Saint Mary聖瑪麗

Virgin Mary聖母

General Information 一般信息

Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, has been accorded a special place of devotion especially in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. The New Testament records that she was the cousin of Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist, and that she was betrothed and, later, married to Joseph. 瑪麗的母親,耶穌基督,已經被賦予一個特殊的地方奉獻特別是在羅馬天主教和東正教教堂。新約的記錄,她的表姐伊麗莎白,施洗約翰的母親,她是和未婚夫後來,結婚的約瑟夫。 After giving birth to Jesus in a stable at Bethlehem, where she had gone with Joseph to register for a government census, Mary returned to Nazareth to live quietly and humbly with her family (Luke 2:1-20).生完孩子後,耶穌在一個穩定的伯利恆,在那裡她已與約瑟夫註冊一個政府的人口普查,瑪麗回到拿撒勒的生活悄悄地和虛心與她的家人(路2:1-20 ) 。 At his crucifixion Jesus asked his beloved disciple, John, to look after his mother.在他的受難耶穌問他心愛的弟子,約翰,要照顧他的母親。 Little is known about Mary after this, although Acts 1:14, the last reference to her in the New Testament, places her among the disciples.知之甚少瑪麗後,雖然行為1點14 ,最後提到了她的新約,她的地方之間的弟子。

The New Testament states that Mary conceived Jesus by the Holy Spirit and thus without losing her virginity (Matt. 1:18, 20; Luke 1:35).新約全書指出,瑪麗設想耶穌的聖靈,從而不失去她的貞操(瑪特泰1:18 , 20 ;盧克1點35分) 。 Despite biblical references to Jesus' "brothers," the idea of Mary's perpetual virginity appeared in the early church.儘管聖經中提到耶穌的“兄弟”的想法瑪麗的永久童貞出現在早期教堂。 Saint Athanasius used the term "ever virgin" to refer to Mary, and this view was apparently accepted by the Fathers of the Church from the 5th century on.聖亞他那修使用了“有史以來處女”來指瑪麗,這種觀點顯然是接受了父親的教會從公元5世紀的。 It was formally established as a doctrine at the church's Lateran Council in 649.它正式成立,作為一個理論在教會的拉特蘭安理會649 。 Although the Virgin Birth is a tenet of virtually all Christian churches, modern biblical criticism has questioned the authenticity of the accounts in Matthew and Luke.雖然美屬維爾京誕生是一個宗旨,幾乎所有的基督教教堂,現代聖經批評質疑的真實性帳戶馬修和盧克。 The doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity is taught principally by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.該學說的瑪麗的永久童貞講授主要由羅馬天主教和東正教教堂。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Marian teachings received considerable impetus at the councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451), both of which upheld the title theotokos ("God-bearer," or Mother of God) as descriptive of Mary.瑪麗安的教義得到了很大的推動理事會在以弗所( 431 )和迦克墩( 451 ) ,兩者都堅持所有權子( “上帝旗手” ,或上帝之母)作為描述的瑪麗。 The doctrine of Mary's bodily assumption into heaven can be traced to apocryphal documents dating from the 4th century, but this doctrine was not officially formulated and defined for Roman Catholics until 1950 (see Assumption of Mary).該學說的瑪麗的身體假設到天堂可以追溯到未經文件追溯到4世紀,但這一理論是沒有正式制定和界定的羅馬天主教徒直到1950年(見聖母瑪利亞) 。 The doctrine of Mary's Immaculate Conception was a matter of dispute throughout the Middle Ages.該學說的瑪麗的聖母無染原罪是一個問題的爭端在整個中世紀。 In 1854, however, Pope Pius IX declared that Mary was freed from original sin by a special act of grace the moment she was conceived in the womb of Saint Anne.在1854年,然而,庇護九宣布,瑪麗擺脫原罪由一個特別行動的寬限期現在她的構想在子宮內的聖安妮。 (Tradition names Saint Anne and Saint Joachim as Mary's parents.) (傳統的名字聖安妮和聖約阿希姆作為瑪麗的父母。 )

Pope Pius XII strongly promoted Marian piety during his reign (1939-58).庇護十二大力提倡孝道瑪麗安他統治期間( 1939至58年) 。 Because Roman Catholic teaching holds that Mary is deserving of the "highest veneration," the church observes 17 Marian festivals each year, 5 of which are major: Immaculate Conception, Dec. 8; Purification, Feb. 2; Annunciation, Mar. 25; Assumption, Aug. 15; and Birth, Sept.由於羅馬天主教教學瑪麗認為是值得的“最高的崇敬, ”教會17瑪麗安指出,每年的節日,其中5個是主要的:聖母無染原罪堂, 12月8日;純化, 2月2日;報喜, 3月25日;設想, 8月15日;和出生, 9月 8. 8 。 The Rosary contains 50 Ave Marias ("hail Marys"), and devotion to the "immaculate heart" of Mary is popular in some circles.包含的玫瑰大道50麗亞斯( “冰雹瑪麗” ) ,和奉獻精神的“完美無暇的心臟”瑪麗是流行在某些圈子。

Protestant bodies have always reacted strongly against excessive devotion to Mary.新教機構一直反應強烈反對過度奉獻瑪麗。 In recent years, however, Protestant, Anglican, and Roman Catholic scholars have held discussions in which substantive agreements regarding the place of Mary in Christian theology and practice have been reached.近年來,然而,新教,聖公會,羅馬天主教和學者進行了討論,其中實質性協議就發生在瑪麗基督教神學和實踐已經達到。 The Second Vatican Council (1962-65) included a chapter on Mary in the Constitution of the Church that emphasizes Mary's complete dependence on her Son.梵蒂岡第二次大公會議( 1962年至65年)包括一章關於瑪麗在憲法中的教會,強調瑪麗的完全依賴她的兒子。

Harold W. Rast哈羅德總統無情

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Brown, Raymond E., The Birth of the Messiah (1977); Brown, Raymond E., et al., eds., Mary in the New Testament (1978); Graef, Hilda C., Mary: A History of Doctrine and Devotion, 2 vols.布朗,雷蒙德大腸桿菌,出生率的彌賽亞( 1977年) ;布朗,雷蒙德大腸桿菌等。合編。瑪麗在新約( 1978年) ; Graef ,希爾達角,瑪麗:歷史的理論和奉獻, 2第一卷和第二卷。 (1963-65); McHugh, John, The Mother of Jesus in the New Testament (1975); Miegge, Giovanni, The Virgin Mary: The Roman Catholic Marian Doctrine, trans. ( 1963-65 ) ;休,約翰,母親耶穌在新約全書( 1975年) ; Miegge ,喬瓦尼,聖母瑪利亞:羅馬天主教聖母主義,反。 by W. Smith (1955); Ruether, Rosemary R., Mary--The Feminine Face of the Church (1977); Warner, Marina, Alone of All Her Sex: The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary (1976).由史密斯( 1955年) ; Ruether ,羅斯瑪麗河,瑪麗-女性的臉教會( 1 977年) ;華納,碼頭,僅她的所有性別:神話與崇拜的聖母( 1 976年) 。


Mary瑪麗

General Information 一般信息

INTRODUCTION

Mary, also the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, has been venerated by Christians since apostolic times (1st century).瑪麗,也聖母瑪利亞的母親耶穌基督,一直崇拜的基督徒,因為使徒時代( 21世紀) 。 The Gospels give only a fragmentary account of Mary's life, mentioning her chiefly in connection with the beginning and the end of Jesus' life.福音給只有零星到瑪麗的生活,提到她的主要方面開始和結束的耶穌的生活。 Matthew speaks of Mary as Joseph's wife, who was "with child of the Holy Spirit" before they "came together" as husband and wife (Matthew 1:18).馬修談到瑪麗約瑟夫的妻子,誰是“兒童聖靈”之前, “走到一起”作為丈夫和妻子(馬太1:18 ) 。 After the birth of Jesus, she was present at the visit of the Magi (Matthew 2:11), fled with Joseph to Egypt (Matthew 2:14), and returned to Nazareth (Matthew 2:23).在耶穌誕生的,她出席了訪問賢士(馬修2點11分) ,約瑟夫逃往同埃及(馬太2時14分) ,並返回拿撒勒(馬太2點23分) 。 Mark simply refers to Jesus as the son of Mary (Mark 6:3).馬克只是指耶穌的兒子瑪麗( 6時03馬克) 。 Luke's narrative of the nativity includes the angel Gabriel's announcement to Mary foretelling the birth of Jesus (Luke 1:27-38); her visit to her kinswoman Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist, and Mary's hymn, the Magnificat (Luke 1:39-56); and the shepherds' visit to the manger (Luke 2:1-20).盧克說明耶穌包括天使加布里埃爾宣布瑪麗預告耶穌誕生的(路1:27-38 ) ;她訪問她的親人伊麗莎白,施洗約翰的母親,和瑪麗的讚歌,在Magnificat (路加1時39分-56 ) ;和牧羊人訪問馬槽(路2:1-20 ) 。 Luke also tells of Mary's perplexity at finding Jesus in the Temple questioning the teachers when he was 12 years old.盧克還告訴瑪麗的困惑找到耶穌在聖殿的教師提出質疑時,他是12歲。 The Gospel of John contains no infancy narrative, nor does it mention Mary's name; she is referred to as "the mother of Jesus" (John 2:1-5; 19:25-27).在約翰福音中沒有嬰兒的說明,也沒有提及瑪麗的名字,她被稱為“母親的耶穌” (約2:1-5 ; 19:25-27 ) 。 According to John, she was present at the first of Jesus' miracles at the wedding feast of Cana and at his death.據約翰,她出席了第一次耶穌的奇蹟在婚宴的迦南,並在他的死亡。 Mary is also mentioned as being present in the upper room at Olivet with the apostles and with Jesus' brothers before Pentecost (Acts 1:14).瑪麗還提到目前正在在頂樓房間在奧利韋與使徒和耶穌的兄弟在聖靈降臨節(行為1,14 ) 。

The Early Church早期的教會

As early as the 2nd century, Christians venerated Mary by calling her Mother of God, a title that primarily stresses the divinity of Jesus.早在2世紀,基督徒的崇敬瑪麗稱她上帝之母,一個標題,主要強調了耶穌的神。 During the controversies of the 4th century concerning the divine and human natures of Jesus, the Greek title theotókos (Mother of God) came to be used for Mary in devotional and theological writing.在爭議的4世紀的神和人的天性的耶穌,希臘標題 (天主之母)是用於在虔誠的瑪麗和神學寫作。 Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul), contested this usage, insisting that Mary was mother of Christ, not of God.聶斯脫裡,家長君士坦丁堡(現在的Ýstanbul ) ,這一有爭議的使用,堅持認為瑪麗的母親是基督,而不是上帝。 In 431, the Council of Ephesus condemned Nestorianism and solemnly affirmed that Mary is to be called theotókos, a title that has been used since that time in the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.在431名,安理會譴責以弗所景教,並鄭重申明,瑪麗是被稱為子,標題已經使用自那時以來,在東正教和羅馬天主教教堂。

Closely related to the title Mother of God is the title Virgin Mary, affirming the virginal conception of Jesus (Luke 1:35).密切相關的標題天主之母的標題是聖母瑪利亞,肯定了處女的概念耶穌(路1時35分) 。 Initially, this title stressed the belief that God, not Joseph, was the true father of Jesus.起初,這一標題強調,相信上帝,而不是約瑟夫,是真正的父親耶穌。 In the Marian devotion that developed in the East in the 4th century, Mary was venerated not only in the conception but also in the birth of Jesus.在瑪麗安奉獻,發達國家在東在4世紀,瑪麗崇敬不僅在觀念,而且在耶穌誕生的。 This conviction was expressed clearly in the 4th century, baptismal creeds of Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, and Armenia.這種信念是明確表示在4世紀,信仰的洗禮塞浦路斯,敘利亞,巴勒斯坦,和亞美尼亞。 The title used was aieiparthenos (ever-virgin), and by the middle of the 7th century the understanding of the title came to include the conviction that Mary remained a virgin for the whole of her life.使用的標題是aieiparthenos (不斷處女) ,以及中間的公元7世紀的理解標題來包括信念,瑪麗仍然是一個處女的整個生命。 The passages in the New Testament referring to the brothers of Jesus (for instance, Mark 6:3, which also mentions sisters; see 1 Corinthians 9:5; Galatians 1:19) have been accordingly explained as references to relatives of Jesus or to children of Joseph by a previous marriage, although there is no historical evidence for this interpretation.該通道在新約指的是耶穌的兄弟(例如,六點03馬克,其中還提到姐妹;見哥林多前書9時05分;加拉太1時19分)已據此解釋為提述耶穌的親屬或兒童約瑟夫由以前的婚姻,雖然沒有歷史的證據,這一解釋。

In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, various Christian writers began to express the belief that, because of her intimate union with God through the Holy Spirit in the conception of Jesus (Luke 1:35), Mary was completely free from any taint of sin.在第2和第3世紀以來,各種基督教作家開始表示相信,因為她的親密工會與上帝通過聖靈的概念,耶穌(路1點35分) ,瑪麗是完全不受任何污染的罪孽。 In 680 a Roman Council spoke of her as the "blessed, immaculate ever-virgin."在680羅馬安理會談到她的“幸運,完美無暇的不斷處女地。 ”

In both the Eastern and Western churches, feast days in honor of the events of Mary's life came into existence between the 4th and 7th centuries.在這兩個東方及西方教堂,節日紀念的事件瑪麗的生活也開始存在之間的第4和第7世紀。 They celebrate her miraculous conception and her birth, narrated in the apocryphal "Infancy Gospel" of James (September 8); the Annunciation (March 25); her purification in the Temple (February 2); and her death (called the Dormition in the Eastern church) and bodily Assumption into heaven (August 15; see Assumption of the Virgin).他們慶祝她奇蹟般的構思和她的誕生,講述在未經“嬰幼兒的福音”的詹姆斯( 9月8日) ;的報喜( 3月25日) ;她淨化聖殿( 2月2日) ;和她的死亡(稱為安息在東歐教會)和身體的設想變成天堂( 8月15日;見升天維爾京) 。

The Middle Ages中世紀

During the late Middle Ages (13th century to 15th century), devotion to Mary grew dramatically.在中世紀後期( 13世紀至15世紀) ,獻身於瑪麗增長顯著。 One of the principal reasons was the image of Christ that developed in the missionary efforts of the early Middle Ages.一個主要的原因是基督的形象,發達國家在傳教士的努力中世紀早期。 To the extent that the Goths and other tribes of central and northern Europe were Christian, they remained strongly influenced by Arianism, a teaching that denied the divinity of Christ.只要哥特和其他部落的中部和北部歐洲的基督徒,他們仍然強烈影響Arianism ,一個教學否認基督的神。 In response, preaching and the arts of this period particularly stressed Christ's divinity, as in the Byzantine depictions of Christ as Pantokrator (universal and all-powerful ruler) and in the western images of Christ as the supreme and universal judge.作為回應,說教和藝術這一時期特別強調耶穌的神,如拜占庭描繪基督Pantokrator (普遍和全面的強大的統治者)和西部的形象基督作為最高和普遍的判斷。 As Christ became an awe-inspiring, judgmental figure, Mary came to be depicted as the one who interceded for sinners.正如基督成為凜然,判斷數字,瑪麗後來被描繪成一個誰制止的罪人。 As the fear of death and the Last Judgment intensified following the Black Plague in the 14th century, Mary was increasingly venerated in popular piety as mediator of the mercy of Christ. Her prayers and pleas were seen as theagency that tempered the stern justice of Christ. Among the popular devotions that came into being at this time were the rosary (a chaplet originally consisting of 150 Hail Marys in imitation of the 150 Psalms in the psalter, later augmented by 15 interspersed Our Fathers as penance for daily sins); the angelus recited at sunrise, noon, and sunset; and litanies (invocations of Mary using such biblical titles as Mystical Rose, Tower of David, and Refuge of Sinners).由於害怕死亡和最後的審判後,加緊黑死病在14世紀,瑪麗越來越多的民眾崇敬虔誠作為調解人的擺佈基督。 她的祈禱和認罪被看作是鍛煉theagency船尾正義的基督。其中最受歡迎devotions的誕生在這個時候是玫瑰 (一花冠最初由150冰雹瑪麗模仿150詩篇中的psalter ,後來增加了15穿插作為父輩的每日懺悔罪過) ; 背誦在日出,中午和日落;和litanies (調用瑪麗使用這種聖經遊戲,神秘玫瑰,塔的大衛,以及避難的罪人) 。 Hymns, psalms, and prayers were incorporated into the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, in imitation of the longer divine office recited or chanted by monks and priests.聖詩,詩歌,祈禱被納入小辦公室的聖母,在模仿不再神聖的辦公室或高喊背誦的僧侶。

Doctrine of Immaculate Conception完美無暇的理論概念

The principal theological development concerning Mary in the Middle Ages was the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.主要的神學發展的有關瑪麗在中世紀的原則,聖母無染原罪堂。 This doctrine, defended and preached by the Franciscan friars under the inspiration of the 13th-century Scottish theologian John Duns Scotus, maintains that Mary was conceived without original sin.這一理論,捍衛和所宣揚的方濟各修士的靈感下的13世紀的蘇格蘭神學家約翰鄧司各脫,堅持認為瑪麗的構想沒有原罪。 Dominican teachers and preachers vigorously opposed the doctrine, maintaining that it detracted from Christ's role as universal savior.多米尼加教師和傳教士堅決反對的學說,認為它有損於基督的作用,普遍的救星。 Pope Sixtus IV, a Franciscan, defended it, establishing in 1477 a feast of the Immaculate Conception with a proper mass and office to be celebrated on December 8.西斯四,一個方濟,維護它,在1477年建立節日的聖母無染原罪堂,以適當的質量和辦公室,以慶祝12月8日。 This feast was extended to the whole Western church by Pope Clement XI in 1708.這節日是擴大到整個西方教會的教皇克萊門特十一大在1708年。 In 1854 Pope Pius IX issued a solemn decree defining the Immaculate Conception for all Roman Catholics, but the doctrine has not been accepted by Protestants or by the Orthodox churches.在1854年庇護九發表了莊嚴的法令,確定了聖母無染原罪堂所有羅馬天主教徒,但這一理論沒有被接受的新教徒或由東正教教堂。 In 1950 Pope Pius XII solemnly defined as an article of faith for all Roman Catholics the doctrine of the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven.在1950年教宗碧岳十二大莊嚴地界定為一個信條的所有羅馬天主教徒的理論假設的身體瑪麗進入天堂。

Shrines神社

Marian shrines and places of pilgrimage are found throughout the world.瑪麗安聖地和朝聖的地方被發現於世界各地。 At Montserrat in Spain the Black Virgin has been venerated since the 12th century.在西班牙蒙特塞拉特美屬維爾京黑海一直崇敬自12世紀。 The icon of Our Lady of Czêstochowa has been venerated in Poland since the early 14th century.圖示聖母琴斯托霍瓦崇敬已在波蘭自14世紀初。 The picture of Our Lady of Guadalupe commemorates an alleged apparition of Mary to Native American Juan Diego in Mexico in 1531.圖片聖母瓜達盧佩紀念所謂幽靈的瑪麗美洲土著胡安迭戈在墨西哥1531年。 In the 19th century a number of apparitions of Mary were reported that inspired the development of shrines, devotions, and pilgrimages - for instance, in Paris (1830, Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal ); Lourdes (1858, Our Lady of Lourdes ); Knock, in Ireland (1879, Our Lady of Knock ); and Fatima, in Portugal (1917, Our Lady of Fatima ).在19世紀的一些瑪利亞顯靈了報導,鼓舞了發展的聖地, devotions ,以及朝聖-例如,在巴黎( 1 830年,顯靈聖母的神奇勳章) ;盧爾德( 1 858年,顯靈聖母盧爾德) ;基因敲除,在愛爾蘭( 1879年, 顯靈聖母爆震 )和法蒂瑪,葡萄牙( 1917年, 我們的夫人法蒂瑪 ) 。


Mary, the Blessed Virgin瑪麗,聖母

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Except for the Gospels, the Scriptures make little explicit reference to Mary.除福音,聖經很少明確提及瑪麗。 Certain OT prophecies have been thought to refer to her (Gen. 3:15; Jer. 31:22; Mic. 5:2-3; and, most clearly, Isa. 7:14).某些加時賽的預言已被認為是指她的(創3:15 ;哲。 31:22 ;麥克風。 5:2-3 ; ,最清楚,伊薩。 7時14分) 。 The symbolic drama of Rev. 12 has often been similarly interpreted.戲劇的象徵性的12個牧師常常被同樣的解釋。 Paul mentions Mary specifically once (Gal. 4:4).保羅特別提到一旦瑪麗( Gal. 4點04分) 。 For anything more, we must inquire of the Gospel writers.什麼更多的,我們必須詢問福音的作家。 Luke presents the most detailed portrait.盧克介紹最詳細的畫像。 While Matthew also tells the nativity story, his references to Mary are brief, even though he strongly stresses her virginity (Matt. 1:18-25).雖然馬修還講述了耶穌的故事,他提到瑪麗是短暫的,儘管他極力強調她的貞操(瑪特泰1:18-25 ) 。 Luke, however, vividly describes her encounter with the angel, her visit to Elizabeth, her beautiful "Magnificat," the birth of Jesus, and her trips to Jerusalem with the infant and the twelve-year-old Jesus (Luke 1:26-2:51).盧克然而,生動地介紹了她遇到的天使,她訪問伊麗莎白,她的美麗“ Magnificat ” ,耶穌誕生的,她前往耶路撒冷的嬰兒和12歲的耶穌(路1點26分-二時51分) 。 Mary appears humbly obedient in the face of her great task (Luke 1:38), yet deeply thoughtful and somewhat perplexed as to its significance (Luke 1:29; 2:29, 35, 50-51).瑪麗似乎謙虛地順從,面對她的偉大任務(路加1時38分) ,但深深思熟慮和有些困惑,以及其意義(路加1時29分; 2點29 , 35 , 50-51 ) 。

According to an episode recounted by Matthew, Mark, and Luke, Jesus' mother and his "brothers" stand outside the early circle of disciples (Matt. 12:46-50; Mark 3:19b-21, 31-35; Luke 8:19-21; cf. Luke 11:27-28).據集敘述的馬太,馬克,和盧克,耶穌的母親和他的“兄弟”的立場外循環的早期弟子(瑪特泰12:46-50 ;馬克3點19 β - 21 , 31-35 ;盧克8日:19 - 21 ;比照。盧克11:27-28 ) 。 Elsewhere Jesus complains that he is not without honor save "among his own kin, and in his own house" (Mark 6:4; cf. Matt. 13:53-58; Luke 4: 16-30).另外耶穌抱怨說,他也不是沒有榮譽拯救“自己的親人,並在自己的房子” (馬克6時04分;比照。馬特。 13:53-58 ;盧克4 : 16-30 ) 。 John apparently recounts some misunderstanding between Jesus and Mary at the wedding feast in Cana (John 2:1-12).約翰顯然重新之間的一些誤解,耶穌和瑪麗在婚宴在迦南(約翰2:1-12 ) 。 Yet John pictures Mary remaining faithful beside the cross, while Jesus commends her to his "beloved disciple's" care (John 19:25-27).然而,約翰的圖片忠實瑪麗其餘旁邊的交叉,而耶穌稱讚她的“心愛的弟子的”保健(約19:25-27 ) 。

Finally, Luke lists Mary among the earliest post-Easter Christians (Acts 1:14). Traditionally, Catholics have venerated Mary as entirely sinless and as the most glorious of God's creatures. Feeling that this detracts from the centrality of Christ, Protestants have often neglected her unduly.最後,盧克名單瑪麗最早的後復活節基督信徒(使徒1,14 ) 。 傳統上,天主教徒為敬仰瑪麗完全無罪的,並作為最光榮的上帝的動物。情感,這有損於基督中心,新教徒常常忽視她的不適當的。 Radical biblical criticism in doubting the infancy narratives' historicity often furthered this neglect.根治聖經批評懷疑嬰兒說明'歷史性往往加劇了這種忽視。 However, the increasing importance of women's issues has spurred new interests in Mary among both Protestants and Catholics alike.然而,日益增加的重要性婦女問題引發新的利益瑪麗中,既有新教徒和天主教徒一樣。

TN Finger總氮手指
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
RE Brown et al., eds., Mary in the NT; RE Brown, "The Meaning of Modern NT Studies for an Ecumenical Understanding of Mary," in Biblical Reflection on Crises Facing the Church; WJ Cole, "Scripture and the Current Understanding of Mary among American Protestants," Maria in Sacra Scriptura, VI; A. Greeley, The Mary Myth; JG Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ; J. McHugh, The Mother of Jesus in the NT; HA Oberman, The Virgin Mary in Evangelical Perspective; R. Ruether, Mary: The Feminine Face of the Church.稀土布朗等人。合編。瑪麗在NT ;稀土布朗說: “現代意義的研究新台幣的基督教認識瑪麗, ”在聖經的思考面對危機的教會; WJ通訊公司科爾, “聖經和當前的了解瑪麗之間的美國新教徒, “瑪利亞在薩克拉聖經,第六章的A.格里利,在瑪麗的神話; JG麥,維爾京誕生基督;學者休,母親耶穌在新台幣;醫管局奧伯曼,聖母瑪利亞在福音派的觀點;河Ruether ,瑪麗:女性的臉教會。


Ma'ry

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Mary, Hebrew Miriam.瑪麗,希伯來文儀。

(1.) The wife of Joseph, the mother of Jesus, called the "Virgin Mary," though never so designated in Scripture (Matt. 2:11; Acts 1:14). ( 1 。 ) 的妻子約瑟夫的母親,耶穌,被稱為“聖母” ,但從來沒有這樣指定的聖經(瑪特泰二點11分;行為1,14 ) 。 Little is known of her personal history.目前還不知道她的個人歷史。 Her genealogy is given in Luke 3.她的家譜是在路加3 。 She was of the tribe of Judah and the lineage of David (Ps. 132:11; Luke 1:32).她的部落和猶太血統的大衛(詩篇132:11 ;盧克1:32 ) 。 She was connected by marriage with Elisabeth, who was of the lineage of Aaron (Luke 1:36).她是連接與伊麗莎白結婚,是誰的血統的阿龍(路1:36 ) 。

While she resided at Nazareth with her parents, before she became the wife of Joseph, the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah (Luke 1:35).雖然她居住在拿撒勒與她的父母,在她成為約瑟夫的妻子,天使加布里埃爾向她宣布,她將成為母親的承諾彌賽亞(路一時35分) 。 After this she went to visit her cousin Elisabeth, who was living with her husband Zacharias (probably at Juttah, Josh. 15:55; 21:16, in the neighbourhood of Maon), at a considerable distance, about 100 miles, from Nazareth.之後她去看望她表姐伊麗莎白,誰的生活與她的丈夫撒迦利亞(可能在Juttah ,喬什。 15:55 ; 21:16 ,在居民區Maon ) ,在相當大的距離,大約100英里,從拿撒勒。 Immediately on entering the house she was saluted by Elisabeth as the mother of her Lord, and then forthwith gave utterance to her hymn of thanksgiving (Luke 1:46-56; comp. 1 Sam. 2: 1-10).立即進入房子,她讚揚了伊麗莎白的母親,她勳爵,然後立即給她的話語讚美感恩(路1:46-56 ;補償。一日三。 2 : 1-10 ) 。

After three months Mary returned to Nazareth to her own home. 3個月後返回瑪麗拿撒勒她自己的家。 Joseph was supernaturally made aware (Matt. 1: 18-25) of her condition, and took her to his own home.約瑟夫supernaturally知道(瑪特泰1 : 18-25 ) ,她的條件,並把她帶到自己的家。 Soon after this the decree of Augustus (Luke 2:1) required that they should proceed to Bethlehem (Micah 5:2), some 80 or 90 miles from Nazareth; and while they were there they found shelter in the inn or khan provided for strangers (Luke 2:6, 7).此後不久的法令奧古斯都(路2:1 )要求,他們應該著手伯利恆(米卡5時02 ) ,約80或90英里從拿撒勒;雖然他們在那裡他們發現住房的旅館或提供的汗陌生人(路加2點06分, 7 ) 。 But as the inn was crowded, Mary had to retire to a place among the cattle, and there she brought forth her son, who was called Jesus (Matt. 1:21), because he was to save his people from their sins.但是,隨著擁擠的客棧是瑪麗,已經退休的地方之間的牛,而且她提出了她的兒子,誰被稱為耶穌(瑪特泰1時21分) ,因為他是拯救他的人民從他們的罪孽。

This was followed by the presentation in the temple, the flight into Egypt, and their return in the following year and residence at Nazareth (Matt. 2). There for thirty years Mary, the wife of Joseph the carpenter, resides, filling her own humble sphere, and pondering over the strange things that had happened to her.其次是提出在廟裡,飛行到埃及,並讓他們返回在第二年和居住在拿撒勒(瑪特泰2 ) 。 有30年瑪麗的妻子約瑟夫的木匠,居住,填補自己謙虛的領域,與思考奇怪的事情發生了她。

During these years only one event in the history of Jesus is recorded, viz., his going up to Jerusalem when twelve years of age, and his being found among the doctors in the temple (Luke 2:41-52). 在這些年裡只有一個活動的歷史記錄耶穌,即。 ,他走到耶路撒冷12年時的年齡,他被發現的醫生在寺廟 (路2:41-52 ) 。 Probably also during this period Joseph died, for he is not again mentioned.也可能在此期間,約瑟夫去世,他沒有再次提到。

After the commencement of our Lord's public ministry little notice is taken of Mary.之後我們的上帝公安部通知很少採取的瑪麗。 She was present at the marriage in Cana.她出席了在加拿大結婚。 A year and a half after this we find her at Capernaum (Matt. 12:46, 48, 49), where Christ uttered the memorable words, "Who is my mother? and who are my brethren? And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!"一年半之後,我們發現她在Capernaum (瑪特泰12:46 , 48 , 49 ) ,在基督的話令人難忘的話來說, “誰是我的媽媽? ,誰是我的兄弟?他伸展了他的手走向他的弟子,並說,瞧我母親和我的兄弟! “

The next time we find her is at the cross along with her sister Mary, and Mary Magdalene, and Salome, and other women (John 19:26).下一次我們發現她是在兩岸連同她的妹妹瑪利亞,和抹大拉的馬利亞,和莎樂美,和其他婦女(約19:26 ) 。 From that hour John took her to his own abode.從這一小時的約翰把她帶到自己的住所。 She was with the little company in the upper room after the Ascension (Acts 1:14).她的小公司在頂樓房間後,阿森松島(使徒1,14 ) 。 From this time she wholly disappears from public notice.從這個時候,她完全消失,從公共恕不另行通知。 The time and manner of her death are unknown.的時間和方式她的死因不明。

