Missiology

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term has been variously defined as "the science of the cross cultural communication of the Christian faith," as "preeminently the scholarly discipline underlying the task of world evangelization," and as "the field of study which researches, records and applies data relating to the biblical origins and history of the expansion of the Christian movement to anthropological principles and techniques for its further advancement."這個詞已經不同程度的定義為“科學的跨文化交際的基督教信仰” ,作為“ preeminently學術紀律的根本的任務是世界的福音” ,並作為“領域的研究,研究,記錄和適用的有關數據對聖經的起源和歷史,擴大基督教運動,以人類學的原則和方法,供其進一步提高。 “

If missiology is described as a science, it must be recognized as an applied science.如果missiology被描述為一門科學,必須認識到作為一門應用科學。 The underlying dynamic of the missiological process starts with an actual field situation confronting a church or mission, in which its problems, successes, and failures are clearly known; it ends with the application of missiological perspectives to this same field situation.根本的動態missiological進程始於實際領域的形勢面臨著教堂或使命,在它的問題,成功和失敗是很清楚,它兩端的應用missiological的角度對這一同一領域的情況。

The three major disciplines whose input is essential to the missiological process are theology (mainly biblical), anthropology (mainly social, applied, and theoretical but including primitive religion, linguistics, cultural dynamics, and cultural change), and history.這三個主要學科的投入是必不可少的missiological進程的神學(主要是聖經) ,人類學(主要是社會,運用和理論,但包括原始宗教,語言學,文化動態,文化變化) ,和悠久的歷史。 Other contributing disciplines include psychology, communication theory, and sociology.其他貢獻的學科包括心理學,傳播理論,社會學。 All these disciplines interact within the specific structures and problems of the given field situation and with the motivation of the gospel as the driving force of that interaction.所有這些學科互動的具體結構和問題的某一領域的情況和動機的福音作為動力的相互作用。 Therefore, basic components that later become "missiology" are neither theology nor history, neither anthropology nor psychology, nor the sum total of these fields of study.因此,基本組成部分,後來成為“ missiology ”既不是神學,也沒有歷史,無論是人類學或心理學,也不總和這些領域的研究。 Hence ethnotheology, ethnohistory, and ethnopsychology emerge.因此ethnotheology , ethnohistory ,並ethnopsychology出現。 The discipline of missiology then comes into its own, enriched and influnced by suchingredients as ecumenics, non Christian religion, and even economics.紀律missiology然後進入自己的,豐富和influnced的suchingredients作為ecumenics ,非基督教,甚至是經濟學。

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Major Issues主要問題

Missiology is a new discipline with a long history. Missiology是一個新學科具有悠久歷史的文明古國。 At no period in its history has the church either totally forgotten its missionary task or failed to engage in a measure of serious reflection on the basic questions which this has raised.在任何時期在其歷史上的教堂不是完全忘記了其傳教工作或未能進行了一定程度的認真思考的基本問題,這已提出的問題。 In one way or another Christians in every generation have debated these five issues:在一種或另一種方式基督徒在每一代人都已經討論這五個問題:

Apostolic Practice使徒實踐

How is the apostolicity of the church to be expressed if it is conceived as embracing the evangelistic practice of the apostles as well as their "received" teaching?如何apostolicity教堂是表示如果它被認為是接受福音的做法使徒以及他們的“收到”教學? What is the church's collective responsibility touching the sending forth of laborers to "bring about the obedience of faith. . . among all the nations" (Rom. 1:5)?什麼是教會的集體責任感人派遣勞動者提出的“實現服從的信念。 。 。各國之間的” (羅馬書1:5 ) ?

Church Structure and Mission教堂的結構和任務

What is the relation between the church's structured congregations, ruled by its ecclesiastical authorities, and those mission structures within its life directed by others, whether voluntary or authorized, whereby the gospel is shared with non Christians and new congregations are planted?是什麼關係,教會的結構聚會,其統治的教會當局,而這些任務的結構在其生命的指示他人,無論是自願或授權,即是共同的福音與非基督徒和新的教區種植?

