Miracle奇蹟

General Information 一般信息

A miracle is an event occurring within human experience in which the hitherto observed operations of nature appear to be overruled or suspended; such events are usually ascribed to the intervention of divine power. In Judaism and Islam miracles are regarded as signs of the omnipotence of God. Many events are recorded in the Old Testament that are considered miraculous. 一個奇蹟,是一件發生在人類經驗中迄今觀察到行動的性質似乎是推翻或中止;此類事件通常為其進行干預的神聖權力。在猶太教和伊斯蘭教的奇蹟被視為跡象,無所不能的上帝。 許多事件都記錄在舊約認為是奇蹟。 Two of these, in particular the Exodus from Egypt and the division of the waters of the Red Sea, became the symbols of all God's deliverances in history, the theme of much Jewish literature, and the hope of the Jewish future. 其中兩項,特別是出埃及和分工水域的紅海,成為了象徵都是上帝的deliverances在歷史上,這一主題的許多猶太文學,並希望猶太人的未來。

The New Testament records numerous miracles, frequently acts of healing, performed by Jesus Christ. They are presented by the gospel writers as gesta Christi, the works of the Messiah, and were regarded as part of the proclamation of the kingdom of God, designed to awaken repentance and turn people toward God rather than to provoke mere wonder. The supreme miracles of Christianity are the Incarnation (God becoming man) and the Resurrection (the raising of Jesus Christ from the dead). 新約全書記錄了許多奇蹟,經常的行為癒合,由耶穌基督。他們提出的福音作家妊娠里斯蒂的作品彌賽亞,以及被視為一部分宣布上帝王國的,旨在醒悟悔過,把人民對上帝,而不是僅僅是想挑起。 奇蹟的最高基督教的道成肉身(神成為人)和復活(提高耶穌基督從死) 。 On these two miracles rests the historic faith of the Christian church. 在這兩個奇蹟在於歷史性的信仰基督教教堂。

Rationalist philosophers, most notably David Hume, have attacked the concept of miracle; Hume argued that a miracle would be a violation of the common course of nature and, therefore, cannot happen.理性的哲學家,最顯著大衛休謨,攻擊概念的奇蹟;休謨認為,一個奇蹟將是違反了共同課程的性質,因此不能發生。 One response to Hume's argument is that it presupposes that human knowledge of "nature's laws" is complete. Saint Augustine defined a miracle not as something "opposed to nature" but as something opposed only to "what is known of nature."一個回應休謨的論點是,它預示著人類知識的“性質的法律”已完成。 聖奧古斯丁定義一個奇蹟而不是什麼“反對的性質” ,但反對的東西只有“什麼是已知的性質。 ”

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Roman Catholic orthodoxy teaches that miracles still take place, as in every previous century. 羅馬天主教的正統教導我們,奇蹟還是發生,因為在每一個上個世紀。 Certain places, such as Lourdes, are associated with miraculous healings.某些地方,如盧爾德,都與奇蹟healings 。 The Roman Catholic church also requires attestation of miracles as a basic condition for Canonization.羅馬天主教會也需要證明的奇蹟作為一個基本條件座談會。 In the Protestant churches and in the Charismatic Movement there has been a recent revival of interest in divine healing.在新教和魅力的運動出現了最近恢復的興趣神聖的癒合。

Charles W. Ranson查爾斯蘭森

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Moule, Charles F., ed., Miracles: Cambridge Studies in Their Philosophy and History (1965); Swinburne, Richard, The Concept of Miracle (1971). Moule ,查爾斯鄧巴,編輯。 ,奇蹟:劍橋大學的研究及其哲學和歷史( 1965年) ;斯威,理查德的概念,奇蹟( 1971年) 。


A List of Miracles Mentioned in the Bible名錄奇蹟中所提到的聖經

General Information 一般信息

An event in the external world brought about by the immediate agency or the simple volition of God, operating without the use of means capable of being discerned by the senses, and designed to authenticate the divine commission of a religious teacher and the truth of his message (John 2:18; Matt. 12:38). It is an occurrence at once above nature and above man.事件在外部世界所帶來的直接機構或簡單的上帝的意志,作業不使用的手段能夠被察覺的感官,並設計驗證委員會的神聖的宗教教師和真理的講話(約2點18分;馬特。 12:38 ) 。這是一個發生一次以上的性質及以上的人。 It shows the intervention of a power that is not limited by the laws either of matter or of mind, a power interrupting the fixed laws which govern their movements, a supernatural power.這表明干預的權力,並不限於法律的任何問題或想法,電力中斷,固定的法律,規範他們的行動,一個超自然的力量。 "The suspension or violation of the laws of nature involved in miracles is nothing more than is constantly taking place around us. One force counteracts another: vital force keeps the chemical laws of matter in abeyance; and muscular force can control the action of physical force. When a man raises a weight from the ground, the law of gravity is neither suspended nor violated, but counteracted by a stronger force. The same is true as to the walking of Christ on the water and the swimming of iron at the command of the prophet. The simple and grand truth that the universe is not under the exclusive control of physical forces, but that everywhere and always there is above, separate from and superior to all else, an infinite personal will, not superseding, but directing and controlling all physical causes, acting with or without them." “暫停或違反自然規律的參與奇蹟,只不過是不斷發生在我們周圍。一個武力對抗另一:重要力量保持法律的化學物質暫時擱置;和肌肉力量也無法控制的行動,身體力量。當一個人提出了一個體重從地面,法律的重心既不是暫停,也不侵犯,而且抵消了更強大的力量。也是如此,以步行基督的水和游泳上的鐵的指揮先知。簡單隆重的真理,即宇宙是沒有根據的獨家控制的身體力量,但無處不在,始終存在著上述情況,分開和優於一切,無限的個人意願,不能取代,但指揮和控制一切身體的原因,採取有或沒有他們。 “

God ordinarily effects his purpose through the agency of second causes; but he has the power also of effecting his purpose immediately and without the intervention of second causes, ie, of invading the fixed order, and thus of working miracles.上帝通常影響他的目的通過該機構的第二原因,但他有權力也影響他的目的立即進行干預的第二個原因,即入侵的固定秩序,從而工作的奇蹟。 Thus we affirm the possibility of miracles, the possibility of a higher hand intervening to control or reverse nature's ordinary movements.因此,我們申明的可能性奇蹟的可能性,另一方面較高的干預以控制或扭轉性質的普通運動。

In the New Testament these four Greek words are principally used to designate miracles:在新約聖經這四個希臘字主要是用於指定的奇蹟:

Miracles are seals of a divine mission.奇蹟是海豹的神聖使命。 The sacred writers appealed to them as proofs that they were messengers of God.神聖的作家呼籲他們作為證明,他們是上帝的使者。 Our Lord also appealed to miracles as a conclusive proof of his divine mission (John 5:20, 36; 10:25, 38).我們的主還呼籲奇蹟作為一個確鑿證據證明他的神聖使命(約5點20分, 36 ; 10時25分, 38歲) 。 Thus, being out of the common course of nature and beyond the power of man, they are fitted to convey the impression of the presence and power of God.因此,目前進行的過程中共同的性質和權力之外的人,他們安裝的印象的存在和力量的上帝。 Where miracles are there certainly God is.凡有奇蹟當然是上帝。 The man, therefore, who works a miracle affords thereby clear proof that he comes with the authority of God; they are his credentials that he is God's messenger.該名男子,因此,誰的作品提供了一個奇蹟從而清楚地證明,他具有權威的上帝,他們是他的證書,他是上帝的使者。 The teacher points to these credentials, and they are a proof that he speaks with the authority of God.老師點,這些憑據,他們是一個證明他說話的權威的上帝。 He boldly says, "God bears me witness, both with signs and wonders, and with diverse miracles."他大膽地說, “上帝的證人負有箱,既標誌和奇觀,並與不同的奇蹟。 ”

The credibility of miracles is established by the evidence of the senses on the part of those who are witnesses of them, and to all others by the testimony of such witnesses.信譽的建立創造奇蹟的證據意識的一部分,這些誰是他們的證人,和所有其他的證詞等證人。 The witnesses were competent, and their testimony is trustworthy.證人有能力,而且他們的證詞是可信的。 Unbelievers, following Hume, deny that any testimony can prove a miracle, because they say miracles are impossible.信教後,休謨,否認任何證詞可以證明一個奇蹟,因為他們說,奇蹟是不可能的。 We have shown that miracles are possible, and surely they can be borne witness to.我們已經表明,奇蹟是可能的,而且肯定可以見證。 Surely they are credible when we have abundant and trustworthy evidence of their occurrence.他們肯定是可信的,我們有豐富的和可信賴的證據表明其發生。 They are credible just as any facts of history well authenticated are credible.他們是可信就像任何歷史事實以及認證是可信的。 Miracles, it is said, are contrary to experience. Of course they are contrary to our experience, but that does not prove that they were contrary to the experience of those who witnessed them.奇蹟,這是說,違背了經驗。他們當然是違反我們的經驗,但是,這並不證明他們是違背的經驗,這些誰目睹他們。 We believe a thousand facts, both of history and of science, that are contrary to our experience, but we believe them on the ground of competent testimony.我們相信1000的事實,雙方的歷史和科學,這是違反我們的經驗,但我們相信他們在地面上的主管的證詞。 An atheist or a pantheist must, as a matter of course, deny the possibility of miracles; but to one who believes in a personal God, who in his wisdom may see fit to interfere with the ordinary processes of nature, miracles are not impossible, nor are they incredible.一名無神論者或pantheist必須作為理所當然的事,否認有可能創造奇蹟,但一個誰相信一個個人的上帝,誰在他的智慧可能會看到合適的干擾普通進程的性質,奇蹟不是不可能的,也不是難以置信的。

Miracles Recorded in the Old Testament奇蹟記錄舊約

Miracles Recorded in the Gospels奇蹟記錄福音

Peculiar to Matthew特有的馬修

Peculiar to Mark特殊標誌

Peculiar to Luke特有的盧克

Peculiar to John特有的約翰

Common to Matthew and Mark共同的馬修和馬克

Common to Matthew and Luke共同的馬修和盧克

Common to Mark and Luke共同的馬克和盧克

Common to Matthew, Mark and Luke共同的馬太,馬克和盧克

Common to Matthew, Mark and John共同的馬太,馬克和約翰

Common to all the evangelists共同所有的福音派

In addition to the above miracles wrought by Christ, there are four miraculous events connected with his life -除了上述的奇蹟所造成的基督,有四個神奇的事件與他的生命-

(Eastman's Bible Dictionary) (伊士曼的聖經字典)

Editor's Note: This listing contains either 35 or 39 distinct Miracles performed by Jesus and witnessed by apparently credible witnesses. Some critics of Christianity suggest that Jesus was merely a Prophet, similar to a number of others throughout history; however, there does not seem to be credible evidence that any of those Prophets were involved with more than one or two Miracles, and in those cases, it seems reasonable that the Lord actually performed such Miracles for specific purposes.編者注:此列表可以包含35個或39個不同的奇蹟由耶穌和目睹了明顯可信的證人。一些批評基督教認為耶穌只是一個先知,類似於其他一些在整個歷史,但是,似乎沒有是可信的證據表明,任何這些預言均涉及超過一個或兩個奇蹟,在這種情況下,似乎合理的主實際完成這種奇蹟用於特定目的。 The large number of Miracles associated with Jesus seems to give evidence toward regarding Jesus as Divine, and not just a Prophet.大量的奇蹟與耶穌似乎提供證據,對有關耶穌是神,並不僅僅是一個先知。

In the thousands of years of the Old Testament, around 55 Miracles were witnessed and described.在數千年的舊約,約55人目睹了奇蹟和描述。 In His three-year public Ministry, and specifically during the final months of it, witnesses saw and recorded at least 35 Miracles He performed.在他為期三年的公共部,特別是在最後幾個月的它,目擊者看到並記錄至少35個奇蹟他的表現。 This seems significant.這似乎顯著。


Miracle奇蹟

Advanced Information 先進的信息

It is sometimes claimed that the culture of the late twentieth century is "post-Christian."人們有時聲稱,文化的二十世紀後期的“後基督教” 。 Those who put forward this claim point out that while the presuppositions and concepts of the historic Christian faith remain intelligible to modern man, they are no longer foundational to our world view.這些誰提出這種說法指出,雖然前提和概念的歷史性的基督教信仰仍然可理解為現代人,他們不再是我們的基本世界觀。 They claim that man has now "come of age," that we now have a scientific and empirical world view that is obviously linked up with reality and which cannot take miracles seriously.他們聲稱,男子現在已經“成熟” ,我們現在有一個科學和經驗認為,世界顯然是連接起來的現實,不能認真考慮的奇蹟。 In fact, this perspective finds the biblical emphasis on miracles to be somewhat offensive.事實上,這種觀點認為,聖經強調的奇蹟有點攻勢。

It is clear that orthodox Christians cannot accept this world view with its suspicion of miracles.很顯然,東正教基督徒不能接受這種世界觀與涉嫌奇蹟。 Belief in miracles lies at the heart of authentic Christian faith.相信奇蹟的關鍵所在真實的基督教信仰。 Without the miracle of the first Easter, Christianity would no doubt long since have passed from the scene, and would certainly not be around to offend the "modern" man.如果沒有奇蹟的第一次復活節,基督教無疑將長期以來已通過現場,將肯定不會得罪周圍的“現代”的人。

It should be equally clear, however, that this world view is a part of the cultural milieu in which modern Christians find themselves. Understanding the role of miracles in the genesis and spread of our faith is therefore an imperative for today's Christian.它同樣也應是明確的,但是,這種觀點是世界的一部分,文化環境中的現代基督徒發現自己。理解的作用奇蹟的起源和傳播我們的信仰,因此當務之急今天的基督徒。

Unlike the modern world, the ancient world was not suspicious of miracles.與當今的世界上,古代世界沒有可疑的奇蹟。 They were regarded as a normal, if somewhat extraordinary, part of life.他們被視為正常,如果有些特殊,生活的一部分。 Ancient people typically believed not only that supernatural powers existed, but also that they intervened in human affairs.古代人們通常認為不僅是神通存在,而且他們在人類干預內政。 Miracles, then, did not present a problem to the early Christians as they attempted to explain and relate their faith to the culture around them.奇蹟,那麼,沒有提出一個問題早日基督信徒,他們試圖解釋和有關他們的信仰的文化他們周圍。

In understanding miracles it is important to bear in mind that the biblical concept of a miracle is that of an event which runs counter to the observed processes of nature.在理解的奇蹟重要的是要記住,聖經概念的一個奇蹟是一個事件違背觀察進程的性質。 The word "observed" is particularly important here.這個詞“觀察”是特別重要的位置。 This was emphasized as early as Augustine, who stated in his City of God that Christians must not teach that miracles are events which run counter to nature, but rather that they are events which run counter to what is known of nature.這是強調儘早奧古斯丁,誰在他的市的上帝,基督徒不能告訴我們,奇蹟是事件背道而馳的性質,而是他們的事件違背了所謂的性質。 Our knowledge of nature is a limited knowledge.我們的知識的性質是有限的知識。 Clearly there may be higher laws which remain unknown to man.顯然有可能更高的法律,仍然是未知的男子。 In any case, miracles are not correctly conceived of as irrational disruptions of the pattern of nature, but as only the known part of that pattern.在任何情況下,奇蹟沒有正確設想不合理中斷的模式的性質,而是作為已知的只有一部分,這一模式。 This understanding of the biblical conception may well erode some of contemporary man's objections to miracles.這種理解聖經的概念很可能會削弱一些當代人的反對奇蹟。 It is purely a corrective to the erroneous view that miracles are complete violations of nature.這純粹是糾正錯誤的認為奇蹟是完整的侵犯性質。

Biblical miracles have a clear objective: they are intended to bring the glory and love of God into bold relief.聖經奇蹟有一個明確的目標:它們的目的是把榮譽和上帝的愛變成大膽的救濟。 They are intended, among other things, to draw man's attention away from the mundane events of everyday life and direct it toward the mighty acts of God.他們的目的是,除其他外,提請人的注意遠離世俗事件的日常生活和它直接走向強大的天災。

In the context of the OT, miracles are viewed as the direct intervention of God in human affairs, and they are unquestionably linked to his redemptive activity on behalf of man.範圍內的催產素,奇蹟被視為直接干預上帝在人類事務中,他們無疑是與他救贖的名義活動的人。 They help to demonstrate that biblical religion is not concerned with abstract theories about God's power, but with actual historical manifestations and experiences of that power.他們幫助,以證明聖經宗教是不涉及抽象的理論對上帝的權力,但與實際的歷史表現和經驗的權力。 The most significant miracle of the OT is God's action on behalf of the Hebrews in opening up the Red Sea as they escaped the Egyptians.最顯著奇蹟的催產素是上帝的行動代表希伯來對外開放紅海因為他們逃脫了埃及人。 This miracle is the centerpiece of Hebrew history and of OT religion.這奇蹟的核心是希伯來歷史和宗教的加時賽。 It is a demonstration of God's power and love in action.這是一個示範上帝的力量和愛的行動。 And this action became the theme of much of the Hebrew religion and literature which came after it.這一行動成為這一主題的許多宗教和希伯來文文獻之後它。 It was the Hebrew view that man does not know the being of God so much as he knows the acts of God.這是希伯來人認為,不知道是上帝,而是他知道上帝的行為。 God is therefore known as he acts on man's behalf, and the miracle at the Red Sea is the paradigm of God's acting.因此,上帝知道他的行為對人的代表,以及奇蹟在紅海的典範上帝的行動。

This emphasis on miracles as the redemptive activity of God is continued in the NT, where they are a part of the proclamation of the good news that God has acted ultimately on man's behalf in the coming of Jesus Christ into history.這側重於創造奇蹟的拯救活動,上帝是繼續在新界,他們在那裡的一部分宣布的好消息,上帝已採取行動最終人的代表在今後的耶穌基督成為歷史。 Miracles are a manifestation of the power that God will use to restore all of creation ot its proper order, to restore the image of God in man to its full expression, and to destroy death.奇蹟是一種表現的權力,上帝將用來恢復所有的創造加時賽其應有的秩序,恢復上帝的形象在人充分表達,並銷毀死亡。 Again we see the theme of biblical religion as centered not on theory but on action.再次,我們看到的主題是聖經的宗教中心而不是理論,而是行動。

The central miracle of the NT, indeed of the Judeo-Christian Scriptures, is the resurrection of Christ.中央奇蹟新台幣,實際上猶太教和基督教聖經,是基督的復活。 Every book in the NT canon either proclaims or assumes the resurrection of Christ on the third day after his crucifixion.每本書在NT佳能要么宣布或承擔基督的復活第三天,他十字架。 It is discussed thoroughly in each Gospel and is declared by Paul in I Cor.這是徹底的討論每一個福音,是由保羅宣布,我肺心病。 15 to be the keystone of Christian faith. The reference to it in I Corinthians is much earlier (in date) than those of the Gospels. 15日至的基石信仰基督教。提及它,我科林蒂安是更早(日期)比福音。

When the ancient acceptance of miracles is considered along with the wholly depressing circumstances surrounding the ending of Jesus' mission on the first Good Friday, it can be seen that the best evidence for the resurrection is the existence, energy, and growth of the early church itself.當古老的接受奇蹟被認為是一起完全令人沮喪的可疑之處結束耶穌的使命的第一耶穌受難節,可以看到,最好的證據是復活的存在,能源和增長的早期教會本身。 After the crucifixion the apostles were utterly defeated persons, and their movement was sputtering to a humiliating stop.在十字架使徒被徹底打敗的人,他們的運動是濺射的屈辱停止。 They were completely without hope after watching Jesus die as a criminal. Yet within a few weeks these same men were boldly proclaiming Christ's resurrection to the very people who had brought about the condemnation of Christ.他們是完全沒有希望在觀看耶穌死於犯罪行為。然而,在幾週內這些相同的男子大膽地宣布基督的復活非常人誰帶來了譴責基督。 They were preaching that Jesus was the risen Lord to any and to all.他們講道,耶穌是復活的主任何和所有。 And these apostles were normal, rational, sane men. Individually and corporately they had undergone a dramatic change after the crucifixion, from depressed, insecure, and despairing men to confident and bold preachers.這些使徒是正常的,合理的,理智的男人。總體單獨和他們發生了巨大的變化後,十字架,從沮喪,不安全,和絕望的男人自信和大膽的傳教士。 Surely it is reasonable, on almost any criterion of reasonableness, to consider that witnessing the risen Christ was what brought about this dramatic change.當然,這是合理的,在幾乎任何標準的合理性,考慮到目睹復活的基督是什麼帶來了戲劇性的變化。 It should also be noted that one of the earliest acts of Christian worship was the breaking of bread with its attendant symbolism of Christ's broken body. This phenomenon would be unexplainable without the knowledge of the risen Christ, unless, that is, one wishes to dismiss the early apostles as irrational masochists, which they clearly were not.還應該指出,一個行為的最早的基督教崇拜是打破麵包以及伴隨而來的象徵基督的破碎的機構。這種現象將是無法解釋不知情的情況下復活的基督,否則,就是一個願駁回早期使徒不合理masochists ,他們顯然沒有。