(2.) Mary Magdalene, ie, Mary of Magdala, a town on the western shore of the Lake of Tiberias. ( 2 ) 。 抹大拉的馬利亞,即抹大拉的瑪麗,一個城鎮在西部海岸的太巴列湖。 She is for the first time noticed in Luke 8:3 as one of the women who "ministered to Christ of their substance."她是第一次發現在盧克8時03分之一的婦女誰“ ministered基督的實質內容。 ” Their motive was that of gratitude for deliverances he had wrought for them.他們的動機是,感謝deliverances他造成了他們。

Out of Mary were cast seven demons.在瑪麗投了7個惡魔。 Gratitude to her great Deliverer prompted her to become his follower.感謝偉大的送她的提示她成為他的追隨者。 These women accompanied him also on his last journey to Jerusalem (Matt. 27:55; Mark 15:41; Luke 23:55). They stood near the cross.這些婦女也陪同他的最後旅程耶路撒冷(瑪特泰27:55 ;馬克15:41 ;路加23:55 ) 。他們站在附近的交叉。 There Mary remained till all was over, and the body was taken down and laid in Joseph's tomb.瑪麗仍然存在直到一切都過去了,屍體,並採取埋設在約瑟夫的墳墓。

Again, in the earliest dawn of the first day of the week she, with Salome and Mary the mother of James (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2), came to the sepulchre, bringing with them sweet spices, that they might anoint the body of Jesus.同樣,在最早的到來的第一天,週,她與莎樂美和瑪麗的母親,詹姆斯(瑪特泰28:1 ;馬克十六點02分) ,來到了墳墓,使他們甜香料,他們可能流感病毒的屍體耶穌。 They found the sepulchre empty, but saw the "vision of angels" (Matt. 28:5).他們發現,在墳墓空,但看到“遠見天使” (瑪特泰28:5 ) 。 She hastens to tell Peter and John, who were probably living together at this time (John 20:1, 2), and again immediately returns to the sepulchre.她加速告訴彼得和約翰,大概誰一起生活在這個時候(約20:1 , 2 ) ,並再次立即返回到墳墓。 There she lingers thoughtfully, weeping at the door of the tomb.因此,她徘徊沉思,哭泣在門口的古墓。 The risen Lord appears to her, but at first she knows him not.復活的主似乎她,但她首先知道他不是。 His utterance of her name "Mary" recalls her to consciousness, and she utters the joyful, reverent cry, "Rabboni."他的話語,她的名字“瑪麗”回顧她的意識,她行使的喜悅,虔誠的哭泣, “ Rabboni 。 ”

She would fain cling to him, but he forbids her, saying, "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father."她欣然抱住他,但他禁止她說, “我不觸摸,因為我還沒有登上我的父親。 ” This is the last record regarding Mary of Magdala, who now returned to Jerusalem. The idea that this Mary was "the woman who was a sinner," or that she was unchaste, is altogether groundless.這是最後的記錄就抹大拉的瑪麗,誰現已返回耶路撒冷。 想法,這個瑪麗是“女人誰是罪人” ,或者說,她unchaste ,是完全站不住腳的。

(3.) Mary the sister of Lazarus is brought to our notice in connection with the visits of our Lord to Bethany. ( 3 ) 。 瑪麗的妹妹,拉撒路是使我們的通知與訪問我們的主,以貝塔尼。 She is contrasted with her sister Martha, who was "cumbered about many things" while Jesus was their guest, while Mary had chosen "the good part."她對比她的妹妹瑪莎,誰是“ cumbered對很多事情” ,而耶穌是他們的住客,而瑪麗選擇了“好的一部分。 ” Her character also appears in connection with the death of her brother (John 11:20,31,33).她的性格也出現在死亡的案件有關她的弟弟(約翰11:20,31,33 ) 。 On the occasion of our Lord's last visit to Bethany, Mary brought "a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus" as he reclined at table in the house of one Simon, who had been a leper (Matt.26:6; Mark 14:3; John 12:2,3). This was an evidence of her overflowing love to the Lord.在紀念我們的主上次訪問貝塔尼,瑪麗帶來的“一磅的spikenard軟膏,非常昂貴,並選定了耶穌的腳” ,因為他靠在桌子在家裡的一個西門,誰已台階(馬特.26:6 ;馬克十四時03分;約翰12:2,3 ) 。這是一個證據,她滿溢的愛給上帝。 Nothing is known of her subsequent history.沒有人知道她以後的歷史。 It would appear from this act of Mary's, and from the circumstance that they possessed a family vault (11:38), and that a large number of Jews from Jerusalem came to condole with them on the death of Lazarus (11:19), that this family at Bethany belonged to the wealthier class of the people.似乎從這一行為的瑪麗的,從情節,他們擁有的家庭跳馬( 11:38 ) ,而大量的猶太人從耶路撒冷來唁與他們就死亡的拉撒路( 11:19 ) ,這一家人在貝森尼屬於富裕階層的人。

(4.) Mary the wife of Cleopas is mentioned (John 19:25) as standing at the cross in company with Mary of Magdala and Mary the mother of Jesus. ( 4 ) 。 瑪麗的妻子Cleopas提到(約翰19:25 )作為站在跨公司與瑪麗抹大拉和瑪麗的母親,耶穌。 By comparing Matt.通過比較馬特。 27:56 and Mark 15:40, we find that this Mary and "Mary the mother of James the little" are one and the same person, and that she was the sister of our Lord's mother. 27:56和馬克15:40 ,我們發現,這個瑪麗和“瑪麗的母親詹姆斯小”是同一人,而且她的妹妹,我們的主的母親。 She was that "other Mary" who was present with Mary of Magdala at the burial of our Lord (Matt. 27:61; Mark 15:47); and she was one of those who went early in the morning of the first day of the week to anoint the body, and thus became one of the first witnesses of the resurrection (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16: 1; Luke 24:1).她說, “其他瑪麗”誰是本與抹大拉的瑪麗在埋葬我們的主(瑪特泰27:61 ;馬克15:47 ) ; ,她是誰了那些清晨的第一天本週的流感病毒的機構,從而成為第一個證人的復活(瑪特泰28:1 ;馬克16 : 1 ;盧克24:1 ) 。

(5.) Mary the mother of John Mark was one of the earliest of our Lord's disciples. ( 5 ) 。 瑪麗約翰的母親馬克的最早的上帝的信徒。 She was the sister of Barnabas (Col. 4:10), and joined with him in disposing of their land and giving the proceeds of the sale into the treasury of the Church (Acts 4:37; 12:12).她的妹妹,巴拿巴(上校4時10分) ,並同他在處理自己的土地,並給予出售所得納入國庫的教會(使徒4點37分; 12:12 ) 。 Her house in Jerusalem was the common meeting-place for the disciples there.她的房子是在耶路撒冷的共同會晤地點的弟子有。

(6.) A Christian at Rome who treated Paul with special kindness (Rom. 16:6). ( 6 。 ) 基督教在羅馬誰保羅對待有特殊好意(羅馬書16時06分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


The Blessed Virgin Mary的祝福聖母

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the theology and history of Mary the Mother of God follow the chronological order of their respective sources, ie the Old Testament, the New Testament, the early Christian and Jewish witnesses.聖母瑪麗的母親,耶穌的母親上帝。總的來說,神學和歷史上的瑪麗的母親上帝按照時間順序排列各自的來源,即舊約,新約,早期基督教和猶太證人。

I. MARY PROPHESIED IN THE OLD TESTAMENT一,瑪麗預言在舊約

The Old Testament refers to Our Blessed Lady both in its prophecies and its types or figures.舊約是指我們的祝福夫人在其預言及其類型或數字。

Genesis 3:15創世記3:15

The first prophecy referring to Mary is found in the very opening chapters of the Book of Genesis (3:15): "I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed; she shall crush thy head, and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel."第一個預言提到瑪麗是在非常開放章創世記( 3:15 ) : “我將把你之間的仇恨和女人,你的種子和她的種子;她應粉碎你的頭,你shalt在於等待她的致命弱點。 “ This rendering appears to differ in two respects from the original Hebrew text:這似乎使不同的兩個方面從原來的希伯來文:

(1) First, the Hebrew text employs the same verb for the two renderings "she shall crush" and "thou shalt lie in wait"; the Septuagint renders the verb both times by terein, to lie in wait; Aquila, Symmachus, the Syriac and the Samaritan translators, interpret the Hebrew verb by expressions which mean to crush, to bruise; the Itala renders the terein employed in the Septuagint by the Latin "servare", to guard; St. Jerome [1] maintains that the Hebrew verb has the meaning of "crushing" or "bruising" rather than of "lying in wait", "guarding". Still in his own work, which became the Latin Vulgate, the saint employs the verb "to crush" (conterere) in the first place, and "to lie in wait" (insidiari) in the second. ( 1 )首先,希伯來文採用了相同的動詞的兩個透視圖“她應粉碎”和“你應該是在等待” ;的七十使動詞既倍terein ,在於等待;雕, Symmachus的敘利亞和撒瑪利亞翻譯,解釋希伯來文動詞的表達,這意味著粉碎,以挫傷;的伊泰萊使terein受僱於七十的拉丁美洲“ servare ” ,以防範;聖杰羅姆[ 1 ]堅持認為,希伯來文動詞指的“粉碎”或“擦傷” ,而不是“倒臥在等待” , “守衛” 。還是在自己的工作,成為拉丁語武加大,員工的聖動詞“鎮壓” ( conterere )在首先,與“在於等待” ( insidiari )在第二位。 Hence the punishment inflicted on the serpent and the serpent's retaliation are expressed by the same verb: but the wound of the serpent is mortal, since it affects his head, while the wound inflicted by the serpent is not mortal, being inflicted on the heel.因此,對處罰的蛇和蛇的報復都表示了相同的動詞: ,但傷口的蛇是致命的,因為它影響到他的頭部,而創傷的蛇不是致命的,導致的致命弱點。

(2) The second point of difference between the Hebrew text and our version concerns the agent who is to inflict the mortal wound on the serpent: our version agrees with the present Vulgate text in reading "she" (ipsa) which refers to the woman, while the Hebrew text reads hu' (autos, ipse) which refers to the seed of the woman. ( 2 )第二點之間的差異和希伯來文版的關注我們的代理人誰是造成了致命傷的蛇:我們的版本同意本武加大文字閱讀“她” (本身) ,它指的女人,而希伯來文全文虎' (汽車, ipse )是指種子的女人。 According to our version, and the Vulgate reading, the woman herself will win the victory; according to the Hebrew text, she will be victorious through her seed.根據我們的版本,以及拉丁文聖經讀,婦女本人將贏得勝利;根據希伯來文,她將通過她的勝利的種子。 In this sense does the Bull "Ineffabilis" ascribe the victory to Our Blessed Lady.在這個意義上沒有的公牛“ Ineffabilis ”的勝利歸結為我們祝福夫人。 The reading "she" (ipsa) is neither an intentional corruption of the original text, nor is it an accidental error; it is rather an explanatory version expressing explicitly the fact of Our Lady's part in the victory over the serpent, which is contained implicitly in the Hebrew original.閱讀“她” (本身)既不是有意腐敗的原始文字,也不是偶然的錯誤,這是相當的解釋性版本表示明確的事實聖母的一部分在戰勝了蛇,這是含蓄地載在希伯來文原來的。 The strength of the Christian tradition as to Mary's share in this victory may be inferred from the retention of "she" in St. Jerome's version in spite of his acquaintance with the original text and with the reading "he" (ipse) in the old Latin version.的力量基督教傳統,以瑪麗的市場份額在這場勝利可以推斷從保留“她”在聖杰羅姆的版本,儘管他結識原始文字與閱讀“他” ( ipse )在舊拉丁美洲版本。

As it is quite commonly admitted that the Divine judgment is directed not so much against the serpent as against the originator of sin, the seed of the serpent denotes the followers of the serpent, the "brood of vipers", the "generation of vipers", those whose father is the Devil, the children of evil, imitando, non nascendo (Augustine).因為它是相當普遍承認,神聖的判決是針對沒有這麼多的蛇對發端的罪孽,種子的蛇是指追隨者蛇的“沉思的毒蛇”的“一代的毒蛇” ,那些父親是魔鬼,兒童的罪惡, imitando ,非nascendo (奧古斯丁) 。 [2] One may be tempted to understand the seed of the woman in a similar collective sense, embracing all who are born of God. [ 2 ]有人可能會受到誘惑,了解種子的女子類似的集體意識,包括所有出生誰是上帝。 But seed not only may denote a particular person, but has such a meaning usually, if the context allows it.但是,種子不僅可以指一個特定的人,但是這樣一個含義通常情況下,如果允許的範圍內。 St. Paul (Galatians 3:16) gives this explanation of the word "seed" as it occurs in the patriarchal promises: "To Abraham were the promises made and to his seed. He saith not, and to his seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to his seed, which is Christ".聖保羅(加拉太3點16 )為這一解釋這個詞的“種子” ,因為它發生在重男輕女的諾言: “為了亞伯拉罕的承諾和他的種子。他必不會和他的種子,因為許多但作為一個和他的種子,這是基督“ 。 Finally the expression "the woman" in the clause "I will put enmities between thee and the woman" is a literal version of the Hebrew text.最後,表達“的女人”中的條款“我將把你之間的仇恨和女人”是一個文字版本的希伯來文。 The Hebrew Grammar of Gesenius-Kautzsch [3] establishes the rule: Peculiar to the Hebrew is the use of the article in order to indicate a person or thing, not yet known and not yet to be more clearly described, either as present or as to be taken into account under the contextual conditions.希伯來語法Gesenius - Kautzsch [ 3 ]確立了規則:奇特的希伯來文是使用的文章,以表明某人或某事,還不知道,還沒有更清楚地說明,無論是作為或作為本考慮到語境下的條件。 Since our indefinite article serves this purpose, we may translate: "I will put enmities between you and a woman".由於我們的服務條款無限期為此,我們可以翻譯: “我將把你們之間的仇恨和一個女人” 。 Hence the prophecy promises a woman, Our Blessed Lady, who will be the enemy of the serpent to a marked degree; besides, the same woman will be victorious over the Devil, at least through her offspring.因此,預言一個女人的承諾,我們的祝福夫人,誰將會是敵人的蛇,以顯著程度;之外,同樣的女子將戰勝魔鬼,至少通過她的後代。 The completeness of the victory is emphasized by the contextual phrase "earth shall thou eat", which is according to Winckler [4] a common old-oriental expression denoting the deepest humiliation [5].完整的勝利是強調的內容改為“地球應你吃” ,這是根據Winckler [ 4 ]一個共同的舊指東方表達最深切的恥辱[ 5 ] 。

Isaias 7:1-17伊薩亞斯7:1-17

The second prophecy referring to Mary is found in Isaias 7:1-17.第二個預言提及瑪麗發現伊薩亞7:1-17 。 Critics have endeavoured to represent this passage as a combination of occurrences and sayings from the life of the prophet written down by an unknown hand [6].批評者一直在努力,代表這一段作為一個結合點和諺語從生活的先知寫下了一個未知的手[ 6 ] 。 The credibility of the contents is not necessarily affected by this theory, since prophetic traditions may be recorded by any writer without losing their credibility.信譽的內容不一定是受這一理論,因為傳統的預言可能會記錄任何作家沒有失去其信譽。 But even Duhm considers the theory as an apparent attempt on the part of the critics to find out what the readers are willing to bear patiently; he believes it is a real misfortune for criticism itself that it has found a mere compilation in a passage which so graphically describes the birth-hour of faith.但是,即使Duhm理論認為作為一個明顯的企圖的一部分,批評找出讀者願意承擔耐心; ,他認為這是一個真正的不幸的批評本身,它已經發現了一種僅僅是彙編一段如此生動地描述了出生時的信念。

According to 2 Kings 16:1-4, and 2 Chronicles 27:1-8, Achaz, who began his reign 736 BC, openly professed idolatry, so that God gave him into the hands of the kings of Syria and Israel.據列王紀下16:1-4 ,並歷代誌下27:1-8 , Achaz ,誰開始了他的統治736年,公開宣稱的偶像崇拜,所以,上帝給了他手中的國王,敘利亞和以色列。 It appears that an alliance had been concluded between Phacee, King of Israel, and Rasin, King of Damascus, for the purpose of opposing a barrier to the Assyrian aggressions.看來,聯盟已Phacee之間締結的國王,以色列和Rasin ,國王的大馬士革,目的是反對的障礙亞述人的侵略。 Achaz, who cherished Assyrian proclivities, did not join the coalition; the allies invaded his territory, intending to substitute for Achaz a more subservient ruler, a certain son of Tabeel. Achaz ,誰珍惜proclivities亞述人,沒有加入聯盟的盟友入侵其領土,打算取代Achaz更屈從統治者,有一定的兒子Tabeel 。 While Rasin was occupied in reconquering the maritime city Elath, Phacee alone proceeded against Juda, "but they could not prevail".雖然Rasin被佔領reconquering海上城市Elath ,僅接著Phacee對猶大“ ,但他們無法得逞。 ” After Elath had fallen, Rasin joined his forces with those of Phacee; "Syria hath rested upon Ephraim", whereupon "his (Achaz') heart was moved, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the woods are moved with the wind".經過Elath下降, Rasin加入他的部隊與Phacee ; “敘利亞上帝休息時以法蓮” ,於是“他( Achaz ' )的心感動,和他的心髒病人,因為樹木的樹林被移到與風“ 。 Immediate preparations must be made for a protracted siege, and Achaz is busily engaged near the upper pool from which the city received the greater part of its water supply.立即籌備工作必須作出長期的圍困,並Achaz是忙於附近的上池從該城市收到了更大的部分供水。 Hence the Lord says to Isaias: "Go forth to meet Achaz. . .at the end of the conduit of the upper pool".因此,上帝給伊薩亞斯說: “去吧等等,以滿足Achaz 。 。 。在年底管道上池” 。 The prophet's commission is of an extremely consoling nature: "See thou be quiet; hear not, and let not thy heart be afraid of the two tails of these firebrands".先知的佣金是一個極其安慰的性質: “看你是安靜的;聽到沒有,讓你的心不害怕的兩個尾巴這些firebrands ” 。 The scheme of the enemies shall not succeed: "it shall not stand, and this shall not be."該計劃的敵人,不得取得成功: “不得的立場,這不得。 ” What is to be the particular fate of the enemies?什麼是特殊命運的敵人?

Syria will gain nothing, it will remain as it has been in the past: "the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rasin".敘利亞將得到任何好處,它仍將是因為它已經過去: “團長,敘利亞大馬士革,與敘利亞負責人是Rasin ” 。

Ephraim too will remain in the immediate future as it has been hitherto: "the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria the son of Romelia"; but after sixty-five years it will be destroyed, "within threescore and five years Ephraim shall cease to be a people".埃弗拉伊姆也將繼續留在不久的將來,因為它迄今已: “首長以法蓮是撒馬利亞和撒馬利亞負責人的兒子Romelia ” ;但經過六十五年將被摧毀“ ,在六十和五年埃弗拉伊姆應停止是一個人“ 。

Achaz had abandoned the Lord for Moloch, and put his trust in an alliance with Assyria; hence the conditional prophecy concerning Juda, "if you will not believe, you shall not continue". Achaz已經放棄了上帝的莫洛克神,並把他信任的同盟關係亞述,因此,有條件的有關猶大的預言: “如果你不會相信,你不得繼續。 ” The test of belief follows immediately: "ask thee a sign of the Lord thy God, either unto the depth of hell or unto the height above".測試的信仰立即如下: “問你一個標誌主你的上帝,要么你們的深度祂地獄或以上的高度。 ” Achaz hypocritically answers: "I will not ask, and I will not tempt the Lord", thus refusing to express his belief in God, and preferring his Assyrian policy. Achaz虛偽的答案: “我不會問,我不會引誘上帝” ,從而拒絕表示,他相信上帝,和喜歡他的亞述人的政策。 The king prefers Assyria to God, and Assyria will come: "the Lord shall bring upon thee and upon thy people, and upon the house of thy father, days that have not come since the time of the separation of Ephraim from Juda with the king of the Assyrians."國王喜歡亞述上帝,和亞述會: “上帝應提請根據你和你的人時,並籲請家中你的父親,天還沒有來,因為時間的分離,從以法蓮與猶大國王亞述人的。 “ The house of David has been grievous not merely to men, but to God also by its unbelief; hence it "shall not continue", and, by an irony of Divine punishment, it will be destroyed by those very men whom it preferred to God.這房子的戴維已被嚴重不僅僅是男人,但上帝也由不信教;因此, “不得繼續” ,以及由一個具有諷刺意味的神的懲罰,這將是摧毀了這些非常男人的人傾向於上帝。

Still the general Messianic promises made to the house of David cannot be frustrated: "The Lord Himself shall give you a sign. Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel. He shall eat butter and honey, that he may know to refuse the evil and to choose the good. For before the child know to refuse the evil, and to choose the good, the land which thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of the face of her two kings."不過一般彌賽亞作出承諾的房子大衛不能沮喪: “在上帝應給你一個跡象。看哪處女應構思,並承擔一個兒子,他的名字應稱為埃馬紐埃爾。他應吃黃油和蜂蜜,他可能知道拒絕邪惡,並選擇好。對於之前知道孩子拒絕邪惡,並選擇好,你的土地被abhorrest應放棄的,面對她的兩個國王。 “ Without answering a number of questions connected with the explanation of the prophecy, we must confine ourselves here to the bare proof that the virgin mentioned by the prophet is Mary the Mother of Christ.沒有回答了一些問題與解釋的預言,我們必須局限於這裡光禿禿的證明處女所提到的先知是瑪麗的母親基督。 The argument is based on the premises that the prophet's virgin is the mother of Emmanuel, and that Emmanuel is Christ.這個論點是基於的前提是先知的處女是母親埃馬紐埃爾,並埃馬紐埃爾是基督。 The relation of the virgin to Emmanuel is clearly expressed in the inspired words; the same indicate also the identity of Emmanuel with the Christ.關係的處女地,以埃馬紐埃爾是明確表達了靈感的話;相同還表明身份的伊曼紐爾與基督。

The connection of Emmanuel with the extraordinary Divine sign which was to be given to Achaz predisposes one to see in the child more than a common boy.連接伊曼紐爾與尋常的神聖標誌是考慮到Achaz易於看到一個孩子在超過一個共同的男孩。 In 8:8, the prophet ascribes to him the ownership of the land of Juda: "the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Emmanuel".在8點08 ,先知賦予他的土地的所有權的猶大: “伸出了他的翅膀應填寫的廣度你的土地,噢,艾曼紐” 。 In 9:6, the government of the house of David is said to be upon his shoulders, and he is described as being endowed with more than human qualities: "a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, and the government is upon his shoulders, and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, God the Mighty, the Father of the World to Come, and the Prince of Peace".在九時06 ,政府的房子大衛說,在他的肩上,他被描述為擁有超過人的素質: “孩子出生時,我們和一個兒子給我們,並政府是在他的肩上,他的名字應稱為奇妙,參贊,上帝的堅強,父親的世界裡,和王子的和平“ 。 Finally, the prophet calls Emmanuel "a rod out of the root of Jesse" endowed with "the spirit of the Lord. . .the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel, and of fortitude, the spirit of knowledge and of godliness"; his advent shall be followed by the general signs of the Messianic era, and the remnant of the chosen people shall be again the people of God (11:1-16).最後,先知呼籲艾曼紐“一根棍子出的根源,傑西”賦予了“精神的上帝。 。 。的精神,智慧和理解,精神的律師,以及堅韌不拔的精神和知識信仰“ ;他的到來應遵循由一般的跡象彌賽亞時代,殘餘所選擇的人應再次人民的神( 11:1-16 ) 。

Whatever obscurity or ambiguity there may be in the prophetic text itself is removed by St. Matthew (1:18-25).無論含糊或模棱兩可可能存在的預言文字本身就是去除馬太( 1:18-25 ) 。 After narrating the doubt of St. Joseph and the angel's assurance, "that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost", the Evangelist proceeds: "now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying: Behold a virgin shall be with child, and bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel."在敘事的疑問,聖約瑟夫和天使的保證, “這是在她的設想是在聖靈”的傳播者收益: “現在都這樣做,它可能實現的以主的先知,他說:看哪處女應與兒童,並帶來一個兒子,他們將請他的名字埃馬紐埃爾。 “ We need not repeat the exposition of the passage given by Catholic commentators who answer the exceptions raised against the obvious meaning of the Evangelist.我們沒有必要重複論述,通過給予天主教評論員誰回答提出的例外情況的明顯意義上的傳播者。 We may infer from all this that Mary is mentioned in the prophecy of Isaias as mother of Jesus Christ; in the light of St. Matthew's reference to the prophecy, we may add that the prophecy predicted also Mary's virginity untarnished by the conception of the Emmanuel [7].我們可以推斷從所有這一切瑪麗中提到的預言伊薩亞作為母親的耶穌基督;根據馬太提到的預言,我們可以補充說,預計也預言瑪麗的處女untarnished的概念埃馬紐埃爾[ 7 ] 。

Micheas 5:2-3 Micheas 5:2-3

A third prophecy referring to Our Blessed Lady is contained in Micah 5:2-3: "And thou, Bethlehem, Ephrata, art a little one among the thousands of Juda: out of thee shall be come forth unto me that is to be the ruler in Israel, and his going forth is from the beginning, from the days of eternity. Therefore will he give them up till the time wherein she that travaileth shall bring forth, and the remnant of his brethren shall be converted to the children of Israel." Though the prophet (about 750-660 BC) was a contemporary of Isaias, his prophetic activity began a little later and ended a little earlier than that of Isaias.第三個預言提到我們的祝福夫人載於米卡5:2-3 : “和你,伯利恆,埃夫拉塔,有點藝術之一的數以千計的猶大:在你應站出來告訴我,將是在以色列的統治者,他是去了從一開始,從天的永恆。因此,他將讓他們直至其中的時候,她說travaileth應提請等等,和他的殘餘兄弟應轉換為以色列兒童。 “雖然先知(約公元前750-660 )是一種當代的伊薩亞,他的預言活動開始後,沒有名額早一點比伊薩亞斯。 There can be no doubt that the Jews regarded the foregoing prediction as referring to the Messias.毫無疑問,猶太人認為,上述預測是指在弭賽亞。 According to St. Matthew (2:6) the chief priests and scribes, when asked where the Messias was to be born, answered Herod in the words of the prophecy, "And thou Bethlehem the land of Juda. . ."據馬太( 2時06分)的祭司長和文士,當被問及如果弭賽亞要出生,回答了希律王的關鍵詞的預言, “和你伯利恆的土地猶大。 。 。 ” According to St.據街 John (7:42), the Jewish populace gathered at Jerusalem for the celebration of the feast asked the rhetorical question: "Doth not the Scripture say that Christ cometh of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the town where David was?"約翰( 7時42分) ,以色列民眾聚集在耶路撒冷慶祝節日要求反問: “ Doth不是聖經說,基督來了種子的大衛,從伯利恆,該鎮在大衛? ” The Chaldee paraphrase of Micah 5:2, confirms the same view: "Out of thee shall come forth unto me the Messias, that he may exercise dominion in Israel". The very words of the prophecy admit of hardly any other explanation; for "his going forth is from the beginning, from the days of eternity".該Chaldee釋義的米卡5時02分,證實了同樣的看法: “在你應站出來告訴我的弭賽亞說,他可以行使統治以色列。 ”非常話預言承認的幾乎沒有任何其他解釋;的“他去了是從一開始,從天的永恆“ 。

But how does the prophecy refer to the Virgin Mary?但是,怎樣的預言指的是聖母? Our Blessed Lady is denoted by the phrase, "till the time wherein she that travaileth shall bring forth".我們祝福夫人是指由詞組, “到時候,她說,其中travaileth應帶來。 ” It is true that "she that travaileth" has been referred to the Church (St. Jerome, Theodoret), or to the collection of the Gentiles united with Christ (Ribera, Mariana), or again to Babylon (Calmet); but, on the one hand, there is hardly a sufficient connection between any of these events and the promised redeemer, on the other hand, the passage ought to read "till the time wherein she that is barren shall bring forth" if any of these events were referred to by the prophet.誠然, “她說travaileth ”已被提到了教會(聖杰羅姆, Theodoret ) ,或收集外邦人團結與基督(裡貝拉,馬里亞納) ,或再次巴比倫(卡爾梅特) ; ,但對一方面,人們很難有足夠的聯繫任何這些事件和承諾的救主,另一方面,通過應改為“到其中的時間,她這是貧瘠的應提請提出: ”如果任何這些事件被稱為由先知。 Nor can "she that travaileth" be referred to Sion: Sion is spoken of without figure before and after the present passage so that we cannot expect the prophet to lapse suddenly into figurative language.也不能“她說travaileth ”被稱為錫安:錫永講的是沒有數字之前和之後本通道,使我們不能指望先知失效突然變成形象的語言。 Moreover, the prophecy thus explained would not give a satisfactory sense.此外,預言從而解釋不會放棄一個令人滿意的常識。 The contextual phrases "the ruler in Israel", "his going forth", which in Hebrew implies birth, and "his brethren" denote an individual, not a nation; hence we infer that the bringing forth must refer to the same person.詞語的語境“統治者在以色列” , “他去了” ,這意味著在希伯來文出生,和“他的兄弟”指個人,而不是一個國家,因此我們推斷,創新必須是指同一人。 It has been shown that the person of the ruler is the Messias; hence "she that travaileth" must denote the mother of Christ, or Our Blessed Lady.它已經表明,人的統治者是弭賽亞,因此“她說travaileth ”必須是指基督的母親,或者我們的祝福夫人。 Thus explained the whole passage becomes clear: the Messias must be born in Bethlehem, an insignificant village in Juda: his family must be reduced to poverty and obscurity before the time of his birth; as this cannot happen if the theocracy remains intact, if David's house continues to flourish, "therefore will he give them up till the time wherein she that travaileth shall bring forth" the Messias.因此,解釋了整個通道變得明確:弭賽亞必須是出生在伯利恆,一個微不足道的村莊,猶大:他的家人必須減少貧困和默默無聞的時間之前,他的出生,因為這不會發生,如果神完好無損,如果大衛房子繼續蓬勃發展, “因此,他將讓他們直至其中的時候,她說travaileth應帶來”的弭賽亞。 [8] [ 8 ]

