The Law Of The Sabbath From The Mishnah And The Jerusalem Talmud該法的安息日從米示拿和耶路撒冷猶太法典

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(From Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (從生活和時代的耶穌救世主
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886, Appendix XVII)由阿爾弗雷德愛德生, 1886年,附錄十七)

The terribly exaggerated views of the Rabbis, and their endless, burdensome rules about the Sabbath may best be learned from a brief analysis of the Mishnah, as further explained and enlarged in the Jerusalem Talmud.在極度誇張的意見,拉比,他們無休止的,繁瑣的規則安息日得到最好的教訓了簡要分析了米示拿,作為進一步的解釋和擴大在耶路撒冷猶太法典。 [The Jerusalem Talmud is not only the older and the shorter of the two Gemaras, but would represent most fully the Palestinian ideas.] For this purpose a brief analysis of what is, confessedly, one of the most difficult tractates may here be given. [耶路撒冷猶太法典不僅是老年人和較短的兩個Gemaras ,但將代表最充分的巴勒斯坦人的想法。 ]為此,簡要分析是什麼,明白,一個最困難的可能在這裡tractates考慮。

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The Mishnic tractate Sabbath stands at the head of 12 tractates which together form the second of the 6 sections into which the Mishnah is divided, and which treats of Festive Seasons (Seder Moed). Mishnic短文的安息日停留在頭12 tractates共同構成了第二次的6節,分為的米示拿分,而且對待的節日( Seder Moed ) 。 Properly to understand the Sabbath regulations, it is, however, necessary also to take into account the second tractate in that section, which treats of what are called 'commixtures' or 'connections' (Erubin).正確理解條例的安息日,這是但是,也必須考慮到第二短文在這一節中,這把所謂' commixtures '或'連接' ( Erubin ) 。 Its object is to make the Sabbath Laws more bearable.其目的是使更多的安息日法律忍受。 For this purpose, it is explained how places, beyond which it would otherwise have been unlawful to carry things, may be connected together, so as, by a legal fiction, to convert them into a sort of private dwelling.為此目的,它是如何解釋的地方,除了它本來非法攜帶的東西,可連接在一起,從而以法律擬制,將它們轉換為一種私人住宅。

Thus, supposing a number of small private houses to open into a common court, it would have been unlawful on the Sabbath to carry anthing from one of these houses into the other.因此,假如一些小型私人住宅開放納入一個共同的法庭,那將是非法的安息日進行anthing從這些房屋成其他。 This difficulty is removed if all the families deposit before the Sabbath sone food in the common court, when 'a connection' is established between the various houses, which makes them one dwelling.這種困難被刪除,如果所有的家庭存款在安息日曾根食品的共同法院,當'連接'之間建立的各種房屋,使他們一住宅。 This was called the 'Erubh of Courts.'這被稱為' Erubh的法院。 Similarly, an extension of what was allowed as a 'Sabbath journey' might be secured by another 'commixture,' the 'Erubh' or 'connection of boundaries.'同樣,延長是允許作為'安息日的旅程,可能是由另一擔保' commixture , '的' Erubh '或'方面的界限。 An ordinary Sabbath day's journey extended 2,000 cubits beyond one's dwelling.一個普通的安息日的旅程延長2000年肘超出一個人的住宅。 [On the Sabbath journey, and the reason for fixing it at a distance of 2,000 cubits, see Kitto's Cyclop. [論安息日的旅程,原因它固定在距離2000年肘,見Kitto的Cyclop 。 (last ed.) 'Sabbath way,' and 'The Temple and its Services,' p. (最後版。 ) '安息日的方式, '和'廟和服務, '頁 148.] 148 。 ]

But if at the boundary of that 'journey' a man deposited on the Friday food for two meals, he thereby constituted it his dwelling, and hence might go on for another 2,000 cubits.但是,如果在邊境的'旅程'一個人存放在週五的食物兩餐,他從而構成了它的住處,因此可能會再進行2000年肘。 Lastly, there was another 'Erubh,' when narrow streets or blind alleys were connected into 'a private dwelling' by laying a beam over the entrance, or extending a wire or rope along such streets and allwys.最後,還有一個' Erubh ,狹窄的街道時,或盲目的小巷連接到'一個私人住宅'的奠定了梁的入口,或延長線或繩等沿線街道和allwys 。 This, by a legal fiction, made them 'a private dwelling,' so that everything was lawful there which a man might do on the Sabbath in his own house.為此,由法律擬制,使他們'的私人住宅,所以,一切是合法的有一名男子可能會在安息日在自己的房子。