It should be clear then that the central miracle of NT religion is the resurrection of Christ.應當明確然後,中央奇蹟新台幣宗教是基督的復活。 Without this miracle the early church would not have come into being, and we who live in the twentieth century would no doubt never have heard of the other NT miracles.如果沒有這個奇蹟的早期教堂也不會誕生,以及我們是誰住在20世紀將毫無疑問,從未聽說過的其他新台幣奇蹟。 Indeed, we would probably never have heard of Jesus of Nazareth, who would have been forgotten along with hundreds of other obscure preachers and miracle workers who wandered about the ancient Middle East.事實上,我們可能從來沒有聽說過拿撒勒的耶穌,誰被遺忘了一起數百名其他掩蓋傳教士和奇蹟的工人誰徘徊的古代中東。

The Gospels teach that the significance of all the miracles of Christ is that they are the prophesied works of the Messiah.福音教的意義,所有的奇蹟基督的是,他們的預言作品彌賽亞。 The miracles are signs rather than merely wonderful works.該奇蹟的跡象,而不僅僅是美好的作品。 They are, however, signs only to those who have the spiritual discernment to recognize them as such. Without the enlightenment that accompanies Christian commitment they are only "wonders," or wonderful works, and their true theological significance cannot be recognized.然而,它們的跡象只有那些誰的精神洞察力,以承認他們是這樣。沒有啟示,伴隨著基督教的承諾,他們只是“奇蹟” ,或精彩作品,其真正的神學意義不能得到承認。

Belief in the biblical miracles has always been a central feature of Christian faith, and this remains the case in the twentieth century. Christian faith is informed by the revelation of God to man in Scripture and in the mighty acts recorded there.信仰聖經的奇蹟一直是一個主要特點基督教信仰,這仍然是案件在二十世紀。基督信仰被告知的啟示上帝在聖經的人在強大的行為有記錄。 Christian faith is not to be conformed to the culture around it but is intended to be a transforming influence in the midst of its cultural milieu.基督教信仰是不能符合各地的文化,但目的是成為一個轉化的影響正處於它的文化環境。 The continuing work of the church in the world may itself be viewed as evidence for the truth of the biblical concept of miracle.持續不斷的工作,教會在世界本身可能被視為證據的真實性聖經概念的奇蹟。 Certainly the Christian's experience of God as Redeemer and Sustainer is the experience of miracle.當然,基督教的經驗,作為上帝和救世主Sustainer經驗的奇蹟。 It renders the posture of skepticism untenable.它使得態勢持懷疑態度是站不住腳的。

JD Spiceland約旦第納爾Spiceland
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
CS Lewis, Miracles; CFD Moule, Miracles; HH Farmer, Are Miracles Possible?路易斯,奇蹟;計算流體力學Moule ,奇蹟;時時農民,是奇蹟的可能? HS Box, Miracles and Critics; AC Headlam, The Miracles of the NT; EML Keller, Miracles in Dispute; RM Burns, The Great Debate on Miracles; JB Mozley, Eight Lectures on Miracles.高速,保險箱,奇蹟和批評;交流Headlam ,創造新台幣; EML凱勒,奇蹟在糾紛;產品伯恩斯,大辯論的奇蹟;巴頓奠茲利,八大奇蹟講座。


Mir'acle

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A miracle is an event in the external world brought about by the immediate agency or the simple volition of God, operating without the use of means capable of being discerned by the senses, and designed to authenticate the divine commission of a religious teacher and the truth of his message (John 2:18; Matt. 12:38).一個奇蹟,是一件在外部世界所帶來的直接機構或簡單的上帝的意志,作業不使用的手段能夠被察覺的感官,並設計驗證委員會的神聖的宗教教師和真相他的訊息(約2點18分;馬特。 12:38 ) 。 It is an occurrence at once above nature and above man.這是一個發生一次以上的性質及以上的人。 It shows the intervention of a power that is not limited by the laws either of matter or of mind, a power interrupting the fixed laws which govern their movements, a supernatural power.這表明干預的權力,並不限於法律的任何問題或想法,電力中斷,固定的法律,規範他們的行動,一個超自然的力量。 "The suspension or violation of the laws of nature involved in miracles is nothing more than is constantly taking place around us. One force counteracts another: vital force keeps the chemical laws of matter in abeyance; and muscular force can control the action of physical force. “暫停或違反自然規律的參與奇蹟,只不過是不斷發生在我們周圍。一個武力對抗另一:重要力量保持法律的化學物質暫時擱置;和肌肉力量也無法控制的行動,身體力量。

When a man raises a weight from the ground, the law of gravity is neither suspended nor violated, but counteracted by a stronger force. The same is true as to the walking of Christ on the water and the swimming of iron at the command of the prophet.當一個人提出了一個體重從地面,法律的重心既不是暫停,也不侵犯,而且抵消了更強大的力量。也是如此,以步行基督的水和游泳的鐵在指揮先知。 The simple and grand truth that the universe is not under the exclusive control of physical forces, but that everywhere and always there is above, separate from and superior to all else, an infinite personal will, not superseding, but directing and controlling all physical causes, acting with or without them." God ordinarily effects his purpose through the agency of second causes; but he has the power also of effecting his purpose immediately and without the intervention of second causes, ie, of invading the fixed order, and thus of working miracles. Thus we affirm the possibility of miracles, the possibility of a higher hand intervening to control or reverse nature's ordinary movements.簡單盛大的真理,即宇宙是沒有根據的獨家控制的身體力量,但無處不在,始終存在著上述情況,分開和優於一切,無限的個人意願,不能取代,但指揮和控制所有的物理原因代理或不他們。 “上帝通常影響他的目的通過該機構的第二原因,但他有權力也影響他的目的立即進行干預的第二個原因,即入侵的固定秩序,因此,工作奇蹟。因此,我們申明的可能性奇蹟的可能性,另一方面較高的干預以控制或扭轉性質的普通運動。

In the New Testament these four Greek words are principally used to designate miracles:, (1.) Semeion, a "sign", ie, an evidence of a divine commission; an attestation of a divine message (Matt. 12:38, 39; 16:1, 4; Mark 8:11; Luke 11:16; 23:8; John 2:11, 18, 23; Acts 6:8, etc.); a token of the presence and working of God; the seal of a higher power. (2.) Terata, "wonders;" wonder-causing events; portents; producing astonishment in the beholder (Acts 2:19).在新約聖經這四個希臘字主要是用於指定的奇蹟: ( 1 ) 。 Semeion ,一個“徵” ,即證據的神聖使命,證明了神聖的訊息(瑪特泰12:38 , 39 ; 16:1 , 4 ;馬克8時11分;盧克11:16 ; 23時零八;約翰2時11分, 18日, 23日;行為6時08等) ;象徵性的存在和上帝的工作;的印章的更高的權力。 ( 2 ) 。 Terata , “奇蹟” ;難怪造成事件;徵兆;生產驚訝的旁觀者(使徒2時19 ) 。 (3.) Dunameis, "might works;" works of superhuman power (Acts 2:22; Rom. 15:19; 2 Thess. 2:9); of a new and higher power. ( 3 ) 。 Dunameis , “也許作品; ”工程超人的力量(使徒2點22分;光盤。 15:19 2洛尼基。 2時09分) ;一個新的和更高的功率。 (4.) Erga, "works;" the works of Him who is "wonderful in working" (John 5: 20, 36). ( 4 ) 。普遍, “工程; ”的作品,他誰是“奇妙的工作” (約5 : 20 , 36 ) 。 Miracles are seals of a divine mission.奇蹟是海豹的神聖使命。 The sacred writers appealed to them as proofs that they were messengers of God.神聖的作家呼籲他們作為證明,他們是上帝的使者。 Our Lord also appealed to miracles as a conclusive proof of his divine mission (John 5:20, 36; 10:25, 38).我們的主還呼籲奇蹟作為一個確鑿證據證明他的神聖使命(約5點20分, 36 ; 10:25 , 38 ) 。

Thus, being out of the common course of nature and beyond the power of man, they are fitted to convey the impression of the presence and power of God.因此,目前進行的過程中共同的性質和權力之外的人,他們安裝的印象的存在和力量的上帝。 Where miracles are there certainly God is.凡有奇蹟當然是上帝。 The man, therefore, who works a miracle affords thereby clear proof that he comes with the authority of God; they are his credentials that he is God's messenger.該名男子,因此,誰的作品提供了一個奇蹟從而清楚地證明,他具有權威的上帝,他們是他的證書,他是上帝的使者。 The teacher points to these credentials, and they are a proof that he speaks with the authority of God.老師點,這些憑據,他們是一個證明他說話的權威的上帝。 He boldly says, "God bears me witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles."他大膽地說, “上帝的證人負有箱,既標誌和奇觀,並與潛水員奇蹟” 。 The credibility of miracles is established by the evidence of the senses on the part of those who are witnesses of them, and to all others by the testimony of such witnesses.信譽的建立創造奇蹟的證據意識的一部分,誰是這些證人的人,和所有其他的證詞,這些證人。 The witnesses were competent, and their testimony is trustworthy.證人有能力,而且他們的證詞是可信的。

Unbelievers, following Hume, deny that any testimony can prove a miracle, because they say miracles are impossible.信教後,休謨,否認任何證詞可以證明一個奇蹟,因為他們說,奇蹟是不可能的。 We have shown that miracles are possible, and surely they can be borne witness to.我們已經表明,奇蹟是可能的,而且肯定可以見證。 Surely they are credible when we have abundant and trustworthy evidence of their occurrence.他們肯定是可信的,我們有豐富的和可信賴的證據表明其發生。 They are credible just as any facts of history well authenticated are credible.他們是可信就像任何歷史事實以及認證是可信的。 Miracles, it is said, are contrary to experience.奇蹟,這是說,違背了經驗。 Of course they are contrary to our experience, but that does not prove that they were contrary to the experience of those who witnessed them.當然,它們違反了我們的經驗,但是,這並不證明他們是違背的經驗,這些誰目睹他們。 We believe a thousand facts, both of history and of science, that are contrary to our experience, but we believe them on the ground of competent testimony.我們相信1000的事實,雙方的歷史和科學,這是違反我們的經驗,但我們相信他們在地面上的主管的證詞。 An atheist or a pantheist must, as a matter of course, deny the possibility of miracles; but to one who believes in a personal God, who in his wisdom may see fit to interfere with the ordinary processes of nature, miracles are not impossible, nor are they incredible.一名無神論者或pantheist必須作為理所當然的事,否認有可能創造奇蹟,但一個誰相信一個個人的上帝,誰在他的智慧可能會看到合適的干擾普通進程的性質,奇蹟不是不可能的,也不是難以置信的。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Miracle奇蹟

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Latin miraculum, from mirari, "to wonder"). (拉丁美洲miraculum ,來自mirari , “懷疑” ) 。

In general, a wonderful thing, the word being so used in classical Latin; in a specific sense, the Latin Vulgate designates by miracula wonders of a peculiar kind, expressed more clearly in the Greek text by the terms terata, dynameis, semeia, ie, wonders performed by supernatural power as signs of some special mission or gift and explicitly ascribed to God.一般來說,美好的事情,這個詞被如此使用古典拉丁美洲;在特定意義上說,拉丁語武加大指定的miracula奇蹟特殊實物,更明確地表示,在希臘文的條款terata , dynameis , semeia ,即,奇蹟由超自然的力量為標誌的一些特殊任務或禮品,並明確歸因於上帝。

These terms are used habitually in the New Testament and express the meaning of miraculum of the Vulgate.這些詞的使用習慣在新約和表達的意義miraculum的武加大。 Thus St. Peter in his first sermon speaks of Christ as approved of God, dynamesin, kai terasin kai semeiois (Acts 2:22) and St. Paul says that the signs of his Apostleship were wrought, semeiois te kai terasin kai dynamesin (2 Corinthians 12:12).因此,聖彼得在他的第一次講道講基督為上帝的批准, dynamesin ,偕terasin偕semeiois (使徒2時22分)和聖保羅說,他的跡象,造成了Apostleship , semeiois德偕terasin偕dynamesin ( 2哥林多前書12:12 ) 。 Their united meaning is found in the term erga ie, works, the word constantly employed in the Gospels to designate the miracles of Christ.其含義是聯合國中發現的普遍性即作品中,不斷地從事福音指定基督的奇蹟。 The analysis of these terms therefore gives the nature and scope of the miracle.分析因此,這些條款賦予的性質和範圍的奇蹟。

I. NATURE一,自然保護區

(1) The word terata literally means "wonders", in reference to feelings of amazement excited by their occurrence, hence effects produced in the material creation appealing to, and grasped by, the senses, usually by the sense of sight, at times by hearing, eg, the baptism of Jesus, the conversion of St. Paul. ( 1 )字terata字面上的意思是“奇蹟” ,在談到感情的驚奇興奮的發生,從而影響生產創造的物質吸引力,並抓住了,感官,通常意義上的視線,有時聽證會,如耶穌的洗禮,轉換聖保祿。 Thus, though the works of Divine grace, such as the Sacramental Presence, are above the power of nature, and due to God alone, they may be called miraculous only in the wide meaning of the term, ie, as supernatural effects, but they are not miracles in the sense here understood, for miracles in the strict sense are apparent.因此,儘管作品的神聖的寬限期,如聖事的存在,是上述權力的性質,由於只有上帝,他們可稱為奇蹟般的只在廣泛的含義,即作為超自然的影響,但他們沒有奇蹟發生在這裡的意義理解,奇蹟在嚴格意義是顯而易見的。 The miracle falls under the grasp of the senses, either in the work itself (eg raising the dead to life) or in its effects (eg, the gifts of infused knowledge with the Apostles).奇蹟屬於把握的感覺,無論是在工作本身(如提高死亡的生命) ,或在其影響(例如,饋贈注入知識與使徒) 。 In like manner the justification of a soul in itself is miraculous, but is not a miracle properly so called, unless it takes place in a sensible manner, as, eg, in the case of St.同樣的理由靈魂本身就是奇蹟,但不是一個奇蹟妥善所謂的,除非它發生在一個明智的方式,例如,如街 Paul.保羅。

The wonder of the miracle is due to the fact that its cause is hidden, and an effect is expected other than what actually takes place.奇妙的奇蹟的原因是,其原因是隱藏的,並預期效果以外的其他實際發生。 Hence, by comparison with the ordinary course of things, the miracle is called extraordinary.因此,通過比較正常經營過程中的外,所謂的奇蹟是非凡的。 In analyzing the difference between the extraordinary character of the miracle and the ordinary course of nature, the Fathers of the Church and theologians employ the terms above, contrary to, and outside nature.在分析之間的差別非常性質的奇蹟,並正常經營過程中的性質,父親教會和神學家採用上述條款,違背,和外部的性質。 These terms express the manner in which the miracle is extraordinary.這些條款表示以何種方式是非凡的奇蹟。

A miracle is said to be above nature when the effect produced is above the native powers and forces in creatures of which the known laws of nature are the expression, as raising a dead man to life, eg, Lazarus (John 11), the widow's son (1 Kings 17).一個奇蹟據說是上述性質的影響時,產生上述本地的權力和力量的生物,其中已知的自然規律的表達,提高死人的生命,例如,拉撒路(約11人) ,寡婦兒子(列王紀上17 ) 。 A miracle is said to be outside, or beside, nature when natural forces may have the power to produce the effect, at least in part, but could not of themselves alone have produced it in the way it was actually brought about.一個奇蹟據說是境外,或旁邊,性質自然力量時,可能有能力生產的影響,至少部分,但不能單靠自己產生它的方式實際上是帶來了。 Thus the effect in abundance far exceeds the power of natural forces, or it takes place instantaneously without the means or processes which nature employs.因此,大量的影響遠遠超過了權力的自然力量,或者發生瞬間的手段或過程的性質使用。 In illustration we have the multiplication of loaves by Jesus (John 6), the changing of water into wine at Cana (John 2) -- for the moisture of the air by natural and artificial processes is changed into wine -- or the sudden healing of a large extent of diseased tissue by a draught of water.為了說明我們有繁殖麵包的耶穌(約6人) ,改變水變成葡萄酒在迦南(約翰2 ) -對水分的空氣由自然和人工的過程變成了酒-或突然癒合一個大的程度受損組織的水吃水。 A miracle is said to be contrary to nature when the effect produced is contrary to the natural course of things.一個奇蹟據說是相反的性質時,產生的效果是違反自然的事情。

The term miracle here implies the direct opposition of the effect actually produced to the natural causes at work, and its imperfect understanding has given rise to much confusion in modern thought.這個詞意味著奇蹟在這裡的直接反對,實際生產影響的自然原因在工作場所,其不完善的理解產生了很多混亂的現代思想。 Thus Spinoza calls a miracle a violation of the order of nature (proeverti, "Tract. Theol. Polit.", vi).因此,斯賓諾莎要求一個奇蹟違反秩序的性質( proeverti , “道。 Theol 。 Polit 。 ”六) 。 Hume says it is a "violation" or an "infraction", and many writers -- eg, Martensen, Hodge, Baden-Powell, Theodore Parker -- use the term for miracles as a whole.休姆說,這是一個“侵犯”或“違法” ,和許多作家-例如,馬敦生,霍奇,巴登鮑威爾,西奧多帕克-使用的術語奇蹟作為一個整體。 But every miracle is not of necessity contrary to nature, for there are miracles above or outside nature.每一個奇蹟,但並非必然相反的性質,為有奇蹟以上或境外性質。

Again, the term contrary to nature does not mean "unnatural" in the sense of producing discord and confusion.同樣,長期違反性質並不意味著“不自然”意義上的生產不和諧和混亂。 The forces of nature differ in power and are in constant interaction.自然的力量不同功率,並在不斷的互動。 This produces interferences and counteractions of forces. This is true of mechanical, chemical, and biological forces.這產生干擾和對抗的力量。這是真正的機械,化學和生物部隊。 So, also, at every moment of the day I interfere with and counteract natural forces about me.所以,也,在每一刻的一天,我干擾和自然力量對付我。 I study the properties of natural forces with a view to obtain conscious control by intelligent counteractions of one force against another.我研究性質的自然力量,以期獲得自覺控制智能反擊的一個武力對付另一個。 Intelligent counteraction marks progress in chemistry, in physics -- eg, steam locomotion, aviation -- and in the prescriptions of the physician.智能反擊進展標誌著在化學,物理-例如,蒸汽運動,航空-和處方的醫生。 Man controls nature, nay, can live only by the counteraction of natural forces.人控制的性質,不,不能只生活在對抗自然力量。 Though all this goes on around us, we never speak of natural forces violated.雖然這一切接著在我們周圍,我們從未談論自然力量的侵犯。 These forces are still working after their kind, and no force is destroyed, nor is any law broken, nor does confusion result.這些部隊仍在工作後,實物,任何勢力被摧毀,也沒有任何法律破碎,也不混亂的結果。 The introduction of human will may bring about a displacement of the physical forces, but no infraction of physical processes. Now in a miracle God's action relative to its bearing on natural forces is analogous to the action of human personality.引進人類將可能使流離失所的物理力量,但沒有違反物理過程。現在一個奇蹟上帝的行動相對於其影響的自然力量類似的行動,人的個性。 Thus, eg, it is against the nature of iron to float, but the action of Eliseus in raising the axe-head to the surface of the water (2 Kings 6) is no more a violation, or a transgression, or an infraction of natural laws than if he raised it with his hand.因此,例如,它反對的性質鐵自由浮動,但所採取的行動Eliseus提高斧子頭的水面(列王紀下6 )沒有更多的侵犯,或侵,或違反自然法則,如果不是他提出用他的手。 Again, it is of the nature of fire to burn, but when, eg, the Three Children were preserved untouched in the fiery furnace (Daniel 3) there was nothing unnatural in the act, as these writers use the word, any more than there would be in erecting a dwelling absolutely fireproof.再次,它的性質,火災燒毀,但是當,如三個孩子都是保持不變的火熱熔爐(丹尼爾3 )沒有什麼不正常的行為,因為這些作家使用這個詞,任何超過有將設置絕對住宅防火。 In the one case, as in the other, there was no paralysis of natural forces and no consequent disorder. The extraordinary element in the miracle -- ie an event apart from the ordinary course of things; enables us to understand the teaching of theologians that events which ordinarily take place in the natural or supernatural course of Divine Providence are not miracles, although they are beyond the efficiency of natural forces.在一個案例中,在其他,但沒有癱瘓的自然力量,並沒有因此而混亂。非凡因素的奇蹟-即一個事件除了普通的事情;使我們能夠了解教學中的神學家認為事件通常發生在自然或超自然的神的過程中並不普羅維登斯奇蹟,儘管它們的效率超越自然力量。 Thus, eg, the creation of the soul is not a miracle, for it takes place in the ordinary course of nature.因此,例如,創造的靈魂是不是一個奇蹟,因為它發生在正常經營過程中的性質。 Again, the justification of the sinner, the Eucharistic Presence, the sacramental effects, are not miracles for two reasons: they are beyond the grasp of the senses and they have place in the ordinary course of God's supernatural Providence.同樣,理由的罪人,體的存在,聖事的影響,沒有創造奇蹟的原因有兩個:他們超出了把握理智,他們在正常經營過程中的上帝的超自然的普羅維登斯。