Jeremias 31:22 Jeremias 31:22

A fourth prophecy referring to Mary is found in Jeremias 31:22; "The Lord has created a new thing upon the earth: A woman shall compass a man".第四個預言提及瑪麗發現Jeremias 31:22 ; “上帝創造了一個新事物的地球:一個女人應羅盤一個男人。 ” The text of the prophet Jeremias offers no small difficulties for the scientific interpreter; we shall follow the Vulgate version of the Hebrew original.文先知Jeremias提供了不小的困難,科學翻譯;我們將按照拉丁文聖經版本的希伯來文原來的。 But even this rendering has been explained in several different ways: Rosenmuller and several conservative Protestant interpreters defend the meaning, "a woman shall protect a man"; but such a motive would hardly induce the men of Israel to return to God.但是,即使這使已經解釋了幾種不同的方式: Rosenmuller和一些保守的基督教保衛口譯的含義, “一個女人應保護人” ,但這樣的動機就很難引起男人的以色列回到上帝。 The explanation "a woman shall seek a man" hardly agrees with the text; besides, such an inversion of the natural order is presented in Isaias 4:1, as a sign of the greatest calamity.在解釋“一個女人應尋求一個男人”難以同意的文字,而且,這種反轉的自然秩序,是在伊薩亞4:1 ,作為一個簽署的最大災難。 Ewald's rendering, "a woman shall change into a man", is hardly faithful to the original text.埃瓦爾德的渲染, “一個女人應轉變成一個男人” ,是很難忠實於原文。 Other commentators see in the woman a type of the Synagogue or of the Church, in man the type of God, so that they explain the prophecy as meaning, "God will dwell again in the midst of the Synagogue (of the people of Israel)" or "the Church will protect the earth with its valiant men".其他評論中看到女子一類的猶太教堂或教堂,在男子類型的上帝,讓他們解釋預言的意義, “上帝會詳談再次正值猶太教堂(以色列人民) “或”教會將保護地球的勇敢男人。 “ But the Hebrew text hardly suggests such a meaning; besides, such an explanation renders the passage tautological: "Israel shall return to its God, for Israel will love its God".但是,希伯來文幾乎表明這樣一個意思,而且,這樣的解釋使通過同義反复: “以色列應恢復其神,以色列一定會喜歡它的上帝” 。 Some recent writers render the Hebrew original: "God creates a new thing upon the earth: the woman (wife) returns to the man (her husband)".最近的一些作家使原來的希伯來文: “上帝創造了一個新事物的地球:她(妻子)返回該名男子(丈夫) ” 。 According to the old law (Deuteronomy 24:1-4; Jeremiah 3:1) the husband could not take back the wife once repudiated by him; but the Lord will do something new by allowing the faithless wife, ie the guilty nation, to return to the friendship of God.根據舊法(申命記24:1-4 ;耶利米3:1 )丈夫不能收回的妻子再次否定他,但上帝會做一些新的,允許不忠實的妻子,即屬國家,以返回的友誼上帝。 This explanation rests upon a conjectural correction of the text; besides, it does not necessarily bear the Messianic meaning which we expect in the passage.這種解釋在於一個推測校正的文字,而且,它不一定承擔救世主的意思,我們期望通過。

The Greek Fathers generally follow the Septuagint version, "The Lord has created salvation in a new plantation, men shall go about in safety"; but St. Athanasius twice [9] combines Aquila's version "God has created a new thing in woman" with that of the Septuagint, saying that the new plantation is Jesus Christ, and that the new thing created in woman is the body of the Lord, conceived within the virgin without the co-operation of man.希臘父親一般的後續版本的譯本, “上帝創造了拯救一個新的種植園,男人應去的安全” ;但聖亞他那修兩次[ 9 ]結合雕的版本“上帝創造了一個新的東西的女人”與即七十說,新的種植園是耶穌基督,而新事物創造的女人是機構的主,設想在處女的共同運作的人。 St. Jerome too [10] understands the prophetic text of the virgin conceiving the Messias.聖杰羅姆也[ 10 ]理解預言文處女設想弭賽亞。 This meaning of the passage satisfies the text and the context.這種意義上的滿足通行的文字和背景。 As the Word Incarnate possessed from the first moment of His conception all His perfections excepting those connected with His bodily development, His mother is rightly said to "compass a man".作為擁有Word中降生的第一時刻,他的觀念他所有完善除那些與他的身體發展,他的母親是正確的說, “指南針一個男人。 ” No need to point out that such a condition of a newly conceived child is rightly called "a new thing upon earth".沒有需要指出的是,這樣的條件下一種新的設想是正確的兒童稱為“一個新事物時地球” 。 The context of the prophecy describes after a short general introduction (30:1-3) Israel's future freedom and restoration in four stanzas: 30:4-11, 12-22; 30:23; 31:14, 15-26; the first three stanzas end with the hope of the Messianic time.背景的介紹後,預言一個簡短的一般性介紹( 30:1-3 )以色列未來的自由和恢復四個stanzas : 30:4-11 , 12-22 ; 30:23 ; 31:14 , 15-26 ;的前三stanzas結束的希望彌賽亞時間。 The fourth stanza, too, must be expected to have a similar ending.第四詩,也必須預期也有類似的結局。 Moreover, the prophecy of Jeremias, uttered about 589 BC and understood in the sense just explained, agrees with the contemporary Messianic expectations based on Isaias 7:14; 9:6; Micah 5:3.此外,預言Jeremias ,說出約589 BC和理解的意義剛才解釋,同意與當代彌賽亞的期望的基礎上伊薩亞7時14分, 9時06分;米卡5點03 。 According to Jeremias, the mother of Christ is to differ from other mothers in this, that her child, even while within her womb, shall possess all those properties which constitute real manhood [11].據Jeremias ,母親基督是不同於其他的母親在此,她的孩子,即使在她的子宮裡,應具備所有這些特性構成真正的男子漢氣概[ 11 ] 。 The Old Testament refers indirectly to Mary in those prophecies which predict the Incarnation of the Word of God.舊約是指間接瑪麗在這些預言的預測體現天主的聖言。

II.二。 OLD TESTAMENT TYPES AND FIGURES OF MARY舊約類型和數字瑪麗

In order to be sure of the typical sense, it must be revealed, ie it must come down to us through Scripture or tradition.為了確保典型的意義,它必須顯示,即它必須歸結為我們通過聖經或傳統。 Individual pious writers have developed copious analogies between certain data of the Old Testament and corresponding data of the New; however ingenious these developments may be, they do not prove that God really intended to convey the corresponding truths in the inspired text of the Old Testament.個人虔誠的作家有豐富的類比發達國家之間的某些數據舊約和相應的數據新,但是巧妙的這些事態發展可能是,他們沒有證明,上帝確實轉達了相應的真理中的靈感文舊約。 On the other hand, it must be kept in mind that not all truths contained in either Scripture or tradition have been explicitly proposed to the faithful as matters of belief by the explicit definition of the Church.另一方面,它必須牢記的是,並非所有的真理都包含在聖經或傳統已明確提出,忠實地為信仰問題的明確定義的教會。

According to the principle "Lex orandi est lex credenti" we must treat at least with reverence the numberless suggestions contained in the official prayers and liturgies of the Church.根據原則“ ,就是法orandi法credenti : ”我們必須處理至少崇敬的無數所載的建議正式祈禱和liturgies的教會。 In this sense we must regard many of the titles bestowed on Our Blessed Lady in her litany and in the "Ave maris stella".在這個意義上,我們必須把許多遊戲賦予我們的祝福夫人在她的一連串和“大道馬里斯斯泰拉” 。 The Antiphons and Responses found in the Offices recited on the various feasts of Our Blessed Lady suggest a number of types of Mary that hardly could have been brought so vividly to the notice of the Church's ministers in any other way.該Antiphons與對策中找到該辦事處的背誦對各種節日的我們有福夫人提出了若干類型的瑪麗,幾乎可以帶來如此生動的通知教會的部長們以任何其他方式。 The third antiphon of Lauds of the Feast of the Circumcision sees in "the bush that was not burnt" (Exodus 3:2) a figure of Mary conceiving her Son without the loss of her virginity.第三antiphon的讚揚的盛宴的包皮環切認為,在“布什說,沒有燒毀” (出埃及記3:2 )的數字瑪麗構思她的兒子沒有失去她的貞操。 The second antiphon of Lauds of the same Office sees in Gideon's fleece wet with dew while all the ground beside had remained dry (Judges 6:37-38) a type of Mary receiving in her womb the Word Incarnate [12]. The Office of the Blessed Virgin applies to Mary many passages concerning the spouse in the Canticle of Canticles [13] and also concerning Wisdom in the Book of Proverbs 8:22-31 [14].第二antiphon的讚揚同一辦公室看到基甸的毛絨潮濕,有露水,而所有旁邊的地面一直幹(法官6:37-38 )一個類型的瑪麗在接受她的子宮裡的Word降生[ 12 ] 。辦事處聖母瑪利亞適用於許多段落的配偶在頌歌的Canticles [ 13 ] ,也涉及智慧的諺語書8:22-31 [ 14 ] 。 The application to Mary of a "garden enclosed, a fountain sealed up" mentioned in Canticles 4:12 is only a particular instance of what has been said above.應用瑪麗一個“封閉的花園,噴泉查封”中提到Canticles 4時12分只是一個特定情況下所取得的上述表示。 [15] Besides, Sara, Debbora, Judith, and Esther are variously used as figures of Mary; the ark of the Covenant, over which the presence of God manifested itself, is used as the figure of Mary carrying God Incarnate within her womb. [ 15 ]此外,莎拉, Debbora ,朱迪思,並有不同程度的埃斯特用作數字瑪麗;的約櫃,超過了上帝的存在表現出來,是用來作為數字瑪麗攜帶天主降生在她的子宮裡。 But especially Eve, the mother of all the living (Genesis 3:20), is considered as a type of Mary who is the mother of all the living in the order of grace [16].但是,尤其是除夕夜,母親所有的生活(創三點20 ) ,被視為一種類型的瑪麗誰是母親,所有生活在秩序的寬限期[ 16 ] 。

III.三。 MARY IN THE GOSPELS瑪麗的福音

The reader of the Gospels is at first surprised to find so little about Mary; but this obscurity of Mary in the Gospels has been studied at length by Blessed Peter Canisius [17], Auguste Nicolas [18], Cardinal Newman [19], and Very Rev. J.讀者的福音是第一次驚訝地發現這麼少的瑪麗;但這種默默無聞的瑪麗福音在研究了詳細的祝福彼得西斯[ 17 ] ,奧古斯特尼古拉[ 18 ] ,紅衣主教紐曼[ 19 ] ,並非常牧師學者 Spencer Northcote [20].斯賓塞諾斯科特[ 20 ] 。 In the commentary on the "Magnificat", published 1518, even Luther expresses the belief that the Gospels praise Mary sufficiently by calling her (eight times) the Mother of Jesus.在評注中的“ Magnificat ” , 1518年出版,甚至赫德表示相信,福音瑪麗充分讚揚了她的要求( 8倍)的母親耶穌。 In the following paragraphs we shall briefly group together what we know of Our Blessed Lady's life before the birth of her Divine Son, during the hidden life of Our Lord, during His public life and after His resurrection.在下面的段落中,我們將簡要地歸納我們所知道的我們有福夫人的生命誕生之前,她的神的兒子,隱藏在生活中我們的主,在他的公共生活和他復活。

Mary's Davidic ancestry瑪麗的Davidic祖先

St. Luke (2:4) says that St. Joseph went from Nazareth to Bethlehem to be enrolled, "because he was of the house and family of David".聖盧克( 2:4 )說,聖約瑟夫從拿撒勒到伯利恆入學“ ,是因為他的房子和家庭的大衛” 。 As if to exclude all doubt concerning the Davidic descent of Mary, the Evangelist (1:32, 69) states that the child born of Mary without the intervention of man shall be given "the throne of David His father", and that the Lord God has "raised up a horn of salvation to us in the house of David his servant".至於如果排除所有疑問關於Davidic出身的瑪麗,宣道( 1:32 , 69歲)指出,孩子出生的瑪麗沒有人干預的,應給予“王位的大衛,他的父親” ,並主上帝“提出了一個角,以拯救我們的家大衛他的僕人。 ” [21] St. Paul too testifies that Jesus Christ "was made to him [God] of the seed of David, according to the flesh" (Romans 1:3). [ 21 ]聖保祿也證明,耶穌基督“是向他提出[上帝]種子大衛,根據肉” (羅馬書1:3 ) 。 If Mary were not of Davidic descent, her Son conceived by the Holy Ghost could not be said to be "of the seed of David". Hence commentators tell us that in the text "in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God. . .to a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David" (Luke 1:26-27); the last clause "of the house of David" does not refer to Joseph, but to the virgin who is the principal person in the narrative; thus we have a direct inspired testimony to Mary's Davidic descent.如果瑪麗沒有的Davidic血統,她的兒子所設想的聖靈不能說是“種子大衛。 ”因此,評論家告訴我們,在文字“在6個月的天使加布里埃爾被來自上帝。 。 。以處女信奉一個人的名字是約瑟夫,房子的大衛“ (路1:26-27 ) ;最後一句”房子的大衛“並非指約瑟夫,但對處女誰主要是人的說明;因此,我們有直接的啟發證明瑪麗Davidic後裔。 [22] [ 22 ]

While commentators generally agree that the genealogy found at the beginning of the first Gospel is that of St. Joseph, Annius of Viterbo proposes the opinion, already alluded to by St. Augustine, that St. Luke's genealogy gives the pedigree of Mary.雖然評論普遍認為,家譜發現在開始的第一福音是聖約瑟夫, Annius的維泰博提出了意見,已經提到的聖奧古斯丁,即聖盧克家譜譜系提供了瑪麗。 The text of the third Gospel (3:23) may be explained so as to make Heli the father of Mary: "Jesus. . .being the son (as it was supposed of Joseph) of Heli", or "Jesus. . .being the son of Joseph, as it was supposed, the son of Heli" (Lightfoot, Bengel, etc.), or again "Jesus. . .being as it was supposed the son of Joseph, who was [the son-in-law] of Heli" [23].該文第三福音( 3點23 )可以解釋,從而使直升機的父親瑪麗: “耶穌。 。 。正的兒子(因為它被約瑟夫)的合力” ,或“耶穌。 。 。目前的兒子約瑟夫,因為它是假定的兒子,合力“ (萊特富特,本格爾等) ,或再次”耶穌。 。 。正因為它是假定的兒子約瑟夫,誰是[的兒子在法]的合力“ [ 23 ] 。 In these explanations the name of Mary is not mentioned explicitly, but it is implied; for Jesus is the Son of Heli through Mary.在這些解釋的名稱瑪麗不是明確提到,但它是隱含的;為耶穌是兒子合力通過瑪麗。

Her parents她的父母

Though few commentators adhere to this view of St. Luke's genealogy, the name of Mary's father, Heli, agrees with the name given to Our Lady's father in a tradition founded upon the report of the Protoevangelium of James, an apocryphal Gospel which dates from the end of the second century.雖然一些評論家堅持這一觀點的聖盧克家譜的名字,瑪麗的父親,合力,同意的名稱給予我們的夫人的父親在傳統基礎上的報告Protoevangelium詹姆斯,一個未經證實的福音日期從結束的第二個世紀。 According to this document the parents of Mary are Joachim and Anna.根據這一文件的父母瑪麗是約阿希姆和安娜。 Now, the name Joachim is only a variation of Heli or Eliachim, substituting one Divine name (Yahweh) for the other (Eli, Elohim).現在,約阿希姆的名字只是一個變化的合力或Eliachim ,代以一個神聖的名字(耶和華)為另一方(禮,瑩) 。 The tradition as to the parents of Mary, found in the Gospel of James, is reproduced by St. John Damascene [24], St. Gregory of Nyssa [25], St. Germanus of Constantinople [26], pseudo-Epiphanius [27], pseudo-Hilarius [28], and St. Fulbert of Chartres [29].作為傳統的父母瑪麗,發現了福音詹姆斯,轉載的聖約翰大馬士革[ 24 ] ,聖格雷戈里的果樹[ 25 ] ,聖Germanus君士坦丁堡[ 26 ] ,偽埃皮法尼烏斯[ 27 ] ,偽希拉里烏斯[ 28 ] ,和聖Fulbert的沙特爾[ 29 ] 。 Some of these writers add that the birth of Mary was obtained by the fervent prayers of Joachim and Anna in their advanced age.其中的一些補充說,作家的誕生,瑪麗獲得了熱切祈禱約阿希姆和安娜在其先進的時代。 As Joachim belonged to the royal family of David, so Anna is supposed to have been a descendant of the priestly family of Aaron; thus Christ the Eternal King and Priest sprang from both a royal and priestly family [30].正如約阿希姆屬於王室的大衛,所以安娜是被後代的牧師家庭的阿龍,因此基督永恆的國王和祭司興起從王室和牧師家庭[ 30 ] 。

The hometown of Mary's parents家鄉的瑪麗的父母

According to Luke 1:26, Mary lived in Nazareth, a city in Galilee, at the time of the Annunciation.據盧克1點26分,瑪麗住在拿撒勒,一個城市在加利利的時候,報喜。 A certain tradition maintains that she was conceived and born in the same house in which the Word became flesh [31].某傳統堅持認為,她是構思和出生在同一所房屋中的Word成了肉身[ 31 ] 。 Another tradition based on the Gospel of James regards Sephoris as the earliest home of Joachim and Anna, though they are said to have lived later on in Jerusalem, in a house called by St. Sophronius of Jerusalem [32] Probatica.另一個傳統的基礎上的福音詹姆斯關於Sephoris作為國內最早的約阿希姆和安娜,但據說他們後來一直生活在耶路撒冷的一所房屋稱為聖Sophronius耶路撒冷[ 32 ] Probatica 。 Probatica, a name probably derived from the sanctuary's nearness to the pond called Probatica or Bethsaida in John 5:2. Probatica ,這個名字可能來自聖殿的貼近的池塘稱為Probatica或伯賽大約翰5時02分。 It was here that Mary was born.就是在這裡出生的瑪麗。 About a century later, about AD 750, St. John Damascene [33] repeats the statement that Mary was born in the Probatica.大約一個世紀之後,約公元750 ,聖約翰大馬士革[ 33 ]再次聲明,瑪麗出生在Probatica 。

It is said that, as early as in the fifth century the empress Eudoxia built a church over the place where Mary was born, and where her parents lived in their old age.這是說,早在五世紀皇后Eudoxia建立了一個教堂的地方,瑪麗出生,並在她的父母住在他們的晚年。 The present Church of St. Anna stands at a distance of only about 100 Feet from the pool Probatica.本教會的聖安娜站在距離只有大約100英尺的游泳池Probatica 。 In 1889, 18 March, was discovered the crypt which encloses the supposed burying-place of St. Anna.在1889年3月18日,被發現的墓穴的包圍假定埋葬地點的聖安娜。 Probably this place was originally a garden in which both Joachim and Anna were laid to rest.也許這個地方原本是花園這兩個約阿希姆和安娜的安息。 At their time it was still outside of the city walls, about 400 feet north of the Temple. Another crypt near St. Anna's tomb is the supposed birthplace of the Blessed Virgin; hence it is that in early times the church was called St. Mary of the Nativity [34].在他們的時間還是境外的城牆,大約400英尺以北的廟。另一個墓穴近聖安娜的墳墓是假定的誕生地聖母;因此,它是在早期教堂被稱為聖瑪麗的誕生[ 34 ] 。 In the Cedron Valley, near the road leading to the Church of the Assumption, is a little sanctuary containing two altars which are said to stand over the burying-places of Sts.在Cedron山谷,靠近通往教堂的設想,是一個小避難所,包含兩個祭壇說,這是站在埋了,街的地方。 Joachim and Anna; but these graves belong to the time of the Crusades [35].約阿希姆和安娜;但這些墳墓屬於當時的十字軍東征[ 35 ] 。 In Sephoris too the Crusaders replaced by a large church an ancient sanctuary which stood over the legendary house of Sts.在Sephoris太十字軍取而代之的是大量的古老教堂聖殿達的傳奇家街。 Joachim and Anna.約阿希姆和安娜。 After 1788 part of this church was restored by the Franciscan Fathers.經過1788年的一部分,這個教堂恢復了方濟的父親。

Her Immaculate Conception她完美無暇的概念

The Immaculate Conception of Our Blessed Lady has been treated in a SPECIAL ARTICLE.聖母無染原罪堂的我們有福夫人已處理專文。

The birth of Mary出生的瑪麗

As to the place of the birth of Our Blessed Lady, there are three different traditions to be considered.至於地點的誕生我們的祝福夫人,有三個不同的傳統加以考慮。

First, the event has been placed in Bethlehem.首先,事件已被放置在伯利恆。 This opinion rests on the authority of the following witnesses: it is expressed in a writing entitled "De nativ. S. Mariae" [36] inserted after the works of St. Jerome; it is more or less vaguely supposed by the Pilgrim of Piacenza, erroneously called Antoninus Martyr, who wrote about AD 580 [37]; finally the popes Paul II (1471), Julius II (1507), Leo X (1519), Paul III (1535), Pius IV (1565), Sixtus V (1586), and Innocent XII (1698) in their Bulls concerning the Holy House of Loreto say that the Blessed Virgin was born, educated, and greeted by the angel in the Holy House.這有賴於輿論的權威,下面的證人:它是表達的書面題為“德nativ 。南Mariae ” [ 36 ]後插入的作品聖杰羅姆,這是或多或少含糊理應由朝聖者的皮亞琴察錯誤稱為安東尼烈士,誰寫公元580 [ 37 ] ;最後,教皇保羅二世( 1471 ) ,朱利葉斯二世( 1507年) ,里奧十世( 1519 ) ,保羅三世( 1535 ) ,庇護四( 1565 ) ,西斯V ( 1586年) ,和無辜的十二( 1698 )在公牛隊的羅馬眾議院說,洛雷托聖母出生,受過良好教育,並迎接天使在羅馬眾議院。 But these pontiffs hardly wish to decide an historical question; they merely express the opinion of their respective times.但是,這些pontiffs幾乎要決定一個歷史問題,他們只是表達的意見,各自倍。

A second tradition placed the birth of Our Blessed Lady in Sephoris, about three miles north of Bethlehem, the Roman Diocaesarea, and the residence of Herod Antipas till late in the life of Our Lord.第二個傳統,把我們出生在有福Sephoris夫人,約3公里的伯利恆,羅馬Diocaesarea ,和居住的希律安提帕直至深夜生活中的我們的主。 The antiquity of this opinion may be inferred from the fact that under Constantine a church was erected in Sephoris to commemorate the residence of Joachim and Anna in that place [38].在古代的這個意見,可以推斷的事實,根據君士坦丁教堂建於Sephoris為了紀念居住的約阿希姆和安娜在該地方[ 38 ] 。 St. Epiphanius speaks of this sanctuary [39].聖埃皮法尼烏斯談到這個避難所[ 39 ] 。 But this merely shows that Our Blessed Lady may have lived in Sephoris for a time with her parents, without forcing us to believe that she had been born there.但是,這只是表明,我們的祝福夫人可能住在Sephoris一段時間與她的父母,不強迫我們相信,她已經出生。

The third tradition, that Mary was born in Jerusalem, is the most probable one. We have seen that it rests upon the testimony of St. Sophronius, St. John Damascene, and upon the evidence of the recent finds in the Probatica.第三個傳統,瑪麗出生在耶路撒冷,是最有可能的。我們已經看到,它取決於證言街Sophronius ,聖約翰大馬士革,並出示的證據,最近發現在Probatica 。 The Feast of Our Lady's Nativity was not celebrated in Rome till toward the end of the seventh century; but two sermons found among the writings of St. Andrew of Crete (d. 680) suppose the existence of this feat, and lead one to suspect that it was introduced at an earlier date into some other churches [40].七七聖母的誕生不是在羅馬慶祝直到快要結束的七世紀,但兩國之間的說教發現的著作聖安德魯的克里特島(草680 )假設存在的這一壯舉,並導致一名懷疑這是介紹一個較早的日期到其他一些教會[ 40 ] 。 In 799 the 10th canon of the Synod of Salzburg prescribes four feasts in honour of the Mother of God: the Purification, 2 February; the Annunciation, 25 March; the Assumption, 15 August; the Nativity, 8 September.在799 10佳能的薩爾茨堡主教的規定,在四個節日榮幸天主之母:淨化, 2月2日;的報喜, 3月25日;升天, 8月15日;的誕生, 9月8日。

The Presentation of Mary介紹瑪麗

According to Exodus 13:2 and 13:12, all the Hebrew first-born male children had to be presented in the Temple.根據出埃及記13點02和13:12 ,所有的希伯來文第一個出生的男性兒童,提交的廟。 Such a law would lead pious Jewish parents to observe the same religious rite with regard to other favourite children.這樣的法律將導致虔誠的猶太父母遵守同樣的宗教禮儀與其他喜愛的兒童。 This inclines one to believe that Joachim and Anna presented in the Temple their child, which they had obtained by their long, fervent prayers.這傾向於一至認為,約阿希姆和安娜在聖殿他們的孩子,因為他們已經獲得了其長期,熱切地祈禱。

As to Mary, St. Luke (1:34) tells us that she answered the angel announcing the birth of Jesus Christ: "how shall this be done, because I know not man".至於瑪麗,聖盧克( 1時34分)告訴我們,她回答天使宣布耶穌基督誕生的: “應如何這樣做,因為我不知道的人” 。 These words can hardly be understood, unless we assume that Mary had made a vow of virginity; for, when she spoke them, she was betrothed to St. Joseph.這些話就很難理解,除非我們認為,瑪麗作出了誓言的貞潔;的,當她談到這些,她的未婚夫聖約瑟夫。 [41] The most opportune occasion for such a vow was her presentation in the Temple. [ 41 ]的最適宜時機,這樣的誓言,她介紹的廟。 As some of the Fathers admit that the faculties of St. John the Baptist were prematurely developed by a special intervention of God's power, we may admit a similar grace for the child of Joachim and Anna.由於有些父親承認,系施洗者聖約翰被過早開發的一個特殊干預上帝的力量,我們可能會承認一個類似的寬限期為兒童的約阿希姆和安娜。 [42] [ 42 ]

But what has been said does not exceed the certainty of antecedently probable pious conjectures.但是所說的話不超過確定性可能先行虔誠的猜想。 The consideration that Our Lord could not have refused His Blessed Mother any favours which depended merely on His munificence does not exceed the value of an a priori argument.是考慮到我們的主不能拒絕他的聖母任何有利於僅僅依賴於他的豐富不超過價值的先驗的論點。 Certainty in this question must depend on external testimony and the teaching of the Church.確定性,這個問題必須依賴於外部的證詞和教學中的教會。

Now, the Protoevangelium of James (7-8), and the writing entitled "De nativit. Mariae" (7-8), [43] state that Joachim and Anna, faithful to a vow they had made, presented the child Mary in the Temple when she was three years old; that the child herself mounted the Temple steps, and that she made her vow of virginity on this occasion.現在, Protoevangelium詹姆斯( 7-8 ) ,並撰寫題為“德nativit 。 Mariae ” ( 7-8 ) , [ 43 ]指出,約阿希姆和安娜,忠於許願,他們已提出了在兒童瑪麗廟當她3歲的孩子自己安裝步驟廟,她使她立下的處女在此之際。 St. Gregory of Nyssa [44] and St. Germanus of Constantinople [45] adopt this report; it is also followed by pseudo-Gregory of Nazianzus in his "Christus patiens".聖格雷戈里的果樹[ 44 ]和聖Germanus君士坦丁堡[ 45 ]通過這一報告,它也是其次是假的高利格雷戈里在他的“基督例” 。 [46] Moreover, the Church celebrates the Feast of the Presentation, though it does not specify at what age the child Mary was presented in the Temple, when she made her vow of virginity, and what were the special natural and supernatural gifts with which God endowed her. [ 46 ]此外,教會慶祝節日的介紹,但沒有說明在什麼年齡瑪麗兒童中提出的廟,當她使她立下的處女,什麼是特殊的自然和超自然的禮物與上帝賦予她的。 The feast is mentioned for the first time in a document of Manuel Commenus, in 1166; from Constantinople the feast must have been introduced into the western Church, where we find it at the papal court at Avignon in 1371; about a century later, Pope Sixtus IV introduced the Office of the Presentation, and in 1585 Pope Sixtus V extended the Feast of the Presentation to the whole Church. Her betrothal to Joseph節日提到的是第一次在文件曼努埃爾Commenus ,在1166年從君士坦丁堡的宴席必須有被引入西方教會,在那裡我們找到它在羅馬教皇在阿維尼翁法院在1371年,大約一個世紀之後,教皇西斯四介紹了辦公室的介紹,並在1585西斯V延長節日的介紹,以整個教會。她約瑟夫訂婚

The apocryphal writings to which we referred in the last paragraph state that Mary remained in the Temple after her presentation in order to be educated with other Jewish children.在未經著作,我們提到的最後一段指出,瑪麗留在廟之後,她介紹,以教育與其他猶太兒童。 There she enjoyed ecstatic visions and daily visits of the holy angels.因此,她享有興奮的理想和日常訪問神聖的天使。

When she was fourteen, the high priest wished to send her home for marriage. Mary reminded him of her vow of virginity, and in his embarrassment the high priest consulted the Lord.當她14 ,高神父想送她回家結婚。瑪麗讓他想起了她的誓言的貞潔,並在他的尷尬大祭司徵求上帝。 Then he called all the young men of the family of David, and promised Mary in marriage to him whose rod should sprout and become the resting place of the Holy Ghost in form of a dove.然後,他呼籲所有的年輕人家庭的大衛,並承諾在婚姻瑪麗對他的棒萌芽,並成為安息之地的聖靈在形式的鴿子。 It was Joseph who was privileged in this extraordinary way.這是約瑟夫誰有幸在這個非同尋常的道路。

We have already seen that St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Germanus of Constantinople, and pseudo-Gregory Nazianzen seem to adopt these legends.我們已經看到,聖格雷戈里的果樹,聖Germanus君士坦丁堡,並偽格雷戈里Nazianzen似乎通過這些傳說。 Besides, the emperor Justinian allowed a basilica to be built on the platform of the former Temple in memory of Our Lady's stay in the sanctuary; the church was called the New St. Mary's so as to distinguish it from the Church of the Nativity.此外,皇帝查士丁尼允許教堂必須建立在該平台的前寺,以紀念聖母的住宿的庇護;教堂被稱為新聖母,以區別於的聖誕教堂。 It seems to be the modern mosque el-Aksa.這似乎是現代埃及清真寺阿克薩。 [47] [ 47 ]

On the other hand, the Church is silent as to Mary's stay in the Temple.另一方面,教會是無聲的,以瑪麗留在寺。 St. Ambrose [48], describing Mary's life before the Annunciation, supposes expressly that she lived in the house of her parents.聖劉漢銓[ 48 ] ,說明瑪麗的生活面前報喜,假設明文說,她住在家裡她的父母。 All the descriptions of the Jewish Temple which can claim any scientific value leave us in ignorance as to any localities in which young girls might have been educated.所有這些說明了猶太聖殿可以要求任何科學價值,使我們在無知的任何地方,年輕的女孩可能已經受過教育。 Joas's stay in the Temple till the age of seven does not favour the supposition that young girls were educated within the sacred precincts; for Joas was king, and was forced by circumstances to remain in the Temple (cf. 2 Kings 11:3). Joas的留在寺院,直到7歲不贊成假定年輕女孩受教育的神聖區; Joas是為國王,並被迫的情況下留在該廟(列王紀下見11點03分) 。 What 2 Maccabees 3:19, says about "the virgins also that were shut up" does not show that any of them were kept in the Temple buildings.第2馬加比什麼三時19分說,關於“處女也被關閉了”不顯示任何人留在寺院建築。 If the prophetess Anna is said (Luke 2:37) not to have "departed from the temple, by fastings and prayer serving night and day", we do not suppose that she actually lived in one of he temple rooms.如果預言安娜說(路2時37 )沒有“離開了寺院,由fastings和祈禱服務白天和黑夜” ,我們沒有假設,她其實生活在他的一個寺院的客房。 [49] As the house of Joachim and Anna was not far distant from the Temple, we may supposed that the holy child Mary was often allowed to visit the sacred buildings in order to satisfy her devotion. [ 49 ]如家約阿希姆和安娜並非遙遠的聖殿,我們可能會以為神聖的瑪麗兒童往往是允許訪問的神聖建築,以滿足她的奉獻精神。