Without discussing the possible and impossible questions about these Erubin raised by the most ingenious casuistry, let us see how Rabbinism taught Israel to observe its Sabbath.沒有討論的可能,也不可能對這些問題所提出的Erubin最巧妙的詭辯,讓我們看看如何教Rabbinism以色列遵守其安息日。 In not less than 24 chapters, [In the Jerusalem Talmud a Gemara is attached only to the first 20 chapters of the Mishnic tractate Shabbath; in the Babylon Talmud to all the 24 chapters.] matters are seriously discussed as of vital religious importance, which one would scarcely imagine a sane intellect would seriously entertain.在不少於24章, [在耶路撒冷猶太法典一革馬拉是只重視前20章的Mishnic短文Shabbath ;在巴比倫塔木德經所有24個章節。 ]事項正在認真討論重要的宗教意義,這幾乎沒有人會想像一個理智的智慧將認真受理。 Through 64.5 folio columns in the Jerusalem, and 156 double pages of folio in the Babylon Talmud does the enumeration and discussion of possible cases, drag on, almost unrelieved even by Haggadah.通過64.5開本列在耶路撒冷,和156雙頁對開的巴比倫塔木德也列舉和討論可能的情況下,拖累了,幾乎unrelieved甚至哈加達。 [I have counted about 33 Haggadic pieces in the tractate.] [我有個約33 Haggadic件的短文。 ]

The Talmud itself bears witness to this, when it speaks (no doubt exaggeratedly) of a certain Rabbi who had spent no less than two and a half years in the study of only one of those 24 chapters!該塔木德本身證明了這一點,當說話(毫無疑問exaggeratedly )某拉比誰花了不少於兩年半的時間研究只有一個人24章節! And it further bears testimony to the unprofitableness of these endless discussions and determinations.這進一步證明unprofitableness這些無休止的討論和決定。 The occasion of this is so curious and characteristic, that it might here find mention.本次是如此好奇和特點,它可能在這裡找到一提。 The discussion was concerning a beast of burden.討論關於野獸的負擔。 An ass might not be led out on the road with its covering on, unless such had been put on the animal previous to the Sabbath, but it was lawful to lead the animal about in this fashion in one's courtyard.一個屁股可能不會導致道路上的覆蓋,除非這些已經把以前的動物的安息日,但它是合法的領導對動物這種方式在自己的庭院。 [In the former case it might be a burden or be lead to work, while in the latter case the covering was presumably for warmth.] The same rule applied to a packsaddle, provided it were not fastened on by girth and backstrap. [在前一種情況下它可能是一種負擔,或導致工作,而在後一種情況下覆蓋大概是對溫暖。 ]該規則同樣適用於馱鞍,只要它沒有固定由周長和backstrap 。

Upon this one of the Rabbis is reported as bursting into the declaration that this formed part of those Sabbath Laws (comp. Chag. i. 8) which were like mountains suspended by a hair' (Jer. Shabb. 7b).在此一個拉比是報告把爆破的宣言,這一組成部分的法律安息日( comp. Chag 。島8日) ,其中像山暫停了頭髮' ( Jer. Shabb 。 7B條) 。 And yet in all these wearisome details there is not a single trace of anything spiritual, not a word even to suggest higher thoughts of God's holy day and its observance,然而在所有這些細節累不存在一個單一的痕跡什麼的精神,而不是一個詞甚至提出更高的思想上帝的神聖的一天和遵守,