(2) The word dynamis, "power" is used in the New Testament to signify: ( 2 )字生平, “權力”是用於新約,以表明:

the power of working miracles, (en dymamei semeion -- Romans 15:19); mighty works as the effects of this power, ie, miracles themselves (al pleistai dynameis autou -- Matthew 11:20) and expresses the efficient cause of the miracle, ie, Divine power.權力的工作奇蹟的( zh dymamei semeion -羅馬1 5:19) ;偉大工程的影響,這一權力,即自己的奇蹟(基地p leistaid ynameisa utou-馬太11 :20),並表示有效事業奇蹟,即神聖的權力。

Hence the miracle is called supernatural, because the effect is beyond the productive power of nature and implies supernatural agency.因此,所謂的奇蹟是超自然的,因為影響是超越生產力的性質和意味著超自然的機構。 Thus St. Thomas teaches: "Those effects are rightly to be termed miracles which are wrought by Divine power apart from the order usually observed in nature" (Contra Gent., III, cii), and they are apart from the natural order because they are "beyond the order or laws of the whole created nature" (ST I:102:4).因此,聖托馬斯教授: “這些影響是正確的,以被稱為是奇蹟所造成的神聖權力除了通常的順序觀察的性質” (魂斗羅特。 ,三,聯合會) ,他們除了自然秩序,因為他們是“超越了命令或法律的整個創建的性質” (秘口: 102:4 ) 。 Hence dynamis adds to the meaning of terata by pointing out the efficient cause.因此,增加了生平的含義terata指出有效的事業。 For this reason miracles in Scripture are called "the finger of God" (Exodus 8:19, Luke 11:20), "the hand of the Lord" (1 Samuel 5:6), "the hand of our God" (Ezra 8:31).出於這個原因奇蹟聖經是所謂的“上帝的指紋” (出埃及記8點19分,盧克11:20 ) , “手上帝” (撒母耳記上五時06分) , “手我們的上帝” (以斯拉8時31 ) 。 In referring the miracle to God as its efficient cause the answer is given to the objection that the miracle is unnatural, ie, an uncaused event without meaning or place in nature.在談到奇蹟上帝作為其高效率的原因,答案是考慮到反對的是自然的奇蹟,即一個獨立自存的活動沒有意義或地方性質的。 With God as the cause, the miracle has a place in the designs of God's Providence (Contra Gent. III, xcviii).與上帝的原因,奇蹟發生了設計,在上帝的普羅維登斯(魂斗羅特。三, xcviii ) 。 In this sense -- ie, relatively to God -- St. Augustine speaks of the miracle as natural (De Civit. Dei, XXI, viii, n. 2).在這個意義上-即相對上帝-聖奧古斯丁談到自然奇蹟(德C i vit。棣,二十一,八,注2 ) 。

An event is above the course of nature and beyond its productive powers: with regard to its substantial nature, ie, when the effect is of such a kind that no natural power could bring it to pass in any manner or form whatsoever, as eg, the raising to life of the widow's son (Luke 7), or the cure of the man born blind (John 9).一個事件是上述過程的性質和超出其生產能力的權力:就其實質性質,即當效果是這樣一種自然的,沒有力量可以將它通過以任何方式或形式,因為如提高對生活的寡婦的兒子(路7 ) ,或治愈的失明男子出生(約9 ) 。 These miracles are called miracles as to substance (quoad substantiam).這些奇蹟被稱為奇蹟的實質內容( quoad substantiam ) 。

With regard to the manner in which the effect is produced ie, where there may be forces in nature fitted and capable of producing the effect considered in itself, yet the effect is produced in a manner wholly different from the manner in which it should naturally be performed, ie, instantaneously, by a word, eg, the cure of the leper (Luke 5).至於以何種方式產生的影響即,那裡可能是軍隊的性質和裝有能產生的影響考慮本身,還影響生產的方式完全不同的方式,它自然應該執行,即瞬間,由一個詞,如治療台階(路5 ) 。 These are called miracles as to the manner of their production (quoad modum).這些被稱為奇蹟的的方式,其生產( quoad modum ) 。

God's power is shown in the miracle:上帝的力量是表現在奇蹟:

directly through His own immediate action or mediately through creatures as means or instruments.直接通過他自己立即採取行動或mediately通過動物的手段或工具。

In the latter case the effects must be ascribed to God, for He works in and through the instruments; "Ipso Deo in illis operante" (Augustine, "De Civit. Dei", X, xii).在後一種情況的影響必須歸因於上帝,為他的作品中,並通過文書; “當然上帝在illis operante ” (奧古斯丁, “德Civit 。羔羊” ,十,十二) 。 Hence God works miracles through the instrumentality因此,上帝創造奇蹟的作品通過工具

of angels, eg, the Three Children in the fiery furnace (Daniel 3), the deliverance of St. Peter from prison (Acts 12); of men, eg, Moses and Aaron (Exodus 7), Elias (1 Kings 17), Eliseus (2 Kings 5), the Apostles (Acts 2:43), St. Peter (Acts 3:9), St. Paul (Acts 19), the early Christians (Galatians 3:5). In the Bible also, as in church history, we learn that animate things are instruments of Divine power, not because they have any excellence in themselves, but through a special relation to God.天使,如3個孩子中的火熱熔爐(丹尼爾3人) ,解救聖彼得從監獄(使徒12 ) ;的男人,例如,摩西和亞倫(出7人) ,埃利亞斯(列王紀上17 ) , Eliseus (列王紀下5 ) ,使徒(使徒2時43分) ,聖彼得(使徒三時09分) ,聖保羅(使徒19 ) ,早期基督徒(加拉太3時05分) 。聖經此外,正如在教會歷史上,我們了解到,動畫事情文書的神聖權力,這並不是因為他們有任何優秀的本身,而是通過一種特殊關係的上帝。 Thus we distinguish holy relics, eg, the mantle of Elias (2 Kings 2), the body of Eliseus (2 Kings 13), the hem of Christ's garment (Matthew 9), the handkerchiefs of St. Paul (Acts 19:12); holy images, eg, the brazen serpent (Numbers 21) holy things, eg, the Ark of the Covenant, the sacred vessels of the Temple (Daniel 5); holy places, eg, the Temple of Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 6:7), the waters of the Jordan (2 Kings 5), the Pool of Bethsaida (John 5).因此,我們神聖的區分文物,如地幔埃利亞斯(列王紀下2 ) ,身體Eliseus (列王紀下13 ) ,出血基督的服裝(馬太9 ) ,手帕聖保羅(使徒19:12 ) ;聖像,如厚顏無恥蛇( 21號)神聖的東西,例如,約櫃,神聖的船隻寺(丹尼爾5 ) ;聖地,如耶路撒冷的聖殿(歷代誌下6時07 ) ,水域約旦(列王紀下5 ) ,池伯賽大(約5條) 。

Hence the contention of some modern writers, that a miracle requires an immediate action of Divine power, is not true.因此,爭論的一些現代作家,是一個奇蹟,需要立即採取行動的神聖權力,情況並非如此。 It is sufficient that the miracle be due to the intervention of God, and its nature is revealed by the utter lack of proportion between the effect and what are called means or instruments. The word semeion means "sign", an appeal to intelligence, and expresses the purpose or final cause of the miracle.這是不夠的奇蹟是由於上帝的干預,其本質是揭示了極度缺乏之間的比例的影響和所謂手段或工具。字semeion的意思是“標誌” ,呼籲情報,表示目的或最終事業的奇蹟。 A miracle is a factor in the Providence of God over men.一個奇蹟是一個因素在普羅維登斯的上帝超過男性。 Hence the glory of God and the good of men are the primary or supreme ends of every miracle.因此,上帝的榮耀和良好的男性是主要的或最高的兩端每一個奇蹟。 This is clearly expressed by Christ in the raising of Lazarus (John 11), and the Evangelist says that Jesus, in working His first miracle at Cana, "manifested his glory" (John 2:11).這顯然是表示基督提高拉撒路(約11人) ,和傳播者說,耶穌,在他的第一個工作在加拿大的奇蹟“ ,表現他的榮耀” (約2時11分) 。 Therefore the miracle must be worthy the holiness, goodness, and justice of God, and conducive to the true good of men.因此,奇蹟必須無愧于神聖,善良,正義的上帝,有利於真正的好男人。 Hence they are not performed by God to repair physical defects in His creation, nor are they intended to produce, nor do they produce, disorder or discord; do they contain any element which is wicked, ridiculous, useless, or unmeaning.因此,他們不是由上帝來修復身體缺陷,他的創造,也不是意圖產生,也沒有生產,紊亂或不協調;它們包含任何元素是邪惡的,荒謬的,無用的,或unmeaning 。 Hence they are not on the same plane with mere wonders, tricks works of ingenuity, or magic.因此,他們不在同一平面僅奇觀,手法巧妙的作品,或魔術。 The efficacy, usefulness, purpose of the work and the manner of performing it clearly show that it must be ascribed to Divine power. This high standing and dignity of the miracle is shown, eg, in the miracles of Moses (Exodus 7-10), of Elias (1 Kings 18:21-38), of Eliseus (2 Kings 5).療效,用途,目的和工作的方式履行它清楚地表明,它必須為其神聖的權力。這項崇高的地位和尊嚴的奇蹟表明,例如,在摩西奇蹟(出7-10 )的埃利亞斯(列王紀上18:21-38 ) ,對Eliseus (列王紀下5 ) 。 The multitudes glorified God at the cure of the paralytic (Matthew 9:8), of the blind man (Luke 18:43), at the miracles of Christ in general (Matthew 15:31, Luke 19:37), as at the cure of the lame man by St. Peter (Acts 4:21).在眾多榮耀上帝在治療癱瘓(馬太9時08分) ,盲人男子(路加18:43 ) ,在基督的奇蹟一般(馬太15:31 ,路加19:37 ) ,截至治愈的跛腳男子的聖彼得(使徒4時21分) 。 Hence miracles are signs of the supernatural world and our connection with it. In miracles we can always distinguish secondary ends, subordinate, however, to the primary ends.因此,創造奇蹟的跡象超自然的世界和我們聯繫的。奇蹟我們總是能夠區分次要目的,服從,然而,主要的目的。 Thus因而

they are evidences attesting and confirming the truth of a Divine mission, or of a doctrine of faith or morals, eg, Moses (Exodus 4), Elias (1 Kings 17:24).他們的證據,證明和確認事實真相的神聖使命,或學說的信仰或道德的,例如,摩西(出埃及記4 ) ,埃利亞斯(列王紀上17:24 ) 。 For this reason the Jews see in Christ "the prophet" (John 6:14), in whom "God hath visited his people" (Luke 7:16).出於這個原因,猶太人在基督見“先知” (約六時14分) ,在其中“上帝訪問他的人民” (路加7點16分) 。 Hence the disciples believed in Him (John 2:11) and Nicodemus (John 3:2) and the man born blind (John 9:38), and the many who had seen the raising of Lazarus (John 11:45).因此,弟子相信他(約翰2點11分)和尼科迪默斯(約翰3:2 )和男子盲人出生(約9時38 ) ,以及許多誰看到了提高拉撒路(約11:45 ) 。 Jesus constantly appealed to His "works" to prove that He was sent by God and that He is the Son of God, eg, to the Disciples of John (Matthew 11:4), to the Jews (John 10:37).耶穌不斷呼籲他的“作品”來證明他是上帝派來的,而且他是上帝之子,例如,向門徒約翰(馬太11時04分) ,猶太人(約10:37 ) 。 He claims that His miracles are a greater testimony than the testimony of John (John 5:36), condemns those who will not believe (John 15:24), as He praises those who do (John 17:8), and exhibits miracles as the signs of the True Faith (Mark 16:17).他聲稱,他的奇蹟是一個更大的證言證詞比約翰(約翰5點36分) ,譴責那些誰不會相信(約15:24 ) ,作為他稱讚這些誰做(約17點08 ) ,和展品的奇蹟作為標誌的真正的信仰(馬克16:17 ) 。 The Apostles appeal to miracles as the confirmation of Christ's Divinity and mission (John 20:31; Acts 10:38), and St.使徒呼籲奇蹟的確認基督的神和使命(約20:31 ;行為10:38 ) ,和聖 Paul counts them as the signs of his Apostleship (2 Corinthians 12:12). Miracles are wrought to attest true sanctity.保羅作為計數的跡象,他Apostleship (哥林多後書12:12 ) 。奇蹟是造成證明真正的神聖。 Thus, eg, God defends Moses (Numbers 12), Elias (2 Kings 1), Eliseus (2 Kings 13).因此,例如,上帝捍衛摩西(數字12 ) ,埃利亞斯(列王紀下1 ) , Eliseus (列王紀下13 ) 。 Hence the testimony of the man born blind (John 9:30 sqq.) and the official processes in the canonization of saints.因此,證明了男子盲人出生的(約翰9:30 sqq 。 )和官方進程中封聖。

As benefits either spiritual or temporal.由於利益或者精神或時間。 The temporal favours are always subordinate to spiritual ends, for they are a reward or a pledge of virtue, eg the widow of Sarephta (1 Kings 17), the Three Children in the fiery furnace (Daniel 3), the preservation of Daniel (Daniel 5), the deliverance of St.贊成的時間總是服從於精神文明結束,因為他們是獎勵或質押的美德,如遺孀Sarephta (列王紀上17 ) ,三個孩子中的火熱熔爐(丹尼爾3 ) ,保存丹尼爾(丹尼爾5 ) ,聖解脫 Peter from prison (Acts 12), of St. Paul from shipwreck (Acts 27).彼得從監獄(使徒12 ) ,聖保羅從沉船(使徒27 ) 。 Thus semeion, ie, "sign", completes the meaning of dynamis, ie, "[Divine] power".因此semeion ,即“徵” ,完成了生平的意義,即“ [神]的力量” 。 It reveals the miracle as an act of God's supernatural Providence over men.它揭示了奇蹟的行為上帝的超自然的普羅維登斯超過男性。 It gives a positive content to teras, ie, "wonder", for, whereas the wonder shows the miracle as a deviation from the ordinary course of nature, the sign gives the purpose of the deviation.它使一個積極的內容,省長,即“不知道”的,而想表明,作為一個奇蹟偏離正常經營過程中的性質,使該標誌的目的偏差。

This analysis shows that這一分析表明,

the miracle is essentially an appeal to knowledge.奇蹟基本上是一個呼籲知識。 Therefore miracles can be distinguished from purely natural occurrences.因此奇蹟可區別於純粹的自然現象。 A miracle is a fact in material creation, and falls under the observation of the senses or comes to us through testimony, like any natural fact.一個奇蹟是一個事實的物質創造,屬於觀察感官或來我們走過的證詞,像任何自然的事實。 Its miraculous character is known:其奇蹟般的性格是眾所周知的:

from positive knowledge of natural forces, eg, the law of gravity, the law that fire burns.從積極的知識的自然力量,如法律的嚴重性,法律,消防燒傷。 To say that we do not know all the laws of nature, and therefore cannot know a miracle (Rousseau, "Lett. de la Mont.", let. iii), is beside the question, for it would make the miracle an appeal to ignorance.地說,我們不知道所有的法律性質,因此無法知道一個奇蹟(盧梭, “快報。德拉魯阿勃朗峰。 ”讓。三) ,旁邊是問題,因為它將使奇蹟呼籲無知。 I may not know all the laws of the penal code, but I can know with certainty that in a particular instance a person violates one definite law.我也許不知道所有的法律,刑法典,但我可以肯定地知道,在特定情況下一個人違反了一個明確的法律。

From our positive knowledge of the limits of natural forces.從我們的積極的知識的局限性自然力量。 Thus, eg, we may not know the strength of a man, but we do know that he cannot by himself move a mountain.因此,例如,我們可能不知道的力量,一個男人,但我們知道,他不能由自己動議山區。 In enlarging our knowledge of natural forces, the progress of science has curtailed their sphere and defined their limits, as in the law of abiogenesis.在擴大我們的知識的自然力量,進步的科學已經削減其職權範圍內,並確定其局限性,如在法律abiogenesis 。 Hence, as soon as we have reason to suspect that any event, however uncommon or rare it appear, may arise from natural causes or be conformable to the usual course of nature, we immediately lose the conviction of its being a miracle.因此,盡快,我們有理由懷疑任何事件,但少見或罕見的出現,可能出現的自然原因造成的或者是符合通常的課程性質,我們立即失去了信念,它是一個奇蹟。 A miracle is a manifestation of God's power; so long as this is not clear, we hould reject it as such.一個奇蹟是一個體現上帝的力量;這麼長時間,因為這是不明確的,我們hould拒絕它本身。

Miracles are signs of God's Providence over men, hence they are of high moral character, simple and obvious in the forces at work, in the circumstances of their working, and in their aim and purpose.奇蹟的跡象上帝的普羅維登斯超過男性,因此他們品格高尚,簡單和明顯的部隊工作,在這種情況下他們的工作,並在其目標和宗旨。 Now philosophy indicates the possibility, and Revelation teaches the fact, that spiritual beings, both good and bad, exist, and possess greater power than man possesses.現在表明哲學的可能性,並啟示教的事實,即人的精神,無論好的和壞的存在,並擁有更大的權力擁有比人。 Apart from the speculative question as to the native power of these beings, we are certain除了投機性問題,本土力量對這些人,我們確信

that God alone can perform those effects which are called substantial miracles, eg, raising the dead to life, that miracles performed by the angels, as recorded in the Bible, are always ascribed to God, and Holy Scripture gives Divine authority to no miracles less than Divine; that Holy Scripture shows the power of evil spirits as strictly conditioned, eg, testimony of the Egyptian magicians (Exodus 8:19), the story of Job, evil spirits acknowledging the power of Christ (Matthew 8:31), the express testimony of Christ himself (Matthew 24:24) and of the Apocalypse (Revelation 9:14).上帝只有這樣才能履行這些影響,被稱為大量的奇蹟,例如,提高了死亡的生命,這一奇蹟是由天使的記錄,在聖經中,總是歸因於上帝,聖經給神聖的權力,沒有奇蹟少不是神,這表明聖經的權力辟邪的嚴格條件,例如,證明了埃及魔術師(出埃及記8點19分) ,故事的工作,邪靈承認的權力基督(馬太8點31分) ,在證詞表示,基督自己(馬太24:24 )和啟示錄(啟示9點14分) 。 Granting that these spirits may perform prodigies -- ie, works of skill and ingenuity which, relatively to our powers, may seem to be miraculous -- yet these works lack the meaning and purpose which would stamp them as the language of God to men.給予這些精神履行神童-即作品的技巧和智慧的,相對的權力,似乎是奇蹟-但這些作品缺乏意義和目的將其作為郵票的語言上帝男子。