Jewish maidens were considered marriageable at the age of twelve years and six months, though the actual age of the bride varied with circumstances.猶太姑娘被視為結婚的年齡為12年和6個月,雖然實際年齡與新娘的不同情況。 The marriage was preceded by the betrothal, after which the bride legally belonged to the bridegroom, though she did not live with him till about a year later, when the marriage used to be celebrated.結婚之前,訂婚後,新娘法律屬於新娘,但她沒有與他住到了一年後,當婚姻來慶祝。 All this agrees well with the language of the Evangelists.所有這一切都同意與語言的福音派。 St. Luke (1:27) calls Mary "a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph"; St. Matthew (1:18) says, when as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child, of the Holy Ghost". As we know of no brother of Mary, we must suppose that she was an heiress, and was obliged by the law of Numbers 36:6 to marry a member of her tribe. The Law itself prohibited marriage within certain degrees of relationship, so that the marriage of even an heiress was left more or less to choice.聖盧克( 1時27分)要求瑪麗“處女信奉一個人的名字是約瑟夫” ;馬太( 1:18 )說,當他的母親瑪麗信奉約瑟夫之前,他們走到一起,她被發現兒童,在聖靈。 “正如我們不知道瑪麗的弟弟,我們必須假設她是一個繼承人,並義務的法律號碼36:6嫁給一名成員,她部落。法律本身禁止在結婚一定程度的關係,使婚姻更是一個繼承人留下或多或少的選擇。

According to Jewish custom, the union between Joseph and Mary had to be arranged by the parents of St. Joseph.根據猶太習俗,工會之間的約瑟夫和瑪麗不得不安排家長的聖約瑟夫。 One might ask why Mary consented to her betrothal, though she was bound by her vow of virginity.有人可能會問,為什麼瑪麗同意她的訂婚,但她是受她的誓言的貞潔。 As she had obeyed God's inspiration in making her vow, so she obeyed God's inspiration in becoming the affianced bride of Joseph.正如她服從了上帝的靈感,使她發誓,她服從了上帝的靈感,成為新娘的affianced約瑟夫。 Besides, it would have been singular among the Jews to refuse betrothal or marriage; for all the Jewish maidens aspired after marriage as the accomplishment of a natural duty.此外,本來奇異的猶太人拒絕訂婚或結婚;的所有猶太姑娘渴望結婚後的成績自然的義務。 Mary trusted the Divine guidance implicitly, and thus was certain that her vow would be kept even in her married state.瑪麗相信神的指導含蓄,從而肯定,她發誓將保持甚至在她結婚的狀態。

The Annunciation在報喜

The Annunciation has been treated in a SPECIAL ARTICLE.在報喜已治療了特別條款。

The Visitation探望

According to Luke 1:36, the angel Gabriel told Mary at the time of the annunciation, "behold, thy cousin Elizabeth, she also hath conceived a son in her old age, and this is the sixth month with her that was called barren". Without doubting the truth of the angel's words, Mary determined at once to add to the pleasure of her pious relative.據盧克1:36 ,天使加布里埃爾告訴瑪麗時的榜文, “你看,你的表妹伊麗莎白,她還設想上帝的兒子在她的晚年,這是6個月的她,被稱為不毛之地” 。沒有懷疑的真理天使的話,瑪麗決定再次添加到高興,她虔誠的親戚。 [50] Hence the Evangelist continues (1:39): "And Mary, rising up in those days, went into the hill country with haste into a city of Juda. And she entered into the house of Zachary, and saluted Elizabeth." [ 50 ]因此,傳播者繼續( 1時39分) : “和瑪麗,崛起在那些日子裡,走進山的國家,倉促到一個城市的猶大。她進入451家,並讚揚伊麗莎白。 ” Though Mary must have told Joseph of her intended visit, it is hard to determine whether he accompanied her; if the time of the journey happened to coincide with one of the festal seasons at which the Israelites had to go to the Temple, there would be little difficulty about companionship. The place of Elizabeth's home has been variously located by different writers: it has been placed in Machaerus, over ten miles east of the Dead Sea, or in Hebron, or again in the ancient sacerdotal city of Jutta, about seven miles south of Hebron, or finally in Ain-Karim, the traditional St. John-in-the Mountain, nearly four miles west of Jerusalem.雖然瑪麗必須告訴約瑟夫,她打算訪問,所以很難確定他是否陪她,如果時間發生的征程,以配合一個節日季節在以色列人不得不去廟,將有毫無困難的同伴。地點伊麗莎白的家一直位於各種不同的作家:它已被安置在Machaerus ,超過十英里以東的死海,或在希伯倫,或者再次在古老的sacerdotal城市尤塔,約七以南的希伯倫,或最後在艾因卡里姆,傳統的聖約翰在山區,近4英里以西的耶路撒冷。 [51] But the first three places possess no traditional memorial of the birth or life of St. John; besides, Machaerus was not situated in the mountains of Juda; Hebron and Jutta belonged after the Babylonian captivity to Idumea, while Ain-Karim lies in the "hill country" [52] mentioned in the inspired text of St. Luke. [ 51 ]但是,第一次擁有三個地方沒有傳統紀念館的出生或生活的聖約翰;此外, Machaerus沒有坐落在山區的猶大;希伯倫和尤塔屬於巴比倫後圈養,以Idumea ,而艾因卡里姆謊言在“山國” [ 52 ]中提到的啟發文聖盧克。

After her journey of about thirty hours, Mary "entered into the house of Zachary, and saluted Elizabeth" (Luke 1:40).在她的行程大約三十個小時,瑪麗“進入451家,並讚揚伊麗莎白” (路1:40 ) 。 According to tradition, Elizabeth lived at the time of the visitation not in her city home, but in her villa, about ten minutes distant from the city; formerly this place was marked by an upper and lower church.按照傳統,伊麗莎白住在時間的探訪,她不在家的城市,但在她的別墅,約10分鐘遠離城市;以前這個地方的特點是上限和下限教堂。 In 1861 the present small Church of the Visitation was erected on the ancient foundations.在1861年本小教堂的訪問是建於古代的基礎。

"And it came to pass that, when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant leaped in her womb." “它來傳遞,當伊麗莎白聽取了招呼瑪麗,嬰兒一躍在她的子宮裡。 ” It was at this moment that God fulfilled the promise made by the angel to Zachary (Luke 1:15), "and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb"; in other words, the infant in Elizabeth's womb was cleansed from the stain of original sin.正是在這個時刻,上帝履行承諾所作的天使,以451 (路1:15 ) , “他應充滿了聖靈,甚至從他的母親的子宮” ,換言之,嬰兒在伊麗莎白的子宮被清洗的污點原罪。 The fullness of the Holy Ghost in the infant overflowed, as it were, into the soul of his mother: "and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost" (Luke 1:41).在豐滿的聖靈嬰兒氾濫,因為它被納入的靈魂,是他的母親: “伊麗莎白充滿了聖靈” (路加1時41分) 。 Thus both child and mother were sanctified by the presence of Mary and the Word Incarnate [53]; filled as she was with the Holy Ghost, Elizabeth "cried out with a loud voice, and said: Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For behold, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy. And blessed art thou that hast believed, because those things shall be accomplished that were spoken to thee by the Lord" (Luke 1:42-45).因此,這兩個孩子和母親是神聖的存在,瑪麗和Word降生[ 53 ] ;填補她與聖靈,伊麗莎白“哭了一個響亮的聲音,說:你有福藝術之間的婦女,並祝福是結果你的子宮。而且何處是我的母親,我的上帝應該來找我?的外表,只要你的聲音聽起來在招呼我的耳朵,嬰兒在子宮內躍升我的喜悅。而且祝福你的藝術你相信,因為這些東西應完成了交談你的上帝“ (路1:42-45 ) 。 Leaving to commentators the full explanation of the preceding passage, we draw attention only to two points:離開評論家的充分解釋前面的通道,我們提請注意只有兩點:

Elizabeth begins her greeting with the words with which the angel had finished his salutation, thus showing that both spoke in the same Holy Spirit; Elizabeth is the first to call Mary by her most honourable title "Mother of God".伊麗莎白開始與她的問候語與天使已經完成他的稱呼,從而顯示出這兩個以相同的聖靈;伊麗莎白是第一個要求瑪麗由她最尊敬的標題是“上帝之母” 。

Mary's answer is the canticle of praise commonly called "Magnificat" from the first word of its Latin text; the "Magnificat" has been treated in a SEPARATE ARTICLE.瑪麗的答案是頌歌讚揚通常被稱為“ Magnificat ”從第一個字的拉丁文字;的“ Magnificat ”已被視為一個單獨的條款。

The Evangelist closes his account of the Visitation with the words: "And Mary abode with her about three months; and she returned to her own house" (Luke 1:56).宣道關閉其帳戶的訪問的話: “和與居留瑪麗她3個月左右; ,她回到她自己的房子” (路加1點56分) 。 Many see in this brief statement of the third gospel an implied hint that Mary remained in the house of Zachary till the birth of John the Baptist, while others deny such an implication.許多人認為在這個簡短的聲明的第三個福音暗示暗示,瑪麗留在家裡直到451的誕生施洗約翰,而另一些否認這樣一個含義。 As the Feast of the Visitation was placed by the 43rd canon of the Council of Basle (AD 1441) on 2 July, the day following the Octave of the Feast of St. John Baptist, it has been inferred that Mary may have remained with Elizabeth until after the child's circumcision; but there is no further proof for this supposition.隨著節日的訪問放在了第43次教會理事會的巴塞爾(公元1441 ) 7月2日翌日八節的聖約翰浸信會,已推斷,瑪麗可能留在伊麗莎白直到孩子的割禮;但沒有進一步的證據證明這一假設。 Though the visitation is so accurately described in the third Gospel, its feast does not appear to have been kept till the thirteenth century, when it was introduced through the influence of the Franciscans; in 1389 it was officially instituted by Urban VI.雖然探視是如此準確地描述在第三個福音,它的盛宴似乎並沒有一直保持到13世紀時,介紹了通過的影響,濟;它在1389年被正式提起城市六。

Mary's pregnancy becomes known to Joseph瑪麗懷孕的消息成為眾所周知的約瑟夫

After her return from Elizabeth, Mary "was found with child, of the Holy Ghost" (Matthew 1:18).之後,她回到伊麗莎白,瑪麗“是兒童發現,在聖靈” (馬太1:18 ) 。 As among the Jews, betrothal was a real marriage, the use of marriage after the time of espousals presented nothing unusual among them.正如之間的猶太人,訂婚是一個真實的婚姻,使用後結婚的時候提出espousals不稀奇其中之一。 Hence Mary's pregnancy could not astonish anyone except St. Joseph.因此,瑪麗懷孕不能駭人除了聖約瑟夫。 As he did not know the mystery of the Incarnation, the situation must have been extremely painful both to him and to Mary.正如他所不知道的神秘的化身,這種情況必須是極其痛苦的對他和瑪麗。 The Evangelist says: "Whereupon Joseph her husband being a just man, and not willing publicly to expose her, was minded to put her away privately" (Matthew 1:19).宣道說: “於是,她的丈夫約瑟夫是一個公正的人,不願意公開暴露自己,是志同道合把她帶走私人” (馬太1點19 ) 。 Mary left the solution of the difficulty to God, and God informed the perplexed spouse in His own time of the true condition of Mary.瑪麗離開了解決困難的上帝,上帝告訴困惑的配偶在自己的時間,真正的條件瑪麗。 While Joseph "thought on these things, behold the angel of the Lord appeared to him in his sleep, saying: Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus. For He shall save His people from their sins" (Matthew 1:20-21).雖然約瑟夫“重要思想的這些東西,看見天使的上帝似乎他在睡覺,他說:約瑟夫的兒子大衛,恐懼不採取瑪麗告訴你你的妻子,因為這是在她的設想是聖鬼。她不得將提出一個兒子,你應該要求他的名字耶穌。對於他應保存他的人從他們的罪孽“ (馬太1:20-21 ) 。

Not long after this revelation, Joseph concluded the ritual marriage contract with Mary.不久的啟示,約瑟夫儀式結束婚姻契約與瑪麗。 The Gospel simply says: "Joseph rising up from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him, and took unto him his wife" (Matthew 1:24).福音只是說: “約瑟夫崛起從睡眠也作為天使的上帝已命令他,並告訴他的妻子” (馬太1時24分) 。 While it is certain that between the betrothal and the marriage at least three months must have elapsed, during which Mary stayed with Elizabeth, it is impossible to determine the exact length of time between the two ceremonies.雖然某些之間的訂婚和結婚,至少要3個月已經過去了,在這期間下榻的瑪麗伊麗莎白,這是無法確定確切的時間長度兩國之間的儀式。 We do not know how long after the betrothal the angel announced to Mary the mystery of the Incarnation, nor do we know how long the doubt of Joseph lasted, before he was enlightened by the visit of the angel.我們不知道多久訂婚後宣布的天使瑪麗的神秘的化身,我們也不知道多久,毫無疑問約瑟夫持續之前,他是開明的訪問的天使。 From the age at which Hebrew maidens became marriageable, it is possible that Mary gave birth to her Son when she was about thirteen or fourteen years of age.從年齡,希伯來文姑娘結婚成了,有可能是瑪麗生下了她的兒子時,她大約13或14年以下。 No historical document tells us how old she actually was at the time of the Nativity.沒有歷史文件告訴我們如何歲的她實際上是在時間上的耶穌。

The journey to Bethlehem這次旅行到伯利恆

St. Luke (2:1-5) explains how Joseph and Mary journeyed from Nazareth to Bethlehem in obedience to a decree of Caesar Augustus which prescribed a general enrolment.聖盧克( 2:1-5 )解釋了如何約瑟夫和瑪麗journeyed從拿撒勒到伯利恆服從命令,奧古斯都愷撒訂一般入學率。 The questions connected with this decree have been considered in the article BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGY.這些問題與這項法令被認為在第聖經年代。 There are various reasons why Mary should have accompanied Joseph on this journey; she may not wished to lose Joseph's protection during the critical time of her pregnancy, or she may have followed a special Divine inspiration impelling her to go in order to fulfil the prophecies concerning her Divine Son, or again she may have been compelled to go by the civil law either as an heiress or to settle the personal tax payable by women over twelve years of age.有各種原因瑪麗應該伴隨約瑟夫旅程,她可能不希望失去約瑟夫的保護在關鍵時刻,她的懷孕,或她可以遵循一個特別神聖的靈感驅使她去,以履行有關的預言她的神的兒子,或她可能會再次被強迫去的民法無論是作為繼承人或解決個人應繳稅款的婦女超過12年的年齡。 [54] [ 54 ]

As the enrolment had brought a multitude of strangers to Bethlehem, Mary and Joseph found no room in the caravansary and had to take lodging in a grotto which served as a shelter for animals.隨著入學帶來了眾多的陌生人到伯利恆,瑪麗和約瑟夫沒有發現房間裡的隊商旅館,並採取住宿在一個洞穴作為住所的動物。 [55] [ 55 ]

Mary gives birth to Our Lord瑪麗生下我們的主

"And it came to pass, that when they were there, her days were accomplished, that she should be delivered" (Luke 2:6); this language leaves it uncertain whether the birth of Our Lord took place immediately after Joseph and Mary had taken lodging in the grotto, or several days later. “它來傳遞,當他們在那裡,她的天完成,她應交付” (路加2點06分) ;這種語言葉片無法確定的誕生我們的主發生後立即約瑟夫和瑪麗了採取住宿的洞穴,或幾天後。 What is said about the shepherds "keeping the night watches over their flock" (Luke 2:8) shows that Christ was born in the night time.什麼是說的牧羊人“保持晚手錶其羊群” (路加2時08分)表明,耶穌出生在晚上的時間。

After bringing forth her Son, Mary "wrapped Him up in swaddling clothes, and laid Him in a manger" (Luke 2:7), a sign that she did not suffer from the pain and weakness of childbirth.之後帶來了她的兒子,瑪麗“他包裹在襁褓,奠定他在馬槽” (路加2點07 ) ,這表明她沒有遭受的痛苦和弱點分娩。 This inference agrees with the teaching of some of the principal Fathers and theologians: St. Ambrose [56], St. Gregory of Nyssa [57], St. John Damascene [58], the author of Christus patiens [59], St. Thomas [60], etc. It was not becoming that the mother of God should be subject to the punishment pronounced in Genesis 3:16, against Eve and her sinful daughters. Shortly after the birth of the child, the shepherds, obedient to the angelic invitation, arrived in the grotto, "and they found Mary and Joseph, and the infant lying in the manger" (Luke 2:16).這推理同意教學中的一些主要神父和神學家:聖劉漢銓[ 56 ] ,聖格雷戈里的果樹[ 57 ] ,聖約翰大馬士革[ 58 ] ,作者的基督例[ 59 ] ,聖托馬斯[ 60 ] ,等等這是不成為母親上帝的應受到的處罰明顯的成因3時16分,對夏娃和她的罪孽深重的女兒。後不久出生的孩子,牧羊人,聽話的天使般的邀請,抵達石窟“ ,並發現瑪麗和約瑟夫,嬰兒躺在馬槽” (路加2點16分) 。 We may suppose that the shepherds spread the glad tidings they had received during the night among their friends in Bethlehem, and that the Holy Family was received by one of its pious inhabitants into more suitable lodgings.我們可以假設牧羊人傳播喜訊他們收到了在夜間他們的朋友之間在伯利恆,而且神聖家族受到它的一個虔誠的居民到更合適的住處。

The Circumcision of Our Lord在割禮我們的主

"And after eight days were accomplished, that the child should be circumcised, his name was called Jesus" (Luke 2:21). “ ,並在8天內完成了,這孩子應該割禮,他的名字被稱為耶穌” (路2時21分) 。 The rite of circumcision was performed either in the synagogue or in the home of the Child; it is impossible to determine where Our Lord's Circumcision took place.在儀式進行割禮無論是在猶太教堂或在家中的兒童,這是不可能的,以確定我們的上帝包皮環切發生。 At any rate, His Blessed Mother must have been present at the ceremony.無論如何,他必須聖母已出席了儀式。

The Presentation簡報

According to the law of Leviticus 12:2-8, the Jewish mother of a male child had to present herself forty days after his birth for legal purification; according to Exodus 13:2, and Numbers 18:15, the first-born son had to be presented on the same occasion.根據該法的利未記12:2-8 ,猶太母親的男孩提出了自己四十天他出生後的法律淨化;根據出埃及記13點02分,與數字18:15 ,第一個出生的兒子已提交在同一場合。 Whatever reasons Mary and the Infant might have for claiming an exemption, they complied with the law.不管原因瑪麗和嬰幼兒可能有聲稱的豁免,他們遵守法律。 But, instead of offering a lamb, they presented the sacrifice of the poor, consisting of a pair of turtle-doves or two young pigeons.但是,不是提供了羔羊,他們提出了犧牲的窮人,包括對海龜的鴿子或兩個年輕的鴿子。 In 2 Corinthians 8:9, St. Paul informs the Corinthians that Jesus Christ "being rich. . .became poor, for your sakes, that through his poverty you might be rich".在哥林多後書8點09 ,聖保祿通知科林蒂安耶穌基督“是豐富的。 。 。成了窮人,你行行好,通過他的貧困您可能會豐富” 。 Even more acceptable to God than Mary's poverty was the readiness with which she surrendered her Divine Son to the good pleasure of His Heavenly Father.更可以接受的上帝,瑪麗的貧困是願意與她交出她的神的兒子高興的好他的天父。

After the ceremonial rites had been complied with, holy Simeon took the Child in his arms, and thanked God for the fulfilment of his promises; he drew attention to the universality of the salvation that was to come through Messianic redemption "prepared before the face of all peoples: a light to the revelation of the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel" (Luke 2:31 sq.).在儀式儀式得到遵守,神聖的西門了兒童在他的懷裡,感謝上帝為履行其承諾;他提請注意的普遍性,這是拯救來通過贖回彌賽亞“前的準備面對所有人民:輕的啟示外邦人,和你的光榮人民的以色列“ (路加2時31分平方米) 。 Mary and Joseph now began to know their Divine Child more fully; they "were wondering at those things which were spoken concerning him" (Luke 2:33).瑪麗和約瑟夫現在開始知道自己神聖的兒童更充分;他們“不知道這些事情,講了關於他” (路2時33分) 。 As if to prepare Our Blessed Mother for the mystery of the cross, holy Simeon said to her: "Behold this child is set for the fall, and for the resurrection of many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be contradicted. And thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that, out of many hearts, thoughts may be revealed" (Luke 2:34-35).由於準備,如果我們的聖母的神秘的十字架,聖西蒙對她說: “看,這孩子是秋季,並復活了許多在以色列和標誌應矛盾。和你自己的靈魂應劍,皮爾斯說,在許多人心,思想可能會發現“ (路2:34-35 ) 。 Mary had suffered her first great sorrow at the time when Joseph was hesitating about taking her for his wife; she experienced her second great sorrow when she heard the words of holy Simeon.瑪麗遭受她的第一個偉大的悲痛時猶豫約瑟夫約她到他的妻子,她經歷了她的第二個巨大悲痛的時候,聽到的話神聖的西蒙。

Though the incident of the prophetess Anna had a more general bearing, for she "spoke of him (the Child) to all that looked for the redemption of Israel" (Luke 2:38), it must have added greatly to the wonder of Joseph and Mary.雖然這一事件的預言安娜了更廣泛的影響,因為她“以他(兒童)所有的期待的贖回以色列” (路加2時38分) ,它必須極大地增加了對難怪約瑟夫和瑪麗。 The Evangelist's concluding remark, "after they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their city Nazareth" (Luke 2:39), has been variously interpreted by commentators; as to the order of events, see the article CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST.在傳播者的結論是, “之後,他們已經實施一切依法辦事的主,他們返回到加利利,以他們的城市拿撒勒” (路加2點39分) ,已不同的解釋,評論家;作為該命令的事件,請參閱文章年代的生活耶穌基督。

The visit of the Magi這次訪問的賢士

After the Presentation, the Holy Family either returned to Bethlehem directly, or went first to Nazareth, and then moved into the city of David.演示結束後,羅馬教廷家庭要么回到伯利恆直接或前往第一拿撒勒,然後進入城市的大衛。 At any rate, after the "wise men from the east" had followed the Divine guidance to Bethlehem, "entering into the house, they found the child with Mary his mother, and falling down they adored him; and opening their treasures, they offered him gifts; gold, frankincense, and myrrh" (Matthew 2:11).無論如何,在“智者從東方”遵循了神聖的指導,伯利恆, “進入房子時,他們發現孩子與他的母親瑪利亞,和跌倒,他們崇拜他;和開放的寶藏,他們提供他的禮物;黃金,乳香和沒藥“ (馬太2點11分) 。 The Evangelist does not mention Joseph; not that he was not present, but because Mary occupies the principal place near the Child.宣道沒有提到約瑟夫;不是他不在場,但因為瑪麗佔據了主要營業地點附近的兒童。 How Mary and Joseph disposed of the presents offered by their wealthy visitors has not been told us by the Evangelists.如何瑪麗和約瑟夫處置的介紹他們所提供的富裕的遊客並沒有告訴我們的福音派。

The flight to Egypt飛行埃及

Soon after the departure of the wise men Joseph received the message from the angel of the Lord to fly into Egypt with the Child and His mother on account of the evil designs of Herod; the holy man's ready obedience is briefly described by the Evangelist in the words: "who arose, and took the child and his mother by night, and retired into Egypt" (Matthew 2:14).不久後離開智者約瑟夫收到郵件的天使上帝飛往埃及的兒童和他的母親就到了邪惡的希律王的設計;神聖的人準備服從簡要介紹了由傳播者的關鍵詞: “誰站起身來,並採取了孩子和他母親的夜晚,到退休埃及” (馬太2時14分) 。 Persecuted Jews had ever sought a refuge in Egypt (cf. 1 Kings 11:40; 2 Kings 25:26); about the time of Christ Jewish colonists were especially numerous in the land of the Nile [61]; according to Philo [62] they numbered at least a million.迫害猶太人曾經尋求避難埃及(參見列王紀上11:40 ;列王紀下25:26 ) ;的時間基督的猶太人被殖民者尤其是眾多的土地尼羅河[ 61 ] ;根據斐羅[ 62個]他們的人數至少100萬。 In Leontopolis, in the district of Heliopolis, the Jews had a temple (160 BC-AD 73) which rivalled in splendour the temple in Jerusalem.在Leontopolis ,在赫利奧波利斯區,猶太人有一個寺廟( 160年,公元73 ) ,其中不亞於在輝煌的寺廟在耶路撒冷。 [63] The Holy Family might therefore expect to find in Egypt a certain amount of help and protection. [ 63 ]神聖家族可能因此期望在埃及發現了一定程度的幫助和保護。

On the other hand, it required a journey of at least ten days from Bethlehem to reach the nearest habitable districts of Egypt.另一方面,它要求行程至少10天內從伯利恆到到達最近的人類居住區的埃及。 We do not know by what road the Holy Family effected its flight; they may have followed the ordinary road through Hebron; or they may have gone by way of Eleutheropolis and Gaza, or again they may have passed west of Jerusalem towards the great military road of Joppe.我們不知道通過什麼道路的神聖家族影響其飛行;他們可能遵循了普通公路通過希伯倫;或者他們可能已經過去了方式Eleutheropolis和加沙地帶,或者他們可能再次通過了耶路撒冷以西為偉大的軍事路線的Joppe 。

There is hardly any historical document which will assist us in determining where the Holy Family lived in Egypt, nor do we know how long the enforced exile lasted.幾乎沒有任何歷史文件,其中將幫助我們確定的神聖家族居住在埃及,我們也不知道如何強迫長期流亡持續。 [64] [ 64 ]

When Joseph received from the angel the news of Herod's death and the command to return into the land of Israel, he "arose, and took the child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel" (Matthew 2:21).當約瑟夫收到天使的消息希律王的死亡和命令返回到以色列土地的,他“站起身來,並採取了孩子和他的母親,並進入以色列土地” (馬太2時21分) 。 The news that Archelaus ruled in Judea prevented Joseph from settling in Bethlehem, as had been his intention; "warned in sleep [by the angel, he] retired into the quarters of Galilee. And coming he dwelt in a city called Nazareth" (Matthew 2:22-23).消息Archelaus排除在朱迪亞阻止約瑟夫定居在伯利恆,作為曾經是他的意圖; “警告在睡眠[的天使,他]退休到四分之三的加利利。與他談到未來的一個城市,所謂的拿撒勒” (馬太2:22-23 ) 。 In all these details Mary simply followed the guidance of Joseph, who in his turn received the Divine manifestations as head of the Holy Family.在所有這些細節瑪麗只是遵循的指導約瑟夫,誰在他又收到了神聖的表現擔任聖家庭。 There is no need to point out the intense sorrow which Mary suffered on account of the early persecution of the Child.沒有必要指出,這種激烈的悲痛瑪麗遭受考慮到早期迫害兒童。

The Holy Family in Nazareth羅馬家庭在拿撒勒

The life of the Holy Family in Nazareth was that of the ordinary poor tradesman. According to Matthew 13:55, the townsfolk asked "Is not this the carpenter's son?"; the question, as expressed in the second Gospel (Mark 6:3), shows a slight variation, "Is not this the carpenter?"生命的神聖家族在拿撒勒的是,普通窮人的生意人。根據馬太13:55的鄉親問: “難道這不是木匠的兒子嗎? ” ;的問題,如在第二次福音(馬克6點03分) ,顯示了輕微變異, “這不是木匠? ” While Joseph gained the livelihood for the Holy Family by his daily work, Mary attended to the various duties of housekeeper.雖然約瑟夫獲得了生活的神聖家族,他的日常工作,瑪麗參加各種義務的管家。 St. Luke (2:40) briefly says of Jesus: "And the child grew, and waxed strong, full of wisdom; and the grace of God was in him".聖盧克(二點四十)簡要耶穌說: “和孩子長大,和蠟強有力的,充滿智慧和上帝的恩典是在他的” 。 The weekly Sabbath and the annual great feasts interrupted the daily routine of life in Nazareth.每週一次的安息日和年度偉大的節日中斷了日常的生活在拿撒勒。

The finding of Our Lord in the Temple發現在我們的主寺

According to the law of Exodus 23:17, only the men were obliged to visit the Temple on the three solemn feasts of the year; but the women often joined the men to satisfy their devotion.根據該法的出埃及記23:17 ,只有男子被迫訪問寺莊嚴的三個節日的一年;但婦女往往加入了男性,以滿足他們的奉獻精神。 St. Luke (2:41) informs us that "his [the child's] parents went every year to Jerusalem, at the solemn day of the pasch". Probably the Child Jesus was left in the home of friends or relatives during the days of Mary's absence.聖盧克( 2點41分)告訴我們, “他[兒童]父母每年前往耶路撒冷,在莊嚴的一天pasch 。 ”也許耶穌兒童留在家裡的朋友或親戚在天瑪麗的缺席。 According to the opinion of some writers, the Child did not give any sign of His Divinity during the years of His infancy, so as to increase the merits of Joseph's and Mary's faith based on what they had seen and heard at the time of the Incarnation and the birth of Jesus.據認為一些作家,兒童沒有給出任何跡象神,他在多年的他的起步階段,以便增加的是非曲直約瑟夫和瑪麗的信念基礎上他們所看到和聽到的時候,道成肉身和耶穌誕生的。 Jewish Doctors of the Law maintained that a boy became a son of the law at the age of twelve years and one day; after that he was bound by the legal precepts.猶太醫生的法律主張,一個男孩成為一個兒子的法律在十二歲零一天後,他是受法律規定。