The tractate on the Sabbath begins with regulations extending its provisions to the close of the Friday afternoon, so as to prevent the possiblity of infringing on the Sabbath itself, which commenced on the Friday evening.該論文的安息日開始,規章的規定延長的密切的星期五下午,以避免侵權可能性的安息日本身,它開始在星期五晚上。 As the most common kind of labour would be that of carrying, this is the first point discussed.作為最常見的勞動力將是執行,這是第一點討論。 The Biblical Law forbade such labour in simple terms (Ex. 36:6; comp. Jer. 17:22).聖經法律禁止這種簡單的勞動條件(出36:6 ;補償。張哲。 17:22 ) 。 But Rabbinism developed the prohibition into 8 special ordinances, by first dividing 'the bearing of a burden' into two separate acts, lifting it up and putting it down, and then arguing that it might be lifted up or put down from two different places, from a public into a private, or from a private into a public place.但是Rabbinism制定了禁止進入的8項特別條例,首先分成'的承載負擔,分成兩個單獨的行為,取消它,並把它擊落,然後認為這可能是抬起或放下從兩個不同的地方,從公共到私人,或從私人到公共場所。

Here, of course, there are discussions as to what constituted a 'private place' and 'a public place'; 'a wide space,' which belongs neither to a special individual or to a community, such as the sea, a deep wide valley, or else the corner of a property leading out on the road or fields, and, lastly, a 'legally free place.'在這裡,當然有討論,以什麼構成的私人地方'和'公共場所' , '廣泛的空間,它既不屬於一個特殊的個人或社區,如海,深寬山谷,否則角落的財產領先的道路上或領域,以及最後,一個自由的地方法律。 [Such a free place must cover less than four square cubits, for ex., a pillar would be such. [這樣一個自由的地方必須覆蓋不到4平方米肘,為前。 ,一個支柱就是這樣。 To this no legal determination would apply. The 'wide space' is called Karmelith.這一決定沒有任何法律將適用。的'廣泛的空間,被稱為Karmelith 。 The Mishnah, however, expressly mentions only the 'private' and the 'public' place (or 'enclosed' and 'open'), although the Karmeilth was in certain circumstances treated as 'public,' in others as 'private' property. The explanation of the terms and legal definitions is in Jer.該米示拿然而,只有明確提到的'私營'和'公眾'的地方(或'封閉'和'開放' ) ,雖然Karmeilth是在某些情況下,被視為公眾,在其他私人的財產。該解釋的規定和法律定義是在哲。 Shabb. 12d; 13a; Shabb. Shabb 。民寧; 13A條; Shabb 。 6a, b; Toseft. 6a的, B組; Toseft 。 Shabb. Shabb 。 1.] Again, a 'burden' meant, as the lowest standard of it, the weight of 'a dried fig.' 1 。 ]同樣地,一個'負擔'的意思,作為最低標準,它的重量'幹無花果。

But if 'half a fig' were carried at two different times, lifted or deposited from a private into a public place, or vice versa, were these two actions to be combined into one so as to constitute the sin of Sabbath desecration?但是,如果'半圖'進行的兩個不同時代,取消或存入私人到公共場所,或反之亦然,是這兩項行動將合併成一個,從而構成了罪惡的安息日的褻瀆? And if so, under what conditions as to state of mind, locality, etc.?如果是的話,在什麼條件下,以心理狀態,地點等? And, lastly, how many different sins might one such act involve?最後,有多少不同的罪過的人會參與這種行為?

To give an instance of the kind of questions that were generally discussed: the standard measure for forbidden food was the size of an olive, just as that for carrying burdens was the weight of a fig.為了讓一個實例樣的問題,一般都是討論:標準的措施禁止糧食的規模橄欖油,就像是執行的負擔是重的無花果。 If a man swallowed forbidden food of the size of half an olive, rejected it, and again eaten of the size of half an olive, he would be guilty, because the palate had altogether tasted food to the size of a whole olive; but if one had deposited in another locality a burden of the weight of a half a fig, and removed it again, it involved no guilt, becuause the burden was altogether only of half a fig, nor even if the first half fig's burden had been burnt and then a second half fig introduced. Similarly, if an object that was intended to be worn or carried in front had slipped behind it involved no guilt, but if it had been intended to be worn or carried behind, and it slipped forward, this involved guilt, as involving labor.如果一個人吞下禁止糧食的一半大小的橄欖,拒絕它,並再次吃的規模一半的橄欖樹,他將犯,因為腭裂已完全品嚐食物的大小整個橄欖油;但如果一人存放在另一個地方的負擔重量的50無花果,並取消再次,它涉及沒有罪惡感, becuause的負擔是完全只有50無花果,甚至也不如上半年無花果的負擔已被燒毀,然後無花果下半年推出。同樣,如果一個對象,目的是破舊或實施前已經下跌背後涉及任何內疚,但如果它已打算進行磨損或後面,它下跌了,這涉及內疚,涉及勞動。