The Gospel and the Religions福音和宗教

What is the relation between the good news about jesus Christ and other religious systems which do not acknowledge his lordship?什麼是關係好消息耶穌基督和其他宗教系統,不承認他的貴族身份? Is there validity to the religious experience of their devotees, or do these religions represent unrelieved God forsakenness and human rebellion?是否有效力的宗教經驗的信徒,還是這些宗教代表unrelieved上帝forsakenness和人力叛亂?

Salvation and non Christians救亡與非基督徒

What is the eternal destiny of those who through no fault of their own have died without ever hearing the gospel?什麼是永恆的命運的人誰沒有過錯通過自己的死亡沒有任何聽證會的福音? What is the relation between Christ's redemptive work and those who, while ignorant of it, have perceived the divine through nature, conscience, and history and have cried out: "God, be merciful to me a sinner."?什麼是關係基督的拯救工作,這些誰,而忽視它,都認為通過神聖的性質,良心和歷史,並大叫: “上帝,是仁慈的,我一個罪人。 ” ?

Christianity and Culture基督教與文化

If God is the God of the nations and is at work in all the epochs of human history, what is the validity of each separate culture?如果上帝是上帝的國家,並在工作中一切時代的人類歷史,什麼是有效的每一個單獨的文化? Should its elements be "possessed" or "accommodated" or "replaced" when the Christian movement enters and local congregations are being structured?其內容應該是“擁有”或“住”或“改為”當基督教運動進入和地方教會正在構成的?

History歷史

These issues have been discussed for almost two thousand years, because the church has always been aware to some degree of its duty to be missionary.這些問題已經討論了近二千年,因為教堂一直意識到在一定程度上的職責是傳教士。 One can hardly have a living congregation that is not to some extent missionary, even if its outreach is only along kinship lines and within racial boundaries.一個很難有一個教會的生活是不是在一定程度上的傳教士,即便它的推廣只是沿著線路血緣和種族的界限。 But it was two Roman Catholic writers, the Jesuit Jose de Acosta in 1588 and the Carmelite Thomas a Jesu in 1613, who were the first to develop comprehensive theories of mission, primarily with reference to Latin America.但是,兩個羅馬天主教作家,耶穌德貝阿科斯塔在1588年和加爾默羅托馬斯耶穌在1613年,誰是第一個全面發展理論的任務,主要是參照拉丁美洲。 Their writings greatly stimulated a succession of seventeenth century Dutch Protestants largely concerned with the evangelization of the East Indies: Hadrianus Saravia, Justus Heurnius, Gisbertus Voetius, and Johannes Hoornbeeck.他們的著作極大地刺激了繼承十七世紀荷蘭新教主要關注的福傳的東印度: Hadrianus拉維亞,賈斯特斯Heurnius , Gisbertus Voetius ,並約翰內斯Hoornbeeck 。 In turn, the writings of these men influenced John Eliot, early missionary to the Indians of New England, and William Carey, the "father of modern missions."反過來,這些著作男子約翰埃利奧特的影響,早期傳教士的印第安人的新英格蘭,和威廉凱麗之父“的現代使命。 ” Through Jan Amos Comenius, bishop of the Moravians in the Low Countries, their influence reached Count von Zinzendorf, who was prominent in the transformation of the Moravians into a dynamic missionary movement.通過揚誇美紐斯,主教的摩拉維亞低的國家,其影響力達到伯爵馮親岑多夫,誰是突出的轉變摩拉維亞成一個有活力的傳教運動。