The evangelist supplies us here with the information that, "when he was twelve years old, they going up into Jerusalem, according to the custom of the feast, and having fulfilled the days, when they returned, the child Jesus remained in Jerusalem, and his parents knew it not" (Luke 2:42-43).該傳道用品我們這裡的資料說, “當他12歲,他們將進入耶路撒冷,根據定制的盛宴,並完成了天,當他們返回時,孩子仍然是耶穌在耶路撒冷,他的父母知道這不是“ (路2:42-43 ) 。 Probably it was after the second festal day that Joseph and Mary returned with the other Galilean pilgrims; the law did not require a longer sojourn in the Holy City.也許這是在第二次節日的一天,約瑟夫和瑪麗返回與其他伽利略朝聖者的法律並不需要較長逗留在聖城。 On the first day the caravan usually made a four hours' journey, and rested for the night in Beroth on the northern boundary of the former Kingdom of Juda.在第一天的大篷車通常發了4個小時的行車,休息的晚上在Beroth對北部邊界的前猶大王國。 The crusaders built in this place a beautiful Gothic church to commemorate Our Lady's sorrow when she "sought him [her child] among their kinsfolks and acquaintance, and not finding him,. . .returned into Jerusalem, seeking him" (Luke 2:44-45).十字軍建在這個地方一個美麗的哥特式教堂,以紀念聖母的悲痛時,她“希望他[她的孩子]之間的kinsfolks和熟人,並沒有找到他, 。 。 。返回到耶路撒冷,尋求他” (路2時44分-45 ) 。 The Child was not found among the pilgrims who had come to Beroth on their first day's journey; nor was He found on the second day, when Joseph and Mary returned to Jerusalem; it was only on the third day that they "found him [Jesus] in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing them, and asking them questions. . .And seeing him, they wondered. And his mother said to him: Son, why hast thou done so to us? behold thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing" (Luke 2:40-48).兒童未發現之間的朝聖者誰來Beroth他們第一天的旅程;也不是他發現的第二天,當約瑟夫和瑪麗返回耶路撒冷;它只是在第三天,他們“發現他[耶穌]在寺廟,坐在中間的醫生,聽證會,並要求他們的問題。 。 。 ,看到他,他們不知道。和他的母親對他說:兒子,你你為什麼這樣做呢?看見你的父親和我要求你sorrowing “ (路2:40-48 ) 。 Mary's faith did not allow her to fear a mere accident for her Divine Son; but she felt that His behaviour had changed entirely from His customary exhibition of docility and subjection.瑪麗的信心並沒有讓她害怕只是意外,她神聖的兒子,但她認為他的行為已經改變完全由他的習慣展覽docility和服從。 The feeling caused the question, why Jesus had treated His parents in such a way. Jesus simply answered: "How is it that you sought me? did you not know, that I must be about my father's business?"造成這種感覺的問題,為什麼耶穌對待他的父母以這樣一種方式。耶穌只是回答說: “怎麼,你要求我嗎? ,你不知道,我必須對我父親的事業? ” (Luke 2:49). (路加2點49 ) 。 Neither Joseph nor Mary understood these words as a rebuke; "they understood not the word that he spoke to them" (Luke 2:50).無論約瑟夫瑪麗也不理解這句話作為一個指責, “他們不理解這個詞,他以他們” (路2:50 ) 。 It has been suggested by a recent writer that the last clause may be understood as meaning, "they [ie, the bystanders] understood not the word he spoke unto them [ie, to Mary and Joseph]".有人建議由最近的作家,最後條款可以理解為, “他們[即旁觀者]不理解這個詞,他以你們這些[即瑪麗和約瑟夫] ” 。

The remainder of Our Lord's youth其餘的我們的主的青年

After this, Jesus "went down with them, and came to Nazareth" where He began a life of work and poverty, eighteen years of which are summed up by the Evangelist in the few words, and he "was subject to them, and. . .advanced in wisdom, and age, and grace with God and men" (Luke 2:51-52).在此之後,耶穌“墜毀的,並來到拿撒勒”在那裡他開始了人生的工作和貧困, 18歲這是總結了傳播者的幾句話,他“受到他們, 。 。 。先進的智慧,和年齡的寬限期與上帝和男人“ (路2:51-52 ) 。 The interior life of Mary is briefly indicated by the inspired writer in the expression, "and his mother kept all these words in her heart" (Luke 2:51).內部生活的瑪麗是簡要表明作者的靈感的表達, “和他的母親保持所有這些話在她的心” (路2時51分) 。 A similar expression had been used in 2:19, "Mary kept all these words, pondering them in her heart". Thus Mary observed the daily life of her Divine Son, and grew in His knowledge and love by meditating on what she saw and heard.類似的表達中使用了2時19分, “瑪麗保持所有這些話,深思他們在她的心。 ”因此,瑪麗觀察日常生活的她神的兒子,成長在他的知識和愛的思考,她看到和聽到。 It has been pointed out by certain writers that the Evangelist here indicates the last source from which he derived the material contained in his first two chapters.有人指出某些作家的傳播者在這裡顯示的最後來源,他所得的材料在他的頭兩章。

Mary's perpetual virginity瑪麗的永久童貞

In connection with the study of Mary during Our Lord's hidden life, we meet the questions of her perpetual virginity, of her Divine motherhood, and of her personal sanctity.有關研究在我國瑪麗上帝隱藏的生命,我們開會的問題,她永遠童貞,她的神聖的母親,以及她個人的神聖不可侵犯。 Her spotless virginity has been sufficiently considered in the article on the Virgin Birth.她一塵不染的童貞已充分考慮在文章中對美屬維爾京誕生。 The authorities there cited maintain that Mary remained a virgin when she conceived and gave birth to her Divine Son, as well as after the birth of Jesus.那裡的當局引用保持瑪麗仍然是一個處女當她設想和生下神的兒子,以及在耶穌誕生的。 Mary's question (Luke 1:34), the angel's answer (Luke 1:35, 37), Joseph's way of behaving in his doubt (Matthew 1:19-25), Christ's words addressed to the Jews (John 8:19) show that Mary retained her virginity during the conception of her Divine Son.瑪麗的問題(路加1時34分) ,天使的答案(路加1時35分, 37歲) ,約瑟夫的方式表現在他的疑問(馬太1:19-25 ) ,基督的話的猶太人(約8點19分)顯示瑪麗保留她的貞操觀念在她的神的兒子。 [65] [ 65 ]

As to Mary's virginity after her childbirth, it is not denied by St. Matthew's expressions "before they came together" (1:18), "her firstborn son" (1:25), nor by the fact that the New Testament books repeatedly refer to the "brothers of Jesus".至於瑪麗的貞操後,她分娩,這是不否認,馬太的表現形式“之前,他們走到一起” ( 1:18 ) , “她初生的兒子” ( 1點25分) ,也不是一個事實,即新約書籍反复提到“耶穌的兄弟” 。 [66] The words "before they came together" mean probably, "before they lived in the same house", referring to the time when they were merely betrothed; but even if the words be understood of marital intercourse, they only state that the Incarnation took place before any such intercourse had intervened, without implying that it did occur after the Incarnation of the Son of God. [ 66 ]改為“前,他們走到一起”是指可能“之前,他們住在同一屋” ,指的是當時他們只是訂婚,但即使話被理解的婚姻關係,他們只是說,道成肉身之前發生任何此類性交了干預,而不意味著它確實發生後,道成肉身的神的兒子。 [67] [ 67 ]

The same must be said of the expression, "and he knew her not till she brought forth her firstborn son" (Matthew 1:25); the Evangelist tells us what did not happen before the birth of Jesus, without suggesting that it happened after his birth.同樣必須說的表達, “他不知道她直到她帶來了她的第一個兒子” (馬太1時25分) ;的福音告訴我們什麼也沒有發生之前,耶穌誕生的,沒有暗示,它發生在他出生。 [68] The name "firstborn" applies to Jesus whether his mother remained a virgin or gave birth to other children after Jesus; among the Jews it was a legal name [69], so that its occurrence in the Gospel cannot astonish us. [ 68 ]名稱為“初生”適用於耶穌的母親是否仍是處女或生下孩子後,耶穌;之間的猶太人這是一個法律名稱[ 69 ] ,因此,其發生的福音不能駭我們。

Finally, the "brothers of Jesus" are neither the sons of Mary, nor the brothers of Our Lord in the proper sense of the word, but they are His cousins or the more or less near relatives.最後, “耶穌的兄弟”既不是兒子的瑪麗,也不是我們的兄弟勳爵在適當的含義,但他們是他的堂兄弟或或多或少的近親屬。 [70] The Church insists that in His birth the Son of God did not lessen but consecrate the virginal integrity of His mother (Secret in Mass of Purification). [ 70 ]教會堅持說,他出生在上帝的兒子沒有減少,但神聖的處女完整的,他的母親(在地下的秘密淨化) 。 The Fathers express themselves in similar language concerning this privilege of Mary.父親表達自己的類似的語言對這一特權的瑪麗。 [71] [ 71 ]

Mary's Divine motherhood瑪麗的母親神聖

Mary's Divine motherhood is based on the teaching of the Gospels, on the writings of the Fathers, and on the express definition of the Church.瑪麗的母親是神聖的基礎上教學的福音,對著作的父親,並明確定義的教會。 St. Matthew (1:25) testifies that Mary "brought forth her first-born son" and that He was called Jesus.馬太( 1點25分)證明,瑪麗“提出了她的第一個出生的兒子” ,他被稱為耶穌。 According to St. John (1:15) Jesus is the Word made flesh, the Word Who assumed human nature in the womb of Mary.據聖約翰( 1:15 )耶穌是Word中取得的肉體,誰的Word假定人性在子宮內的瑪麗。 As Mary was truly the mother of Jesus, and as Jesus was truly God from the first moment of His conception, Mary is truly the mother of God.至於瑪麗是一個真正的母親,耶穌,耶穌和上帝是真正的第一時刻,他的觀念,真正瑪麗的母親上帝。 Even the earliest Fathers did not hesitate to draw this conclusion as may be seen in the writings of St. Ignatius [72], St. Irenaeus [73], and Tertullian [74].即使是最早的父親毫不猶豫地得出這一結論可以看出著作中聖伊格內修[ 72 ] ,聖依[ 73 ] ,和良[ 74 ] 。 The contention of Nestorius denying to Mary the title "Mother of God" [75] was followed by the teaching of the Council of Ephesus proclaiming Mary to be Theotokos in the true sense of the word.在爭論的聶斯脫裡否認瑪麗的標題是“上帝之母” [ 75 ]其次是教學理事會的以弗所宣布瑪麗是子在真正意義上的字。 [76] [ 76 ]

Mary's perfect sanctity瑪麗的完美神聖

Some few patristic writers expressed their doubts as to the presence of minor moral defects in Our Blessed Lady.一些很少教父作家表示懷疑,在場的未成年人的道德缺陷,我們的祝福夫人。 [77] St. Basil, eg, suggests that Mary yielded to doubt on hearing the words of holy Simeon and on witnessing the crucifixion. [ 77 ]聖巴西爾,例如表明,瑪麗產生懷疑聽的話神聖的西蒙和目睹了十字架。 [78] St. John Chrysostom is of opinion that Mary would have felt fear and trouble, unless the angel had explained the mystery of the Incarnation to her, and that she showed some vainglory at the marriage feast in Cana and on visiting her Son during His public life together with the brothers of the Lord. [79] St. Cyril of Alexandria [80] speaks of Mary's doubt and discouragement at the foot of the cross. [ 78 ]聖約翰金口是認為瑪麗會感到恐懼和麻煩,除非天使解釋了神秘的化身給她,她顯示出一些虛榮的結婚宴席在加拿大和她的兒子訪問期間他的公共生活與兄弟主。 [ 79 ]聖西里爾亞歷山大[ 80 ]談到瑪麗的懷疑和失望的腳跨。 But these Greek writers cannot be said to express an Apostolic tradition, when they express their private and singular opinions. Scripture and tradition agree in ascribing to Mary the greatest personal sanctity; She is conceived without the stain of original sin; she shows the greatest humility and patience in her daily life (Luke 1:38, 48); she exhibits an heroic patience under the most trying circumstances (Luke 2:7, 35, 48; John 19:25-27).但是,這些希臘作家不能說對一個使徒的傳統,當他們表達他們的私人和奇異的意見。聖經和傳統同意歸咎於瑪麗最大的個人神聖不可侵犯;她設想的染色原罪,她顯示了最大的謙卑和耐心,在她的日常生活(路加1時38分, 48歲) ,她表現出英勇的耐心在最艱難的情況下(路二點07 , 35 , 48 ;約翰19:25-27 ) 。 When there is question of sin, Mary must always be excepted.當有問題的罪孽,瑪麗必須始終除外。 [81] Mary's complete exemption from actual sin is confirmed by the Council of Trent (Session VI, Canon 23): "If any one say that man once justified can during his whole life avoid all sins, even venial ones, as the Church holds that the Blessed Virgin did by special privilege of God, let him be anathema." Theologians assert that Mary was impeccable, not by the essential perfection of her nature, but by a special Divine privilege. [ 81 ]瑪麗完全免除罪孽從實際確認理事會的遄達(會話六,佳能23歲) : “如果任何一個人說,一旦理由可以在其整個生命避免所有的罪孽,甚至venial的,因為教堂舉行該聖母沒有特別的特權上帝,讓他被詛咒。 “神學斷言,瑪麗是無可挑剔的,而不是由基本完善她的性質,而是由一個特別神聖的特權。 Moreover, the Fathers, at least since the fifth century, almost unanimously maintain that the Blessed Virgin never experienced the motions of concupiscence.此外,父親,至少從第五世紀,幾乎一致認為,聖母從未經歷過的動議concupiscence 。

The miracle in Cana奇蹟在迦南

The evangelists connect Mary's name with three different events in Our Lord's public life: with the miracle in Cana, with His preaching, and with His passion. The first of these incidents is related in John 2:1-10.連接的福音派瑪麗的名字與三個不同的事件在我們的上帝的公共生活:與加拿大奇蹟,他的說教,並與他的激情。首先是這些事件有關的約翰2:1-10 。

There was a marriage feast in Cana of Galilee.有人結婚宴席在加拿大的加利利。 . .and the mother of Jesus was there. 。與耶穌的母親在那裡。 And Jesus also was invited, and his disciples, to the marriage.和耶穌也被邀請參加,並且他的弟子,結婚。 And the wine failing, the mother of Jesus saith to him: They have no wine.葡萄酒和失敗,母親必耶穌對他說:他們沒有酒。 And Jesus saith to her: Woman, what is that to me and to thee?和耶穌必給她:女人,是什麼我和你? my hour is not yet come.我小時是尚未到來。

One naturally supposes that one of the contracting parties was related to Mary, and that Jesus had been invited on account of his mother's relationship.一個自然假設,一個締約雙方有關瑪麗,耶穌已邀請到他母親的關係。 The couple must have been rather poor, since the wine was actually failing.夫婦必須有相當差,因為酒實際上是失敗的。 Mary wishes to save her friends from the shame of not being able to provide properly for the guests, and has recourse to her Divine Son.瑪麗要挽救她的朋友們的恥辱不能提供適當的客人,並訴諸於她的神的兒子。 She merely states their need, without adding any further petition.她僅僅是國家的需要,不增加任何進一步的請願書。 In addressing women, Jesus uniformly employs the word "woman" (Matthew 15:28; Luke 13:12; John 4:21; 8:10; 19:26; 20:15), an expression used by classical writers as a respectful and honourable address.在處理婦女,耶穌員工一律改為“女” (馬太15:28 ;盧克13:12 ;約翰4點21分; 8:10 ; 19:26 ; 20:15 ) ,表達用經典作家的尊重和體面的解決。 [82] The above cited passages show that in the language of Jesus the address "woman" has a most respectful meaning. [ 82 ]上述列舉段落表明,在語言的耶穌的地址“女人”有一個最尊重的含義。 The clause "what is that to me and to thee" renders the Greek ti emoi kai soi, which in its turn corresponds to the Hebrew phrase mah li walakh.該條款“是什麼我和你”使希臘鈦emoi凱綏,這反過來對應的希伯來文詞語麻將立walakh 。 This latter occurs in Judges 11:12; 2 Samuel 16:10; 19:23; 1 Kings 17:18; 2 Kings 3:13; 9:18; 2 Chronicles 35:21.後者發生在法官11:12 ;撒母耳記下16:10 ; 19:23 ;列王紀上17:18 ;列王紀下3時13分, 9點18分;歷代誌下35:21 。 The New Testament shows equivalent expressions in Matthew 8:29; Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; 8:28; Matthew 27:19.新約相當於表情顯示在馬修8點29分;馬克1時24分;盧克4點34分, 8點28分;馬修27:19 。 The meaning of the phrase varies according to the character of the speakers, ranging from a most pronounced opposition to a courteous compliance.一詞的含義根據不同性質的發言,從最明顯的反對禮貌遵守。 Such a variable meaning makes it hard for the translator to find an equally variable equivalent.這樣一個變量的含義使它很難翻譯找到一個同樣可變當量。 "What have I to do with thee", "this is neither your nor my business", "why art thou troublesome to me", "allow me to attend to this", are some of the renderings suggested. “什麼,我跟你” , “這既不是你的,也沒有我的生意” , “為什麼藝術麻煩你給我” , “請允許我向出席本” ,是一些渲染建議。 In general, the words seem to refer to well or ill-meant importunity which they endeavour to remove.一般來說,話似乎是指良好或虐待importunity意味著它們努力消除。 The last part of Our Lord's answer presents less difficulty to the interpreter: "my hour is not yet come", cannot refer to the precise moment at which the need of wine will require the miraculous intervention of Jesus; for in the language of St. John "my hour" or "the hour" denotes the time preordained for some important event (John 4:21, 23; 5:25, 28; 7:30; 8:29; 12:23; 13:1; 16:21; 17:1).最後一部分我們的主的答案少了難以解釋: “我小時是尚未到來” ,不能提及的精確時刻的需要的葡萄酒將需要奇蹟干預的耶穌;中的語言街約翰“我小時”或“小時”是指時間預先對一些重要事件(約4時21分, 23歲; 5時25分, 28 ; 7:30 ; 8時29分; 12:23 ; 13時零一; 16 : 21 ; 17:1 ) 。 Hence the meaning of Our Lord's answer is: "Why are you troubling me by asking me for such an intervention? The divinely appointed time for such a manifestation has not yet come"; or, "why are you worrying? has not the time of manifesting my power come?"因此,我們所指的上帝的回答是: “你為什麼要麻煩我問我的這種干預呢?神指定的時間這樣的表現尚未到來” ;或“你為什麼擔心?還沒有的時候體現我國電力來嗎? “ The former of these meanings implies that on account of the intercession of Mary Jesus anticipated the time set for the manifestation of His miraculous power [83]; the second meaning is obtained by understanding the last part of Our Lord's words as a question, as was done by St. Gregory of Nyssa [84], and by the Arabic version of Tatian's "Diatessaron" (Rome, 1888).前這些意義上意味著到調解耶穌瑪麗預期的時間定為表現他的神奇的力量[ 83 ] ;第二個意義是獲得了理解的最後一部分,我們的主的話作為一個問題,是所做的聖格雷戈里的果樹[ 84 ] ,和阿拉伯文版的塔蒂安的“ Diatessaron ” (羅馬, 1888年) 。 [85] Mary understood her Son's words in their proper sense; she merely warned the waiters, "Whatsoever he shall say to you, do ye" (John 2:5). [ 85 ]瑪麗理解她的兒子的話在適當的意義,她只是警告說,服務員, “無論他應告訴你們,做你們” (約2:5 ) 。 There can be no question of explaining Jesus' answer in the sense of a refusal.毫無疑問的解釋耶穌的回答意義上的拒絕。

Mary during the apostolic life of Our Lord瑪麗在使徒生活的我們的主

During the apostolic life of Jesus, Mary effaced herself almost completely.在使徒生活的耶穌,瑪麗抹去自己幾乎完全。 Not being called to aid her Son directly in His ministry, she did not wish to interfere with His work by her untimely presence.不被稱為幫助她的兒子在他的直接部門,她並不想干涉他的工作由她過早地存在。 In Nazareth she was regarded as a common Jewish mother; St. Matthew (3:55-56; cf. Mark 6:3) introduces the people of the town as saying: "Is not this the carpenter's son? Is not his mother called Mary, and his brethren James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Jude: and his sisters, are they not all with us?"在拿撒勒,她被視為一個共同的猶太母親;馬太( 3:55-56 ;比照。馬克六點03 )介紹了人民鎮的話說: “難道這不是木匠的兒子嗎?是不是他的母親要求瑪麗和他的兄弟詹姆斯,約瑟夫,和西蒙,以及裘德:和他的姐妹們,他們是不是所有的與我們? “ Since the people wish to lower Our Lord's esteem by their language, we must infer that Mary belonged to the lower social order of townspeople.由於人民的意願降低我們的上帝的自尊的語言,我們必須推斷,瑪麗屬於較低的社會秩序的鄉民。 The parallel passage of St. Mark reads, "Is not this the carpenter?"平行通道的聖馬克寫道: “難道這不是木匠? ” instead of, "Is not this the carpenter's son?"不是, “難道這不是木匠的兒子? ” Since both evangelists omit the name of St. Joseph, we may infer that he had died before this episode took place.由於雙方的福音派省略的名字聖若瑟,我們可以推斷他死於這次事件之前發生。

At first sight, it seems that Jesus Himself depreciated the dignity of His Blessed Mother.乍一看,似乎耶穌自己折舊的尊嚴,他的聖母。 When He was told: "Behold thy mother and thy brethren stand without, seeking thee", He answered: "Who is my mother, and who are my brethren? And stretching forth his hand towards his disciples, he said: Behold my mother and my brethren. For whosoever shall do the will of my Father, that is in heaven, he is my brother, and my sister, and my mother" (Matthew 12:47-50; cf. Mark 3:31-35; Luke 8:19-21).當他被告知: “看你媽媽和你的兄弟站無,尋求你” ,他回答說: “誰是我的母親,誰是我的兄弟?和伸展了他的手向他的弟子,他說:瞧我的母親和我的兄弟。對於誰應做的意願,我的父親,這是在天上,他是我的兄弟,和我的妹妹和我的母親“ (馬太12:47-50 ;比照。馬克3:31-35 ;盧克8日:19 - 21 ) 。 On another occasion, "a certain woman from the crowd, lifting up her voice, said to him: Blessed is the womb that bore thee, and the paps that gave thee suck. But he said: Yea rather, blessed are they who hear the word of God, and keep it" (Luke 11:27-28).在另一個場合, “某女子人群,抬起她的聲音,對他說:有福是子宮承擔你,和收縮壓,讓你吮吸。但是他說:是啊,相反,祝福他們聽到誰上帝一詞,並保持“ (路11:27-28 ) 。

In reality, Jesus in both these passages places the bond that unites the soul with God above the natural bond of parentage which unites the Mother of God with her Divine Son.在現實中,耶穌在這兩個通道的地方債券團結的靈魂與上帝以上的天然紐帶團結親子天主之母神與她的兒子。 The latter dignity is not belittled; as men naturally appreciate it more easily, it is employed by Our Lord as a means to make known the real value of holiness.後者的尊嚴是不能輕視;男人欣賞自然更容易,這是我們僱用的上帝作為一種手段,使已知的真正價值聖潔。 Jesus, therefore, really, praises His mother in a most emphatic way; for she excelled the rest of men in holiness not less than in dignity.耶穌,因此,真的,歌頌他的母親在一個最有力的方式,因為她出色其餘的男子在聖德不少於尊嚴。 [86] Most probably, Mary was found also among the holy women who ministered to Jesus and His apostles during their ministry in Galilee (cf. Luke 8:2-3); the Evangelists do not mention any other public appearance of Mary during the time of Jesus's journeys through Galilee or Judea. [ 86 ]最可能的,瑪麗也被發現之間的神聖的婦女誰ministered耶穌和他的使徒在其部在加利利(參見盧克8:2-3 ) ;的福音派沒有提及任何其他公開場合露面的瑪麗在時間耶穌的行程或通過加利利朱迪亞。 But we must remember that when the sun appears, even the brightest stars become invisible.但是,我們必須記住,當太陽出現時,即使最聰明的星級成為無形的。

Mary during the Passion of Our Lord在瑪麗的激情我們的主

Since the Passion of Jesus Christ occurred during the paschal week, we naturally expect to find Mary at Jerusalem.由於受難耶穌發生在復活節一周後,我們自然希望找到瑪麗在耶路撒冷。 Simeon's prophecy found its fulfilment principally during the time of Our Lord's suffering.西梅翁的預言發現其履行主要時期,我們的主的苦難。 According to a tradition, His Blessed Mother met Jesus as He was carrying His cross to Golgotha.根據傳統,他會見了聖母耶穌為他進行跨到他的墓地。 The Itinerarium of the Pilgrim of Bordeaux describes the memorable sites which the writer visited AD 333, but it does not mention any locality sacred to this meeting of Mary and her Divine Son.該Itinerarium的朝聖者波爾多介紹了難忘的網站訪問作家公元333 ,但它沒有提到任何神聖的地方本次會議的瑪麗和她的神的兒子。 [87] The same silence prevails in the so-called Peregrinatio Silviae which used to be assigned to AD 385, but has lately been placed in AD 533-540. [ 87 ]同樣的沉默中普遍存在所謂的Peregrinatio Silviae用來被分配到公元385 ,但最近已被安置在公元533-540 。 [88] But a plan of Jerusalem, dating from the year 1308, shows a Church of St. John the Baptist with the inscription "Pasm. Vgis.", Spasmus Virginis, the swoon of the Virgin. [ 88 ]但是,計劃在耶路撒冷的歷史可以追溯到1308年,顯示了教會的施洗者聖約翰,上面寫著“ Pasm 。 Vgis 。 ” Spasmus Virginis的昏厥維爾京。 During the course of the fourteenth century Christians began to locate the spots consecrated by the Passion of Christ, and among these was the place was the place where Mary is said to have fainted at the sight of her suffering Son.期間, 14世紀基督徒開始找到點神聖的基督的受難史,並在這些是地方的地方瑪麗據說暈倒在看到她的痛苦的兒子。 [89] Since the fifteenth century one finds always "Sancta Maria de Spasmo" among the Stations of the Way of the Cross, erected in various parts of Europe in imitation of the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem. [ 89 ]自15世紀人們發現總是“聖瑪麗亞Spasmo ”的監測站的十字架的途徑,豎立在歐洲各地模仿的威盛Dolorosa在耶路撒冷。 [90] That Our Blessed Lady should have fainted at the sight of her Son's sufferings, hardly agrees with her heroic behaviour under the cross; still, we may consider her woman and mother in her meeting with her Son on the way to Golgotha, while she is the Mother of God at the foot of the cross. [ 90 ] ,我們的祝福夫人應該暈倒在看到兒子的痛苦,幾乎沒有同意她的英勇行為下的交叉;仍然,我們可以考慮婦女和她的母親在她與她會面的兒子道路上的墓地,而她是天主之母在腳下的交叉。

Mary's spiritual motherhood瑪麗的母親精神

While Jesus was hanging on the cross, "there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary Cleophas, and Mary Magdalen. When Jesus therefore had seen his mother and the disciple standing whom he loved, he saith to his mother: Woman, behold thy son. After that, he saith to the disciple: Behold thy mother. And from that hour, the disciple took her to his own" (John 19:25-27).雖然耶穌掛在十字架上, “有站在兩岸的耶穌,他的母親和他母親的妹妹,瑪麗Cleophas ,和瑪麗麥克德林。因此,當耶穌看見他的母親和門徒站在他喜歡,他必到他的母親:女人,你看你的兒子。之後,他必向弟子:瞧你媽媽。從這一時刻,門徒把她帶到自己的“ (約19:25-27 ) 。 The darkening of the sun and the other extraordinary phenomena in nature must have frightened the enemies of Our Lord sufficiently so as not to interfere with His mother and His few friends standing at the foot of the cross. In the meantime, Jesus had prayed for His enemies, and had promised pardon to the penitent thief; now, He took compassion on His desolate mother, and provided for her future.在昏暗的陽光和其他尋常的現象,在性質上必須有害怕的敵人我們的主充分,以免干擾與他的母親和幾個朋友站在腳下的交叉。與此同時,耶穌為他祈禱敵人,並答應赦免的懺悔小偷,現在他對他的同情荒涼的母親,並提供她的將來。 If St. Joseph had been still alive, or if Mary had been the mother of those who are called Our Lord's brethren or sisters in the gospels, such a provision would not have been necessary.如果聖約瑟夫一直還活著,或者如果已瑪麗的母親是誰被稱為我們的上帝的兄弟或姐妹的福音,這樣的規定沒有必要。 Jesus uses the same respectful title with which he had addressed his mother at the marriage feast in Cana.耶穌使用相同的尊重所有權與他討論了他的母親在結婚宴席在迦南。 Then he commits Mary to John as his mother, and wishes Mary to consider John as her son.然後他承諾瑪麗約翰作為他的母親,並希望瑪麗考慮約翰為她的兒子。

Among the early writers, Origen is the only one who considers Mary's motherhood of all the faithful in this connection.在早期作家,奧利是唯一一個誰認為瑪麗的母親的所有信徒在這方面。 According to him, Christ lives in his perfect followers, and as Mary is the Mother of Christ, so she is mother of him in whom Christ lives.據他說,基督的生命在他完美的追隨者,並作為瑪麗的母親是基督,所以她的母親是他在基督人的生命。 Hence, according to Origen, man has an indirect right to claim Mary as his mother, in so far as he identifies himself with Jesus by the life of grace.因此,根據俄利根,男子已間接有權要求瑪麗為他的母親,只要他確定了自己與耶穌的生命的寬限期。 [91] In the ninth century, George of Nicomedia [92] explains Our Lord's words on the cross in such a way as to entrust John to Mary, and in John all the disciples, making her the mother and mistress of all John's companions. In the twelfth century Rupert of Deutz explained Our Lord's words as establishing Mary's spiritual motherhood of men, though St. Bernard, Rupert's illustrious contemporary, does not enumerate this privilege among Our Lady's numerous titles. [ 91 ]在第九世紀,喬治的Nicomedia [ 92 ]解釋我們的主的話在十字架上的方式委託約翰瑪麗,約翰和所有的弟子,使她的母親和情婦的所有約翰的同伴。在12世紀魯珀特的道依茨解釋我們的主的話建立瑪麗的母親精神的男人,雖然聖伯納德,魯珀特的傑出的當代,沒有列舉這種特權聖母之間的許多冠軍。 [93] After this time Rupert's explanation of Our Lord's words on the cross became more and more common, so that in our day it has found its way into practically all books of piety. [ 93 ]在這個時候魯珀特的解釋我們的主的話在十字架上變得越來越普遍,因此,在我們的一天,已經找到進入幾乎所有書籍的虔誠。 [94] [ 94 ]