Similar difficulties were discussed as to the reverse.類似的困難進行了討論,以相反。 Whether, if an object were thrown from a private into a public place, or the reverse.無論是,如果一個對象被人投擲從私人到公共場所,或相反。 Whether, if an object was thrown into the air with the left, and caught again in the right hand, this involved sin, was a nice question, though there could be no doubt a man incurred guilt if he caught it with the same hand which it had been thrown, but he was not guilty if he caught it in his mouth, since, after being eaten, the object no longer existed, and hence catching with the mouth was as if it had been done by a second person.無論是,如果一個物體被拋到空中的左邊,再次陷入右手,這涉及罪孽,是一個很好的問題,但毫無疑問一個人承擔罪責,如果他被以相同的手它扔了,但他不認罪,如果他發現在他的嘴裡,因為食用後,該對象不再存在,因此,追趕的嘴就好像是做了第二次的人。

Again, if it rained, and the water which fell from the sky were carried, there was no sin in it; but if the rain had run down from a wall it would involve sin.再次,如果下雨,水落在從天空的進行,沒有任何罪惡中;但如果遇到了大雨從牆上這將涉及罪孽。 If a person were in one place, and his hand filled with fruit, he would have to drop the fruit, since if he withdrew his full hand from one locality into another, he would be carrying a burden on the Sabbath. It is needless to continue the analysis of this casuistry.如果一個人在一個地方,和他的手充滿了水果,他將不得不輟學的果實,因為如果他撤回他的手完全從一個地方到另一個,他將攜帶負擔的安息日。無庸繼續分析這一詭辯。 All discussions to which we have referred turn only on the first of the legal canons in the tractate 'Sabbath.'所有的討論我們所提到反過來只有第一的法律規中的短文'安息日。

They will show what a complicated machinery of merely external ordinances traditionalism set in motion; how utterly unspritual the whole system was, and how it required no small amount of learning and ingenuity to avoid commiting grevious sin.他們將展示一個複雜的機器,而不僅僅是傳統的外部條例規定的議案;如何完全unspritual整個系統,以及它如何不需要少量的學習和聰明才智,以避免犯下grevious罪孽。 In what follows we shall only attmept to indicate the leading points in the Sabbath legislation of the Rabbis.在接下來,我們將只說明attmept領導分中的安息日立法的拉比。 Shortly before the commencement of the Sabbath (late on Friday afternoon) nothing new was to begun; [Here such questions are raised as what constitutes the beginning, for ex., of shaving or a bath] the tailor might no longer go out with his needle, nor the scribe with his pen; nor were clothes to be examined by lamp light.前不久開始的安息日(週五下午)什麼是新的開始; [在這裡等問題,提出了一些什麼構成的開端,為前。 ,剃齒或洗澡]裁縫可能不再去與他針,也不是抄他的筆;也不是衣服審查燈輕。 A teacher might not allow his pupils to read, if he himself looked on the book.老師可能不會讓他的學生閱讀,如果他本人期待在這本書。 All these are pracautionary measures.所有這些都是pracautionary措施。

The tailor or scribe carrying his ordinary means of employment, might forget the advent of the holy day; the person examining a dress might kill insects, [To kill such vermin is, of course, strictly forbidden (to kill a flea is like a camel).裁縫或抄寫攜帶他的普通就業方式,可能會忘記的到來神聖的一天;的人穿著審查會殺死昆蟲, [要殺死這種害蟲,當然是嚴格禁止(殺死跳蚤就像是駱駝) 。 Rules are given how to dispose of such insects.規則給出如何處置等昆蟲。 On the same occasion some curious ideas are broached as to the transformation of animals, one into another.] which is strictly forbidden on the Sabbath, and the teacher might move the lamp to see better, while the pupils were supposed to be so zealous as to also do this.在同一場合的一些奇怪的想法broached作為改造的動物,一到另一國。 ]這是嚴格禁止的安息日,老師可以把燈看到更好的,而學生們應該如此熱心的也做到這一點。