However, it was not until the nineteenth century that missiology really came into its own as an academic discipline.然而,直到19世紀的missiology真正納入自己作為一個學科。 Two German Lutherans were responsible: Karl Graul, director of the Leipzig Mission, was (according to Otto Lehmann) "the first German to qualify himself for higher academic teaching in this field"; and Gustav Warneck, who today is regarded as the founder of Protestant missionary science.兩名德國路德會負責:卡爾Graul主任萊比錫團,是(按奧托萊曼) “德國的第一個有資格自己更高的學術教學在這一領域” ;和古斯塔夫Warneck ,今天誰被視為創始人新教傳教士的科學。 His Evangelische Missionslehre (1892) abundantly confirms this designation.他Evangelische Missionslehre ( 1892 )充分證實了這一稱號。 Warneck significantly influenced the great Catholic missiologist Josef Schmidlin (1876 - 1944) and thereby initiated the sort of stimulating interaction between the two major segments of the church that has continued to the present. Warneck重大影響的偉大天主教missiologist約瑟夫Schmidlin ( 1876年至1944年) ,從而開始了那種刺激的互動兩個主要部分的教堂已持續到現在。

Warneck's death virtually coincided with the World Missionary Conference at Edinburgh in 1910. Warneck的死亡幾乎正好與世界傳教在愛丁堡會議於1910年。 Since then, the gatherings of this conference's stepchildren, the International Missionary Council (until Ghana, 1958) and the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism of the World Council of Churches (after New Delhi, 1961), have continued to reflect on a great variety of aspects of the science of mission.自那時以來,聚會本次會議的繼子女,國際傳教理事會(直到加納, 1958年)委員會和世界團和使團的世界基督教協進會(後,新德里, 1961年) ,繼續反映了不同類型各個方面的科學使命。 In recent years nonconciliar evangelicals have increasingly participated in this scholarly debate because of their concern that a biblical theology of the church must make central its missionary calling, a postulate that has been heavily challenged from 1960 onward with the radicalization of ecumenical theology and the increasing secularization of most World Council of Churches member churches in their service in the world.近年來nonconciliar福音日益參加了這次學術辯論,因為他們擔心,一個聖經神學教會必須盡其傳教中央要求,一個假設已嚴重質疑從1960年開始與激進的基督教神學和世俗的增加大多數世界教會理事會成員教會,他們的服務在世界上。

In recent decades literature on mission theory has greatly increased, with popular polarizations of competing philosophies of mission dominating the scene.在近幾十年文學理論的任務也大大增加,與流行的極化競爭的哲學使命佔據了現場。 Evangelicals are still chided for a mission theology that ignores the kingdom of God and focuses almost entirely on eternal life.福音派仍然指責為使命的神學,無視上帝的國和重點幾乎完全永恆的生命。 Catholics have been charged with triumphalism, allegedly because all they had to advocate was a theology with a single focus: the expansion of the church. (However, during the 1970s large sections of this church have been a dominant force in the struggle for social justice in the Third World.) Conciliar Protestants are accused of being so captured by the immediate social and human issues that they take unwarranted liberty with the Bible and bend its texts until evangelism is reconceptualized to mean politics, the church's obligation to evangelize "unreached peoples" is dismissed as irrelevant, and religious encounter is confined to the sort of friendly conversation that eschews all thoughts of conversion and church planting.天主教徒被指控犯有必勝信念,據稱是因為他們都主張是一個神學與一個單一的重點:擴大了教堂。 (然而,在20世紀70年代大部份的教會一直是主導力量的鬥爭中爭取社會正義在第三世界) 。 Conciliar新教徒被指控,以便捕捉到眼前的社會和人的問題,他們採取不正當自由的聖經和彎曲,直至其文傳道是reconceptualized意味著政治,教會的福傳的義務“未被人民”是被視為無關緊要,和宗教遇到的是局限於某種友好的交談是避開了所有的思想轉化和教會播種。