II.二。 ERRORS誤差

Deists reject miracles, for they deny the Providence of God. Deists拒絕奇蹟,因為他們否認普羅維登斯的上帝。 Agnostics also, and Positivists reject them: Comte regarded miracles as the fruit of the theological imagination.不可知論者也,和實證主義拒絕:孔德視為奇蹟的成果,神學的想像力。 Modern Pantheism has no place for miracles.現代泛神論沒有創造奇蹟的地方。 Thus Spinoza held creation to be the aspect of the one substance, ie, God, and, as he taught that miracles were a violation of nature, they would therefore be a violation of God.因此,斯賓諾莎舉行將創造方面的一個內容,即上帝,和,他告訴我們,奇蹟違反了性質,因此違反了上帝。 The answer is, first that Spinoza's conception of God and nature is false and, secondly, that in fact miracles are not a violation of nature.答案是,第一,斯賓諾莎的上帝概念和性質是虛假的,第二,實際上奇蹟是不違反的性質。 To Hegel creation is the evolutive manifestation of the one Absolute Idea, ie, God, and to the neo-Hegelians (eg, Thos. Green) consciousness is identified with God; therefore to both a miracle has no meaning.要建立黑格爾的演化體現了一個絕對的理念,即上帝,和新黑格爾派(例如,茨艾倫。綠)意識是與上帝確定;因此,既是一個奇蹟已沒有意義。

Erroneous definitions of the supernatural lead to erroneous definitions of the miracle.錯誤的定義超自然導致錯誤的定義奇蹟。 Thus因而

Bushnell defines the natural to be what is necessary, the supernatural to be what is free; therefore the material world is what we call nature, the world of man's life is supernatural.布什內爾定義自然是什麼是必要的,超自然的是什麼自由,因此物質世界就是我們所稱的性質,世界上的人的生命是超自然的。 So also Dr. Strong ("Baptist Rev.", vol. I, 1879), Rev. CA Row ("Supernat. in the New Test.", London, 1875).所以還強博士( “浸信會牧師” ,第二卷。一, 1879年) ,加利福尼亞州牧師行( “ Supernat 。在新的考驗。 ”倫敦, 1875年) 。 In this sense every free volition of man is a supernatural act and a miracle. The natural supernaturalism proposed by Carlyle, Theodore Parker, Prof. Pfleiderer, and, more recently, Prof. Everett ("The Psychologic Elem. of Relig. Faith", London and New York, 1902), Prof. Bowne ("Immanence of God", Boston and New York, 1905), Hastings ("Diction. of Christ and the Gospels", sv "Miracles").在這個意義上每個自由意志的人是一種超自然的行為,並創造了奇蹟。自然超自然提出的凱雷,西奧多帕克教授,弗萊德爾,以及最近,教授埃弗里特( “的心理元素。的Relig 。信仰” ,倫敦和紐約, 1902年) ,教授鮑恩( “內在的神” ,波士頓和紐約, 1905年) ,黑斯廷斯( “辭。基督和福音” ,希沃特“奇蹟” ) 。 Thus the natural and the supernatural are in reality one: the natural is its aspect to man, the supernatural is its aspect to God. The "Immediate theory", that God acts immediately without second causes, or that second causes, or laws of nature, must be defined as the regular methods of God's acting.因此,自然和超自然的現實:那自然是男子方面,超自然的方面是它的上帝。 “立即理論” ,即上帝的行為立即在第二個原因,或者說第二個原因,或法律性質必須界定為經常方法,上帝的行動。 This teaching is combined with the doctrine of evolution. The "relative" theory of miracles is by far the most popular with non-Catholic writers.這種教學相結合的理論的演變。的“親屬”理論的奇蹟是目前最流行的非天主教作家。 This view was originally proposed to hold Christian miracles and at the same time hold belief in the uniformity of nature.這一觀點最初提議舉行的奇蹟和基督教在同一時間舉行的信念,統一的性質。 Its main forms are three.其主要形式有三種。

(1) The mechanical view of Babbage (Bridgewater Treatises) ( 1 )機械鑑於巴貝奇(布里奇沃特論文)

In Babbage's view, which was later advanced by the Duke of Argyll (Reign of Law), nature is presented as a vast mechanism wound up in the beginning and containing in itself the capacity to deviate at stated times from its ordinary course.在巴貝奇的看法,後來先進的阿蓋爾公爵(執政的法) ,自然是作為一個巨大的機制清盤的開始和遏制本身的能力,在背離時候指出其正常過程。 The theory is ingenious, but it makes the miracle a natural event.該理論是巧妙的,但它使一個自然的奇蹟事件。 It admits the assumption of opponents of miracles, viz., that physical effects must have physical causes, but this assumption is contradicted by common facts of experience, eg, will acts on matter.它承認,擔任反對者的奇蹟,即。 ,即物理效應必須有身體的原因,但這一假設是違背事實的共同的經驗,例如,將行為的問題。

(2) The "unknown" law of Spinoza ( 2 ) “未知”的法律斯賓諾莎

Spinoza taught that the term miracle should be understood with reference to the opinions of men, and that it means simply an event which we are unable to explain by other events familiar to our experience.斯賓諾莎告訴我們,奇蹟的任期應理解參考的意見的人,這意味著單純的事件,我們無法解釋的其他活動,熟悉我們的經驗。 Locke, Kant, Eichhorn, Paulus Renan hold the same view.洛克,康德,艾希霍恩,保盧斯勒南舉辦了同樣的看法。 Thus Prof. Cooper writes "The miracle of one age becomes the ordinary working of nature in the next" ("Ref. Ch. R.", July, 1900).因此,庫珀教授寫道, “奇蹟的年齡成為一個普通的工作的性質在未來” ( “參。膽固醇。河” , 7月, 1900年) 。 Hence a miracle never happened in fact, and is only a name to cover our ignorance.因此,一個奇蹟從來沒有發生過的事實,只是一個名稱,以支付我們的無知。 Thus Matthew Arnold could claim that all Biblical miracles will disappear with the progress of science (Lit. and Bible) and M. Muller that "the miraculous is reduced to mere seeming" (in Rel., pref., p. 10).因此,馬修阿諾德可以聲稱,所有聖經的奇蹟會消失的進展情況科學( Lit.和聖經)和M.穆勒說: “奇蹟歸結為僅僅是表面上” (在相對。 ,縣。 ,第10頁) 。 The advocates of this theory assume that miracles are an appeal to ignorance.主張這一理論假設,是一個奇蹟呼籲無知。

(3) The "higher law" theory of Argyll of "Unseen Universe" ( 3 ) “高法”理論的阿蓋爾的“不見宇宙”

Trench, Lange (on Matt., p. 153), Gore (Bampton Lect, p. 36) proposed to refute Spinoza's claim that miracles are unnatural and productive of disorder.海溝,蘭格(關於馬特。 ,第153頁) ,戈爾(班普頓Lect ,第36頁)提出反駁斯賓諾莎的說法是不自然的奇蹟和生產力的障礙。 Thus with them the miracle is quite natural because it takes place in accordance with laws of a higher nature.因此,與他們的奇蹟是很自然的,因為它發生在依照法律較高的性質。 Others -- eg, Schleiermacher and Ritschl -- mean by higher law, subjective religious feeling.其他-例如,施和R itschl-意味著更高的法律,主觀的宗教感情。 Thus, to them a miracle is not different from any other natural event; it becomes a miracle by relation to the religious feeling.因此,他們一個奇蹟不是不同於任何其他自然事件,它成為一個奇蹟有關的宗教感情。 A writer in "The Biblical World" (Oct., 1908) holds that the miracle consists in the religious significance of the natural event in its relation to the religious appreciation as a sign of Divine favour.作家在“聖經的世界” ( 10月, 1908年)認為,奇蹟是在宗教意義的自然事件及其與宗教讚賞,以示神聖的贊成票。 Others explain higher law as a moral law, or law of the spirit.其他較高的法律解釋作為一個道德法律或法律的精神。 Thus the miracles of Christ are understood as illustrations of a higher, grander, more comprehensive law than men had yet known, the incoming of a new life, of higher forces acting according to higher laws as manifestations of the spirit in the higher stages of its development.因此,基督的奇蹟是理解為插圖較高的,宏大的,更全面的法律比男人還沒有眾所周知,傳入一個新的生命,較高的部隊按更高的法律表現的精神在更高階段的發展。 The criticism of this theory is that miracles would cease to be miracles: they would not be extraordinary, for they would take place under the same conditions.批評這個理論是,奇蹟將不再是奇蹟:他們將不尋常的,因為他們將在同樣的條件下。 To bring miracles under a law not yet understood is to deny their existence.為了使下創造奇蹟的法律尚未理解就是否認它們的存在。 Thus, when Trench defines a miracle as "an extraordinary event which beholders can reduce to no law with which they are acquainted", the definition includes hypnotism and clairvoyance.因此,當海溝定義一個奇蹟是一個“非常事件beholders可以減少對沒有法律,他們熟悉”的定義包括催眠和洞察力。 If by higher law we mean the high law of God's holiness, then a miracle can be referred to this law, but the higher law in this case is God Himself and the use of the term is apt to create confusion.如果更高的法律是指法律的高度上帝的聖潔,然後一個奇蹟可以提到這一法律,但較高的法律在這種情況下,是上帝和一詞的使用是容易造成混亂。

III.三。 ANTECEDENT IMPROBABILITY先行不大可能

The great problem of modern theology is the place and value of miracles.偉大的問題是現代神學的地位和價值的奇蹟。 In the opinion of certain writers, their antecedent improbability, based on the universal reign of law is so great that they are not worthy of serious consideration.在輿論的某些作家,其前身不大可能的基礎上,普遍統治的法律是如此之大,他們不值得認真考慮。 Thus his conviction of the uniformity of nature led Hume to deny testimony for miracles in general, as it led Baur, Strauss, and Renan to explain the miracles of Christ on natural grounds.因此,他的信念的統一領導性質休謨拒絕作證的奇蹟一般,因為它導致鮑爾,史特勞斯及雷南解釋奇蹟耶穌基督對自然的理由。 The fundamental principle is that whatever happens is natural, and what is not natural does not happen.最根本的原則是,不管發生什麼事是很自然的,什麼是不自然不會發生。 On belief in the uniformity of nature is based the profound conviction of the organic unity of the universe, a characteristic trait of nineteenth-century thought.論信仰的一致性性質是基於深刻的信念,有機統一的宇宙,一個特徵性狀的十九世紀的思想。 It has dominated a certain school of literature, and, with George Eliot, Hall Came, and Thomas Hardy, the natural agencies of heredity, environment, and necessary law rule the world of human life.它主宰某學校的文獻,並與喬治艾略特,大廳來了,哈代,自然機構的遺傳,環境,法律和必要的統治世界的人的生命。 It is the basic principle in modern treatises on sociology.這是基本原則在現代的社會學論文。

Its chief exponent is science philosophy, a continuation of the Deism of the eighteenth century without the idea of God, and the view herein presented, of an evolving universe working out its own destiny under the rigid sway of inherent natural laws, finds but a thin disguise in the Pantheistic conception, so prevalent among non-Catholic theologians, of an immanent God, who is the active ground of the world-development according to natural law -- ie, Monism of mind or will.它的主要指數是科學哲學,繼續進行自然神論十八世紀的想法沒有上帝,並認為在此,提出了宇宙演變出自己的命運下的剛性動搖固有的自然法則,認定,但薄偽裝在Pantheistic概念,所以中普遍存在非天主教神學家,一個內在的上帝,誰是積極的地面世界的發展按照自然法則-即一元的想法或意願。 This belief is the gulf between the old and the modern school of theology.這種信念之間的鴻溝歲和現代學校的神學。 Max Muller finds the kernel of the modern conception of the world in the idea that "there is a law and order in everything, and that an unbroken chain of causes and effects holds the whole universe together" ("Anthrop. Relig.", pref., p. 10).馬克斯繆勒認為,核心的現代觀念世界的想法“有一個法律和秩序的一切,而且教的原因和後果,認為整個宇宙共同” ( “ Anthrop 。 Relig 。 ”縣。 ,第10頁) 。 Throughout the universe there is a mechanism of nature and of human life, presenting a necessary chain, or sequence, of cause and effect, which is not, and cannot be, broken by an interference from without, as is assumed in the case of a miracle.在整個宇宙中有一個機制的性質和人的生命,提出了必要的鏈,或序列,因果關係,這不,不能,打破了一個沒有干擾,這是假設的情況下,奇蹟。 This view is the ground of modern objections to Christianity, the source of modern scepticism, and the reason for a prevailing disposition among Christian thinkers to deny miracles a place in Christian evidences and to base the proof for Christianity on internal evidences alone.這種觀點是現代地面反對基督教,源現代持懷疑態度,原因為處置中普遍存在的基督教思想家否認奇蹟的地方在基督教的證據,並依據證明基督教的內部就有證據。

Criticism批評

(1) This view ultimately rests upon the assumption that the material universe alone exists. ( 1 )這種觀點最終取決於假設,即宇宙的物質單獨存在。 It is refuted:這是反駁:

by proving that in man there is a spiritual soul totally distinct from organic and inorganic existence, and that this soul reveals an intellectual and moral order totally distinct from the physical order; by inferring the existence of God from the phenomena of the intellectual, the moral, and the physical order.證明在男人有一種精神的靈魂完全有別於有機和無機存在的,而這靈魂發現,智力和道德秩序完全不同於物理秩序;的推斷上帝存在的現象,在智力,道德,物理秩序。

(2) This view is also based on an erroneous meaning of the term nature. ( 2 )這種觀點也是基於一個錯誤的含義性質。 Kant made a distinction between the noumenon and the phenomenon of a thing, he denied that we can know the noumenon, ie, the thing in itself; all we know is the phenomenon, ie, the appearance of the thing.康德區分了本體和現象的事,他否認的是,我們可以知道本體,即事情本身;我們都知道的現象,即出現的事情。 This distinction has profoundly influenced modern thought.這種區別已經深刻影響現代思想。 As a Transcendental Idealist, Kant denied that we know the real phenomenon; to him only the ideal appearance is the object of the mind.作為一個先驗的理想主義者,康德否認的是,我們知道真正的現象;他的理想不僅是外觀的對象的思想。 Thus knowledge is a succession of ideal appearances, and a miracle would be an interruption of that succession.因此,知識是一種理想的繼承露面,並一個奇蹟將是一個中斷的繼承。 Others, ie, the Sense-School (Hume, Mill, Bain, Spencer, and others), teach that, while we cannot know the substance or essences of things, we can and do grasp the real phenomena.還有,即感知學校(休謨,軋機,貝恩,斯賓塞,和其他人) ,教授,雖然我們無法知道物質或本質的東西,我們可以做的真正掌握的現象。 To them the world is a phenomenal world and is a pure coexistence and succession of phenomena, the antecedent determines the consequent.他們的世界是一個驚人的世界,是一個純共存和繼承的現象,先行確定相應。 In this view a miracle would be an unexplained break in the (so-called) invariable law of sequence, on which law Mill based his Logic.在此檢視一個奇蹟將是一種原因不明的打破(所謂)不變的法律序列,其中法律軋機他的邏輯基礎。 Now we reply that the real meaning of the word nature includes both the phenomenon and the noumenon.現在,我們的答复是,真正的含義包括兩個性質的現象和本體。 We have the idea of substance with an objective content.我們的思想與物質的客觀內容。 In reality the progress of science consists in the observation of, and experimentation upon, things with a view to find out their properties or potencies, which in turn enable us to know the physical essences of the various substances.在現實的進展,包括在科學的觀察和試驗後,事情,以期找出他們的財產或效力,這反過來又使我們能夠知道的物理本質的各種物質。

(3) Through the erroneous conception of nature, the principle of causality is confounded with the law of the uniformity of nature. ( 3 )通過錯誤的概念,性質,原則是混淆因果關係與法律的統一性的性質。 But they are absolutely different things.但是,他們是絕對不同的事情。 The former is a primary conviction which has its source in our inner consciousness.前者是首要信念,其淵源在我們的內心意識。 The latter is an induction based upon a long and careful observation of facts: it is not a self-evident truth, nor is it a universal and necessary principle, as Mill himself has shown (Logic, IV, xxi).後者是一個感應根據長期和仔細觀察的事實:這不是一個不言而喻的事實,它也不是一個普遍和必要的原則,軋機自己已經顯示(邏輯,四, XXI )號決議。 In fact uniformity of nature is the result of the principle of causation.事實上統一的性質是由於原則的因果關係。

(4) The main contention, that the uniformity of nature rules miracles out of consideration, because they would imply a break in the uniformity and a violation of natural law, is not true. ( 4 )的主要論點,即統一的規則奇蹟性質的考慮,因為它們意味著打破統一性和違反自然規律,是不正確的。 The laws of nature are the observed modes or processes in which natural forces act.自然規律是觀察模式或過程中自然力量的行為。 These forces are the properties or potencies of the essences of natural things.這些部隊的性質或效力的本質自然的事情。 Our experience of causation is not the experience of a mere sequence but of a sequence due to the necessary operation of essences viewed as principles or sources of action.我們的經驗是沒有因果關係的經驗,僅僅序列,而且序列由於必要的運作本質視為原則或來源的行動。

Now essences are necessarily what they are and unchangeable, therefore their properties, or potencies, or forces, under given circumstances, act in the same way.現在的本質必然是他們的和不可改變的,因此他們的財產,或效力,或力量,根據特定情況下,採取同樣的方式。 On this, Scholastic philosophy bases the truth that nature is uniform in its action, yet holds that constancy of succession is not an absolute law for the succession is only constant so long as the noumenal relations remain the same.在此,士林哲學基礎的事實,性質是一致的行動,但認為恆定的繼承並不是絕對的法律繼承只有不斷只要本體關係保持不變。 Thus Scholastic philosophy, in defending miracles, accepts the universal reign of law in this sense, and its teaching is in absolute accord with the methods actually pursued by modern science in scientific investigations.因此,士林哲學,在捍衛奇蹟,普遍接受的法律統治在這個意義上,它的教學是在絕對符合實際的方法推行現代科學中的科學調查。 Hence it teaches the order of nature and the reign of law, and openly declares that, if there were no order, there would be no miracle.因此,教導秩序的性質和統治的法律,並公開宣稱,如果沒有秩序,就不會有奇蹟。

It is significant that the Bible appeals constantly to the reign of law in nature, while it attests the actual occurrence of miracles.值得注意的是,聖經不斷呼籲統治的法律性質,而它證明實際發生的奇蹟。 Now human will, in acting on material forces, interferes with the regular sequences, but does not paralyze the natural forces or destroy their innate tendency to act in a uniform manner.現在人的意志,在行事的物質力量,干擾了正常序列,但並不癱瘓或自然力量摧毀其與生俱來的傾向,採取以統一的方式。 Thus a boy, by throwing a stone into the air, does not disarrange the order of nature or do away with the law of gravity.因此,一個男孩,扔一塊石頭到空氣中,不disarrange秩序的性質或廢除法律的嚴重性。 A new force only is brought in and counteracts the tendencies of the natural forces, just as the natural forces interact and counteract among themselves, as is shown in the well-known truths of the parallelogram of forces and the distinction between kinetic and potential energy.一種新的力量不僅是引進和對抗的傾向自然力量,就像自然力量的互動和它們之間的對抗,這是顯示在眾所周知的真理的平行四邊形的力量和運動之間的區別和潛在能量。 The analogy from man's act to God's act is complete as far as concerns a break in the uniformity of nature or a violation of its laws.這個比喻從人的行為,以上帝的行為是完全盡可能關注打破統一的性質或違反了法律。 The extent of the power exerted does not affect the point at issue.多大的權力施加並不影響點的問題。 Hence physical nature is presented as a system of physical causes producing uniform results, and yet permits the interposition of personal agency without affecting its stability.因此,物理性質,提出作為一個系統的物理原因產生統一的結果,但允許個人間機構在不影響其穩定性。