These latter rules, we are reminded, were passed at a certain celebrated discussion between the schools of Hillel and Shammai, when the latter were in the majority.這些後者的規則,提醒我們,通過在某一個討論的慶祝學校的希勒爾和Shammai ,當後者佔大多數。 On that occasion also opposition to the Gentiles was carried to its farthest length, and their food, their language, their testimony, their presence, their intercourse, in short, all connection with them denounced.在那次會議上也反對進行外邦人其最遠的長度,和他們的食物,他們的語言,他們的證詞,他們的存在,他們的交往中,總之,所有與他們有關的譴責。 The school of Shammai also forbade to make any mixture, the ingredients of which would not be wholly dissolved and assimilated before the Sabbath.這所學校的Shammai也禁止做任何混合物的成分不會完全溶解和吸收前的安息日。 Nay, the Sabbath law was declared to apply even to lifeless objects.不,安息日法律被宣布為適用於甚至生命的物體。 Thus, wool might not be dyed if the process was not completed before the Sabbath.因此,羊毛可能不染色過程中,如果沒有完成之前,安息日。 Nor was it even lawful to sell anything to a heathen unless the object would reach its destination before the Sabbath, nor to give to a heathen workman anything to do which might involve him in Sabbath work.也不是合法的,甚至出售任何一個異教徒,除非該對象將到達目的地前的安息日,也不讓一個異教徒的工人有什麼可能涉及他在安息日工作。

Thus, Rabbi Gamialiel was careful to send his linen to be washed three days before Sabbath.因此,拉比Gamialiel是認真向他的亞麻布將洗3天前安息日。 But it was lawful to leave olives or grapes in the olive or wine press.但它是合法離開橄欖或葡萄,橄欖或葡萄酒新聞。 Both schools were agreed that, in roasting or baking, a crust must have been formed before the Sabbath, except in case of the Passover lamb.這所學校被一致認為,在焙燒或烘烤,一個地殼必須已經形成安息日前,除了在案件逾越節羔羊。 The Jerusalem Talmud, however, modifies certain of these rules.耶路撒冷猶太法典,但某些修改這些規則。 Thus the prohibition of work by a heathen only applies if they work in the house of the Jew, or at least in the same town with him.因此,禁止工作由一個異教徒只適用於他們的工作,如果家中的猶太人,或至少在同一個鎮同他。 The school of Shammai, however, went so far as to forbid sending a letter by a heathen, not only on a Friday or on a Thursday, but even sending it on a Wednesday, or to embark on the sea on these days.這所學校的Shammai然而,竟然禁止發送了一封信信教的,不僅在星期五或星期四,但即使發送一個星期三,或著手進行海上這些天。

It being assumed that the lighting of the Sabbath lamp was a law given to Moses on Mount Sinai, the Mishnah proceeds, in the second chapter of the tractate on the Sabbath, to discuss the substances of which respectively the wick and the oil may be composed, provided always that oil which feeds the wick is not put in a seperate vessel, since the removal of that vessel would cause the extinction of tha lamp, which would involve a breach of the Sabbath law.它被假定,照明燈的安息日是法律賦予摩西在西奈山的米示拿的收益,在第二章短文的安息日,以討論這些物質分別芯和石油可能會組成提供始終油飼料的芯是不是把在一個單獨的船隻,因為取消該船隻將導致滅絕的塔燈,將涉及違反法律的安息日。 But if the light were extinguished from fear of the Gentiles, of robbers, or of an evil spirit, or in order that one dangerously ill might go to sleep, it involved no guilt.但是,如果根據被撲滅免於恐懼的外邦人,強盜,或邪惡的精神,或為了一個病危可能去睡覺,它涉及沒有認罪。 Here, many points in casuistry are discussed, such as whether twofold guilt is incurred if in blowing out a candle its flame lights another.在這裡,許多點詭辯的討論,如是否有罪是雙重的,如果發生在吹了蠟燭的另一個聖火照亮。