Evangelicals and the Contemporary Debate福音派與當代辯論

In an effort to reduce this cacophony of discordant diversity and develop a coherent basis for a valid scholarly discipline, evangelicals played a prominent role in the organizing of the American Society of Missiology (ASM) at Scarritt College, Nashville, Tennessee, in June of 1972.為了減少這種不協調的不和諧的多樣性和制定一項協調一致的基礎有效的學術紀律,福音派發揮了重要作用的組織,美國Missiology協會(學會)在Scarritt學院,田納西州納什維爾,在1972年6月。 They recognized the validity and essentiality of the perspectives of all segments of the Christian movement; the study of missiology would lack balance and be impoverished if any one perspective were denied a fair and full hearing.他們認識到的有效性和必要性的觀點,各個階層的基督教運動;的研究missiology將缺乏平衡和貧困,如果任何一個角度被剝奪了一個公平和充分的聽證會。 Hence ASM became a community of scholars drawn from conciliar Protestants, Roman Catholics, the Orthodox, and nonconciliar evangelicals.因此,學會成為一個社會學者取自conciliar新教徒,羅馬天主教,東正教,並nonconciliar福音。

Within this forum evangelicals seek to stabilize this emerging discipline with their biblical stress on the Christological center: the gospel has at its heart the affirmation that Jesus Christ alone is Lord and that he offers to enter the lives of all who come to him in repentance and faith.在這個論壇福音尋求穩定這一新興學科的聖經強調基督中心:福音已在其心臟的肯定耶穌基督是上帝單獨和他提供進入生活的所有誰到他的懺悔和信念。 Their overriding concern is the evangelistic task of proclaiming Christ and persuading all peoples everywhere to become his disciples and responsible members of his church.其首要關注的是福音的任務,宣布基督和說服所有人民都將成為他的弟子和負責任的成員,他的教會。 They regard this as a cheif and irreplaceable objective in Christian mission.他們認為這是一個不可替代的主要目標和基督教的使命。 They accent the priority of multiplying structured expressions of the Christian community in which worship can be performed and a supporting koinonia deepened and extended. And they encourage the multiplication of voluntary associations (mission structures) to carry out the great variety of tasks God has given to his people.他們的口音優先乘以結構表達的基督教社會在這禮拜就可以執行和支持koinonia深化和擴大。而且他們鼓勵乘法的自願協會(任務結構)進行各種各樣的任務上帝已給他的人民。

In addition, evangelicals are increasingly responsive, in the face of the contemporary debate and the anguished cries of the oppressed, to the issues stressed by conciliar Protestants as they call all Christians everywhere to take those priority steps that will demonstrate their authenticity before the world as "salt and light."此外,福音正日益敏感,在面對當代辯論和痛苦的哭聲的壓迫,這些問題所強調的conciliar新教徒他們呼籲所有基督徒都採取的優先措施,將展示其真實性之前,世界“鹽和光。 ” Their focus is inevitably ecclesiological.其重點是不可避免ecclesiological 。 They contend that the development of individual and inward faith must be accompanied by a corporate and outward obedience to the cultural mandate broadly detailed in Holy Scripture.他們認為發展的個人和外來信仰必須輔之以企業和外向型服從文化的任務大致詳細聖經。 The world is to be served, not avoided.世界是須送達,而不是可以避免的。 Social justice is to be furthered, and the issues of war, racism, poverty, and economic imbalance must become the active, participatory concern of those who profess to follow Jesus Christ.社會正義是要進一步加強和問題的戰爭,種族主義,貧窮和經濟不平衡必須成為積極性,參與性的關注那些信奉誰遵循耶穌基督。 It is not enough that the Christian mission be redemptive; it must be prophetic as well.這是不夠的基督教使命是救贖;必須先知的。 And it must stress the obligation to express before the world the unity of the people of God.必須強調的義務表示,在世界人民的團結上帝。 The Christian movement must focus on consolidation while reaching out in expansion.基督教運動必須把重點放在鞏固,同時達到了擴張。