(5) The truth of this position is so manifest that Mill admits Hume's argument against miracles to be valid only on the supposition that God does not exist for, he says, "a miracle is a new effect supposed to be produced by the introduction of a new cause . . . of the adequacy of that cause, if present, there can be no doubt" (Logic, III, xxv). ( 5 )真理的這一立場是如此表明,軋機承認休謨的觀點對奇蹟的有效期只有在假定上帝不存在,他說, “一個奇蹟是一種新的效應應該產生的引進一個新的事業。 。 。的充足的原因,如果存在,毫無疑問“ (邏輯,三,二十五) 。 Hence, admitting the existence of God, Hume's "uniform sequence" does not hold as an objection to miracles.因此,承認上帝存在,休謨的“統一序列”並不作為一個反對奇蹟。 Huxley also denies that physicists withhold belief in miracles because miracles are in violation of natural laws and he rejects the whole of this line of argument ("Some Controverted questions", 209; "Life of Hume", 132), and holds that a miracle is a question of evidence pure and simple.赫胥黎還否認物理學家不相信奇蹟,因為奇蹟是違反自然規律和他拒絕整個這種論點( “有些Controverted問題” , 209 ; “生命的休姆” , 132 ) ,並認為一個奇蹟問題是證據純粹和簡單。 Hence the objection to miracles on the ground of their antecedent improbability has been abandoned. "The Biblical World" (Oct., 1908) says "The old rigid system of 'Laws of Nature' is being broken up by modern science. There are many events which scientists recognize to be inexplicable by any known law. But this inability to furnish a scientific explanation is no reason for denying the existence of any event, if it is adequately attested. Thus the old a priori argument against miracles is gone."因此,反對奇蹟在地面上的先行不大可能已被放棄。 “聖經的世界” ( 10月, 1908年)說: “舊的僵化體制的'自然法則'是被打破了現代科學。有很多事件科學家承認是令人費解的任何已知的法律。但是,這不能提供一個科學的解釋是沒有理由否認存在任何情況下,如果有足夠的證據證明。因此,舊的先驗的論點是對的奇蹟了。 “ Thus in modern thought the question of the miracle is simply a question of fact.因此,在現代思想的問題的奇蹟只是一個事實問題。

IV.四。 PLACE AND VALUE OF MIRACLES IN THE CHRISTIAN VIEW OF THE WORLD位置和價值,創造奇蹟的基督教認為世界

As the great objection to miracles really rests on narrow and false philosophical views of the universe, so the true world-view is necessary to grasp their place and value.作為偉大的反對真正的奇蹟在於狹隘的和虛假的哲學觀點的宇宙,所以真正的世界的看法是要把握自己的位置和價值。

Christianity teaches that God created and governs the world.基督教教導我們,上帝創造和規範的世界。 This government is His Providence.這是他的普羅維登斯。 It is shown in the delicate adjustment and subordination of the tendencies proper to material things, resulting in the marvellous stability and harmony which prevail throughout the physical creation, and in the moral order, which through conscience, is to guide and control the tendencies of man's nature to a complete harmony in human life.這是顯示在微妙的調整和退讓的傾向恰當的物質的東西,造成奇妙的穩定與和諧的主導整個身體創造,並在道德秩序,它通過良心,是引導和控制傾向人的性質完全和諧的人的生命。 Man is a personal being, with intelligence and free-will, capable of knowing and serving God, and created for that purpose.人是個人的,與情報和自由意志,能夠知道和服務的上帝,並建立用於這一目的。 To him nature is the book of God's work revealing the Creator through the design visible in the material order and through conscience, the voice of the moral order based in the very constitution of his own being.他自然是這本書上帝的工作揭示了造物主的設計通過有形的物質秩序,並通過良心,聲音的道德秩序,其基礎是非常憲法自己的福祉。 Hence the relation of man to God is a personal one.因此,關係人上帝是個人的。 God's Providence is not confined to the revelation of Himself through His works.上帝的普羅維登斯不僅限於揭露自己通過他的作品。 He has manifested Himself in a supernatural manner throwing a flood of light on the relations which should exist between man and Himself.他已經表現出自己在一個超自然的方式投擲洪水輕的關係,這種關係之間應該存在男子和他本人。 The Bible contains this revelation, and is called the Book of God's Word.聖經包含此啟示,是所謂的圖書上帝的詞。 It gives the record of God's supernatural Providence leading up to the Redemption and the founding of the Christian Church.它記錄上帝的超自然的普羅維登斯導致贖回並成立了基督教。 Here we are told that beyond the sphere of nature there is another realm of existence -- the supernatural, peopled by spiritual beings and departed souls.在這裡,我們被告知,超出範圍的性質還有另一種境界的存在-超自然,精神文明,這裡的人離去的靈魂。 Both spheres, the natural and the supernatural, are under the overruling Providence of God.這兩個領域,自然和超自然,下推翻普羅維登斯的上帝。 Thus God and man are two great facts.因此,上帝和人類是兩個偉大的事實。 The relation of the soul to its Maker is religion.關係的靈魂其製造者是宗教。

Religion is the knowledge, love, and service of God; its expression is called worship, and the essence of worship is prayer.宗教是知識,愛,天主服務的;其表達被稱為崇拜,和本質的禮拜祈禱。 Thus between man and God there is constant intercourse, and in God's Providence the appointed means of this intercourse is prayer.因此,人與神有不斷的交往,並在上帝的普羅維登斯的任命意味著這一關係是祈禱。 By prayer man speaks to God in acts of faith, hope, love, and contrition and implores His aid.男子祈禱上帝說話行為的信念,希望,愛情和懺悔,並懇請他的援助。 In answer to prayer God acts on the soul by His grace and, in special circumstances, by working miracles.在回答祈禱上帝行為的靈魂由他的恩典,並在特殊情況下,通過努力創造奇蹟。 Hence the great fact of prayer, as the connecting link of man to God, implies a constant interference of God in the life of man.因此,偉大的事實,祈禱,作為承上啟下的男子上帝,意味著不斷干涉上帝生活的人。 Therefore in the Christian view of the world, miracles have a place and a meaning.因此,在基督教的世界觀,奇蹟有一個位置和意義。 They arise out of the personal relation between God and man.它們產生的個人之間的關係上帝和人類。 The conviction that the pure of heart are pleasing to God, in some mysterious way, is worldwide; even among the heathens pure offerings only are prepared for the sacrifice.的信念,即純粹的心是令人高興的上帝,在一些神秘的方式,是世界性的;即使是純潔的異教徒的產品不僅是準備犧牲。

This intimate sense of God's presence may account for the universal tendency to refer all striking phenomena to supernatural causes.這種親密的感覺上帝的存在,可能佔的普遍趨勢,是指所有以驚人的超自然現象的原因。 Error and exaggeration do not change the nature of the belief founded in the abiding conviction of the Providence of God.錯誤和誇大不改變性質的信仰成立於守法的信念的普羅維登斯的上帝。 To this belief St. Paul appealed in his discourse to the Athenians (Acts 17).為了這一信念聖保祿呼籲在他的話語在雅典(使徒17 ) 。 In the miracle, therefore, God subordinates physical nature to a higher purpose, and this higher purpose is identical with the highest moral aims of existence.在創造奇蹟,因此,上帝的下屬物理性質,以更高的目的,這更高的目標是相同的最高道德目標的存在。 The mechanical view of the world is in harmony with the teleological, and when purpose exists, no event is isolated or unmeaning.機械對世界的看法是在和諧的目的,當目的存在,沒有任何事件是孤立或unmeaning 。 Man is created for God, and a miracle is the proof and pledge of His supernatural Providence.人是創建的上帝,是一個奇蹟的證明,並保證他的超自然的普羅維登斯。 Hence we can understand how, in devout minds, there is even a presumption for and an expectation of miracles.因此,我們可以了解,在虔誠的頭腦,甚至有一種假設,並期待奇蹟。 They show the subordination of the lower world to the higher, they are the breaking in of the higher world on the lower ("C. Gent.", III, xcviii, xcix; Benedict XIV, 1,c,1,IV,plcI).他們表現出屈從較低的世界較高,他們是打破了在世界上較高低( “角根。 ” ,三, xcviii , xcix ;篤十四, 1和c , 1 ,四, plcI ) 。

Some writers -- eg, Paley, Mansel, Mozley, Dr. George Fisher -- push the Christian view to the extreme, and say that miracles are necessary to attest revelation.有些作家-例如,佩利, M ansel,奠茲利博士,喬治費希爾-推基督教,以極端的情況下,並說是必要的奇蹟來證明的啟示。 Catholic theologians, however, take a broader view.天主教神學家,但是,採取更廣泛的觀點。 They hold他們認為

that the great primary ends of miracles are the manifestation of God's glory and the good of men; that the particular or secondary ends, subordinate to the former, are to confirm the truth of a mission or a doctrine of faith or morals, to attest the sanctity of God's servants, to confer benefits and vindicate Divine justice. ,偉大的主要目的是創造奇蹟的表現上帝的榮耀和良好的男性;的特殊或次要目的,服從於前者,是確認事實真相的使命或學說的信仰或道德,來證明的神聖的上帝的僕人,賦予利益和維護神聖的正義。

Hence they teach that the attestation of Revelation is not the primary end of the miracle, but its main secondary end, though not the only one.因此,他們教導認證的啟示不是首要結束的奇蹟,但其主要次要目的,但不是唯一的。

They say that the miracles of Christ were not necessary but "most fitting and altogether in accord with His mission" (decentissimum et maximopere conveniens) -- Benedict XIV, IV, p.他們說,基督的奇蹟是沒有必要的,但“最合適的,並完全符合他的任務” ( decentissimum等maximopere conveniens ) -篤十四,四,山口 1, c. 1 ,角 2, n. 2 ,注 3; ST III:43) as a means to attest its truth. 3 ;秘三: 43 )作為一種手段來證明它的真相。 At the same time they place miracles among the strongest and most certain evidences of Divine revelation.在同一時間發生的奇蹟,他們之間的最強大,最全面的某些證據神聖的啟示。

Yet they teach that, as evidences, miracles have not a physical force, ie, absolutely compelling assent, but only a moral force, ie they do no violence to free will, though their appeal to the assent is of the strongest kind. That, as evidences, they are not wrought to show the internal truth of the doctrines, but only to give manifest reasons why we should accept the doctrines.然而,他們教,作為證據,奇蹟並沒有實際生效,即絕對令人信服的同意,但僅僅是道義上的力量,即他們沒有暴力的自由意志,儘管他們呼籲議會是最有力的實物。這作為證據,他們沒有表現出造成的內部真相的理論,但只給艙單的原因,我們應該接受的理論。 Hence the distinction: not evidenter vera, but evidenter credibilia.因此,區別:不evidenter月渾子,但evidenter credibilia 。 For the Revelation, which miracles attest, contains supernatural doctrines above the comprehension of the mind and positive institutions in God's supernatural Providence over men.為啟示,這奇蹟證明,載有超自然的理論的理解上述的思想和積極的機構在上帝的超自然的普羅維登斯超過男性。 Thus the opinion of Locke, Trench, Mill, Mozley, and Cox, that the doctrine proves the miracle not the miracle the doctrine, is not true.因此,洛克認為,海溝,軋機,奠茲利和考克斯,該理論證明了奇蹟的奇蹟不是理論,是不正確的。

Finally, they maintain that the miracles of Scripture and the power in the Church of working miracles are of Divine faith, not, however the miracles of church history themselves.最後,他們堅持認為,奇蹟聖經的權力在教會工作的奇蹟是神聖的信仰,而不是,但是,奇蹟教堂的歷史本身。 Hence they teach that the former are both evidences of faith and objects of faith, that the latter are evidences of the purpose for which they are wrought, not, however, objects of Divine faith.因此,他們教,前都是證據的信念和信仰的對象,後者是證據的目的,他們造成的,但是,物體的神聖的信仰。 Hence this teaching guards against the other exaggerated view recently proposed by non-Catholic writers, who hold that miracles are now considered not as evidences but as objects of faith.因此,這個教學人員對其他誇大認為最近提出的非天主教作家,誰認為奇蹟現在已被視為沒有證據,但作為信仰的對象。

V. TESTIMONY五,見證

A miracle, like any natural event, is known either from personal observation or from the testimony of others.一個奇蹟,如同任何自然事件,被稱為無論從個人或從觀察的證詞等。 In the miracle we have the fact itself as an external occurrence and its miraculous character.奇蹟在我們的事實本身作為一個外部事件發生及其神奇的性質。 The miraculous character of the fact consists in this: that its nature and the surrounding circumstances are of such a kind that we are forced to admit natural forces alone could not have produced it, and the only rational explanation is to be had in the interference of Divine agency.神奇性質的事實包括在此:它的性質和周圍的情況這樣一個實物,我們不得不承認的自然力量本身不能產生它,唯一合理的解釋是在干涉神聖的機構。 The perception of its miraculous character is a rational act of the mind, and is simply the application of the principle of causality with the methods of induction.的看法,其奇蹟般的性質是一種理性行為的主意,是根本原則的適用因果關係與方法誘導。 The general rules governing the acceptance of testimony apply to miracles as to other facts of history.在一般規則的接受證明適用於奇蹟其他歷史事實。 If we have certain evidence for the fact, we are bound to accept it.如果我們有一定的證據,事實上,我們必然要接受它。 The evidence for miracles, as for historical facts in general, depends on the knowledge and veracity of the narrators, ie, they who testify to the occurrence of the events must know what they tell and tell the truth.證據的奇蹟,為歷史事實,一般來說,取決於知識和真實性的敘述者,也就是說,他們誰作證發生的事件必須知道,並告訴他們說實話。 The extraordinary nature of the miracle requires more complete and accurate investigation.的特殊性質的奇蹟需要更完整和準確的調查。 Such testimony we are not free to reject; otherwise we must deny all history whatsoever.這樣的證詞,我們不能自由地拒絕,否則,我們必須拒絕所有的歷史的。 We have no more rational warrant for rejecting miracles than for rejecting accounts of stellar eclipses. Hence, they who deny miracles have concentrated their efforts with the purpose of destroying the historical evidence for all miracles whatsoever and especially the evidence for the miracles of the Gospel.我們沒有更合理的拒絕令奇蹟比拒絕賬戶的恆星蝕。因此,他們誰否認奇蹟都集中他們的努力,其目的是破壞了歷史證據的所有奇蹟,尤其是什麼證據的奇蹟福音。

Hume held that no testimony could prove miracles, for it is more probable that the testimony is false than that the miracles are true.休謨認為,沒有證據可以證明的奇蹟,因為它是更可能的證詞是虛假的比是真正的奇蹟。 But但是

his contention that "a uniform experience", which is "a direct and full proof", is against miracles, is denied by Mill, provided an adequate cause -- ie, God -- exists.他的論點,即“一個統一的經驗” ,這是“直接和充分的證據” ,是對奇蹟,被剝奪了軋機,提供了一個適當的事業-即上帝-存在。

Hume's "experience" may mean: (a) the experience of the individual, and his argument is made absurd (eg, historic doubts about Napoleon) or (b) the experience of the race, which has become common property and the type of what may be expected.休謨的“經驗”可能是指: (一)的經驗,個人,和他的論點是荒謬的(例如,歷史性的懷疑拿破崙)或( b )的經驗,種族,這已成為共同財產和什麼類型的可以預期。 Now in fact we get this by testimony; many supernatural facts are part of this race experience; this supernatural part Hume prejudges, arbitrarily declares it untrue, which is the point to be proved and assumes that miraculous is synonymous with absurd.事實上,現在我們證明這一點;許多超自然的事實是這場比賽的經驗;這超自然的一部分預先休謨,任意宣布它不真實的,這是指向證明,並假定有奇蹟,就是荒謬的。 The past, so expurgated, is made the test of the future, and should prevent the consistent advocates of Hume from accepting the discoveries of science.在過去,這樣expurgated ,是考驗的未來,並應防止的一貫主張休謨接受的科學發現。

Hard-pressed, Hume is forced to make the distinction between testimony contrary to experience and testimony not conformable to experience, and holds that the latter may be accepted -- eg, testimony of ice to the Indian prince.硬壓,休謨是被迫作出的區分相反的證詞經驗和證詞不符合的經驗,並認為後者可以接受-例如冰的證詞向印度王子。 But this admission is fatal to his position.但這種接納是致命的,以他的立場。

Hume proceeds on the supposition that, for practical purposes, all the laws of nature are known, yet experience shows that this is not true.休謨收益的假設,對於實際目的,所有的法律性質是眾所周知,但經驗表明,這是不正確的。

His whole argument rests upon the rejected philosophical principle that external experience is the sole source of knowledge, rests upon the discredited basis that miracles are opposed to the uniformity of nature as violations of natural laws and was advanced through prejudice against Christianity.他的整個論據取決於拒絕哲學原則,即外部的經驗是唯一的知識來源,取決於信譽基礎上,奇蹟反對統一的性質,違反自然規律,並通過先進的偏見基督教。 Hence later sceptics have receded from Hume's extreme position and teach, not that miracles cannot be proved, but that as a matter of fact they are not proved.因此,後來懷疑論者已經退去從休謨的極端的立場和傳授,而不是奇蹟不能被證明,但事實上他們沒有證明。

The attack by Hume on miracles in general has been applied to the miracles of the Bible, and has received added weight from the denial of Divine inspiration. Varying in form, its basic principle is the same, viz., the humanism of the Renaissance applied to theology.這次襲擊的休姆的奇蹟一般已應用於奇蹟聖經,並已收到增加體重從剝奪神聖的靈感。變的形式,其基本原理是相同的,即。 ,人文文藝復興適用以神學。 Thus we have:因此,我們:

(1) The interpretation theory ( 1 )理論的解釋

The old rationalism of Semler Eichhorn, de Wette, and Paulus, who held the credibility of the Bible records, but contended that they were a collection of writings composed by natural intelligence alone, and to be treated on the same plane with other natural productions of the human mind.舊的理性塞姆勒艾希霍恩,德Wette ,並保盧斯,誰的信譽舉行聖經的記錄,但爭辯說,他們收集的著作自然組成單獨的情報,並加以處理同機同其他自然製作人的心靈。 They got rid of the supernatural by a bold interpretation of miracles as purely natural facts.他們擺脫超自然的一個大膽的解釋奇蹟的純粹的自然事實。 This is called the "interpretation" theory, and appears today under two forms: Modified rationalism, which teaches that we are warranted in accepting a very considerable portion of the Gospel narratives as substantially historical, without being compelled to believe in any miracles.這就是所謂的“解釋”的理論,看來今天在兩種形式:改性理性,教授,我們有必要接受一個非常相當一部分福音敘述大幅度的歷史,沒有被強迫相信任何奇蹟。 Hence they give credence to the accounts of the demoniacs and healings, but allege that these wonders were wrought by, or in accordance with, natural law.因此,他們給予信任的帳目demoniacs和healings ,但聲稱不知道這些人造成的,或者按照自然法。 Thus we have the electric theory of M. Corelli, the appeal to "moral therapeutics" by Matthew Arnold, and the psychological theory advanced by Prof. Bousset of Gottingen, in which he claims that Christ performed miracles by natural mental powers of a superior kind (cf. "N. World", March 1896).因此,我們理論的電動先生科雷利,呼籲“道德療法”的馬修阿諾德,以及先進的心理學理論教授Bousset的哥廷根大學,他在信中聲稱,基督演出奇蹟的自然精神的權力上級實物(參見“聯合國世界” , 1896年3月) 。 But the attempt to explain the miracles of the Gospel either by the natural powers of Christ, ie, mental or moral superiority, or by peculiar states of the recipient, faith cure, and allied psychic phenomena, is arbitrary and not true to facts.但是,試圖解釋的奇蹟不是福音的自然權力的基督,即精神或道德優越感,或由國家特有的受援國,信仰治療,和專職心理現象,是武斷的和不正確的事實。 In many of the miracles faith is not required, and is in fact absent this is shown, in the miracles of power, by the expressed fear of the Apostles, eg, at Christ stilling the tempest (Mark 4:40), at Christ on the waters (Mark 6:51), at the draught of fishes (Luke 5:8), and in the miracles of expelling demons.在許多奇蹟的信仰並不需要,而且事實上是沒有這表明,在創造奇蹟的權力,由表示擔心的使徒,例如,在基督消風暴(馬克4點40分) ,在基督的水域(馬克六時51分) ,在吃水魚(盧克5點08 ) ,並在奇蹟驅逐惡魔。 In some miracles Christ requires faith, but the faith is not the cause of the miracle, only the condition of His exercising the power.在一些需要奇蹟基督信仰,但信仰是沒有原因的奇蹟,只有他的條件行使該項權力。