The Mishnah here diverges to discuss the other commandments, which, like that of lighting the Sabbath lamp, specially devolve on women, on which occasion the Talmud broaches some curious statements about the heavenly Sanhedrin and Satan, such as that it is in moments of danger that the Great Enemy brings accusations against us, in order to ensure our ruin; or this, that on three occasions he specially lies in ambush: when one travel after the fast (Day of Atonement), that the Jewish proverb had it: 'When you bind your Lulabh [The Lulabh consisted of a palm with myrtle and willow branch tied on either side of it, which every worshipper carried on the Feast of Tabernacles ('Temple and its Services,' p. 238).] (at the Feast of Tabernacles) bind also your feet', as regards a sea voyage (Jer. Shabb. 5b, Ber.R 6).這裡的米示拿偏離討論其他誡命,其中一樣,安息日照明燈,特別是對婦女移交,而當時塔木德刀有些好奇報表的天堂公會和撒旦,如這是在危險的時刻該大的敵人帶來了對我們的指控,以確保我們的毀滅;或本,這三次他特別在於埋伏:當一個旅行後,快速(贖罪日) ,即猶太人的諺語了它: '當您綁定您的Lulabh [ Lulabh組成的手掌與默特爾和柳樹分行並列兩邊,這每一個禮拜進行了住棚節( '廟和服務,第238頁) 。 ] (在盛宴對節)綁定還你的腳' ,至於海上航程( Jer. Shabb 。 5B號, Ber.R 6 ) 。

The next two chapters in the tractate on the Sabbath discuss the manner in which food may be kept warm for the Sabbath, since no fire might be lighted. If the food had been partially cooked, or was such as would improve by increased heat, there would be temptation to attend to the fire, and this must be avoided.如果食品已部分熟食,或如將提高熱量的增加,將有誘惑參加的火災,而這必須加以避免。 Hence the oven immediately before the Sabbath only to be heated with straw or chaff; if otherwise, the coals were to be removed or covered with ashes.因此,微波爐前夕安息日只能加熱用稻草或穀殼;不然,煤將被刪除或覆蓋著灰燼。 Clothes ought not to be dried by the hot air of a stove.衣服不應該幹的熱空氣的爐灶。 At any rate, care must be taken that neighbours do not see it.無論如何,必須注意的鄰國沒有看到它。 An egg may not be boiled by putting it near a hot kettle, nor in a cloth, nor sand heated by the sun.一個雞蛋不得開水把它附近的一個熱點水壺,也沒有在布,也不砂加熱太陽。 Cold water might be poured on warm, but not the reverse (at least such was the opinion of the school of Shammai), nor was it lawful to prepare either cold or warm compresses.冷水倒可能是在溫暖的,但沒有扭轉(至少是這樣的意見,學校Shammai ) ,也不是合法的準備要么寒冷或溫暖的壓縮。

'Nay, a Rabbi went so far as to forbid throwing hot water over one's self, for fear of spreading the vapour, or of cleaning the floor thereby! '唔,一個拉比竟然禁止投擲熱水超過一個人的自我,害怕傳播的蒸氣,或清潔地板從而! A vessel might be put under a lamp to catch the falling sparks, but no water might be put into it, because it was not lawful to extinguish a light.一艘可能是置於一盞燈趕上下降火花,但沒有水可能會推遲到它,因為它是不合法撲滅輕。 Nor would it have been allowed on the Sabbath to put a vessel to receive the drops of oil that might fall from the lamp.也不會被允許在安息日把船隻收到幾滴油可能下降的燈。 Amomg many other questions raised was this: whether a parent might take his child in his arms. Amomg許多提出的其他問題是:是否有可能採取的父母他的孩子在他的懷裡。 Happily, Rabbinic literally went so far as not only to allow this, but even, in the supposed case that the child might happen to have a stone in its hands, although this would involve the labour of carrying that stone!令人高興的是,拉比字面上竟然不僅使這一點,但即使在假定的情況下,孩子可能發生有一塊石頭在其手中,雖然這將涉及勞動攜帶的石頭! Similarly, it was declared lawful to lift seats, provided they had not, as it were, four steps, when they must be considered as ladders.同樣,被宣布取消的合法席位,但他們沒有,因為它有四個步驟,當他們必須被視為梯子。