The doctrine of Mary's spiritual motherhood of men is contained in the fact that she is the antitype of Eve: Eve is our natural mother because she is the origin of our natural life; so Mary is our spiritual mother because she is the origin of our spiritual life.該學說的瑪麗的母親精神男子載於一個事實,即她是antitype的除夕:除夕是我們的親生母親,因為她是原產地的自然生活;所以瑪麗是我們的精神母親,因為她的起源我們的精神生命。 Again, Mary's spiritual motherhood rests on the fact that Christ is our brother, being "the firstborn among many brethren" (Romans 8:29). She became our mother at the moment she consent to the Incarnation of the Word, the Head of the mystical body whose members we are; and she sealed her motherhood by consenting to the bloody sacrifice on the cross which is the source of our supernatural life.此外,瑪麗的母親精神在於一個事實,即基督是我們的兄弟,是“初生的許多兄弟” (羅馬書8時29分) 。她成了我們的母親此刻,她同意道成肉身的Word ,團長神秘的機構,其成員,我們和她密封她母親的同意流血犧牲在十字架上這是我們的源超自然的生活。 Mary and the holy women (Matthew 17:56; Mark 15:40; Luke 23:49; John 19:25) assisted at the death of Jesus on the cross; she probably remained during the taking down of His sacred body and during His funeral.瑪麗和神聖的婦女(馬太17:56 ;馬克15:40 ;盧克23:49 ;約翰19:25 )協助在死亡的耶穌在十字架上;她很可能仍然在考慮了他的身體和神聖在他的葬禮。 The following Sabbath was for her a time of grief and hope.以下是安息日的時候她的悲傷和希望。 The eleventh canon of a council held in Cologne, in 1423, instituted against the Hussites the feast of the Dolours of Our Blessed Lady, placing it on the Friday following the third Sunday after Easter.第十一屆佳能的一個委員會在科隆舉行,在1423年,提起的Hussites節日的Dolours的我們有福夫人,而把它放在上週五的第三個星期日復活節後。 In 1725 Benedict XIV extended the feast to the whole Church, and placed it on the Friday in Passion Week.在1725年本篤十四延長了節日的整個教會,並將其放置在星期五在受難週。 "And from that hour, the disciple took her to his own" (John 19:27). “從這一時刻,門徒把她帶到自己的” (約19:27 ) 。 Whether they lived in the city of Jerusalem or elsewhere, cannot be determined from the Gospels.無論他們居住在耶路撒冷城或其他地方,不能確定的福音。

Mary and Our Lord's Resurrection瑪麗和我們的上帝的復活

The inspired record of the incidents connected with Christ's Resurrection do not mention Mary; but neither do they pretend to give a complete account of all that Jesus did or said.創紀錄的鼓舞的事件與基督的復活沒有提及瑪麗,但也沒有他們假裝給一個完整的帳戶所有,耶穌沒有或說。 The Fathers too are silent as to Mary's share in the joys of her Son's triumph over death.父親也沉默瑪麗的市場份額在歡樂的兒子戰勝死亡。 Still, St. Ambrose [95] states expressly: "Mary therefore saw the Resurrection of the Lord; she was the first who saw it and believed. Mary Magdalen too saw it, though she still wavered".儘管如此,聖劉漢銓[ 95 ]明確指出: “因此,瑪麗看到了復活的主,她是第一個誰看到並相信。瑪麗麥克德林也認為,儘管她仍然動搖” 。 George of Nicomedia [96] infers from Mary's share in Our Lord's sufferings that before all others and more than all she must have shared in the triumph of her Son.喬治的Nicomedia [ 96 ]推斷從瑪麗的市場份額在我們的主的痛苦,在所有其他國家和超過所有她必須有共同的勝利,她的兒子。 In the twelfth century, an apparition of the risen Saviour to His Blessed Mother is admitted by Rupert of Deutz [97], and also by Eadmer [98] St. Bernardin of Siena [99], St. Ignatius of Loyola [100], Suarez [101], Maldonado [102], etc. [103] That the risen Christ should have appeared first to His Blessed Mother, agrees at least with our pious expectations.在12世紀,一個幽靈的上升的救世主,他是聖母魯伯特承認的道依茨[ 97 ] ,而且也Eadmer [ 98 ]街貝爾納丁錫耶納[ 99 ] ,聖依納爵羅耀拉[ 100 ] ,蘇亞雷斯[ 101 ] ,馬爾多納多[ 102 ]等[ 103 ]這復活的基督似乎應該給他的第一聖母,至少同意與我們虔誠的期望。

Though the Gospels do not expressly tell us so, we may suppose that Mary was present when Jesus showed himself to a number of disciples in Galilee and at the time of His Ascension (cf. Matthew 28:7, 10, 16; Mark 16:7).雖然福音沒有明確告訴我們,我們可以假設瑪麗本當耶穌表明自己的一些弟子在加利利和時間,他阿森松島(參見馬修28:7 , 10 , 16 ;馬克16 : 7 ) 。 Moreover, it is not improbable that Jesus visited His Blessed Mother repeatedly during the forty days after His Resurrection.此外,這不是不可能,耶穌訪問他一再聖母在四十天後,他的復活。

IV.四。 MARY IN OTHER BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT瑪麗在其他書籍的新的證明

Acts 1:14-2:4行為1:14-2:4

According to the Book of Acts (1:14), after Christ's Ascension into Heaven the apostles "went up into an upper room", and: "all these were persevering with one mind in prayer with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren".根據圖書的行為( 1,14 )之後,耶穌升天到天堂的使者“上升到上層的房間” ,以及: “所有這些都是堅持一個銘記在祈禱的婦女,和瑪麗的母親,耶穌,並與他的兄弟“ 。 In spite of her exalted dignity it was not Mary, but Peter who acted as head of the assembly (1:15).儘管她的崇高尊嚴不是瑪麗,但彼得誰擔任團長大會( 1:15 ) 。 Mary behaved in the upper room in Jerusalem as she had behaved in the grotto at Bethlehem; in Bethlehem she had carried for the Infant Jesus, in Jerusalem she nurtured the infant Church.瑪麗表現在頂樓房間的耶路撒冷為她的行為在石窟在伯利恆;她在伯利恆進行的嬰兒耶穌,她在耶路撒冷的嬰兒培育教會。 The friends of Jesus remained in the upper room till "the days of the Pentecost", when with "a sound from heaven, as of a mighty wind coming. . .there appeared to them parted tongues as it were of fire, and it sat upon every one of them, and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost" (Acts 2:1-4).朋友耶穌留在房間直到上“的日子的降臨”時,用“一個健全的從天上,作為一個強大的風來了。 。 。似乎有他們分手的舌頭,因為它是火,它坐根據他們每個人,他們都充滿了聖靈“ (使徒2:1-4 ) 。 Though the Holy Ghost had descended upon Mary in a special way at the time of the Incarnation, He now communicated to her a new degree of grace.儘管聖靈降臨了瑪麗以特殊的方式在當時的化身,他現在傳達給她一個新的程度的寬限期。 Perhaps, this Pentecostal grace gave to Mary the strength of properly fulfilling her duties to the nascent Church and to her spiritual children.也許,這五旬的寬限期給瑪麗的力量,正確履行其職責,新生的教會和她的精神兒童。

Galatians 4:4加拉太4時04分

As to the Epistles, the only direct reference to Mary is found in Galatians 4:4: "But when the fulness of time was come, God sent his Son, made of a woman, made under the law".至於書信,唯一的直接提及瑪麗是在加拉太四點04分: “但是,當豐富的時間裡,上帝派他的兒子,了一名女子,根據國際法” 。 Some Greek and Latin manuscripts, followed by several Fathers, read gennomenon ek gynaikos instead of genomenon ek gynaikos, "born of a woman" instead of "made of a woman".一些希臘和拉丁手稿,其次是幾個父親,閱讀gennomenon綻出gynaikos不是genomenon綻出gynaikos , “出生一個女人”而不是“作一個女人。 ” But this variant reading cannot be accepted.但這種變異閱讀是不能接受的。 For gennomenon is the present participle, and must be rendered, "being born of a woman", so that it does not fit into the context.對於gennomenon是現在分詞,必須提供“出生的女人” ,因此不適合的背景。 [104] though the Latin variant rendering "natum" is the perfect participle, and does not imply the inconveniences of its Greek original, St. Bede [105] rejects it, on account of its less appropriate sense. In Romans 1:3, which is to a certain extent a parallel of Galatians 4:4, St. Paul writes genomenos ek stermatos Daveid kata sarka, ie "made of the seed of David, according to the flesh". Tertullian [106] points out that the word "made" implies more than the word "born"; for it calls to mind the "Word made flesh", and establishes the reality of the flesh made of the Virgin. [ 104 ]雖然拉丁美洲變渲染“ natum ”是一個完美的詞,但並不意味著不便的希臘原始,聖比德[ 105 ]拒絕它,就考慮到它的不到適當的意義。羅馬書1:3 ,這是在一定程度上平行的四點04加拉太,聖保祿寫道genomenos綻出stermatos沙爾卡Daveid字,即“作出的種子大衛,根據肉。 ”良[ 106 ]指出,單詞“取得“意味著多字”誕生“ ;為它呼籲銘記”字了肉“ ,並確立了現實的血肉提出的美屬維爾京。

Furthermore, the Apostle employs the word "woman" in the phrase under consideration, because he wishes to indicate merely the sex, without any ulterior connotation.此外,使徒採用了詞“女人”一語中的審議,因為他希望表明僅僅是性別,沒有任何不可告人的內涵。 In reality, however, the idea of a man made of a woman alone, suggests the virginal conception of the Son of God.然而,實際上的想法人為一個女人,僅表明,處女的概念神的兒子。 St. Paul seems to emphasize the true idea of the Incarnation of the Word; a true understanding of this mystery safeguards both the Divinity and the real humanity of Jesus Christ. [107]聖保祿似乎強調真正的想法,體現的Word ;一個真正的理解這個神秘的保障措施的神和人類真正的基督耶穌。 [ 107 ]

The Apostle St. John never uses the name Mary when speaking of Our Blessed Lady; he always refers to her as Mother of Jesus (John 2:1, 3; 19:25-26).使徒聖約翰從未使用的名稱時,瑪麗說的我們有福夫人;他總是提到她的母親耶穌(約翰2:1 , 3 ; 19:25-26 ) 。 In his last hour, Jesus had established the relation of mother and son between Mary and John, and a child does not usually address his mother by her first name.在他的最後一個小時,耶穌建立了關係,母親和兒子之間的瑪麗和約翰,和一名兒童通常不解決他的母親她的名字。

Apocalypse 12:1-6啟示錄12:1-6

In the Apocalypse (12:1-16) occurs a passage singularly applicable to Our Blessed Mother:在啟示錄( 12:1-16 )發生一段奇異適用於我們的聖母:

And a great sign appeared in heaven: A woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars; and being with child, she cried travailing in birth, and was in pain to be delivered.和一個偉大的跡象似乎在天堂:一個女人衣服的太陽,月亮在她的腳,她的頭冠十星級; ,並與兒童,她大聲說travailing在出生,並在痛苦交付。 And there was seen another sign in heaven: and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads, and ten horns, and on his heads seven diadems; and his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven; and cast them to the earth; and the dragon stood before the woman who was ready to be delivered; that when she should be delivered, he might devour her son.有看到的另一個跡象天堂:和外表,一個偉大紅龍,有七個頭,和10個喇叭,和他的七個diadems元首和他的尾巴提請第三部分星級的天堂;及演員給地球和龍站在面前的女人誰願意交付; ,當她應交付,他可能吃掉她的兒子。 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with an iron rod; and her son was taken up to God, and to his throne.她提出了一個男人的孩子,誰應該統治所有國家的鐵棒;和她的兒子被帶到了上帝,和他的王位。 And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she had a place prepared by God, that there they should feed her a thousand two hundred sixty days.和女子逃入荒野,在那裡她有一個地方編寫的上帝,有他們應該飼料她1000二百六天。

The applicability of this passage to Mary is based on the following considerations:適用於這一段瑪麗是基於以下考慮:

At least part of the verses refer to the mother whose son is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron; according to Psalm 2:9, this is the Son of God, Jesus Christ, Whose mother is Mary.至少有一部分的詩句指的是母親的兒子是法治的國家所有的桿的鐵;根據詩篇2點09 ,這是上帝的兒子,耶穌的母親是瑪麗。

It was Mary's son that "was taken up to God, and to his throne" at the time of His Ascension into heaven.這是瑪麗的兒子說, “採取行動的上帝,和他的寶座”時,他的阿森松島到天堂。

The dragon, or the devil of the earthly paradise (cf. Apocalypse 12:9; 20:2), endeavoured to devour Mary's Son from the first moments of His birth, by stirring up the jealousy of Herod and, later on, the enmities of the Jews. Owing to her unspeakable privileges, Mary may well be described as "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars".龍,或惡魔的人間天堂(見啟示錄12點09分, 20時02分) ,努力吃掉瑪麗的兒子從第一時刻,他的出生,所挑起的嫉妒的希律王和,後來的敵意猶太人。由於她無法形容的特權,瑪麗很可能是稱為“衣服的太陽,月亮在她的腳,她的頭冠十星級” 。

It is true that commentators generally understand the whole passage as applying literally to the Church, and that part of the verses is better suited to the Church than to Mary.的確,評論家普遍理解整個通道適用於字面的教會,這部分經文是更適合的教會,而不是瑪麗。 But it must be kept in mind that Mary is both a figure of the Church, and its most prominent member.但必須牢記,瑪麗是一個數字的教會,其最突出的成員。 What is said of the Church, is in its own way true of Mary.什麼是說的教會,是在以自己的方式真實的瑪麗。 Hence the passage of the Apocalypse (12:5-6) does not refer to Mary merely by way of accommodation [108], but applies to her in a truly literal sense which appears to be partly limited to her, and partly extended to the whole Church.因此,通過啟示錄( 12:5-6 )沒有提及瑪麗的方式僅僅是住宿[ 108 ] ,但適用於她在一個真正的本義這似乎是有限的她,和部分擴展到整個教會。 Mary's relation to the Church is well summed up in the expression "collum corporis mystici" applied to Our Lady by St. Bernardin of Siena.瑪麗的關係,教會是在總結了對“頸癬mystici ”適用於聖母聖貝爾納丁錫耶納。 [109] [ 109 ]

Cardinal Newman [110] considers two difficulties against the foregoing interpretation of the vision of the woman and child: first, it is said to be poorly supported by the Fathers; secondly, it is an anachronism to ascribe such a picture of the Madonna to the apostolic age.紅衣主教紐曼[ 110 ]認為兩個困難對上述解釋的遠見,婦女和兒童:第一,它是說是很差支持的父親;其次,它是一個時代錯誤,以賦予這樣一個圖片的麥當娜的使徒時代。 As to the first exception, the eminent writer says:至於第一個例外,著名的作家說:

Christians have never gone to Scripture for proof of their doctrines, till there was actual need, from the pressure of controversy; if in those times the Blessed Virgin's dignity was unchallenged on all hands, as a matter of doctrine, Scripture, as far as its argumentative matter was concerned, was likely to remain a sealed book to them.基督徒從來沒有聖經去證明他們的理論,直到有實際需要,從壓力的爭議,如果在這些時候聖母的尊嚴是毫無所有手中,作為一項原則,聖經,就其議論此事有關,很可能仍然是一個密封的書籍給他們。

After developing this answer at length, the cardinal continues:後發展中國家在這個答案很長,基數繼續說:

As to the second objection which I have supposed, so far from allowing it, I consider that it is built upon a mere imaginary fact, and that the truth of the matter lies in the very contrary direction.至於第二個反對我已經假定,迄今允許,我認為它是建立在純粹想像的事實,並說事實真相是非常相反的方向發展。 The Virgin and Child is not a mere modern idea; on the contrary, it is represented again and again, as every visitor to Rome is aware, in the paintings of the Catacombs.維爾京和兒童不僅僅是一個現代的想法,相反,它是代表一次又一次,因為每個遊客到羅馬是知道的,在畫的墓穴。 Mary is there drawn with the Divine Infant in her lap, she with hands extended in prayer, he with his hand in the attitude of blessing.瑪麗是有得出神嬰幼兒在她的圈,她雙手在祈禱延長,他與他的手的態度祝福。

V. MARY IN THE EARLY CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS五,瑪麗在早期基督教文件

Thus far we have appealed to the writings or the remains of the early Christian era in as far as they explain or illustrate the teaching of the Old Testament or the New, concerning the Blessed Virgin.迄今為止,我們呼籲著作或仍然早期基督教時代,只要這些解釋或說明的教學舊約或新的,關於聖母。 In the few following paragraphs we shall have to draw attention to the fact that these same sources, to a certain extent, supplement the Scriptural doctrine.在以下各段幾年我們必須提請注意這樣一個事實,即這些相同的來源,在一定程度上補充聖經原則。 In this respect they are the basis of tradition; whether the evidence they supply suffices, in any given case, to guarantee their contents as a genuine part of Divine revelation, must be determined according to the ordinary scientific criteria followed by theologians.在這方面,他們根據傳統;證據是否足以供應他們,在任何情況下,以保證它們的內容作為一個真正的一部分,神的啟示,必須確定按照普通的科學標準其次是神學。 Without entering on these purely theological questions, we shall present this traditional material, first, in as far as it throws light on the life of Mary after the day of Pentecost; secondly, in as far as it gives evidence of the early Christian attitude to the Mother of God.沒有進入這些純粹的神學問題,我們應提出這一傳統材料,第一,在盡可能輕全的生活後,瑪麗一天的降臨;其次,盡可能提供證據的早期基督教的態度天主之母。

VI.六。 POST-PENTECOSTAL LIFE OF MARY後五旬生活的瑪麗

On the day of Pentecost, the Holy Ghost had descended on Mary as He came on the Apostles and Disciples gathered together in the upper room at Jerusalem.當天聖靈降臨節,聖靈降臨了瑪麗為他的使徒和門徒聚集在上部空間在耶路撒冷。 No doubt, the words of St. John (19:27), "and from that hour the disciple took her to his own", refer not merely to the time between Easter and Pentecost, but they extend to the whole of Mary's later life.毫無疑問,話聖約翰( 19:27 ) , “從這一小時的門徒把她帶到自己的” ,是指不僅之間的時間復活節和聖靈降臨節,但他們延伸到整個瑪麗的晚年生活。 Still, the care of Mary did not interfere with John's Apostolic ministry.儘管如此,照顧瑪麗不干擾約翰使徒部。 Even the inspired records (Acts 8:14-17; Galatians 1:18-19; Acts 21:18) show that the apostle was absent from Jerusalem on several occasions, though he must have taken part in the Council of Jerusalem, AD 51 or 52.即使是靈感記錄(使徒8:14-17 ;加拉太1:18-19 ;行為21:18 )表明,使徒不在耶路撒冷幾次,但他必須參加理事會的耶路撒冷,公元51或52 。 We may also suppose that in Mary especially were verified the words of Acts 2:42: "And they were persevering in the doctrine of the apostles, and in the communication of the breaking of bread, and in prayers".我們還可以假設,在瑪麗特別是驗證了的話行為的2點42分: “和他們堅持的原則使徒,並在溝通,破麵包,並在祈禱” 。 Thus Mary was an example and a source of encouragement to the early Christian community.因此,瑪麗就是一個例子和一個來源鼓勵早期基督教社會。 At the same time, it must be confessed that we do not possess any authentic documents bearing directly on Mary's post-Pentecostal life.與此同時,必須承認,我們不擁有任何有效證件直接關係到瑪麗後五旬的生活。

Place of her life, death, and burial代替她的生命,死亡,埋葬

As to tradition, there is some testimony for Mary's temporary residence in or near Ephesus, but the evidence for her permanent home in Jerusalem is much stronger.作為傳統,有一些證詞瑪麗的臨時住所內或附近以弗所,但證據對她永久的家在耶路撒冷強烈得多。

Arguments for Ephesus論點以弗所

Mary's Ephesian residence rests on the following evidence:瑪麗的以弗所居住地落在了下列證據:

(1) A passage in the synodal letter of the Council of Ephesus [111] reads: "Wherefore also Nestorius, the instigator of the impious heresy, when he had come to the city of the Ephesians, where John the Theologian and the Virgin Mother of God St. Mary, estranging himself of his own accord from the gathering of the holy Fathers and Bishops. . ." ( 1 )通過在信中主教會議委員會的以弗所[ 111 ]寫道: “何故也涅斯多留,煽動者的impious異端,當他來到城市的以弗所書,在約翰的神學和維爾京母親上帝,聖母馬利亞的疏離自己給予自己的聚會聖地神父和主教。 。 。 “ Since St. John had lived in Ephesus and had been buried there [112], it has been inferred that the ellipsis of the synodal letter means either, "where John. . .and the Virgin. . .Mary lived", or, "where John. . .and the Virgin. . .Mary lived and are buried".聖約翰以來一直住在以弗所,並已埋葬在那裡[ 112 ] ,已推斷,省略號的主教會議的信是指, “在約翰。 。 。和維爾京。 。 。瑪麗生活” ,或“在約翰。 。 。和維爾京。 。 。瑪麗居住和埋葬“ 。

(2) Bar-Hebraeus or Abulpharagius, a Jacobite bishop of the thirteenth century, relates that St. John took the Blessed Virgin with him to Patmos, then founded the Church of Ephesus, and buried Mary no one knows where. ( 2 )酒吧, Hebraeus或Abulpharagius ,一個主教詹姆斯黨的十三世紀,涉及的聖約翰了聖母與他帕特摩斯,然後成立了教會的以弗所,並埋葬瑪麗沒有人知道在那裡。 [113] [ 113 ]

(3) Benedict XIV [114] states that Mary followed St. John to Ephesus and died there. ( 3 )本篤十四[ 114 ]指出,瑪麗之後,以聖約翰以弗所和死亡。 He intended also to remove from the Breviary those lessons which mention Mary's death in Jerusalem, but died before carrying out his intention.他還打算取消從這些經驗教訓祈禱提及瑪麗的死在耶路撒冷,但死亡前完成他的意圖。 [115] [ 115 ]

(4) Mary's temporary residence and death in Ephesus are upheld by such writers as Tillemont [116], Calmet [117], etc. ( 4 )瑪麗的臨時居住和死亡以弗所是堅持這種作家Tillemont [ 116 ] ,卡爾梅特[ 117 ]等

(5) In Panaghia Kapoli, on a hill about nine or ten miles distant from Ephesus, was discovered a house, or rather its remains, in which Mary is supposed to have lived. ( 5 )在Panaghia Kapoli ,山坡上的約九或十英里的距離以弗所,發現一所房子,或者更確切地說它仍然存在,其中瑪麗理應生活。 The house was found, as it had been sought, according to the indications given by Catherine Emmerich in her life of the Blessed Virgin.房子被發現,因為它已要求,按照所給予的跡象凱瑟琳默里克在她生活的聖母。

Arguments against Ephesus反對以弗所

On closer inspection these arguments for Mary's residence or burial in Ephesus are not unanswerable.在仔細檢查這些論點為瑪麗的居住地或葬在以弗所不是無法回答。

(1) The ellipsis in the synodal letter of the Council of Ephesus may be filled out in such a way as not to imply the assumption that Our Blessed Lady either lived or died in Ephesus. ( 1 )省略號在信中主教會議委員會的以弗所可填寫的方式並不意味著,前提是我們的祝福夫人或者居住或死在以弗所。 As there was in the city a double church dedicated to the Virgin Mary and to St. John, the incomplete clause of the synodal letter may be completed so as to read, "where John the Theologian and the Virgin. . .Mary have a sanctuary".由於有市雙教堂專門為聖母和聖約翰,不完整的條款的信主教會議可能完成,以便閱讀, “在約翰的神學和維爾京。 。 。瑪麗有一個避難所“ 。 This explanation of the ambiguous phrase is one of the two suggested in the margin in Labbe's Collect.這種解釋的含糊措辭是其中一個建議的利潤率拉韋的收集。 Concil. Concil 。 (lc) [118] (立法會) [ 118 ]

(2) The words of Bar-Hebraeus contain two inaccurate statements; for St. John did not found the Church of Ephesus, nor did he take Mary with him to Patmos. St. ( 2 )款的話律師, Hebraeus包含兩個不準確的報表;為聖約翰沒有發現教會的以弗所,也沒有採取瑪麗與他帕特摩斯。街 Paul founded the Ephesian Church, and Mary was dead before John's exile in Patmos.保羅創立了以弗所教會,和瑪麗死在約翰的流亡帕特摩斯。 It would not be surprising, therefore, if the writer were wrong in what he says about Mary's burial.這並不奇怪,因此,如果作家是錯誤的,他所說的關於瑪麗的葬禮。 Besides, Bar-Hebraeus belongs to the thirteenth century; the earlier writers had been most anxious about the sacred places in Ephesus; they mention the tomb of St. John and of a daughter of Philip [119], but they say nothing about Mary's burying place.此外,酒吧, Hebraeus屬於13世紀的早期作家一直擔心最神聖的地方以弗所;他們提到的陵墓聖約翰和一個女兒,菲利普[ 119 ] ,但他們說沒有提到瑪麗的埋葬地點。

(3) As to Benedict XIV, this great pontiff is not so emphatic about Mary's death and burial in Ephesus, when he speaks about her Assumption in heaven. ( 3 )至於本篤十四,這個偉大的教宗並非如此強調瑪麗的死和葬在以弗所,當他談到她在天堂的設想。

(4) Neither Benedict XIV nor the other authorities who uphold the Ephesian claims, advance any argument that has not been found inconclusive by other scientific students of this question. ( 4 )無論本篤十四也不是誰其他當局堅持以弗所要求,推動任何論點,即還沒有找到決定性的其他科學的學生這一問題。

(5) The house found in Panaghia-Kapouli is of any weight only in so far as it is connected with the visions of Catherine Emmerich. ( 5 )房子中發現Panaghia - Kapouli是任何重量只有在迄今因為它是與願景凱瑟琳默里克。 Its distance from the city of Ephesus creates a presumption against its being the home of the Apostle St. John.它距離城市以弗所創建一個推定其正在家中使徒聖約翰。 The historical value of Catherine's visions is not universally admitted. Mgr.歷史價值的凱瑟琳的願景是沒有得到普遍承認。主教。 Timoni, Archbishop of Smyrna, writes concerning Panaghia-Kapouli: "Every one is entire free to keep his personal opinion". Timoni大主教士麥那,寫關於Panaghia - Kapouli : “每一個是整個自由讓他的個人意見” 。 Finally the agreement of the condition of the ruined house in Panaghia-Kapouli with Catherine's description does not necessarily prove the truth of her statement as to the history of the building.最後達成的協議條件,毀家中Panaghia - Kapouli與凱瑟琳的描述並不一定證明的真理她的發言,以歷史的建設。 [120] [ 120 ]

Arguments against Jerusalem對耶路撒冷的論點

Two considerations militate against a permanent residence of Our Lady in Jerusalem: first, it has already been pointed out that St. John did not permanently remain in the Holy City; secondly, the Jewish Christians are said to have left Jerusalem during the periods of Jewish persecution (cf. Acts 8:1; 12:1).兩個因素不利於永久居留聖母在耶路撒冷:第一,它已經指出,聖約翰沒有永久留在聖城;第二,猶太基督信徒據說已經離開耶路撒冷期間猶太人迫害(參見行為8:1 ; 12:1 ) 。 But as St. John cannot be supposed to have taken Our Lady with him on his apostolic expeditions, we may suppose that he left her in the care of his friends or relatives during the periods of his absence.但是,隨著聖約翰不能理應採取了聖母與他使徒的考察,我們可以猜想,他離開了她在照顧他的朋友或親戚期間他的缺席。 And there is little doubt that many of the Christians returned to Jerusalem, after the storms of persecution had abated.而毫無疑問的是,許多基督徒返回耶路撒冷,風雨過後的迫害已經減弱。

Arguments for Jerusalem耶路撒冷的理由

Independently of these considerations, we may appeal to the following reasons in favour of Mary's death and burial in Jerusalem:獨立的這些考慮,我們可向上訴理由如下贊成瑪麗的死亡和安葬在耶路撒冷:

(1) In 451 Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, testified to the presence of Mary's tomb in Jerusalem. ( 1 )在451韋納爾,耶路撒冷主教,證明了存在的瑪麗的墳墓在耶路撒冷。 It is strange that neither St. Jerome, nor the Pilgrim of Bordeaux, nor again pseudo-Silvia give any evidence of such a sacred place.奇怪的是,既不聖杰羅姆,也不是波爾多的朝聖者,也再次偽西爾維婭提供任何證據證明這樣一個神聖的地方。 But when the Emperor Marcion and the Empress Pulcheria asked Juvenal to send the sacred remains of the Virgin Mary from their tomb in Gethsemani to Constantinople, where they intended to dedicate a new church to Our Lady, the bishop cited an ancient tradition saying that the sacred body had been assumed into heaven, and sent to Constantinople only the coffin and the winding sheet. This narrative rests on the authority of a certain Euthymius whose report was inserted into a homily of St. John Damascene [121] now read in the second Nocturn of the fourth day within the octave of the Assumption.但是,當皇帝馬吉安和皇后Pulcheria問韋納爾發送的神聖仍然聖母從他們的墓在Gethsemani君士坦丁堡,在那裡他們打算投入了新的教堂聖母主教提到一個古老的傳統說,神聖屍體被假設成天堂,發送到君士坦丁堡只有棺材和蜿蜒的資產負債表。這說明依靠的權威,在一定Euthymius其報告插入講道聖約翰大馬士革[ 121 ]現在宣讀第二Nocturn第四天內倍頻升天。 Scheeben [122] is of opinion that Euthymius's words are a later interpolation: they do not fit into the context; they contain an appeal to pseudo-Dionysius [123] which are not otherwise cited before the sixth century; and they are suspicious in their connection with the name of Bishop Juvenal, who was charged with forging documents by Pope St. Leo. Scheeben [ 122 ]是認為Euthymius的話以後插:他們不適合的背景;它們包含呼籲偽狄奧尼修斯[ 123 ]這是不能引用前六世紀,他們是可疑的連接的名稱主教韋納爾,誰被指控犯有偽造證件的教皇聖利奧。 [124] In his letter the pontiff reminds the bishop of the holy places which he has under his very eyes, but does not mention the tomb of Mary. [ 124 ]在他的信中提醒教宗的主教聖地,他在他的眼皮底下,但沒有提到墓瑪麗。 [125] Allowing that this silence is purely incidental, the main question remains, how much historic truth underlies the Euthymian account of the words of Juvenal? [ 125 ]允許保持沉默,這純粹是偶然的,主要的問題是,有多少歷史真相的基礎Euthymian帳戶的話韋納爾?