Roman Catholic and Orthodox missiologists stress the sacramental, liturgical, and mystical ethos that has enriched the church over the centuries.羅馬天主教和東正教missiologists強調聖禮,禮儀,以及神秘的民族精神具有豐富的教堂數百年。 The issues that most concern them are how the church is to fulfill the Vatican II mandate and its essential function as the "Divine Gift," through manifesting and actualizing in this world the eschaton, the utlimate reality of salvation and redemption; how to guarantee that the state, society, culture, and even nature itself are within the real objects of mission; how to achieve truly indigenous congregations; how to enter into the sequence that produces genuine spiritual formation; how to participate in significant and spiritually productive dialogue with the Asian faiths; and how to guard the uniqueness and finality of Jesus Christ while at the same time recognizing that the Christian movement at its best represents what Berdyaev terms "an unfinished revelation about the absolute significance and calling of man."的問題,他們最關心的是如何教會履行梵二任務和基本職能的“神聖的禮物” ,通過貫徹和實施在這個世界上的eschaton的utlimate現實的拯救和贖回;如何保證國家,社會,文化,甚至大自然本身的實際物體的任務;如何實現真正的土著教會;如何進入序列,產生真正的精神的形成;如何參與重大和精神上的富有成果的對話與亞洲信仰;以及如何防範的獨特性和終局性耶穌基督同時承認,基督教運動在其最能代表什麼別爾佳耶夫的“一個未完成的啟示的絕對意義和要求的人。 ”

Missiologists of these three streams of insight into biblical obligation are committed to listen honestly to each other. Missiologists這三個流洞察聖經有義務致力於誠實地傾聽對方。 And this bodes well for missiology as a still developing "science," "discipline," and "separate field of study."這預示著missiology作為一個仍處於發展的“科學” , “紀律”和“獨立的研究領域。 ” As it becomes more sharply differentiated, and its concepts and tools are better mastered, it will become an increasingly useful instrument to further the understanding and performance of the Christian mission in our day.因為它變得更加急劇分化,它的概念和工具,更好地掌握,這將成為一個越來越有用的工具,以進一步了解和性能的基督教使命在我們一天。

Outstanding American evangelical missiologists have been Rufus Anderson, the nineteenth century popularizer of the indigenous church ("Missions are instituted for the spread of a Scriptural, self propagating Christianity"); Kenneth Scott Latourette and R Pierce Beaver, two outstanding authorities on the history of missions and younger churches; Donald A McGavran, the founder of the Church Growth movement; Eugene A Nida, the expert on Bible translation and the cross cultural communication of the Christian faith; J Herbert Kane, the prolific writer of primary texts on all aspects of the Christian mission; and George W Peters, the creative biblical theologian in the Mennonite tradition.美國福音派傑出missiologists已魯弗安德森, 19世紀popularizer的土著教會( “代表團制定的傳播聖經,自我傳播基督教” ) ;肯尼思斯科特烈和R皮爾斯海狸,兩個懸而未決當局對歷史的特派團和年輕的教會;唐納德阿McGavran的創始人,教會增長運動;尤金的奈達,專家對聖經翻譯和跨文化交際的基督教信仰; J赫伯特凱恩的多產作家初級文本的所有方面基督教使命;和喬治W彼得斯,創造性聖經神學的門傳統。

AF Glasser自動對焦格拉瑟
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
CW Forman, "A History of Foreign Mission Theory in America," in American Missions in Bicentennial Perspective ed.連續福爾曼, “史論外交團在美國, ”在美國代表團的二百週年紀念透視版。 RP Beaver; AF Glasser, "Missiology, What's It all About?"反相海狸;自動對焦格拉瑟, “ Missiology ,什麼是這樣呢? ” Miss Rev 6:3 - 10; J Glazik, "Missiology," in Concise Dictionary of the Christian World Mission; OG Myklebust, The Study of Missions in Theological Education; J Verkuyl, Contemporary Missiology: An Introduction.小姐修訂六點03 -1 0; J G lazik: “ M issiology, ”簡明詞典中的基督教世界團; 1 46/03米克勒比斯特,研究團在神學教育; J V erkuyl,當代M issiology:介紹。


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