But it was not allowed to draw along chairs, as this might produce a rut of cavity, although a little carriage might be moved, since the wheels would only compress the soil but not produce a cavity (comp. on the Bab. Talmud, Shabb. 22a;46; and Bets. 23b).但是,不得利用沿椅子,因為這可能會產生車轍的腔,雖然有點運輸也可能轉移,因為車輪只會壓縮的土壤,但不能產生腔( comp.的巴布。塔爾穆德, Shabb 。 22A條; 46 ;和投注。 23b ) 。 Again, the question is discussed, whether it is lawful to keep the food warm by wrapping around a vessel certain substances.同樣,討論的問題是,不管它是合法的,以保持食物溫暖包裹圍繞著某些物質的船隻。 here the general canon is, that all must be avoided which would increase the heat: since this would be to produce some outward effect, which would be equivalent to work.在這裡,一般佳能,所有必須避免這將增加的熱量:因為這將產生一些影響外,這將等同於工作。

In the fifth chapter of the tractate we are supposed to begin the Sabbath morning.在第五章的短文,我們要開始今天的安息日。 Ordinarily, the first business of the morning would, of course, have been to take out the cattle.一般來說,第一商業上午當然,已經採取了牛。 Accordingly, the laws are now laid down for ensuring Sabbath rest to the animals.因此,現在的法律規定,以確保安息日休息的動物。 The principle underlying these is, that only what serves as ornament, or is absolutely necessary for leading out or bringing back animals, or for safety, may be worn by them; all else is regarded as a burden. Even such things as might be put on to prevent the rubbing of a wound, on other possible harm, or to distinguish an animal, must be left aside on the day of rest.在這些基本原則是,只充當裝飾品,或者是絕對必要的領導或帶回的動物,或為安全,可他們穿的;所有其他被看作是一種負擔。即使事情可能會推遲關於防止摩擦的傷口,對其他可能造成的損害,或動物的區別,必須留待上的休息日。

Next, certain regulations are laid down to guide the Jew when dressing on the Sabbath morning, so as to prevent his breaking its rest.其次,某些條例的規定,以指導猶當敷料對安息日上午,以防止他打破了休息。 Hence he must be careful not to put on any dress which might become burdensome, nor to wear any ornament which be might put off and carry in his hand, for this would be a 'burden.'因此,他必須小心,不要把任何衣服有可能成為沉重的負擔,也不戴任何飾物的是可能會推遲和執行在他的手,這將是一個負擔。 A woman must not wear such headgear as would require unloosing before taking a bath, nor go out with such ornaments as could be taken off in the street, such as a frontlet, unless it is attached to the cap, nor with a gold crown, nor with a necklace or nose ring, nor with rings, nor have a pin [Literally, a needle which has not an eylet. A woman must not wear such headgear as would require unloosing before taking a bath, nor go out with such ornaments as could be taken off in the street, such as a frontlet, unless it is attached to the cap, nor with a gold crown,也不符合項鍊或鼻子戒指,也不符合環,也沒有一個引腳[字面上看,針已經不是一個eylet 。 Of course, it would not be lawful for a modern Jew, if he observe the Rabbinic Law, to carry a stick or a pencil on the Sabbath, to drive, or even to smoke.] in her dress.當然,這將不合法的一個現代化的猶太人,如果他遵守拉比法,攜帶棒或鉛筆的安息日,推動,甚至吸煙。 ]在她的衣服。 The reason for this prohibition of ornaments was, that in their vanity women might take them off to show them to their companions, and then, forgetful to the day, carry them, which would be a 'burden.'這樣做的理由禁止首飾是,在他們的虛榮心婦女可能採取的這些飛機向他們展示他們的同伴,然後,健忘的一天,攜帶,這將是一個負擔。