(2) Here must be mentioned too the apocryphal "Historia dormitionis et assumptionis BMV", which claims St. John for its author. ( 2 )在這裡必須提到過的未經“歷史dormitionis等assumptionis BMV ” ,要求聖約翰其作者。 [126] Tischendorf believes that the substantial parts of the work go back to the fourth, perhaps even to the second, century. [ 126 ]提申多夫認為,相當部分的工作回到第四,甚至第二,世紀。 [127] Variations of the original text appeared in Arabic and Syriac, and in other languages; among these must be noted a work called "De transitu Mariae Virg.", which appeared under the name of St. Melito of Sardes. [ 127 ]變化的原始文字出現在阿拉伯語和敘利亞,並在其他語言;其中必須指出的工作稱為“德途中Mariae Virg 。 ” ,這似乎的名義下街美利托的Sardes 。 [128] Pope Gelasius enumerates this work among the forbidden books. [129] The extraordinary incidents which these works connect with the death of Mary do not concern us here; but they place her last moments and her burial in or near Jerusalem. [ 128 ]教宗格拉西列舉了這項工作中禁止的書籍。 [ 129 ]非凡的事件,這些作品連接死亡的瑪麗不關心我們在這裡,但他們的地方她的最後時刻,她安葬在耶路撒冷或附近。

(3) Another witness for the existence of a tradition placing the tomb of Mary in Gethsemani is the basilica erected above the sacred spot, about the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century. ( 3 )另一名證人存在的一種傳統置於墓中Gethsemani瑪麗是教堂建於神聖的位置,快要結束的第四次或開始的第五世紀。 The present church was built by the Latins in the same place in which the old edifice had stood.本教堂建造的拉丁人在同一地點在舊的大廈了原樣。 [130] [ 130 ]

(4) In the early part of the seventh century, Modestus, Bishop of Jerusalem, located the passing of Our Lady on Mount Sion, in the house which contained the Cenacle and the upper room of Pentecost. ( 4 )在年初七世紀,白蝦,耶路撒冷主教,逝世位於聖母山錫永,家中載有晚餐廳和頂樓房間的降臨。 [131] At that time, a single church covered the localities consecrated by these various mysteries. [ 131 ]在那個時候,一個涵蓋教堂神聖的地方,這些不同的奧秘。 One must wonder at the late evidence for a tradition which became so general since the seventh century.難怪人們必須在年底證據傳統變得如此一般自七世紀。

(5) Another tradition is preserved in the "Commemoratorium de Casis Dei" addressed to Charlemagne. ( 5 )另一個傳統是保存在“ Commemoratorium德卡西斯上帝”給查理曼。 [132] It places the death of Mary on Mt. [ 132 ]它把死亡的瑪麗山。 Olivet where a church is said to commemorate this event.奧利韋如果說,教堂是為紀念這一事件。 Perhaps the writer tried to connect Mary's passing with the Church of the Assumption as the sister tradition connected it with the cenacle.也許作家試圖連接瑪麗去世的教會升天的妹妹連接它的傳統與晚餐廳。 At any rate, we may conclude that about the beginning of the fifth century there existed a fairly general tradition that Mary had died in Jerusalem, and had been buried in Gethsemani.無論如何,我們可以得出這樣的結論的開始第五世紀存在著一個相當普遍的傳統,瑪麗死在耶路撒冷,並已埋葬在Gethsemani 。 This tradition appears to rest on a more solid basis than the report that Our Lady died and was buried in or near Ephesus.這一傳統似乎休息更堅實的基礎比報告說,我們的夫人死後被葬在以弗所或附近。 As thus far historical documents are wanting, it would be hard to establish the connection of either tradition with apostolic times.作為迄今為止的歷史文件都希望,這將是難以建立的連接或者傳統與使徒倍。 [133] [ 133 ]

Conclusion結論

It has been seen that we have no absolute certainty as to the place in which Mary lived after the day of Pentecost.人們看到,我們已經沒有絕對的確定性,地點在瑪麗生活後一天的降臨。 Though it is more probable that she remained uninterruptedly in or near Jerusalem, she may have resided for a while in the vicinity of Ephesus, and this may have given rise to the tradition of her Ephesian death and burial.雖然這是更有可能,她仍然不間斷地在耶路撒冷或附近,她可能已居住了一段時間附近的以弗所,這可能會引起傳統的她以弗所死亡和埋葬。 There is still less historical information concerning the particular incidents of her life.還有不到歷史資料特別是有關事件,她的生活。 St. Epiphanius [134] doubts even the reality of Mary's death; but the universal belief of the Church does not agree with the private opinion of St. Epiphanius.聖埃皮法尼烏斯[ 134 ]甚至懷疑現實的瑪麗的死亡;但普遍信仰的教會不同意私人意見的聖埃皮法尼烏斯。 Mary's death was not necessarily the effect of violence; it was undergone neither as an expiation or penalty, nor as the effect of disease from which, like her Divine Son, she was exempt.瑪麗的死不一定是暴力的影響,它經歷了一個既不補償或處罰,也不作為對疾病一樣,她的神的兒子,她被排除在外。 Since the Middle Ages the view prevails that she died of love, her great desire to be united to her Son either dissolving the ties of body and soul, or prevailing on God to dissolve them.自中世紀盛行的看法,她去世的愛,她的願望是統一,她的兒子或者解散關係的身體和靈魂,或神通行解散它們。 Her passing away is a sacrifice of love completing the dolorous sacrifice of her life.她的逝世是一個犧牲的愛完成dolorous犧牲她的生命。 It is the death in the kiss of the Lord (in osculo Domini), of which the just die.這是死亡的親吻上帝(在osculo多米尼) ,其中剛剛死去。 There is no certain tradition as to the year of Mary's death.沒有一定的傳統,到瑪麗的死亡。 Baronius in his Annals relies on a passage in the Chronicon of Eusebius for his assumption that Mary died AD 48.在他的Baronius春秋依賴於通過在Chronicon的優西比烏的假設,即瑪麗死於公元48 。 It is now believed that the passage of the Chronicon is a later interpolation.現在認為,通過Chronicon是一個後插。 [135] Nirschl relies on a tradition found in Clement of Alexandria [136] and Apollonius [137] which refers to a command of Our Lord that the Apostles were to preach twelve years in Jerusalem and Palestine before going among the nations of the world; hence he too arrives at the conclusion that Mary died AD 48. Her assumption into heaven [ 135 ] Nirschl依賴於傳統的克萊門特發現亞歷山大[ 136 ]和阿波羅紐斯[ 137 ]這指的是指揮我們的主的門徒宣揚是12年在耶路撒冷和巴勒斯坦之間的之前,世界各國;因此,他也得出結論認為,瑪麗死於公元48 。她的假設到天堂

The Assumption of Our Lady into heaven has been treated in a SPECIAL ARTICLE.聖母升天聖母升天到治療已在特別條款。

[138] The feast of the Assumption is most probably the oldest among all the feasts of Mary properly so called. [ 138 ]宴席的假設是最有可能最早在所有的節日瑪麗所謂正確。 [139] As to art, the assumption was a favourite subject of the school of Siena which generally represents Mary as being carried to heaven in a mandorla. [ 139 ]至於藝術,假設是一個最喜歡的主題錫耶納學校一般代表瑪麗正在開展的天堂在mandorla 。

VII.七。 EARLY CHRISTIAN ATTITUDE TO THE MOTHER OF GOD早期基督教的態度,天主之母

Her image and her name她的形象和她的名字

Depictions of her image描繪她的形象

No picture has preserved for us the true likeness of Mary.沒有任何圖片保留了對我們來說,真正像瑪麗。 The Byzantine representations, said to be painted by St. Luke, belong only to the sixth century, and reproduce a conventional type.拜占庭交涉,說是畫的聖盧克,只屬於六世紀,並重現傳統的類型。 There are twenty-seven copies in existence, ten of which are in Rome.有27份存在,其中10個是在羅馬舉行。 [140] Even St. Augustine expresses the opinion that the real external appearance of Mary is unknown to us, and that in this regard we know and believe nothing. [ 140 ]即使對聖奧古斯丁認為,真正的外觀瑪麗是我們未知的,而且在這方面,我們知道並相信什麼。 [141] The earliest picture of Mary is that found in the cemetery of Priscilla; it represents the Virgin as if about to nurse the Infant Jesus, and near her is the image of a prophet, Isaias or perhaps Micheas. [ 141 ]最早的照片是瑪麗發現了墓地普里西拉;它代表了美屬維爾京,猶如對護士的嬰兒耶穌,她是附近的形象先知,伊薩亞斯或者Micheas 。 The picture belongs to the beginning of the second century, and compares favourably with the works of art found in Pompeii.圖片屬於開始的第二個世紀,和媲美的藝術作品中發現龐培。 From the third century we possess pictures of Our Lady present at the adoration of the Magi; they are found in the cemeteries of Domitilla and Calixtus.從第三世紀,我們擁有的照片,我們的夫人出席了朝拜的賢士,他們發現在墓地的蒂拉和Calixtus 。 Pictures belonging to the fourth century are found in the cemetery of Saints Peter and Marcellinus; in one of these she appears with her head uncovered, in another with her arms half extended as if in supplication, and with the Infant standing before her.圖片屬於第四世紀被發現在墓地的聖彼得和利努斯;在其中一個與她似乎發現了她的頭,在她的另一半延長武器,猶如在祈求,並與嬰兒站在她面前。 On the graves of the early Christians, the saints figured as intercessors for their souls, and among these saints Mary always held the place of honour.在墓地的早期基督徒,聖人作為intercessors佔有為他們的靈魂,並在這些聖人瑪麗始終舉行的地點的榮譽。 Besides the paintings on the walls and on the sarcophagi, the Catacombs furnish also pictures of Mary painted on gilt glass disks and sealed up by means of another glass disk welded to the former.除了繪畫的牆壁和石棺上的墓穴提供的照片,還畫上瑪麗鍍金玻璃磁盤和封存的手段另一玻璃磁盤焊接前。 [142] Generally these pictures belong to the third or fourth century. [ 142 ]一般來說這些照片屬於第三或第四世紀。 Quite frequently the legend MARIA or MARA accompanies these pictures.相當頻繁的傳說聖母或馬拉伴隨著這些照片。

Use of her name使用她的名字

Towards the end of the fourth century, the name Mary becomes rather frequent among Christians; this serves as another sign of the veneration they had for the Mother of God.去年底的第四世紀,瑪麗的名字,而成為基督教徒之間的頻繁,這可作為另一個跡象是他們崇拜的上帝之母。 [143] [ 143 ]

Conclusion結論

No one will suspect the early Christians of idolatry, as if they had paid supreme worship to Mary's pictures or name; but how are we to explain the phenomena enumerated, unless we suppose that the early Christians venerated Mary in a special way?沒有人會懷疑,早期基督徒崇拜,因為如果他們支付了最高崇拜瑪麗的圖片或名稱;但我們如何來解釋所列舉的現象,除非我們假設的早期基督教崇拜瑪麗以特殊的方式? [144] [ 144 ]

Nor can this veneration be said to be a corruption introduced in later times.這也可以崇拜應該說是腐敗現象在以後的介紹倍。 It has been seen that the earliest picture dates from the beginning of the second century, so that within the first fifty years after the death of St. John the veneration of Mary is proved to have flourished in the Church of Rome.人們看到,最早的圖片日期從一開始的第二個世紀,因此,在五十年前去世後,聖約翰崇拜的瑪麗是證明蓬勃發展中的羅馬教會。

Early writings早期著作

For the attitude of the Churches of Asia Minor and of Lyons we may appeal to the words of St. Irenaeus, a pupil of St. John's disciple Polycarp [145]; he calls Mary our most eminent advocate.對於態度的教會小亞細亞和里昂,我們可向上訴的話,聖依,學生聖約翰弟子波利卡普[ 145 ] ;他呼籲瑪麗我們最傑出的倡導者。 St. Ignatius of Antioch, part of whose life reached back into apostolic times, wrote to the Ephesians (c. 18-19) in such a way as to connect the mysteries of Our Lord's life more closely with those of the Virgin Mary.聖伊格內修安提阿的一部分,他們的生活達到回到使徒時代,寫信給以弗所書(角18-19日)的方式連接的奧秘我們的主的生活更緊密地與那些聖母。 For instance, the virginity of Mary, and her childbirth, are enumerated with Christ's death, as forming three mysteries unknown to the devil. The sub-apostolic author of the Epistle to Diognetus, writing to a pagan inquirer concerning the Christian mysteries, describes Mary as the great antithesis of Eve, and this idea of Our Lady occurs repeatedly in other writers even before the Council of Ephesus.舉例來說,童貞聖母瑪利亞,她分娩,列舉與基督的死,作為形成三個未知的神秘的魔鬼。小組使徒的作者Diognetus書,書面向異教徒詢問者關於基督教奧秘,介紹瑪麗正如偉大的對立面前夕,這個想法,我們的夫人反复出現在其他作家甚至在理事會的以弗所。 We have repeatedly appealed to the words of St.我們一再呼籲的話街 Justin and Tertullian, both of whom wrote before the end of the second century.賈斯汀和良,兩人均寫在年底前二世紀。

As it is admitted that the praises of Mary grow with the growth of the Christian community, we may conclude in brief that the veneration of and devotion to Mary began even in the time of the Apostles.因為它是承認,歌頌瑪麗增長,增長的基督教社區,我們可能會在結束簡短的崇拜和奉獻瑪麗甚至在開始的時候,門徒。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息撰稿歐塞爾馬斯。 Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.轉錄由邁克爾巴雷特。 Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.專門為瑪利亞無玷聖心天主教百科全書,卷十五。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 12年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

[1] Quaest. [ 1 ] Quaest 。 hebr. hebr 。 in Gen., PL, XXIII, col.在將軍,特等,二十三,山口。 943 [2] cf. 943 [ 2 ]比照。 Wis., ii, 25; Matt., iii, 7; xxiii, 33; John, viii, 44; I, John, iii, 8-12. [3] Hebräische Grammatik, 26th edit., 402 [4] Der alte Orient und die Geschichtsforschung, 30 [5] cf.美國威斯康星州,二25 ;馬特。 ,三,七;二十三, 33 ;約翰,第八,第44條;我,約翰,三, 8-12 。 [ 3 ] Hebräische語法, 26日修改。 , 402 [ 4 ]德國阿爾特東方與模具Geschichtsforschung , 30 [ 5 ]比照。 Jeremias, Das Alte Testament im Lichte des alten Orients, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1906, 216; Himpel, Messianische Weissagungen im Pentateuch, Tubinger theologische Quartalschrift, 1859; Maas, Christ in Type and Prophecy, I, 199 sqq., New York, 1893; Flunck, Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie, 1904, 641 sqq.; St. Justin, dial. Jeremias ,達斯老全書免疫Lichte萬舊方向,第2版。 ,萊比錫, 1906年, 216 ; Himpel , Messianische Weissagungen免疫五, Tubinger神學Quartalschrift , 1859年;馬斯,基督的類型和預言,我, 199 sqq 。 ,紐約, 1893 ; Flunck ,雜誌天主教神學, 1904年, 641 sqq 。 ;街賈斯汀,撥號。 c. Tryph., 100 (PG, VI, 712); St. Iren., adv. Tryph 。 , 100 (前列腺素,六, 712 ) ;街Iren 。 ,副詞。 haer., III, 23 (PG, VII, 964); St. Cypr., test. haer 。 ,三, 23 (前列腺素,七, 964 ) ;街Cypr 。測試。 c. Jud., II, 9 (PL, IV, 704); St. Epiph., haer., III, ii, 18 (PG, XLII, 729). [6] Lagarde, Guthe, Giesebrecht, Cheyne, Wilke.珠德。 ,二,九(特等,四, 704 ) ;街Epiph 。 , haer 。 ,三,二,第18條(指引,四十二, 729 ) 。 [ 6 ]拉嘉德, Guthe , Giesebrecht ,陳,威爾克。

[7] cf. [ 7 ]比照。 Knabenbauer, Comment. Knabenbauer ,評論。 in Isaiam, Paris, 1887; Schegg, Der Prophet Isaias, Munchen, 1850; Rohling, Der Prophet Isaia, Munster, 1872; Neteler, Das Bush Isaias, Munster, 1876; Condamin, Le livre d'Isaie, Paris, 1905; Maas, Christ in Type and Prophecy, New York, 1893, I, 333 sqq.; Lagrange, La Vierge et Emmaneul, in Revue biblique, Paris, 1892, pp.在Isaiam ,巴黎, 1887年; Schegg ,明鏡先知伊薩亞斯,慕尼黑, 1850年; Rohling ,明鏡先知Isaia ,穆斯特, 1872年; Neteler ,達斯布什總統伊薩亞斯,穆斯特, 1876年; Condamin ,樂德Isaie書,巴黎, 1905年;馬斯,基督的類型和預言,紐約, 1893年,我, 333 sqq 。 ;拉格朗日,香格里拉Vierge等Emmaneul ,在雜誌biblique ,巴黎, 1892年,頁。 481-497; Lémann, La Vierge et l'Emmanuel, Paris, 1904; St. Ignat., ad Eph., cc. 481-497 ;斯勒曼,香格里拉等近Vierge埃馬紐埃爾,巴黎, 1904年;聖伊格納特。 ,廣告厄。 ,抄送。 7, 19, 19; St. Justin, Dial., PG, VI, 144, 195; St. Iren., adv. 7日, 19日, 19日;街賈斯汀,撥號。素,六, 144 , 195 ;街Iren 。 ,副詞。 haer., IV, xxxiii, 11. [8] Cf. haer 。 ,四,三十三, 11 。 [ 8 ]參看。 the principal Catholic commentaries on Micheas; also Maas, "Christ in Type and Prophecy, New York, 1893, I, pp. 271 sqq.天主教的主要評注Micheas ;也馬斯, “基督的類型和預言,紐約, 1893年,我頁。 271 sqq 。

[9] PG, XXV, col. [ 9 ]素,二十五,山口。 205; XXVI, 12 76 [10] In Jer., PL, XXIV, 880 [11] cf. 205 ;二十六, 12 76 [ 10 ]在哲。 ,特等, 24 , 880 [ 11 ]比照。 Scholz, Kommentar zum Propheten Jeremias, Würzburg, 1880; Knabenbauer, Das Buch Jeremias, des Propheten Klagelieder, und das Buch Baruch, Vienna, 1903; Conamin, Le texte de Jeremie, xxxi, 22, est-il messianique?肖爾茨, Kommentar zum Propheten Jeremias ,維爾茨堡, 1880年; Knabenbauer ,達斯書Jeremias沙漠Propheten Klagelieder ,與巴魯克之書,維也納, 1903年; Conamin ,樂德雷米博文本,三十一, 22日,東方一messianique ? in Revue biblique, 1897, 393-404; Maas, Christ in Type and Prophecy, New York, 1893, I, 378 sqq.. [12] cf.評論biblique , 1897年, 393-404 ;馬斯,基督的類型和預言,紐約, 1893年,我, 378 sqq .. [ 12 ]比照。 St. Ambrose, de Spirit.聖劉漢銓,德精神。 Sanct., I, 8-9, PL, XVI, 705; St. Jerome, Epist., cviii, 10; PL, XXII, 886. Sanct 。 ,我8-9 ,特等,十六, 705 ;聖杰羅姆, Epist 。 , cviii , 10 ;特等,二十二, 886 。

[13] cf. [ 13 ]比照。 Gietmann, In Eccles. Gietmann ,在埃克爾斯。 et Cant.等公會。 cant., Paris, 1890, 417 sq. [14] cf.不能。 ,巴黎, 1890年, 417平方米[ 14 ]比照。 Bull "Ineffabilis", fourth Lesson of the Office for 10 Dec.. [15] Response of seventh Nocturn in the Office of the Immaculate Conception.公牛“ Ineffabilis ” ,第四課辦公室12月10日。 [ 15 ]響應第七屆Nocturn辦公室的聖母無染原罪堂。

[16] cf. [ 16 ]比照。 St. Justin, dial.聖賈斯汀,撥號。 c. Tryph., 100; PG, VI, 709-711; St. Iren., adv. haer., III, 22; V, 19; PG, VII, 958, 1175; Tert., de carne Christi, 17; PL, II, 782; St. Cyril., catech., XII, 15; PG, XXXIII, 741; St. Jerome, ep. Tryph 。 , 100 ;指引,六, 709-711 ;街Iren 。 ,副詞。 haer 。 ,三, 22 ;五, 19 ;指引,七, 958 , 1175 ;叔。 ,由卡爾內里斯蒂, 17人;特等,二, 782 ;聖西里爾。 , catech 。 ,十二, 15 ;指引,三十三, 741 ;聖杰羅姆,上皮。 XXII ad Eustoch., 21; PL, XXII, 408; St. Augustine, de agone Christi, 22; PL, XL, 303; Terrien, La Mère de Dien et la mère des hommes, Paris, 1902, I, 120-121; II, 117-118; III, pp.第二十二廣告Eustoch 。 , 21 ;特等,二十二, 408 ;聖奧古斯丁,德agone基督, 22 ;特等,儀, 303 ; Terrien ,香格里拉僅僅是德殿等法語僅僅社,巴黎, 1902年,我120-121 ;二, 117-118 ;三頁。 8-13; Newman, Anglican Difficulties, London, 1885, II, pp. 26 sqq.; Lecanu, Histoire de la Sainte Vierge, Paris, 1860, pp. 8-13 ;紐曼,英國聖公會的難點,倫敦, 1885年,二,頁。 26 sqq 。 ; Lecanu ,史聖Vierge ,巴黎, 1860年,頁。 51-82. 51-82 。

[17] de B. Virg., l. [ 17 ]德灣Virg 。湖 IV, c.四,角 24 [18] La Vierge Marie d'apres l'Evangile et dans l'Eglise [19] Letter to Dr. Pusey [20] Mary in the Gospels, London and New York, 1885, Lecture I. [21] cf. 24 [ 18 ]香格里拉Vierge瑪麗德閱近吉爾徽章等近教堂中的[ 19 ]信博士蒲賽[ 20 ]瑪麗的福音,倫敦和紐約, 1885年,講座一[ 21 ]比照。 Tertullian, de carne Christi, 22; PL, II, 789; St. Aug., de cons. Evang., II, 2, 4; PL, XXXIV, 1072. [22] Cf.良,基督的卡爾內, 22 ;特等,二, 789 ;街8月,由保守派。 Evang 。 ,二, 2日, 4日;特等,三十四, 1072 。 [ 22 ]參看。 St. Ignat., ad Ephes, 187; St. Justin, c.聖伊格納特。 ,廣告Ephes , 187 ;街賈斯汀角 Taryph., 100; St. Aug., c. Faust, xxiii, 5-9; Bardenhewer, Maria Verkundigung, Freiburg, 1896, 74-82; Friedrich, Die Mariologie des hl. Taryph 。 , 100 ;街8月,角浮士德,二十三, 5-9 ; Bardenhewer ,瑪麗亞Verkundigung ,弗賴堡, 1896年, 74-82 ;弗里德里希,模具Mariologie萬hl 。 Augustinus, Cöln, 1907, 19 sqq. [23] Jans., Hardin., etc. [24] hom.奧古斯丁,科隆, 1907年, 19 sqq 。 [ 23 ] Jans 。 ,哈丁。等[ 24 ]昏。 I. de nativ.一德nativ 。 BV, 2, PG, XCVI, 664 [25] PG, XLVII, 1137 BV公司, 2 ,前列腺素, XCVI , 664 [ 25 ]素,四十七, 1137

[26] de praesent., 2, PG, XCVIII, 313 [27] de laud. [ 26 ]德praesent 。 , 2 ,前列腺素, XCVIII , 313 [ 27 ]的讚揚。 Deipar., PG, XLIII, 488 [28] PL, XCVI, 278 [29] in Nativit. Deipar 。多醣,四十三, 488 [ 28 ]特等, XCVI , 278 [ 29 ]在Nativit 。 Deipar., PL, CLI, 324 [30] cf. Deipar 。 ,特等,引導倡議, 324 [ 30 ]比照。 Aug., Consens. 8月, Consens 。 Evang., l. Evang 。湖 II, c.二角 2 [31] Schuster and Holzammer, Handbuch zur biblischen Geschichte, Freiburg, 1910, II, 87, note 6 [32] Anacreont., XX, 81-94, PG, LXXXVII, 3822 [33] hom. 2 [ 31 ]舒斯特和Holzammer ,手冊楚biblischen歷史,弗賴堡, 1910年,二, 87號,注6 [ 32 ] Anacreont 。 ,第二十條, 81-94 ,前列腺素, LXXXVII , 3822 [ 33 ]昏。 I in Nativ.一Nativ 。 BMV, 6, II, PG, CCXVI, 670, 678 [34] cf. BMV , 6日,二,前列腺素, CCXVI , 670 , 678 [ 34 ]比照。 Guérin, Jérusalem, Paris, 1889, pp.卡介苗,耶路撒冷,巴黎, 1889年,頁。 284, 351-357, 430; Socin-Benzinger, Palästina und Syrien, Leipzig, 1891, p. 284 , 351-357 , 430 ; Socin - Benzinger , Palästina與Syrien ,萊比錫, 1891年,第 80; Revue biblique, 1893, pp. 80 ;雜誌biblique , 1893年,頁。 245 sqq.; 1904, pp. 245 sqq 。 ; 1904年,頁。 228 sqq.; Gariador, Les Bénédictins, I, Abbaye de Ste-Anne, V, 1908, 49 sq. 228 sqq 。 ; Gariador ,法國Bénédictins ,我修道院聖安妮,五, 1908年, 49平方米

[35] cf. [ 35 ]比照。 de Vogue, Les églises de la Terre-Sainte, Paris, 1850, p.德風尚,法國萊塞格利斯德拉魯阿地球,聖,巴黎, 1850年,頁 310 [36] 2, 4, PL, XXX, 298, 301 [37] Itiner., 5, PL, LXXII, 901 [38] cf. 310 [ 36 ] 2 , 4 ,特等,三十, 298 , 301 [ 37 ] Itiner 。日, 5日,特等, LXXII , 901 [ 38 ]比照。 Lievin de Hamme, Guide de la Terre-Sainte, Jerusalem, 1887, III, 183 [39] haer., XXX, iv, II, PG, XLI, 410, 426 [40] PG, XCVII, 806 [41] cf.利維的Hamme的,指南德拉魯阿地球,聖,耶路撒冷, 1887年,三, 183 [ 39 ] haer 。 ,三十,四,二,前列腺素,四十一, 410 , 426 [ 40 ]素, XCVII 806 [ 41 ]比照。 Aug., de santa virginit., I, 4, PL, XL, 398 [42] cf. 8月,聖virginit 。 ,我, 4 ,特等,儀, 398 [ 42 ]比照。 Luke, i, 41; Tertullian, de carne Christi, 21, PL, II, 788; St. Ambr., de fide, IV, 9, 113, PL, XVI, 639; St. Cyril of Jerus., Catech., III, 6, PG, XXXIII, 436 [43] Tischendorf, Evangelia apocraphya, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1876, pp.盧克,我41 ;良,基督的卡爾內, 21歲的特等,二, 788 ;街Ambr 。 ,德善意,四, 9 , 113 ,特等,十六, 639 ;聖西里爾的Jerus 。 , Catech 。 ,三,六,前列腺素,三十三, 436 [ 43 ]提申多夫, Evangelia apocraphya ,第二版。 ,萊比錫, 1876年,頁。 14-17, 117-179 [44] PG, XLVII, 1137 [45] PG, XCVIII, 313 [46] PG, XXXVCIII, 244 14-17 , 117-179 [ 44 ]素,四十七, 1137 [ 45 ]素, XCVIII , 313 [ 46 ]素, XXXVCIII中,有244

[47] cf. [ 47 ]比照。 Guérin, Jerusalem, 362; Liévin, Guide de la Terre-Sainte, I, 447 [48] de virgin., II, ii, 9, 10, PL, XVI, 209 sq. [49] cf.卡介苗,耶路撒冷, 362 ;利維,指南德拉魯阿地球,聖,我447 [ 48 ]的處女地。 ,二,二, 9 , 10 ,特等,十六, 209平方米[ 49 ]比照。 Corn.玉米。 Jans., Tetrateuch. Jans 。 , Tetrateuch 。 in Evang., Louvain, 1699, p.在Evang 。 ,魯汶, 1699年,第 484; Knabenbauer, Evang. 484 ; Knabenbauer , Evang 。 sec.秒。 Luc., Paris, 1896, p.呂克。 ,巴黎, 1896年,第 138 [50] cf. 138 [ 50 ]比照。 St. Ambrose, Expos.聖劉漢銓,博覽會。 Evang. Evang 。 sec.秒。 Luc., II, 19, PL, XV, 1560 [51] cf.呂克。 ,二, 19日,特等,十五, 1560 [ 51 ]比照。 Schick, Der Geburtsort Johannes' des Täufers, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 1809, 81; Barnabé Meistermann, La patrie de saint Jean-Baptiste, Paris, 1904; Idem, Noveau Guide de Terre-Sainte, Paris, 1907, 294 sqq.希克,明鏡Geburtsort約翰內斯'沙漠Täufers ,雜誌德意志Palästina - Vereins , 1809年, 81 ; Barnabé Meistermann ,香格里拉聖祖國的Jean - Baptiste ,巴黎, 1904年;同上,新指南的大地,聖,巴黎, 1907年, 294 sqq 。

[52] cf. [ 52 ]比照。 Plinius, Histor.普利紐斯, Histor 。 natural., V, 14, 70 [53] cf.自然的事。 ,五, 14 , 70 [ 53 ]比照。 Aug., ep. 8月,歐洲議會。 XLCCCVII, ad Dardan., VII, 23 sq., PL, XXXIII, 840; Ambr. Expos. XLCCCVII ,廣告Dardan 。 ,七, 23平方米,特等,三十三, 840 ; Ambr 。博覽會。 Evang. Evang 。 sec.秒。 Luc., II, 23, PL, XV, 1561 [54] cf.呂克。 ,二, 23歲,特等,十五, 1561 [ 54 ]比照。 Knabenbauer, Evang. Knabenbauer , Evang 。 sec.秒。 Luc., Paris, 1896, 104-114; Schürer, Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 4th edit., I, 508 sqq.; Pfaffrath, Theologie und Glaube, 1905, 119 [55] cf.呂克。 ,巴黎, 1896年, 104-114 ; Schürer ,史Jüdischen Volkes免疫基督耶穌時代,第4次修改。 ,我, 508 sqq 。 ; Pfaffrath ,神學和信仰, 1905年, 119 [ 55 ]比照。 St. Justin, dial.聖賈斯汀,撥號。 c. Tryph., 78, PG, VI, 657; Orig., c. Tryph 。 , 78歲的前列腺素,六, 657 ;原始。角 Cels., I, 51, PG, XI, 756; Euseb., vita Constant., III, 43; Demonstr.細胞。 ,我今年51歲,前列腺素,十一, 756 ; Euseb 。 ,生活常數。 ,三, 43 ; Demonstr 。 evang., VII, 2, PG, XX, 1101; St. Jerome, ep. evang 。 ,七, 2 ,前列腺素,第二十條, 1101 ;聖杰羅姆,上皮。 ad Marcell., XLVI [al.廣告馬塞爾。 ,四十六[基地。 XVII].十七] 。 12; ad Eustoch., XVCIII [al. 12 ;廣告Eustoch 。 , XVCIII [基地。 XXVII], 10, PL, XXII, 490, 884二十七] , 10 ,特等,二十二, 490 , 884

[56] in Ps. [ 56 ]在PS 。 XLVII, II, PL, XIV, 1150; [57] orat.四十七,二,特等,第十四條, 1150 ; [ 57 ] orat 。 I, de resurrect., PG, XLVI, 604; [58] de fide orth., IV, 14, PG, XLIV, 1160; Fortun., VIII, 7, PL, LXXXVIII, 282; [59] 63, 64, 70, PL, XXXVIII, 142; [60] Summa theol., III, q.我的復活。多醣,四十六, 604 ; [ 58 ]的善意北韓。 ,四,十四,前列腺素,四十四, 1160 ;福爾頓。 ,八,七,特等, LXXXVIII , 282 ; [ 59 ] 63 , 64 , 70 ,特等,三十八, 142 ; [ 60 ]大全theol 。 ,三,問: 35, a. 35 ,字母a. 6; [61] cf. 6 ; [ 61 ]比照。 Joseph., Bell.約瑟夫。貝爾。 Jud., II, xviii, 8 [62] In Flaccum, 6, Mangey's edit., II, p.珠德。 ,二,十八, 8 [ 62 ]在Flaccum , 6 , Mangey的修改。 ,第二,第 523 [63] cf. 523 [ 63 ]比照。 Schurer, Geschichte des Judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, Leipzig, 1898, III, 19-25, 99 [64] The legends and traditions concerning these points may be found in Jullien's "L'Egypte" (Lille, 1891), pp. Schurer ,史Judischen Volkes免疫時代基督耶穌,萊比錫, 1898年,三, 19-25 , 99 [ 64 ]的傳說和傳統有關這些點可能會發現在朱利安的“歐萊雅埃及” (里爾, 1891年) ,頁。 241-251, and in the same author's work entitled "L'arbre de la Vierge a Matarich", 4th edit. 241-251 ,並在同一作者的工作題為“歐萊雅arbre德拉魯阿Vierge 1 Matarich ” ,第4次修改。 (Cairo, 1904). (開羅, 1904年) 。

