die wissenschaftliche Moral und ihre Lehrweisc (1910).道德作為Angeklagte (第二版。 1902年) ; KRAWUTZKI導論中存在Studium河畔kath 。 Moraltheologie ( 2nd.版。 1898年) ; GERIGK ,模具wissenschaftliche道德與ihre Lehrweisc ( 1910年) 。


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