Others, like Holstein, Renan, and Huxley, follow de Wette, who explains the miracles as the emotional interpretation of commonplace events.另外一些國家,比如荷斯坦奶牛,任南,並赫胥黎,後續的Wette ,誰解釋了奇蹟的情感解釋司空見慣的事件。 They claim that the facts which occurred were substantially historical, but in the narrating were covered over with the interpretations of the writers.他們聲稱,事實發生了重大的歷史,但在敘事涵蓋了與解釋的作家。 Hence, they say that, in studying the Gospels, we must distinguish between the facts as they actually took place and the subjective emotions of those who witnessed them, their strong excitement, tendency to exaggeration, and vivid imagination.因此,他們說,在研究了福音,我們必須區分的事實,他們實際發生和主觀情緒的人誰看到他們,他們的強烈興奮,誇張的傾向,以及豐富的想像力。 Thus they appeal not to the "fallacies of testimony" so much as to the "fallacies of the senses". But this attempt to transform the Apostles into nervous visionaries cannot be held by an unbiased mind.因此,他們呼籲不要的“歪理邪說的證詞”作為這麼多的“歪理邪說的感覺。 ”但這種試圖把使徒到緊張的遠見不能由一個不帶偏見的想法。 St. Peter clearly distinguished between a vision (Acts 10:17) and a reality (Acts 12), and St. Paul mentions two cases of visions (Acts 22:17; 2 Corinthians 12), the latter by way of contrast with his ordinary missionary life of labours and sufferings (2 Corinthians 11).聖彼得明確區別的遠見(使徒10時17分)和現實(使徒12 ) ,和聖保羅提到了兩起願景(使徒22:17 ;哥林多後書12 ) ,後者以與他普通的傳教生活的辛勤勞動和痛苦(哥林多後書11 ) 。 Renan even goes so far as to present the glaring inconsistency of a Christ remarkable, as he says, for moral beauty of life and doctrine, who nevertheless is guilty of conscious deception, as, eg, in the make-believe raising of Lazarus.雷南甚至到目前為止,以目前的突出矛盾的基督顯著的,因為他說,在道義上美麗的生活和理論,然而,是誰犯有意識的欺騙,因為,例如,在虛幻的提高拉撒路。 This teaching is in reality a denial of testimony.這種教學是在現實中拒絕作證。 The miracles of Christ must be taken as a whole; and in the Gospel setting where they are presented as a part of his teaching and his life.創造基督必須作為一個整體,並在那裡設置的福音,他們是作為一個部分,他的教學和他的生命。 On the ground of evidence there is no reason to make a distinction among them or to interpret them so that they become other than they are.在地面上的證據,沒有理由作出它們之間的區別,或對其進行解釋,使他們成為其他比他們。 The real reason is prejudgment on false philosophical grounds with a view to get rid of the supernatural element.真正的原因是prejudgment哲學虛假理由,以期擺脫超自然的元素。 In fact the conjectures and hypotheses proposed are far more improbable than the miracles themselves.事實上,猜測和假設提出更為難以置信的奇蹟不是自己的。 Again, how thus explain the great miracle that the hero of a baseless legend, the impotent and deceitful Christ, could be come the founder of the Christian Church and of Christian civilization?再次,如何解釋這樣的偉大奇蹟,英雄的毫無根據的傳說,無能和欺騙性基督,可能是今後的創始人基督教教會和基督教的文明? Finally, this method violates the first principles of interpretation; for the New Testament writers are not allowed to speak their own language.最後,這種方法違反了第一原則的解釋;為新約全書作家不准講自己的語言。

(2) The theory of Biblical Humanism ( 2 )理論的聖經人文主義

The fundamental idea of Hegel's metaphysic (viz., that existing things are the progressive manifestation of the idea, ie, the absolute) gave a philosophical basis for the organic conception of the universe, ie, the Divine as organic to the human.最根本的想法,黑格爾的形而上學(即,現有的東西逐步體現的想法,即絕對)提供了一個哲學基礎的有機概念的宇宙,即有機神聖的人權。 Thus revelation is presented as a human process, and history -- eg, the Bible -- is a record of human experience, the product of a human life.因此,啟示是作為一個人的過程,歷史上-例如,聖經-這是創紀錄的人類經驗的產物,人的生命。 This philosophy of history was applied to explain the miraculous in the Gospels and appears under two forms: the Tübingen School and the "Mystical" School.這種歷史哲學適用於解釋奇蹟的福音,並出現在兩種形式:蒂賓根大學學院和“神秘”學校。

(a) the Tübingen School ( a )在蒂賓根大學學院

Baur regards the Hegelian process in its objective aspect, ie, the facts as things.鮑爾認為,黑格爾進程的客觀方面,即事實的東西。 He held the books of the New Testament to be states through which the human life and thought of early Christianity had passed.他的書籍的新約是國家通過這些人的生活和思想的早期基督教的已經過去了。 He attempted to do with reference to the origin what Gibbon tried with reference to the spread of Christianity -- ie, get rid of the supernatural by the tacit assumption that there were no miracles and by the enumeration of natural causes, chief of which was the Messianic idea to which Jesus accommodated Himself.他試圖做參考的原產地是長臂猿試圖提及的傳播基督教-即,擺脫超自然的默認假設,有沒有奇蹟和所列舉的自然原因,主要的是彌賽亞的主意耶穌照顧自己。 The evolution element in Baur's Humanism, however, constrained him to deny that we possess contemporaneous documents of our Lord's life, to hold that the New Testament literature was the result of warring factions among the early Christians, and therefore of a much later date than tradition ascribes to it, and that Christ was only the occasional cause of Christianity.演變因素鮑爾的人文精神,但制約他否認,我們所擁有的文件,我們的上帝的生命,認為新約文獻是由於交戰各派之間的早期基督徒,因此,一個更晚的日期比傳統賦予它,而且基督只是偶爾事業的基督教。 He accepted as genuine only the Epistles to the Galatians, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, and the Apocalypse.他接受真正的只有書信的加拉太,羅馬人, 1和哥林多後書和啟示。 But the Epistles admitted by Baur show that St. Paul believed in miracles and asserted the actual occurrence of them as well-known facts both in regard to Christ and in regard to himself and the other Apostles (eg, Romans 15:18; 1 Corinthians 1:22; 12:10, 2 Corinthians 12:12, Galatians 3:5, especially his repeated references to the Resurrection of Christ, 1 Corinthians 15).但是,書信承認鮑爾表明,聖保祿相信奇蹟並斷言實際發生的這些眾所周知的事實中關於耶穌和關於他本人和其他使徒(例如,羅馬15:18 ;哥林多前書1時22分; 12:10 ,哥林多後書12:12 ,加拉太3點05分,尤其是他多次提到基督的復活,哥林多前書15 ) 。 The basis on which the Tübingen School rests, viz., that we possess no contemporaneous records of Christ's life, and that the New Testament writings belong to the second century, has been proved to be false by the higher criticisms.在何種基礎上的蒂賓根大學學院在於,即。 ,我們擁有沒有記錄基督的生命,而且新約聖經的著作屬於第二個世紀,已被證明是假的更高的批評。 Hence Huxley admits that this position is no longer tenable (The Nineteenth Century, Feb., 1889), and in fact there is no longer a Tübingen School at Tübingen. Harnack says: "As regards the criticisms of the sources of Christianity, we stand unquestionably in a movement of return to tradition. The chronological framework in which tradition set the earliest documents is to be henceforth accepted in its main outlines" (The Nineteenth Cent., Oct., 1899).因此,赫胥黎也承認,這一立場不再是站不住腳的(十九世紀, 2月, 1889年) ,並在事實上已不再是一個蒂賓根大學學院蒂賓根大學。哈納克說: “至於批評的來源基督教,我們的立場毫無疑問,在一個流動的回歸傳統。的時間框架,使傳統的最早設立的文件將在今後接受其主要概述“ (第十九以上。 , 10月, 1899年) 。 Hence Romanes said that the outcome of the battle on the Bible documents is a signal victory for Christianity (Thoughts on Religion, p. 165).因此,羅曼說,該成果的戰役聖經的文件是一個信號勝利,基督教(思考宗教,第165頁) 。 Dr. Emil Reich speaks of the bankruptcy of the higher criticism ("Contemp. Rev.", April, 1905).康斯坦丁博士帝國談到破產較高的批評( “ Contemp 。牧師” , 4月, 1905年) 。

(b) The "Mythical" School (二) “神話”學校

Strauss regarded the Hegelian process in its subjective aspect.施特勞斯認為,黑格爾的過程中主觀方面的問題。 The facts as matters of consciousness with the early Christians concerned him exclusively. Hence he regarded Christ within the Christian consciousness of the time, and held that Christ of the New Testament was the outcome of this consciousness.的事實問題的意識與早期基督徒只關心他。因此,他認為基督的基督教意識的時間,並認為基督新約是這一成果的意識。 He did not deny a relatively small nucleus of historical reality, but contended that the Gospels, as we possess them, are mythical inventions or fabulous and fanciful embellishments and are to be regarded only as symbols for spiritual ideas, eg, the Messianic idea.他沒有否認一個相對較小核心的歷史事實,但辯稱,福音,因為我們擁有它們,是神話般的發明或神話般和幻想的裝飾,而且被認為只能作為精神象徵的想法,如救世主的想法。 Strauss thus attempted to remove the miraculous -- or what he considered the unhistorical matter -- from the text.斯特勞斯從而試圖消除奇蹟-或者什麼他認為u nhistorical問題-從文本。 But this view was too fanciful long to hold currency after a careful study of the truthful, matter-of-fact character of the New Testament writings, and a comparison of them with the Apocrypha.但這種觀點過於幻想長期持有的貨幣經過仔細研究,真實,問題的事實性質的新約著作,並比較它們與偽經。 Hence it has been rejected, and Strauss himself confessed to disappointment at the result of his labours (The Old and New Faith).因此,已被拒絕,並斯特勞斯承認自己感到失望,由於他的勞動(舊的和新的信仰) 。

(3) The Critical Agnostic School ( 3 )學校的關鍵不可知

Its basis is the organic idea of the universe, but it views the world process apart from God, because reason cannot prove the existence of God, and therefore, to the Agnostic, He does not exist (eg, Huxley); or to the Christian Agnostic, His existence is accepted on Faith (sg, Baden-Powell).其依據是有機的想法的宇宙,但它認為,世界的進程除了上帝,因為理由不能證明上帝存在,因此,向不可知,他不存在(例如,赫胥黎) ;或基督教不可知論者,他的存在是接受信仰(新加坡,德國巴登鮑威爾) 。 To both there is no miracle, for we have no way of knowing it.既沒有奇蹟,因為我們不知道它。 Thus Huxley admits the facts of miracles in the New Testament, but says that the testimony as to their miraculous character may be worthless, and strives to explain it by the subjective mental conditions of the writers ("The Nineteenth Cent.", Mar., 1889).因此,赫胥黎承認的事實奇蹟在新約,但說的證詞對他們的奇蹟般的性格可能是毫無價值的,並努力解釋它的主觀心理條件的作家( “第十九以上。 ”三月, 1889年) 。 Baden-Powell (in "Essays and Reviews"), Holtzmann (Die synoptischen Evangelien), and Harnack (The Essence of Christianity) admit the miracles as recorded in the Gospels, but hold that their miraculous character is beyond the scope of historical proof, and depends on the mental assumptions of the readers.巴登鮑威爾(在“雜文和評論文章” ) , Holtzmann (模具synoptischen Evangelien ) ,並哈納克(本質基督教)接納奇蹟中記錄的福音,但認為其性質是奇蹟般的範圍之外的歷史證明,而且取決於精神假設的讀者。

Criticism批評

The real problem of the historian is to state well-authenticated facts and give an explanation of the testimony.真正的問題的歷史學家是國家以及驗證的事實,並作出解釋的證詞。 He should show how such events must have taken place and how such a theory only can explain them.他應該如何必須此類事件已發生,以及如何這種理論不僅可以解釋它們。 He takes cognizance of all that is said about these events by competent witnesses, and from their testimony he draws the conclusion.他需要認識到這一切是說這些事件由主管證人,並從他們的證詞,他得出結論。 To admit the facts and to deny an explanation is to furnish very great evidence for their historical truth, and to show qualities not consistent with the scientific historian.要承認的事實,並拒絕解釋是,提供非常大的證據,其歷史真相,並表現出品質不符合科學歷史學家。

(4) The theory of liberal Protestantism ( 4 )理論的自由主義新教

(a) Older form (一)老年人的形式

In its older form, this was advocated by Carlyle (Froude's "Life of Carlyle"), Martineau (Seal of Authority in Religion), Rathbone Greg (Creed of Christendom), Prof.在舊的形式,這是倡導的凱雷(弗勞德的“生命凱雷” ) ,馬蒂諾(密封的宗教管理局) ,拉思伯恩格雷格(信條的基督教) ,教授 Wm.熱導率。 H. Green (Works, III pp. 230, 253), proposed as a religious creed under the title of the "new Reformation" ("The Nineteenth Cent.", Mar., 1889) and popularized by Mrs. Humphry Ward in "Robert Elsmere."格林(工程,三頁。 230 , 253 ) ,提出了一個宗教信仰的標題下的“新改革” ( “第十九以上。 ” , 3月, 1889年)和推廣夫人在漢弗萊區“羅伯特Elsmere 。 “ As the old Reformation was a movement to destroy the Divine authority of the Church by exalting the supernatural character of the Bible, so the new Reformation aimed at removing the supernatural element from the Bible and resting faith in Christianity on the high moral character of Jesus and the excellence of His moral teaching.隨著改革的舊運動是一個破壞神的權威,教會振奮人心的超自然性質的聖經,所以這個新的改革旨在消除超自然因素從聖經和休息信仰基督教的品格高尚的耶穌優秀的他的道德教育。 It is in close sympathy with some writers on the science of religion who see in Christianity a natural religion, though superior to other forms.這是密切的同情與一些作家對科學的宗教誰看到基督教的自然宗教,但優於其他形式。 In describing their position as "a revolt against miraculous belief", its adherents yet profess great reverence for Jesus as "that friend of God and Man, in whom, through all human frailty and necessary imperfection, they see the natural head of their inmost life, the symbol of those religious forces in man which are primitive, essential and universal" ("The Nineteenth Cent.", Mar., 1889).在描述他們的立場是“反抗奇蹟般的信念” ,其信徒還十分崇敬信奉的耶穌“的朋友,上帝與人在其中,通過所有人類的脆弱和必要的缺陷,他們看到的自然頭他們內心深處的生活的象徵這些宗教勢力的男子是原始的,基本和普遍的“ ( ”第十九以上。 “三月, 1889 ) 。 By way of criticism it may be said that this school has its source in the philosophical assumption that the uniformity of nature has made the miracle unthinkable -- an assumption now discarded.通過批評可以說,這所學校,其淵源在哲學假設,即統一的性質作出了難以想像的奇蹟-一個假設現在丟棄。 Again, it has its basis in the Tübingen School which has been proved false, and it requires a mutilation of the Gospels so radical and wholesale that nearly every sentence has to be excised or rewritten.再次,它有其依據的蒂賓根大學學院這已被證明虛假的,它需要一個生殖器官的福音如此激進和批發,幾乎每一句話,必須切除或重寫。 The miracles of Jesus are too essential a part of His life and teaching to be thus removed.創造耶穌太重要的一部分,他的生活和教學將因此取消。 We might as well expurgate the records of military achievements from the lives of Alexander or of Caesar.我們可以廓清以及記錄的軍事成就生命的亞歷山大或凱撒。 Strauss exposed the inconsistencies of this position, which he once held (Old Faith and the New), and von Hartmann considered the Liberal theologians as causing the disintegration of Christianity ("Selbstersetzung des Christ", 1888).斯特勞斯暴露了不一致的這一立場,他再次舉行(舊信仰和新的) ,和馮哈特曼認為,自由神學,造成解體的基督教( “ Selbstersetzung萬基督” , 1888年) 。

(b) Newer form (二)較新形式

In its recent form, it has been advocated by the exponents of the psychological theory.在其最近的形式,已倡導的指數心理理論。 Hence, where the old school followed an objective, this pursues a subjective method.因此,那裡的老同學們遵循客觀,這個追求一種主觀的方法。 This theory combines the basic teaching of Hegel, Schleiermacher, and Ritschl.這一理論相結合的基本教學黑格爾,施萊爾馬赫,並Ritschl 。 Hegel taught that religious truths are the figurative representation of rational ideas; Schleiermacher taught that propositions of faith are the pious states of the heart expressed in language; Ritschl, that the evidence of Christian doctrine is in the "value judgment", ie, the religious effect on the mind; on this basis Prof. Gardner ("A Historical View of the New Test.", London, 1904) holds that no reasonable man would profess to disprove the Christian miracles historically; that in historical studies we must accept the principle of continuity as set forth by evolution, that the statements of the New Testament are based mainly on Christian experience, in which there is always an element of false theory; that we must distinguish between the true underlying fact and its defective outward expression; that this expression is conditioned by the intellectual atmosphere of the time, and passes away to give place to a higher and better expression. Hence the outward expression of Christianity should be different now from what it was in other days.黑格爾教授,宗教真理的比喻代表性的理性觀念;施教授主張的信仰是虔誠的國家的心臟中表達語言; Ritschl ,該證據是基督教教義中的“價值判斷” ,即宗教影響心態;在此基礎上,加德納教授( “歷史的視角新的考驗。 ”倫敦, 1904年)認為,沒有合理的男子自稱推翻了基督教歷史上的奇蹟,這在歷史研究,我們必須接受的原則連續性所闡述的演變,該聲明的新約主要是根據基督教的經驗,其中總有一項內容虛假的理論; ,我們必須區分真正的基本事實,其缺陷向外表達; ,這言論自由是有條件的智力氣氛的時候,和去世給地方更高,更好地表達。因此,向外表達的基督教應該從不同的現在這是什麼在其他天。 Hence, while miracles may have had their value for the early Christians, they have no value for us, for our experience is different from theirs.因此,雖然奇蹟可能有其價值的早期基督徒,他們沒有任何價值,我們為我們的經驗是他們的不同。 Thus M. Réville ("Liberal Christianity", London, 1903) says: "The faith of a liberal Protestant does not depend upon the solution of a problem of historical criticism. It is founded upon his own experience of the value and power of the Gospel of Christ", and "The Gospel of Jesus is independent of its local and temporary forms" (pp. 54, 58).因此雷維爾先生( “基督教自由” ,倫敦, 1903年)說: “信仰自由的新教不取決於解決問題的歷史批評。創辦這是他自己的經驗的價值和力量基督福音“和”福音的耶穌是獨立的地方和臨時形式“ (第54 , 58 ) 。 All this, however, is philosophy, not history, it is not Christianity, but Rationalism.所有這一切,然而,是哲學,而不是歷史,它不是基督教,而是理性。 So it inverts the true standard of historical criticism -- viz., we should study past events in the light of their own surroundings, and not from the subjective feeling on the part of the historian of what might, could, or would have occurred.因此,顛倒的真正標準的歷史批評-即。 ,我們應該研究過去的事件,根據自己的環境,而不是從主觀感覺的部分歷史學家可能,可以或已經發生。 There is no reason to restrict these principles to questions of religious history; and if extended to embrace the whole of past history, they would lead to absolute scepticism.沒有任何理由來限制這些原則問題的宗教歷史; ,如果擴大到包括整個過去的歷史,它們將導致絕對的懷疑。

VI.六。 THE FACT概況

The Bible shows that at all times God has wrought miracles to attest the Revelation of His will.聖經表明,在任何時候都造成了上帝的奇蹟來證明的啟示,他會的。