[65] As to Mary's virginity in her childbirth we may consult St. Iren., haer. IV, 33, PG, VII, 1080; St. Ambr., ep. [ 65 ]至於瑪麗的處女在她分娩,我們可以協商街Iren 。 , haer 。四, 33歲,前列腺素,七, 1080 ;街Ambr 。腸梗阻。 XLII, 5, PL, XVI, 1125; St. Aug., ep CXXXVII, 8, PL, XXXIII, 519; serm.四十二, 5 ,特等,十六, 1125 ;街8月,歐洲議會CXXXVII , 8 ,特等,三十三, 519 ;劑。 LI, 18, PL, XXXVIII, 343; Enchir.李, 18日,特等,三十八, 343 ; Enchir 。 34, PL, XL, 249; St. Leo, serm., XXI, 2, PL, LIV, 192; St. Fulgent., de fide ad Petr., 17, PL, XL, 758; Gennad., de eccl. 34 ,特等,儀, 249 ;聖利奧劑。 , 21 , 2 ,特等,查找192 ;街晶。 ,由真正的廣告切赫。 , 17日,特等,儀, 758 ; Gennad 。 ,德傳道書。 dogm., 36, PG, XLII, 1219; St. Cyril of Alex., hom. dogm 。 , 36歲的前列腺素,四十二, 1219 ;聖西里爾的亞歷克斯。 ,昏。 XI, PG, LXXVII, 1021; St. John Damasc., de fide orthod., IV, 14, PG, XCIV, 1161; Pasch.十一,前列腺素, LXXVII , 1021 ;聖約翰Damasc 。 ,德善意orthod 。 ,四,十四,前列腺素,第九十四, 1161 ; Pasch 。 Radb., de partu Virg., PL, CXX, 1367; etc. As to the passing doubts concerning Mary's virginity during her childbirth, see Orig., in Luc., hom. Radb 。 ,德partu Virg 。 ,特等, CXX , 1367 ;等至於通過疑慮瑪麗的處女在她分娩,見原始。 ,在呂克。 ,昏。 XIV, PG, XIII, 1834; Tertullian, adv.十四,前列腺素,十三, 1834年;良,副詞。 Marc., III, 11, PL, IV, 21; de carne Christi, 23, PL, II, 336, 411, 412, 790.馬克。 ,三, 11日,特等,四, 21 ;基督的卡爾內, 23歲的特等,二, 336 , 411 , 412 , 790 。

[66] Matt., xii, 46-47; xiii, 55-56; Mark, iii, 31-32; iii, 3; Luke, viii, 19-20; John, ii, 12; vii, 3, 5, 10; Acts, i, 14; I Cor., ix, 5; Gal., i, 19; Jude, 1 [67] cf. [ 66 ]馬特。 ,十二, 46-47 ;十三, 55-56 ;馬克,三, 31-32 ;三, 3 ;盧克,八, 19日至20日;約翰,二, 12歲;七, 3 , 5 , 10 ;行為,我14 ,我肺心病。 ,九, 5 ;半乳糖。 ,我19 ;洛, 1 [ 67 ]比照。 St. Jerome, in Matt., i, 2 (PL, XXVI, 24-25) [68] cf.聖杰羅姆,在馬特。 ,我, 2 (特等,二十六, 24日至25日) [ 68 ]比照。 St. John Chrys., in Matt., v, 3, PG, LVII, 58; St. Jerome, de perpetua virgin.聖約翰Chrys 。 ,在馬特。 ,第五,第3 ,前列腺素,第五十七號, 58歲;聖杰羅姆,德佩爾佩處女。 BM, 6, PL, XXIII, 183-206; St. Ambrose, de institut. virgin., 38, 43, PL, XVI, 315, 317; St. Thomas, Summa theol., III, q.骨髓, 6 ,特等,二十三, 183-206 ;街,劉漢銓,德研究所。處女地。 , 38 , 43 ,特等,十六, 315 , 317 ;聖托馬斯,神學theol 。 ,三,問: 28, a. 3; Petav., de incarn., XIC, iii, 11; etc. [69] cf. 28日,字母a. 3 ; Petav 。 ,德incarn 。 ,西昌,三, 11人;等[ 69 ]比照。 Exod., xxxiv, 19; Num., xciii, 15; St. Epiphan., haer. Exod 。 ,三十四, 19 ;數。 , xciii , 15 ;街Epiphan 。 , haer 。 lxxcviii, 17, PG, XLII, 728 lxxcviii , 17歲,前列腺素,四十二, 728

[70] cf. [ 70 ]比照。 Revue biblique, 1895, pp.評論biblique , 1895年,頁。 173-183 [71] St. Peter Chrysol., serm., CXLII, in Annunt. 173-183 [ 71 ]聖彼得Chrysol 。 ,劑。 , CXLII ,在Annunt 。 BMV, PG, LII, 581; Hesych., hom. BMV ,前列腺素,第五十二, 581 ; Hesych 。 ,昏。 V de SM Deip., PG, XCIII, 1461; St. Ildeph., de virgin. perpet. V由釤Deip 。多醣, XCIII , 1461 ;街Ildeph 。 ,德處女地。 perpet 。 SM, PL, XCVI, 95; St. Bernard, de XII praer.釤,特等, XCVI , 95 ;聖伯納德,由十二praer 。 BVM, 9, PL, CLXXXIII, 434, etc. [72] ad Ephes., 7, PG, V, 652 [73] adv.最高性價比, 9日,特等, CLXXXIII , 434等[ 72 ]廣告Ephes 。 , 7日,前列腺素,五, 652 [ 73 ]副詞。 haer., III, 19, PG, VIII, 940, 941 [74] adv. haer 。 ,三, 19日,前列腺素,八, 940 , 941 [ 74 ]副詞。 Prax.普凱。 27, PL, II, 190 [75] Serm. 27 ,特等,二, 190 [ 75 ]血清。 I, 6, 7, PG, XLVIII, 760-761一, 6 , 7 ,前列腺素,四十八, 760-761

[76] Cf. [ 76 ]參看。 Ambr., in Luc. Ambr 。 ,在呂克。 II, 25, PL, XV, 1521; St. Cyril of Alex., Apol.二, 25歲,特等,十五, 1521 ;聖西里爾的亞歷克斯。 , Apol 。 pro XII cap.; c.親第十二帽。 ;角 Julian., VIII; ep.朱利安。 ,第八;上皮。 ad Acac., 14; PG, LXXVI, 320, 901; LXXVII, 97; John of Antioch, ep.廣告乙酸。 , 14 ;指引, LXXVI , 320 , 901 ; LXXVII , 97 ;約翰的安提阿,上皮。 ad Nestor., 4, PG, LXXVII, 1456; Theodoret, haer.廣告內斯特。日, 4日,前列腺素, LXXVII , 1456 ; Theodoret , haer 。 fab., IV, 2, PG, LXXXIII, 436; St. Gregory Nazianzen, ep.晶圓廠。 ,四, 2 ,前列腺素, LXXXIII號, 436 ;聖格雷戈里Nazianzen ,上皮。 ad Cledon., I, PG, XXXVII, 177; Proclus, hom.廣告Cledon 。 ,我素,三十七, 177 ; Proclus ,昏。 de Matre Dei, PG, LXV, 680; etc. Among recent writers must be noticed Terrien, La mère de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, I, 3-14; Turnel, Histoire de la théologie positive, Paris, 1904, 210-211.德馬特勒棣,前列腺素, LXV , 680 ;等作家在最近必須注意到Terrien ,香格里拉僅僅德迪厄和法語僅僅社,巴黎, 1902年,我3日至14日; Turnel ,史神學積極,巴黎, 1904年, 210-211 。

[77] cf. [ 77 ]比照。 Petav., de incarnat., XIV, i, 3-7 [78] ep. Petav 。 ,德incarnat 。 ,十四,我3-7 [ 78 ]歐洲議會。 CCLX, PG, XXXII, 965-968 [79] hom. CCLX ,前列腺素,三十二, 965-968 [ 79 ]昏。 IV, in Matt., PG, LVII, 45; hom.四,在馬特。多醣,第五十七號, 45 ;昏。 XLIV, in Matt.四十四,在馬特。 PG, XLVII, 464 sq.; hom.前列腺素,四十七, 464平方米;昏。 XXI, in Jo., PG, LIX, 130 [80] in Jo., PG, LXXIV, 661-664二十一世紀,在趙。素,螺旋, 130 [ 80 ]在趙。多醣, LXXIV , 661-664

[81] St. Ambrose, in Luc. [ 81 ]聖劉漢銓,在呂克。 II, 16-22; PL, XV, 1558-1560; de virgin.二, 16-22 ;特等,十五, 1558年至1560年;的處女地。 I, 15; ep. LXIII, 110; de obit.一, 15 ;上皮。 LXIII , 110 ;的軌道。 Val., 39, PL, XVI, 210, 1218, 1371; St. Augustin, de nat. et grat., XXXVI, 42, PL, XLIV, 267; St. Bede, in Luc.纈氨酸。今年39歲,特等,十六, 210 , 1218 , 1371 ;聖奧古斯丁,由自然。與偉大。 ,三十六, 42歲,特等,四十四, 267 ;聖比德,在呂克。 II, 35, PL, XCII, 346; St.二, 35歲,特等, XCII , 346 ;街 Thomas, Summa theol., III.托馬斯大全theol 。 ,三。 Q. XXVII, a.問:二十七,字母a. 4; Terrien, La mere de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, I, 3-14; II, 67-84; Turmel, Histoire de la théologie positive, Paris, 1904, 72-77; Newman, Anglican Difficulties, II, 128-152, London, 1885 4 ; Terrien ,香格里拉僅僅德迪厄和法語僅僅社,巴黎, 1902年,我3日至14日;二, 67-84 ; Turmel ,史神學積極,巴黎, 1904年, 72-77 ;紐曼,英國聖公會難點,二, 128-152 ,倫敦, 1885年

[82] cf. [ 82 ]比照。 Iliad, III, 204; Xenoph., Cyrop., V, I, 6; Dio Cassius, Hist., LI, 12; etc. [83] cf.伊利亞特,三, 204 ; Xenoph 。 , Cyrop 。 ,五,一, 6 ;音頻卡,組織胺。 ,李, 12歲;等[ 83 ]比照。 St. Irenaeus, c.聖依角 haer., III, xvi, 7, PG, VII, 926 [84] PG, XLIV, 1308 [85] See Knabenbauer, Evang. haer 。 ,三,十六,七,前列腺素,七, 926 [ 84 ]素,四十四, 1308 [ 85 ]見Knabenbauer , Evang 。 sec.秒。 Joan., Paris, 1898, pp.瓊。 ,巴黎, 1898年,頁。 118-122; Hoberg, Jesus Christus. 118-122段;霍貝格,基督耶穌。 Vorträge, Freiburg, 1908, 31, Anm. Vorträge ,弗賴堡, 1908年, 31 , Anm 。 2; Theologie und Glaube, 1909, 564, 808. [86] cf. 2 ;神學與信仰, 1909年, 564 , 808 。 [ 86 ]比照。 St. Augustin, de virgin., 3, PL, XL, 398; pseudo-Justin, quaest.聖奧古斯丁,德處女地。日, 3日,特等,儀, 398 ;偽賈斯汀, quaest 。 et respons.等反應。 ad orthod., I, q.廣告orthod 。 ,我問: 136, PG, VI, 1389 [87] cf. 136 ,前列腺素,六, 1389 [ 87 ]比照。 Geyer, Itinera Hiersolymitana saeculi IV-VIII, Vienna, 1898, 1-33; Mommert, Das Jerusalem des Pilgers von Bordeaux, Leipzig, 1907 [88] Meister, Rhein.赫耶爾Itinera Hiersolymitana saeculi第四至第八,維也納, 1898年, 33 ; Mommert ,達斯耶路撒冷萬Pilgers馮波爾多,萊比錫, 1907年[ 88 ]梅斯特,萊茵。 Mus., 1909, LXIV, 337-392; Bludau, Katholik, 1904, 61 sqq., 81 sqq., 164 sqq.; Revue Bénédictine, 1908, 458; Geyer, lc; Cabrol, Etude sur la Peregrinatio Silviae, Paris, 1895小家鼠。 , 1909年, LXIV , 337-392 ; Bludau , Katholik , 1904年, 61 sqq 。 , 81 sqq 。 , 164 sqq 。 ;雜誌篤, 1908年, 458 ;赫耶爾立法會; Cabrol ,練習拉河畔Peregrinatio Silviae ,巴黎, 1895年

[89] cf. [ 89 ]比照。 de Vogüé, Les Eglises de la Terre-Sainte, Paris, 1869, p.德風尚,法國萊塞格利斯德拉魯阿地球,聖,巴黎, 1869年,頁 438; Liévin, Guide de la Terre-Sainte, Jerusalem, 1887, I, 175 [90] cf. 438 ;利維,指南德拉魯阿地球,聖,耶路撒冷, 1887年,我, 175 [ 90 ]比照。 Thurston, in The Month for 1900, July-September, pp.瑟斯頓,在本月為1900年7月至9月,頁。 1-12; 153-166; 282-293; Boudinhon in Revue du clergé français, Nov. 1, 1901, 449-463 [91] Praef. 1-12 ; 153-166 ; 282-293 ; Boudinhon在雜誌clergé法國, 01年11月1日, 449-463 [ 91 ] Praef 。 in Jo., 6, PG, XIV, 32 [92] Orat.在趙。日, 6日,前列腺素,十四, 32 [ 92 ] Orat 。 VIII in Mar. assist.在三月八協助。 cruci, PG, C, 1476 [93] cf. cruci ,前列腺素,丙, 1476 [ 93 ]比照。 Sermo dom. Sermo的DOM 。 infr.紅外。 oct. 10月。 Assumpt., 15, PL, XLXXXIII, 438 [94] cf. Assumpt 。 , 15日,特等, XLXXXIII , 438 [ 94 ]比照。 Terrien, La mere de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, III, 247-274; Knabenbauer, Evang. Terrien ,香格里拉僅僅德迪厄和法語僅僅社,巴黎, 1902年,第三, 247-274 ; Knabenbauer , Evang 。 sec.秒。 Joan., Paris, 1898, 544-547; Bellarmin, de sept.瓊。 ,巴黎, 1898年, 544-547 ; Bellarmin ,由9月。 verb.動詞。 Christi, I, 12, Cologne, 1618, 105-113 [95] de Virginit., III, 14, PL, XVI, 283基督,我, 12 ,科隆, 1618 , 105-113 [ 95 ]德Virginit 。 ,三, 14日,特等,十六, 283

[96] Or. [ 96 ]或者。 IX, PG, C, 1500 [97] de div.九,前列腺素,丙, 1500 [ 97 ]德區。 offic., VII, 25, PL, CLIX, 306 [98] de excell. offic 。 ,七, 25歲,特等, CLIX , 306 [ 98 ]德精益求精。 VM, 6, PL, CLIX, 568 [99] Quadrages. VM的, 6 ,特等, CLIX , 568 [ 99 ] Quadrages 。 I, in Resurrect., serm.一,在復活。 ,劑。 LII, 3 [100] Exercit.第五十二, 3 [ 100 ] Exercit 。 spirit.精神。 de resurrect., I apparit. [101] de myster.德復活。 ,我apparit 。 [ 101 ]德myster 。 vit.維生素。 Christi, XLIX, I [102] In IV Evang., ad XXVIII Matth. [103] See Terrien, La mere de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, I, 322-325. [104] cf.基督, XLIX ,我[ 102 ]在四Evang 。 ,廣告二十八Matth 。 [ 103 ]見Terrien ,香格里拉僅僅德迪厄和法語僅僅社,巴黎, 1902年,我322-325 。 [ 104 ]比照。 Photius, ad Amphiloch., q. Photius ,廣告Amphiloch 。 ,問: 228, PG, CI, 1024 [105] in Luc. 228 ,前列腺素,氯, 1024 [ 105 ]在呂克。 XI, 27, PL, XCII, 408 [106] de carne Christi, 20, PL, II, 786十一, 27歲,特等, XCII , 408 [ 106 ]由卡爾內基督, 20 ,特等,二, 786

[107] Cf. [ 107 ]參看。 Tertullian, de virgin.良,德處女地。 vel., 6, PL, II, 897; St. Cyril of Jerus., Catech., XII, 31, PG, XXXIII, 766; St. Jerome, in ep.威賽。日, 6日,特等,二, 897 ;聖西里爾的Jerus 。 , Catech 。 ,十二, 31日,前列腺素,三十三, 766 ;聖杰羅姆,在上皮。 ad Gal.廣告加爾。 II, 4, PL, XXVI, 372. [108] cf.二, 4 ,特等,二十六, 372 。 [ 108 ]比照。 Drach, Apcal., Pris, 1873, 114 [109] Cf. Drach , Apcal 。 ,刑法, 1873年, 114 [ 109 ]參看。 pseudo-Augustin, serm.偽奧古斯丁,劑。 IV de symbol.四德的象徵。 ad catechum., I, PL, XL, 661; pseudo-Ambrose, expos, in Apoc., PL, XVII, 876; Haymo of Halberstadt, in Apoc. III, 12, PL, CXVII, 1080; Alcuin, Comment.廣告catechum 。 ,我特等,儀, 661 ;偽劉漢銓,博覽會,在載脂蛋白C 。 ,特等,十七, 876 ; Haymo的哈爾貝施塔特,在載脂蛋白C 。三, 12日,特等, CXVII , 1080 ;阿爾昆,評論。 in Apoc., V, 12, PL, C, 1152; Casssiodor., Complexion.在載脂蛋白C 。 ,第五,第12 ,特等,丙, 1152 ; Casssiodor 。 ,膚色。 in Apoc., ad XII, 7, PL, LXX, 1411; Richard of St. Victor, Explic.在載脂蛋白C 。 ,廣告十二, 7 ,特等, LXX , 1411 ;理查德聖維克多, Explic 。 in Cant., 39, PL, VII, 12, PL, CLXIX, 1039; St. Bernard, serm.在公會。今年39歲,特等,七,十二,特等, CLXIX , 1039 ;聖伯納德,劑。 de XII praerog.由十二praerog 。 BVM, 3, PL, CLXXXIII, 430; de la Broise, Mulier amicta sole,in Etudes, April-June, 1897; Terrien, La mère de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, IV, 59-84.最高性價比, 3 ,特等, CLXXXIII , 430 ;德拉魯阿Broise , Mulier amicta唯一的,在練習曲, 4月至6月, 1897年; Terrien ,香格里拉僅僅德迪厄和法語僅僅社,巴黎, 1902年,四, 59-84 。

[110] Anglican Difficulties, London, 1885, II, 54 sqq. [111] Labbe, Collect. [ 110 ]聖公會難點,倫敦, 1885年,二, 54 sqq 。 [ 111 ]拉韋,收集。 Concilior., III, 573 [112] Eusebius, Hist. Concilior 。 ,三, 573 [ 112 ]優西比烏,組織胺。 Eccl., III, 31; V, 24, PG, XX, 280, 493 [113] cf.傳道書。 ,三, 31 ;五, 24日,前列腺素,第二十條, 280 , 493 [ 113 ]比照。 Assemani, Biblioth. Assemani ,圖書館。 orient., Rome, 1719-1728, III, 318 [114] de fest.東方。 ,羅馬, 1719年至1728年,三, 318 [ 114 ]的影片。 DNJX, I, vii, 101 [115] cf. DNJX ,我七, 101 [ 115 ]比照。 Arnaldi, super transitu BMV, Genes 1879, I, c. Arnaldi ,超途中BMV ,基因1879年,我角 I [116] Mém.一[ 116 ]內存。 pour servir à l'histoire ecclés., I, 467-471 [117] Dict.爭取servir à近埃克爾斯歷史。 ,我467-471 [ 117 ]快譯通。 de la Bible, art.德拉魯阿聖經,藝術。 Jean, Marie, Paris, 1846, II, 902; III, 975-976 [118] cf.讓, Marie ,巴黎, 1846年,二, 902 ;三, 975-976 [ 118 ]比照。 Le Camus, Les sept Eglises de l'Apocalypse, Paris, 1896, 131-133. [119] cf.樂加繆,法國9月萊塞格利斯啟示法國,巴黎, 1896年, 131-133 。 [ 119 ]比照。 Polycrates, in Eusebius's Hist. Polycrates ,在優西比烏的組織胺。 Eccl., XIII, 31, PG, XX, 280 [120] In connection with this controversy, see Le Camus, Les sept Eglises de l'Apocalypse, Paris, 1896, pp.傳道書。 ,十三, 31歲的前列腺素,第二十條, 280 [ 120 ]在這方面的爭議,見樂加繆,法國9月萊塞格利斯啟示法國,巴黎, 1896年,頁。 133-135; Nirschl, Das Grab der hl. 133-135 ; Nirschl ,達斯抓斗之hl 。 Jungfrau, Mainz, 1900; P. Barnabé, Le tombeau de la Sainte Vierge a Jérusalem, Jerusalem, 1903; Gabriélovich, Le tombeau de la Sainte Vierge à Ephése, réponse au P. Barnabé, Paris, 1905.少女峰,美因茨, 1900 ;體育Barnabé ,樂tombeau德拉魯阿聖Vierge耶路撒冷,耶路撒冷, 1903年; Gabriélovich ,樂tombeau德拉魯阿聖Vierge à Ephése ,回复太子港體育Barnabé ,巴黎, 1905年。

[121] hom. [ 121 ]昏。 II in dormit.二dormit 。 BVM, 18 PG, XCVI, 748 [122] Handb.最高性價比, 18前列腺素, XCVI , 748 [ 122 ] Handb 。 der Kath.德國Kath 。 Dogmat., Freiburg, 1875, III, 572 [123] de divinis Nomin., III, 2, PG, III, 690 [124] et. Dogmat 。 ,弗賴堡, 1875年,三, 572 [ 123 ]德divinis Nomin 。 ,三,二,前列腺素,三, 690 [ 124 ]等。 XXIX, 4, PL, LIV, 1044 [125] ep.第29屆,第4 ,特等,查找, 1044 [ 125 ]歐洲議會。 CXXXIX, 1, 2, PL, LIV, 1103, 1105 [126] cf. CXXXIX號, 1 , 2 ,特等,查找, 1103 , 1105年[ 126 ]比照。 Assemani, Biblioth. Assemani ,圖書館。 orient., III, 287 [127] Apoc.東方。 ,三, 287 [ 127 ]載脂蛋白C 。 apocr., Mariae dormitio, Leipzig, 1856, p. apocr 。 , Mariae dormitio ,萊比錫, 1856年,第 XXXIV [128] PG, V, 1231-1240; cf.三十四[ 128 ]素,五, 1231至1240年;比照。 Le Hir, Etudes bibliques, Paris, 1869, LI, 131-185 [129] PL, LIX, 152 [130] Guerin, Jerusalem, Paris, 1889, 346-350; Socin-Benzinger, Palastina und Syrien, Leipzig, 1891, pp.樂Hir ,研究bibliques ,巴黎, 1869年,李, 131-185 [ 129 ]特等,螺旋, 152 [ 130 ]卡介苗,耶路撒冷,巴黎, 1889年, 346-350 ; Socin - Benzinger , Palastina與Syrien ,萊比錫, 1891年,頁。 90-91; Le Camus, Notre voyage aux pays bibliqes, Paris, 1894, I, 253 [131] PG, LXXXVI, 3288-3300 90-91 ;樂加繆,聖母航程輔助支付bibliqes ,巴黎, 1894年,我, 253 [ 131 ]素, LXXXVI , 3288-3300

[132] Tobler, Itiner, Terr. [ 132 ]托布勒, Itiner ,花街。 sanct., Leipzig, 1867, I, 302 [133] Cf. sanct 。 ,萊比錫, 1867年,我, 302 [ 133 ]參看。 Zahn, Die Dormitio Sanctae Virginis und das Haus des Johannes Marcus, in Neue Kirchl.贊恩,模具Dormitio聖Virginis與存在之家約翰內斯馬庫斯,在新Kirchl 。 Zeitschr., Leipzig, 1898, X, 5; Mommert, Die Dormitio, Leipzig, 1899; Séjourné, Le lieu de la dormition de la TS Vierge, in Revue biblique, 1899, pp.141-144; Lagrange, La dormition de la Sainte Vierge et la maison de Jean Marc, ibid., pp. Zeitschr 。 ,萊比錫, 1898年,第十,第5 ; Mommert ,模具Dormitio ,萊比錫, 1899年; Séjourné ,樂代替德拉魯阿安息德拉魯阿的TS Vierge ,在雜誌biblique , 1899年, pp.141 - 144 ;拉格朗日,香格里拉安息德拉魯阿聖Vierge等之家讓馬克,同上。頁。 589, 600. [134] haer. 589 , 600 。 [ 134 ] haer 。 LXXVIII, 11, PG, XL, 716 [135] cf. LXXVIII , 11日,前列腺素, XL系列716 [ 135 ]比照。 Nirschl, Das Grab der hl. Nirschl ,達斯抓斗之hl 。 Jungfrau Maria, Mainz, 1896, 48 [136] Stromat.少女瑪麗亞,美因茨, 1896年, 48 [ 136 ] Stromat 。 vi, 5 [137] in Eus., Hist.六, 5 [ 137 ]在Eus 。 ,組織胺。 eccl., I, 21 [138] The reader may consult also an article in the "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1906, pp.傳道書。 ,我21 [ 138 ]讀者也許還徵求了一篇文章在“雜誌天主教神學” , 1906年,頁。 201 sqq. 201 sqq 。

[139] ; cf. [ 139 ] ;比照。 "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1878, 213. [140] cf. “雜誌天主教神學” , 1878年, 213 。 [ 140 ]比照。 Martigny, Dict.馬蒂尼,快譯通。 des antiq.萬antiq 。 chrét., Paris, 1877, p. chrét 。 ,巴黎, 1877年,第 792 [141] de Trinit. 792 [ 141 ]德Trinit 。 VIII, 5, PL, XLII, 952 [142] cf.八, 5 ,特等,四十二, 952 [ 142 ]比照。 Garucci, Vetri ornati di figure in oro, Rome, 1858 [143] cf. Garucci , Vetri ornati娣數字德奧羅,羅馬, 1858年[ 143 ]比照。 Martigny, Dict.馬蒂尼,快譯通。 das antiq. antiq東西。 chret., Paris, 1877, p. chret 。 ,巴黎, 1877年,第 515 [144] cf. 515 [ 144 ]比照。 Marucchi, Elem. Marucchi ,元素。 d'archaeol.德archaeol 。 chret., Paris and Rome, 1899, I, 321; De Rossi, Imagini scelte della BV Maria, tratte dalle Catacombe Romane, Rome, 1863 [145] adv. chret 。 ,巴黎和羅馬, 1899年,我321 ;德羅西, Imagini scelte瑪麗亞廣場有限公司, tratte達勒Catacombe羅馬,羅馬, 1863年[ 145 ]副詞。 haer., V, 17, PG VIII, 1175 haer 。 ,五, 17歲,素八, 1175

The works treating the various questions concerning the name, the birth, the life, and the death of Mary, have been cited in the corresponding parts of this article.該工程處理的各種問題的姓名,出生,人生觀,死亡的瑪麗,被引用在相應的部分文章。 We add here only a few names of writers, or of collectors of works of a more general character: BOURASSE, Summa aurea de laudibus B. Mariae Virginis, omnia complectens quae de gloriosa Virgine Deipara reperiuntur (13 vols., Paris, 1866); KURZ, Mariologie oder Lehre der katholischen Kirche uber die allerseligste Jungfrau Maria (Ratisbon, 1881); MARACCI, Bibliotheca Mariana (Rome, 1648); IDEM, Polyanthea Mariana, republished in Summa Aurea, vols IX and X; LEHNER, Die Marienerehrung in den ersten Jahrhunderten (2nd ed., Stuttgart, 1886).我們在這裡補充只有少數幾個作家的名字,或收藏的作品具有更一般的特徵: BOURASSE ,神學羅非魚的laudibus灣Mariae Virginis , OMNIA公司complectens quae的鳳尾Virgine Deipara reperiuntur ( 13卷。 ,巴黎, 1866年) ;庫爾茲, Mariologie或者教之katholischen教堂尤伯杯死allerseligste少女瑪麗亞( Ratisbon , 1881年) ; MARACCI ,書目馬里亞納(羅馬, 1648年) ;同上, Polyanthea馬里亞納,再版的神學金葉,第一卷和第二卷第九和第十;雷納,模具在大街Marienerehrung ersten Jahrhunderten (第二版。 ,斯圖加特, 1886年) 。


Mary Magdalene, Magdala抹大拉的馬利亞,抹大拉

General Information 一般信息

Saint Mary Magdalene, in the New Testament, is a woman so named from Magdala, a town near Tiberias (now in Israel).聖抹大拉的馬利亞,在新約,是一名婦女而得名來自抹大拉鎮附近的太巴列(現在的以色列) 。 Jesus healed her of evil spirits (see Luke 8:2) and, following her vigil at the foot of the cross (see Mark 15:40), he appeared to her after his resurrection (see Matthew 28:9).耶穌醫治她的辟邪(見路加8:2 )和之後,她在守夜腳下的交叉(見馬克15:40 ) ,他似乎對她復活後(見馬太28:9 ) 。 Mary Magdalene was identified by Pope Gregory I with a sinful woman described as having anointed the Lord's feet (see Luke 7:37-38) and with Mary the sister of Martha, who also anointed Jesus (see John 12:3), although the Gospels support neither tradition. The Eastern church maintains the distinction between the three. The feast day of Mary Magdalene is July 22.抹大拉的馬利亞是確定的教皇格里高利本人與罪孽深重的女人形容為具有受膏者上帝英尺(見路加7:37-38 ) ,與瑪麗的妹妹瑪莎,誰也受膏者耶穌(見約翰12點03 ) ,但福音既不支持的傳統。 東部保持教堂之間的區別的三個。盛宴的一天抹大拉的馬利亞是7月22日。


Also, see:此外,見:
Mariology Mariology
Assumption 假設
Immaculate Conception 聖母無染原罪堂
Virgin Birth 美屬維爾京誕生

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在