(1) The miracles of the Old Testament reveal the Providence of God over His chosen people. ( 1 )奇蹟舊約揭示了普羅維登斯的上帝,他選擇的人。 They are convincing proof for the commission of Moses (Exodus 3:4), manifest to the people that Jehovah is Sovereign Lord (Exodus 10:2, Deuteronomy 5:25), and are represented as the "finger of God" and "the hand of God."他們是令人信服的證據的委員會,摩西(出埃及記三時04 ) ,體現人民的主權耶和華是上帝(出埃及記10時02分,申命記5點25分) ,並代表作為“上帝的指紋”和“上帝之手“ 。 God punishes Pharaoh for refusing to obey His commands given by Moses and attested by miracles, and is displeased with the infidelity of the Jews for whom He worked many miracles (Numbers 14).上帝的懲罰法老拒絕服從他的命令由摩西和證明了奇蹟,是不高興的不忠猶太人的人,他工作的許多奇蹟( 14號) 。 Miracles convinced the widow of Sarephta that Elias was "a man of God" (1 Kings 17:24), made the people cry out in the dispute between Elias and the prophets of Baal, "the Lord he is God" (1 Kings 18:39), caused Naaman to confess that "there is no other God in all the earth, but only in Israel" (2 Kings 5:15), led Nabuchodonosor to issue a public decree in honour of God upon the escape of the Three Children from the fiery furnace (Daniel 3), and Darius to issue a like decree on the escape of Daniel (Daniel 5).相信奇蹟的遺孀Sarephta的埃利亞斯是一個“神人” (列王紀上17:24 ) ,使人民在呼喚之間的爭端埃利亞斯和先知的巴爾, “上帝,他是上帝” (列王紀上18 : 39 ) ,造成Naaman承認, “沒有其他神在所有地球,但只有在以色列” (列王紀下5:15 ) ,導致Nabuchodonosor發出公開法令,謹上帝的逃脫三兒童從火熱爐(丹尼爾3 ) ,和大流士發出類似法令逃脫的丹尼爾(丹尼爾5 ) 。 The ethical element is conspicuous in the miracles and is in consonance with the exalted ethical character of Jehovah, "a king of absolute justice, whose love for his people was conditioned by a law of absolute righteousness, as foreign to Semitic as to Aryan tradition", writes Dr. Robertson Smith ("Religion of the Semites", p. 74, cf. Kuenen, Hibbert Lect., p. 124).道德因素是顯眼的奇蹟,是符合道德的崇高性質的耶和華, “國王的絕對公正,他們熱愛自己的人民是受制於法律的絕對正義的,因為外國對猶太人,以雅利安人的傳統”寫道羅伯遜史密斯博士( “宗教的閃米特人” ,第74頁,比照。 Kuenen ,希伯特Lect 。 ,第124頁) 。 Hence the tendency among recent writers on the history of religion to postulate the direct intervention of God through revelation as the only explanation for the exalted conception of the Deity set forth by Moses and the prophets.因此,最近的趨勢作家對歷史的宗教假設的直接干預通過上帝的啟示作為唯一的解釋是崇高的概念神所規定的摩西和先知。

(2) The Old Testament reveals a high ethical conception of God who works miracles for high ethical purposes, and unfolds a dispensation of prophecy leading up to Christ. ( 2 )舊約揭示了高尚的道德觀念上帝誰的作品奇蹟高尚的道德目的,並展開一分配的預言導致基督。 In fulfillment of this prophecy Christ works miracles.在實現這一預言基督的工程奇蹟。 His answer to the messengers of John the Baptist was that they should go and tell John what they had seen (Luke 7:22; cf. Isaiah 35:5).他的回答的使者施洗約翰是,他們應該去告訴約翰他們看到(路7點22分;比照。以賽亞書35:5 ) 。 Thus the Fathers of the Church, in proving the truth of the Christian religion from the miracles of Christ, join them with prophecy (Origen, "C. Celsum" I, ii, Irenaeus, Adv. haer. L, ii, 32; St. Augustine, "C. Faustum", XII).因此,父親的教會,在證明的真理基督教從基督的奇蹟,加入他們的預言(奧利, “角Celsum ”一,二,依,腺病毒。 haer 。 L時,二, 32 ;聖。奧古斯丁, “角Faustum ” ,十二) 。 Jesus openly professed to work miracles.公開聲稱耶穌工作的奇蹟。 He appeals repeatedly to His "works" as most authentic and decisive proof of His Divine Sonship (John 5:18-36; 10:24-37) and of His mission (John 14:12), and for this reason condemns the obstinacy of the Jews as inexcusable (John 15:22, 24).他呼籲多次向他的“作品”作為最真實的和決定性的證據證明他的神聖Sonship (約5:18-36 ; 10:24-37 )和他的任務(約14:12 ) ,並為此譴責固執猶太人是不可原諒的(約翰15:22 , 24 ) 。 He worked miracles to establish the Kingdom of God (Matthew 12; Luke 11), gave to the Apostles (Matthew 10:8) and disciples (Luke 10:9, 19) the power of working miracles, thereby instructing them to follow the same method, and promised that the gift of miracles should persist in the Church (Mark 16:17).他工作的奇蹟,建立王國的上帝(馬太12 ;盧克11 ) ,給使徒(馬太10點08 )和弟子(盧克10點09分, 19日)的力量,創造奇蹟的工作,從而指示他們遵循相同的法,並承諾贈送的奇蹟要堅持在教會(馬克16:17 ) 。 At the sight of His marvellous works, the Jews (Matthew 9:8), Nicodemus (John 3:2), and the man born blind (John 9:33) confess that they must be ascribed to Divine power.在看到他的了不起的工程,猶太人(馬太9點08 ) ,尼科迪默斯(約3:2 ) ,而該男子盲人出生(約9時33分)坦白地說,他們必須為其神聖的權力。

Pfleiderer accepts the second Gospel as the authentic work of St. Mark, and this Gospel is a compact account of miracles wrought by Christ.弗萊德爾接受了第二次福音的真實工作的聖馬克,這是一個福音緊湊到奇蹟所造成的基督。 Ewald and Weiss speak of the miracles of Christ as a daily task.埃瓦爾德和韋斯說的是基督的奇蹟作為日常的任務。 Miracles are not accidental or external to the Christ of the Gospels; they are inseparably bound up with His supernatural doctrine and supernatural life -- a life and doctrine which is the fulfillment of prophecy and the source of Christian civilization.奇蹟不是偶然的或外部的基督的福音,他們是不可分割的約束與他的超自然學說和超自然的生活-生命和學說這是實現預言的來源和基督教文明。 Miracles form the very substance of the Gospel narratives, so that, if removed, there would remain no recognizable plan of work and no intelligent portrait of the worker. We have the same evidence for miracles that we have for Christ.奇蹟形式非常實質的福音敘述,所以,如果取消,但仍將沒有辨認工作計劃,也沒有智能畫像工人。我們有相同的證據的奇蹟,我們的基督。 Dr. Holtzmann says that the very traits whose astonishing combination in one person presents the highest kind of historical evidence for His existence are indissolubly connected with miracles. Holtzmann博士說,他們非常驚人的特點結合在一個人提出了最高的一種歷史的證據,他的存在有著不可分割的聯繫與奇蹟。 Unless we accept miracles, we have no Gospel history. Admit that Christ wrought many miracles, or confess that we do not know Him at all -- in fact, that He never existed.除非我們接受的奇蹟,我們沒有福音的歷史。承認,基督帶來許多奇蹟,或坦白地說,我們不知道他在所有-事實上,他從來不存在的。 The historical Christ of the Gospels stands before us remarkable in the charm of personality, extraordinary in the elevation of life and beauty of doctrine, strikingly consistent in tenor of life, exercising Divine power in varied ways and at every turn.歷史的基督福音的立場擺在我們面前的顯著的人格魅力,特別在海拔的生命和美麗的理論,驚人地一致男高音的生活,行使神聖的權力以各種方式和動輒。 He rises supreme over, and apart from, His surroundings and cannot be regarded as the fruit of individual invention or as the product of the age.他比上升最高,除了,他的周圍,並不能視為水果的個人發明或產品的年齡。 The simplest clearest, only explanation is that the testimony is true.最簡單明確的,唯一的解釋是,證詞是真實的。 They who deny have yet to offer an explanation strong enough to withstand the criticism of the sceptics themselves.誰否認他們還沒有作出解釋強大到足以抵擋的批評,懷疑自己。

(3) The testimony of the Apostles to miracles is twofold: ( 3 )的證詞,以使徒奇蹟是雙重的:

They preached the miracles of Christ, especially the Resurrection.他們宣揚基督的奇蹟,尤其是復活。 Thus St. Peter speaks of the "miracles, and wonders, and signs" which Jesus did as a fact well-known to the Jews (Acts 2:22), and as published through Galilee and Judea (Acts 10:37).因此,聖彼得講的“奇蹟,奇蹟,和標誌”耶穌也作為一個事實眾所周知的猶太人(使徒2時22分) ,並通過出版加利利和朱迪亞(使徒10:37 ) 。 The Apostles profess themselves witnesses of the Resurrection (Acts 2:32), they say that the characteristic of an Apostle is that he be a witness of the Resurrection (Acts 1:22), and upon the Resurrection base their preaching in Jerusalem (Acts 3:15; 4:10; 5:30, 10:40), at Antioch (Acts 13:30 sqq.), at Athens (Acts 17:31), at Corinth (1 Corinthians 15), at Rome (Romans 6:1), and in Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 1:10).使徒信奉自己證人的復活(使徒2時32分) ,他們說的特點是使徒的是,他是一個復活的見證(使徒1時22分) ,並根據他們的復活鼓吹基地在耶路撒冷(使徒3:15 ; 4點10分; 5:30 , 10:40 ) ,在安提阿(使徒13:30 sqq 。 ) ,在雅典(使徒17:31 ) ,在科林斯(哥林多前書15 ) ,羅馬(羅馬6日: 1 ) ,並在薩洛尼卡(帖撒羅尼迦前書1:10 ) 。

They worked miracles themselves, wonders and signs in Jerusalem (Acts 2:43), cure the lame (Acts 3:14), heal the sick, and drive out demons (Acts 8:7-8), raise the dead (Acts 20:10 sqq.).他們本身工作的奇蹟,奇蹟和體徵在耶路撒冷(使徒2時43分) ,治愈跛腳(使徒3時14分) ,治病,並驅逐惡魔(使徒8:7-8 ) ,提高死亡(使徒20 : 10 sqq 。 ) 。 St. Paul calls the attention of the Christians at Rome to his own miracles (Romans 15:18-19), refers to the well-known miracles performed in Galatia (Galatians 3:5), calls the Christians of Corinth to witness the miracles he worked among them as the signs of his apostleship (2 Corinthians 12:12), and gives to the working of miracles a place in the economy of the Christian Faith (1 Corinthians 12).聖保祿呼籲注意的基督徒在羅馬自己的奇蹟(羅馬書15:18-19 ) ,是指眾所周知的奇蹟演出加拉太(加拉太3點05分) ,呼籲基督教徒科林斯見證奇蹟他在它們之間的跡象,他apostleship (哥林多後書12:12 ) ,並給出工作的奇蹟一個地方經濟的基督教信仰(哥林多前書12 ) 。 Thus the Apostles worked miracles in their missionary journeys in virtue of the power given them by Christ (Mark 3:15) and confirmed after His Resurrection (Mark 16:17).因此,使徒工作的奇蹟在他們的傳教旅途中憑藉權力給他們的基督(馬克3:15 ) ,並確認後,他的復活(馬克16:17 ) 。

(4) Dr. Middleton holds that all miracles ceased with the Apostles. ( 4 )米德爾頓博士認為,停止一切奇蹟的使徒。 Mozley and Milman ascribe later miracles to pious myths, fraud, and forgery.奠茲利和Milman後來奇蹟歸結為虔誠的謊言,詐騙和偽造。 Trench admits that few points present greater difficulty than the attempt to determine the exact period when the power of working miracles was withdrawn from the Church. This position is one of polemical bias against the Catholic Church, just as presumptions of various kinds are behind all attacks on the miracles of scripture.麟趾承認,目前的幾點更大的困難比試圖確定確切的時期,權力的工作奇蹟被撤銷的教會。這一立場是一個有爭議的偏見對天主教教會一樣,推定各種落後的一切攻擊關於奇蹟的經文。

Now we are not obliged to accept every miracle alleged as such.現在,我們沒有義務接受每一個奇蹟據稱這樣。 The evidence of testimony is our warrant, and for miracles of church history we have testimony of the most complete kind.證據的證詞是我們的手令,並奇蹟教堂的歷史中,我們已經證明了的最完整的實物。 If it should happen that, after careful investigation, a supposed miracle should turn out to be no miracle at all, a distinct service to truth would be rendered.如果這應該發生,在經過仔細調查,一個理應奇蹟應該變成沒有在所有的奇蹟,一個獨特的服務,真理就會失去。 Throughout the course of church history there are miracles so well authenticated that their truth cannot be denied.整個過程中教會歷史上有如此出色的奇蹟認證,其真相是不容否認的。

Thus St. Clement of Rome and St. Ignatius of Antioch speak of the miracles wrought in their time.因此,聖克萊門特的羅馬和聖伊格內修安提阿的談論造成的奇蹟在他們的時間。

Origen says he has seen examples of demons expelled, many cures effected, and prophecies fulfilled ("C. Celsum", I, II, III, VII).奧利說,他已經看到的例子驅逐惡魔,許多治愈的影響,並預言兌現( “角Celsum ” ,一,二,三,七) 。

Irenaeus taunts the magic-workers of his day that "they cannot give sight to the blind nor hearing to the deaf, nor put to flight demons; and they are so far from raising the dead as Our Lord did, and the Apostles, by prayer, and as is most frequently done among the brethren, that they even think it impossible" (Adv. haer., II).依奚落的魔力,他的工人每天, “他們不能忽視的盲目,也沒有聽證會的聾人,也把飛行的惡魔,他們是迄今從提高死亡作為我們的主那樣,和使徒通過祈禱,並作為最經常做的兄弟,他們甚至認為這是不可能的“ ( Adv. haer 。 ,二) 。

St. Athanasius writes the life of St. Anthony from what he himself saw and heard from one who had long been in attendance on the saint. St.聖亞他那修寫生活的聖安東尼從他自己看到和聽到從一個誰一直在上學的聖。街 Justin in his second apology to the Roman Senate appeals to miracles wrought in Rome and well attested.賈斯汀在他的第二次道歉,羅馬參議院呼籲帶來奇蹟在羅馬和證明。

Tertullian challenges the heathen magistrates to work the miracles which the Christians perform (Apol., xxiii);德爾圖良的挑戰異教徒治安工作的奇蹟而進行的基督徒( Apol. , 23 ) ;

St. Paulinus, in the life of St. Ambrose, narrates what he has seen.聖Paulinus ,生活中的街,劉漢銓,敘述他所看到。

St. Augustine gives a long list of extraordinary miracles wrought before his own eyes, mentions names and particulars, describes them as well known, and says they happened within two years before he published the written account (De civit. Dei., XXII, viii; Retract., I, xiii).聖奧古斯丁給出了一長串帶來非凡的奇蹟在他自己的眼睛,提到姓名和詳情,說明他們是眾所周知的,他們說,發生在兩年之前,他發表了書面帳戶(德civit 。棣。 ,二十二,八;退刀。 ,我十三) 。

St. Jerome wrote a book to confute Vigilantius and prove that relics should be venerated, by citing miracles wrought through them.聖杰羅姆寫了一本書,以駁斥Vigilantius和文物證明,應崇敬,所造成的奇蹟為由通過他們。

Theodoret published the life of St. Simon Stylites while the saint was living, and thousands were alive who had been eyewitnesses of what had happened. St. Theodoret出版了生活的聖西蒙Stylites而聖的生活,和數千人活著誰已經目擊者發生了什麼事情。街 Victor, Bishop of Vita, wrote the history of the African confessors whose tongues had been cut out by command of Hunneric, and who yet retained the power of speech, and challenges the reader to go to Reparatus, one of them then living at the palace of the Emperor Zeno.維克多,主教簡歷,寫歷史的非洲confessors的舌頭已減少了指揮Hunneric ,誰沒有保留的權力的言論,並挑戰讀者去Reparatus ,其中一人當時生活在王宮皇帝芝諾。

From his own experience Sulpicius Severus wrote the life of St. Martin of Tours.從他的親身經歷寫道Sulpicius塞維魯的生活聖馬丁的旅遊。

St. Gregory the Great writes to St. Augustine of Canterbury not to be elated by the many miracles God was pleased to work through his hands for the conversion of the people of Britain.聖格里高利大寫入聖奧古斯丁的坎特伯雷不歡欣鼓舞的許多奇蹟上帝很高興地通過他的手轉換人民的英國。

Hence Gibbon says, "The Christian Church, from the time of the Apostles and their disciples, has claimed an uninterrupted succession of miraculous powers, the gift of tongues, of visions and of prophecy, the power of expelling demons, of healing the sick and of raising the dead" (Decline and Fall, I, pp. 264, 288), thus miracles are so interwoven with our religion, so connected with its origin, its promulgation its progress and whole history, that it is impossible to separate them from it.因此,吉本說, “基督教,來自當時的使徒和他們的弟子,聲稱一個不間斷的繼承神奇的權力,禮物舌頭的看法和預言的力量驅逐惡魔,醫治病人和提高死亡“ (衰亡,我頁。 264 , 288 ) ,從而創造奇蹟的交織在一起,使我們的宗教,所以有關其來源,其頒布進步和整個歷史上,這是不可能單獨從它。 The existence of the Church, the kingdom of God on earth, in which Christ and His Holy Spirit abide, rendered illustrious by the miraculous lives of saints of all countries and all times, is a perpetual standing witness for the reality of miracles (Bellarmine, "De notis eccl.", LIV, xiv).存在的教會,王國的上帝在地球上,在基督和他的聖靈遵守,作出傑出的奇蹟般的生命,聖人的所有國家和所有時代,是一個永遠站在證人的現實奇蹟(貝拉明, “德notis傳道書。 ”查找,十四) 。 The well-attested records are to be found in the official Processes for the canonization of saints.在確鑿的記錄中可以找到的官方過程的封聖。 Mozley held that an enormous distinction exists between the miracles of the Gospel and those of church history, through the false notion that the sole purpose of miracles was the attestation of revealed truth: Newman denies the contention and shows that both are of the same type and as well-authenticated by historical evidence.奠茲利認為,一個巨大的區別之間存在著奇蹟的福音和教會的歷史,通過虛假的概念,其唯一目的是創造奇蹟的證明揭示的真理:紐曼否認的論點,並顯示這兩個是同一類型和以及驗證的歷史證據。

VII.七。 PLACE AND VALUE OF THE GOSPEL MIRACLES位置和價值的福音奇蹟

In studying the Gospel miracles we are impressed by the accounts given of their multitude, and by the fact that only a very small proportion of them is related by the Evangelists in detail; the Gospels speak only in the most general terms of the miracles Christ performed in the great missionary journeys through Galilee and Judea.在學習中創造奇蹟的福音,我們留下了深刻的印象賬戶給予其眾多,和事實,即只有很小一部分是由相關的詳細的福音派;講福音只有在最一般條款基督的奇蹟演出在偉大的傳教士通過加利利行程和朱迪亞。 We read that the people, seeing the things which He did, followed Him in crowds (Matthew 4:25), to the number of 5000 (Luke 9:14) so that He could not enter the cities, and His fame spread from Jerusalem through Syria (Matthew 4:24).我們讀到的人,看到的東西他沒有,跟著他在人群中(馬太4:25 ) ,數量為5000 (盧克9時14分) ,使他不能進入城市,和他的名氣來自耶路撒冷蔓延通過敘利亞(馬太4時24分) 。 His reputation was so great that the chief priests in council speak of Him as one who "doth many miracles" (John 11:47), the disciples at Emmaus as the "prophet, mighty in work and word before God and all the people" (Luke 24:19), and St. Peter describes Him to Cornelius as the wonder-working preacher (Acts 10:38).他的名聲是如此之大,在祭司長在安理會發言,他作為一個誰“ doth許多奇蹟” (約11:47 ) ,門徒在馬忤斯的“先知,威武的工作和文字之前,上帝和所有的人” (路24:19 ) ,和聖彼得介紹了他的科尼利厄斯難怪工作的佈道者(使徒10:38 ) 。 Out of the great mass of miraculous events surrounding our Lord's person, the Evangelists made a selection.在偉大的奇蹟般的大規模事件我們上帝的人,福音派作出了選擇。 True, it was impossible to narrate all (John 20:30).誠然,這是不可能的敘述所有(約20:30 ) 。 Yet we can see in the narrated miracles a twofold reason for the selection.然而,我們可以看到在敘述奇蹟有雙重原因的選擇。

(1) The great purpose of the Redemption was the manifestation of God's glory in the salvation of man through the life and work of His Incarnate Son. ( 1 )偉大的目的,贖回是體現了上帝的榮耀的拯救人類的生活和工作,他降生的兒子。 Thus it ranks supreme among the works of God's Providence over men. This explains the life and teaching of Christ; it enables us to grasp the scope and plan of His miracles.因此,排名最高的作品,上帝的普羅維登斯超過男性。這就解釋了生活和教學中的基督,它使我們能夠掌握的範圍和計劃,他的奇蹟。 They can be considered in relation to the office and person of Christ as Redeemer.他們可以被認為是在辦公室和人的基督為救主。 Thus因而

they have their source in the hypostatic union and follow on the relation of Christ to men as Redeemer.它們的來源本質工會和後續關係的基督救世主男子。 In them we can see references to the great redemption work He came to accomplish.在他們,我們可以看到提到偉大的工作,他贖回來完成。 Hence the Evangelists conceive Christ's miraculous power as an influence radiating from Him (Mark 5:30; Luke 6:19), and theologians call the miracles of Christ theandrical works. Their aim is the glory of God in the manifestation of Christ's glory and in the salvation of men, as eg in the miracle of Cana (John 2:11), in the Transfiguration (Matthew 17), the Resurrection of Lazarus (John 11:15), Christ's last prayer for the Apostles (John 17), the Resurrection of Christ (Acts 10:40).因此,基督福音派想像的神奇力量輻射的影響,他(馬克5:30 ;盧克6點19 ) ,和神學家稱之為奇蹟基督theandrical工程。他們的目標是榮耀神的表現基督的榮耀和拯救男人,因為例如在加拿大的奇蹟(約2時11分) ,在變(馬太17 ) ,復活的拉撒路(約11:15 ) ,基督的最後的祈禱的使徒(約17 ) ,在基督的復活(使徒10:40 ) 。 St. John opens his Gospel with the Incarnation of the Eternal Word and adds, "we saw his glory" (John 1:14).聖約翰福音打開他的化身永恆的Word和補充說, “我們看到他的榮耀” (約翰1,14 ) 。 Hence Irenaeus (Adv. haer., V) and Athanasius (Incarn.) teach that the works of Christ were the manifestations of the Divine Word who in the beginning made all things and who in the Incarnation displayed His power over nature and man, as a manifestation of the new life imparted to man and a revelation of the character and purposes of God.因此,愛任紐( Adv. haer 。 , V )和亞他那修( Incarn. )教授的作品,基督是表現聖言誰在開始了所有的東西,誰的化身顯示他的權力和對大自然的人,作為體現了新的生命傳授給男人和一個啟示的性質和宗旨的上帝。 The repeated references in the Acts and in the Epistles to the "glory of Christ" have relation to His miracles.一再提到的行為和書信,以“光榮的基督”的有關他的奇蹟。 The source and purpose of the miracles of Christ is the reason for their intimate connection with His life and teaching.來源和目的的基督奇蹟的原因是他們的親密與他的生活和教學。 A saving and redeeming mission was the purpose of the miracles, as it was of the doctrine and life of the eternal Son of God. Their motive was mercy.節省挽救任務的目的是奇蹟,因為它的教義和生活的永恆的神的兒子。他們的動機是仁慈。 Most of Christ's miracles were works of mercy.大多數基督的奇蹟是仁慈的作品。 They were performed not with a view to awe men by the feeling of omnipotence, but to show compassion for sinful and suffering humanity.他們進行了不以人的敬畏的感覺無所不能,但表現出的同情罪惡和痛苦的人類。 They are not to be regarded as isolated or transitory acts of sympathy, but as prompted by a deep and abiding mercy which characterizes the office of Saviour.他們不是被視為孤立的或暫時的行為表示同情,但提示了深刻的和持久的特點憐憫辦公室的救世主。 The Redemption is a work of mercy, and the miracles reveal the mercy of God in the works of His Incarnate Son (Acts 10:38).贖回是一個仁慈的工作,並奇蹟揭示上帝的憐憫在他的作品降生的兒子(使徒10:38 ) 。

Hence we can see in them a symbolical character.因此,我們可以看到在他們象徵性的特點。 They were signs, and in a special sense they signified by the typical language of external facts, the inward renewal of the soul.這些跡象表明,在一個特殊意義上標誌著他們的語言,典型的外部事實,對內振興的靈魂。 Thus, in commenting on the miracle of the widow's son at Naim, St. Augustine says that Christ raised three from the death of the body, but thousands from the death of sin to the life of Divine grace (Serm. de verbis Dom., xcviii, al. xliv).因此,在評論的奇蹟寡婦的兒子在納伊姆,聖奧古斯丁說,基督提出了三個死亡的屍體,但數千名從死亡的罪惡的生命神聖的寬限期( Serm.德verbis大教堂。 , xcviii報。 XLIV )號決議。

The relief which Christ brought to the body represented the deliverance He was working on souls.救濟帶來基督的身體代表了解脫,他正在努力的靈魂。 His miracles of cures and healings were the visible picture of His spiritual work in the warfare with evil.他創造奇蹟的治療和healings是可見的圖片,他的精神工作在與邪惡的戰爭。 These miracles, summarized in the answer of Jesus to the messengers of John (Matthew 11:5), are explained by the Fathers of the Church with reference to the ills of the soul (ST III:44).這些奇蹟,總結答案耶穌的使者約翰(馬太11時05 ) ,都說明了父親教會參考弊病的靈魂(秘三: 44 ) 。 The motive and meaning of the miracles explain the moderation Christ showed in the use of His infinite power.動機和意義的解釋奇蹟耶穌基督顯示,溫和的使用他的無限權力。 Repose in strength is a sublime trait in the character of Jesus; it comes from the conscious possession of power to be used for the good of men.安息的實力是一個崇高的性狀特徵的耶穌;它是由意識擁有的權力將用於好男人。 Rousseau confesses "All the miracles of Jesus were useful without pomp or display, but simple as His words, His life, His whole conduct" (Lettr. de la Montag., pt. I, lett. iii).盧梭承認: “所有奇蹟的耶穌是有益的盛況或展示,而是簡單的用他的話說,他的一生,他的整個行為” ( Lettr.德拉魯阿星期一。角。一,快報。三) 。 He does not perform them for the sake of being a mere worker of miracles.他不履行這些為了一個僅僅是工人的奇蹟。 Everything He does has a meaning when viewed in the relation Christ holds to men.一切他不具有的意義時,認為在基督的關係,擁有男子。 In the class known as miracles of power Jesus does not show a mere mental and moral superiority over ordinary men.在階級稱為奇蹟的權力耶穌並不僅僅表現出的精神和道義上的優勢,普通男人。 In virtue of His redeeming mission He proves that He is Lord and Master of the forces of nature.在憑藉其贖回的任務,他證明,他是上帝和碩士學位自然的力量。 Thus by a word He stills the tempest, by a word He multiplied a few loaves and fishes so that thousands feasted and were filled, by a word He healed lepers, drove out demons, raised the dead to life, and finally set the great seal upon His mission by rising from death, as He had explicitly foretold. Thus Renan admits that "even the marvellous in the Gospels is but sober good sense compared with that which we meet in the Jewish apocryphal writings or the Hindu or European mythologies" (Stud. in Hist. of Relig., pp. 177 203).因此,由他一個字的暴風雨劇照,由他一個字乘以幾個麵包和魚,使成千上萬盡情,並填補了一個字,他治愈麻風病人,趕走惡魔,提出了死者的生命,並最終確定了大印根據他的任務是上升的死亡,因為他明確預言。因此雷南承認, “即使是了不起的福音是好的,但清醒的意識,與我們開會的猶太人未經著作或印度教或歐洲的神話” (螺柱。中組織胺。的Relig 。頁。 177 203 ) 。

Hence the miracles of Christ have a doctrinal import.因此,基督的奇蹟有一個理論上的進口。 They have a vital connection with His teaching and mission, illustrate the nature and purpose of His kingdom, and show a connection with some of the greatest doctrines and principles of His Church.他們有一個重要方面與他的教學和使命感,說明的性質和目的,他的王國,並表現出與一些最偉大的理論和原則的他的教會。 Its catholicity is shown in the miracles of the centurion's servant (Matthew 8) and the Syro-phoenician woman (Mark 7).其共通性是表現在創造奇蹟的百夫長的僕人(馬太8 )和Syro腓尼基女人(馬克7 ) 。 The Sabbatical miracles reveal its purpose, ie, the salvation of men, and show that Christ's kingdom marks the passing of the Old Dispensation.奇蹟的公休揭示其目的,即救贖的男子,並表明基督的王國標誌著經過老配方。 His miracles teach the power of faith and the answer given to prayer.他奇蹟教信仰的力量和答案給祈禱。 The central truth of His teaching was life.中央真相是他的教學生活。 He came to give life to men, and this teaching is emphasized by raising the dead to life, especially in the case of Lazarus and His own Resurrection.他給生活的男子,這個教學是強調通過提高死亡的生命,特別是在拉撒路和他自己的復活。 The sacramental teaching of the miracles is manifested in the miracle of Cana (John 2), in the cure of the paralytic, to show he had the power to forgive sins [and he used this power (Matthew 9) and gave it to the Apostles (John 20:23) ], in the multiplication of the loaves (John 6) and in raising the dead.在聖禮教學的奇蹟體現在迦南奇蹟(約2 ) ,在治療癱瘓,以顯示他的權力,原諒的罪孽[和他使用這種權力(馬太9 )並賦予它的使徒(約翰20:23 ) ] ,在乘法的麵包(約翰6 )和提高死亡。 Finally, the prophetic element of the fortunes of the individual and of the Church is shown in the miracles of stilling the tempest, of Christ on the waters, of the draught of fishes, of the didrachma and the barren fig tree.最後,預言內容的命運,個人和教會是表現在創造奇蹟的消風暴,基督的水域,吃水的魚類,在didrachma和貧瘠的無花果樹。 Jesus makes the miracle of Lazarus the type of the General Resurrection, just as the Apostles take the Resurrection of Christ to signify the rising of the soul from the death of sin to the life of grace, and to be a pledge and prophecy of the victory over sin and death and of the final resurrection (1 Thessalonians 4).使耶穌的奇蹟拉撒路的類型一般的復活,正如使徒採取基督的復活意味著上升的靈魂死亡的罪孽生命的寬限期,並且保證和預言勝利對罪惡和死亡,並在最後的復活(帖撒羅尼迦前書4 ) 。

(2) The miracles of Christ have an evidential value. ( 2 )基督的奇蹟有證據價值。 This aspect naturally follows from the above considerations.這方面當然從以上的考慮。 In the first miracle at Cana He "manifested His glory", therefore the disciples "believed in Him" (John 2:11). Jesus constantly appealed to His "works" as evidences of His mission and His divinity.在第一個奇蹟,他在加拿大“表現出他的榮耀” ,因此弟子“相信他” (約2時11 ) 。耶穌不斷呼籲他的“作品”作為依據他的任務是和他的神。 He declares that His miracles have greater evidential value than the testimony of John the Baptist (John 5:36); their logical and theological force as evidences is expressed by Nicodemus (John 3:2).他宣稱,他的奇蹟有更大的證據價值比的證詞施洗約翰(約翰5點36分) ;他們的邏輯和神學武力作為證據是表示尼科迪默斯(約翰3:2 ) 。 And to the miracles Jesus adds the evidence of prophecy (John 5:31).和耶穌的神蹟增加了證據的預言(約5時31分) 。 Now their value as evidences for the people then living is found not only in the display of omnipotence in His redeeming mission but also in the multitude of His works.現在,他們的價值,依據當時的人民生活,發現不僅在展示他的無所不能的兌現任務,而且在眾多的他的作品。 Thus the unrecorded miracles had an evidential bearing on His mission.因此,未記錄在案的奇蹟了證據關係到他的使命。 So we can see an evidential reason for the selection of the miracles as narrated in the Gospels.所以我們可以看到一個證據的原因,選擇奇蹟的敘述中的福音。

This selection was guided by a purpose to make clear the main events in Christ's life leading up to the Crucifixion and to show that certain definite miracles (eg, the cure of the lepers, the casting out of demons in a manner marvelously superior to the exorcisms of the Jews, the Sabbatical miracles, the raising of Lazarus) caused the rulers of the Synagogue to conspire and put Him to death. A second reason for the selection was the expressed purpose to prove that Jesus was the Son of God (John 20:31).這一選擇遵循的是一個目的明確的主要活動在基督的生活導致了十字架,並表明,某些明確的奇蹟(例如,在治愈的麻風病人,鑄造了在魔鬼的方式不平凡優於exorcisms猶太人的安息奇蹟,提高拉撒路)引起統治者的猶太教堂陰謀並把他死刑。第二個原因的選擇是對的目的,證明耶穌是上帝的兒子(約翰20 : 31 ) 。

Thus, for us, who depend on the Gospel narratives, the evidential value of Christ's miracles comes from a comparatively small number related in detail, though of a most stupendous and clearly supernatural kind, some of which were performed almost in private and followed by the strictest injunctions not to publish them.因此,對我們來說,誰取決於福音說明,作為證據的價值基督的奇蹟來自一個相對較小的一些相關的細節,但一個最了不起的,並明確超自然的實物,其中有些是幾乎在私下和所遵循嚴格的禁令不出版。 In considering them as evidences in relation to us now living, we may add to them the constant reference to the multitude of miracles unrecorded in detail, their intimate connection with our Lord's teaching and life, their relation to the prophecies of the Old Testament, their own prophetic character as fulfilled in the development of His kingdom on earth.在審議證明他們與我們現在的生活,我們可能會增加他們不斷提及的眾多奇蹟中未記錄的細節,他們的親密與我們的主教學和生活,他們的有關預言舊約,其自己的預言性質的履行在發展他的王國在地球上。

VIII.八。 SPECIAL PROVIDENCES特別PROVIDENCES

Prayer is a great fact, which finds expression in a persistent manner and enters intimately into the life of humanity.祈禱是一個偉大的事實,表現在持續的方式,進入深入到人類生活。 So universal is the act of prayer that it seems an instinct and part of our being.因此,普遍是採取行動的祈禱,它似乎是一個本能和我們的福祉。 It is the fundamental fact of religion, and religion is a universal phenomenon of the human race.這是基本事實的宗教,宗教是一種普遍現象的人類。 Christian philosophy teaches that in his spiritual nature man is made to the image and likeness of God, therefore his soul instinctively turns to his Maker in aspirations of worship, of hope, and of intercession.基督教哲學教授,他的精神本質是人的形象和相似性的上帝,因此,他的靈魂本能地把他的製造商期望的崇拜,希望和調停。

The real value of prayer has been a vital subject for discussion in modern times.真正的價值,祈禱一直是重要的問題進行討論的現代倍。 Some hold that its value lies only in its being a factor in the culture of the moral life, by giving tone and strength to character.有的認為它的價值不僅在於它是一個因素,文化的道德生活,使語氣和力量的特點。 Thus Professor Tyndall, in his famous Belfast address, proposed this view, maintaining that modern science has proved the physical value of prayer to be unbelievable (Fragments of Science).因此,廷德爾教授,在其著名的貝爾法斯特的地址,提出這一觀點,認為現代科學已證明的實際價值,祈禱是令人難以置信的(片段的科學) 。 He based his contention on the uniformity of nature.他根據他的論點的統一性質。 But this basis is now no longer held as an obstacle to prayer for physical benefits. Others, like Baden-Powell (Order of Nature) admit that God answers prayer for spiritual favours, but denies its value for physical effects.但是此基礎上已不再作為一個障礙祈禱身體的好處。另外一些國家,比如德國巴登鮑威爾(令自然)承認,祈禱上帝的答案精神贊成,但否認其價值的物理效應。 But his basis is the same as that of Tyndall, and besides an answer for spiritual benefits is in fact an interference on the part of God in nature.但他的基礎是一樣的廷德爾,除了一個答案精神的好處實際上是一種干擾對上帝的一部分的性質。

Now Christian philosophy teaches that God, in answer to prayer confers not only spiritual favours but at times interferes with the ordinary course of physical phenomena, so that, as a result, particular events happen otherwise than they should.現在,基督教哲學教導我們,上帝,在對祈禱的答案不僅賦予精神文明贊成,但有時也干擾了正常經營過程中的物理現象,因此,作為一個結果,特別是事件發生以外,他們應該這樣做。 This interference takes place in miracles and special providences. When we kneel to pray we do not always beg God to work miracles or that our lives shall be constant prodigies of His power.這種干擾發生在奇蹟和特殊providences 。當我們跪下祈禱我們並不總是乞求上帝創造奇蹟,或者我們的生活中應不斷神童的他的權力。 The sense of our littleness gives an humble and reverential spirit to our prayer.的意識使我們渺小的謙虛和恭敬的精神,我們的祈禱。 We trust that God, through His Infinite knowledge and power, will in some way best known to Him bring about what we ask.我們相信,上帝,通過他的無窮的知識和力量,將在某種程度上最著名給他帶來什麼,我們問。 Hence, by special providences we mean events which happen in the course of nature and of life through the instrumentality of natural laws.因此,特別providences我們指的事件發生過程中的性質和生活的手段,通過自然的法律。 We cannot discern either in the event itself or in the manner of its happening any deviation from the known course of things.我們不能看出無論是在事件本身或其方式發生任何偏離當然知道的事情。 What we do know, however, is that events shape themselves in response to our prayer.我們所知道的,然而,這一事件是形成自己的回應我們的祈禱。 The laws of nature are invariable, yet one important factor must not be forgotten: that the laws of nature may produce an effect, the same conditions must be present.自然規律是不變的,但一個重要的因素決不能忘記:是自然規律可能產生的影響,同樣的條件必須在場。 If the conditions vary, then the effects also vary.如果條件各不相同,那麼,影響也各不相同。 By altering the conditions, other tendencies of nature are made predominant, and the forces which otherwise would work out their effects yield to stronger forces.通過改變條件,其他性質的傾向是佔主導地位,以及部隊否則將影響其產量,以更強有力的力量。 In this way our will interferes with the workings of natural forces and with human tendencies, as is shown in our intercourse with men and in the science of government.這樣,我們的意志干擾的運作自然力量和人類的傾向,這表明在我們的交往與男子在科學的政府。

Now, if such power rests with men, can God do less?現在,如果這種權力的男子,可上帝不這樣做? Can we not believe that, at our prayer, God may cause the conditions of natural phenomena so to combine that, through His special agency, we may obtain our heart's desire and yet so that, to the ordinary observer, the event happens in its ordinary place and time.難道我們不能相信,在我們的祈禱,上帝可能造成的條件,使自然現象結合起來,通過他的專門機構,我們可能會獲得我們心中的願望,但這樣,普通觀察員,事件發生在常時間和地點。 To the devout soul, however, all is different.在虔誠的靈魂,然而,一切都不同了。 He recognizes God's favour and is devoutly thankful for the fatherly care.他承認上帝的贊成,是虔誠的感謝慈父般照顧。 He knows that God has brought the event about in some way.他知道,上帝已使事件有關以某種方式。 When, therefore, we pray for rain or to avert a calamity, or to prevent the ravages of plague, we beg not so much for miracles or signs of omnipotence: we ask that He who holds the heavens in His hands and who searches the abyss will listen to our petitions and, in His own good way, bring about the answer we need.當,因此,我們祈禱大雨或避免一場災難,或以防止瘟疫肆虐,我們謹此與其說奇蹟或跡象,無所不能:我們要求他誰擁有天空在他的手裡,誰的深淵搜索將聽取我們的請願書,並在他自己的好辦法,帶來我們需要的答案。

Publication information Written by John T. Driscoll.出版信息撰稿:約翰噸德里斯科爾。 Transcribed by Don Ross. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄由Don羅斯。天主教百科全書,卷十, 1911年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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