Women are also forbidden to look in the glass on the Sabbath, because they might discover a white hair and attempt to pull it out, which would be a grievous sin; but men ought not to use lookingglasses even on weekdays, because it was undignified.婦女也禁止在期待玻璃的安息日,因為他們可能會發現一個白頭髮,並試圖拉出來,這將是一場極其深重的罪孽,但男人不應該使用lookingglasses即使在平日,因為這是有損尊嚴。 A woman may walk about her own court, but not in the streets, with false hair.一個女人可以步行約她自己的法院,而不是在街上,有虛假的頭髮。 Similarly, a man was forbidden to wear on the Sabbath wooden shoes studded with nails, or only one shoe, as this would involve labour; nor was he to wear phylacteries nor amulets, unless, indeed, they had been made by competent persons (since they might lift them off in order to show the novelty).同樣,一名男子被禁止的磨損安息日木製鞋鑲嵌了鐵釘,或只有一個鞋,因為這將涉及勞動;也不是他穿phylacteries也不護身符,除非確實,他們已經取得了由合資格人士(自他們可能取消它們趕走,以顯示新穎) 。 Similarly, it was forbidden to wear any part of a suit of armour.同樣,它被禁止佩戴任何部分的一套盔甲。 it was not lawful to scrape shoes, escept perhaps with the back of a knife, but they might be touched with oil or water.這是不合法的刮鞋,也許escept後面的一把刀,但他們可能會涉及石油或水。

Nor should sandals be softened with oil, because that would improve them.也不應被軟化涼鞋與石油,因為這將提高他們。 It was a very serious question, which led to much discussion, what should be done if the tie of a sandal had broken on the Sabbath.這是一個非常嚴重的問題,從而導致許多討論,應該做些什麼,如果配合的涼鞋發生的安息日。 A plaster might be worn, provided its object was to prevent the wound from getting worse, not to heal it, for that would have been a work.石膏可穿,只要其目的是為了防止傷口惡化,而不是醫治它,因為這將是一個工作。 Ornaments which could not easily be taken off might be worn in one's courtyard.飾品可以不容易起飛可能是在一個破舊的院子裡。 Similarly, a person might go about with wadding in his ear, but not with false teeth nor with a gold plug in the tooth.同樣,一個人可能去與填料在他的耳邊,但與假牙,也不符合黃金插入牙齒。 If the wadding fell out of the ear, it could not be replaced.如果填料下跌了耳朵,但它不能被取代。 Some indeed, thought that its healing virtues lay in the oil in which it had been soaked, and which had dried up, but others ascribed them to the wrath of the wadding itself.有些的確,認為其優點在於癒合的石油,其中已濕透,並已乾涸了,但其他歸咎於他們的憤怒的填料本身。 In either case there was danger of healing, of doing anything for the purpose of a cure, and hence wadding might not be put into the ear on the Sabbath, although if worn before it might be continued.在這兩種情況下有危險的癒合,做任何事情,目的是治愈,因此填料可能不會付諸耳朵的安息日,儘管前如果佩戴它可能將繼續進行。

Again, as regarded false teeth: they might fall out, and the wearee might then lift and carry them, which would be sinful on the Sabbath.同樣,作為假牙認為:他們可能掉下來,而且可能wearee然後升降機及攜帶,這將是罪孽深重的安息日。 But anything which formed part of the ordinary dress of a person might be worn also on the Sabbath, and children whose ears were being bored might have a plug put into the hole.但是,任何組成部分的普通衣服的人可能會磨損也安息日,和兒童,他們的耳朵被鑽孔可能有一個插件投入了該洞。 It was also allowed to go about on crutches, or with a wooden leg and children might have bells on their dresses; but it was prohibited to walk on stilts, or to carry any heathen amulet.有人還可以去左右的拐杖,或用木棍腿和兒童可能有鈴鐺的衣服;但禁止趫,或進行任何異教徒的護身符。 The seventh chapter of the tractate contains the most important part of the whole.第七章的短文包含了最重要的部分的整體。 It opens by laying down the principle that, if a person has either not known, or forgotten, the whole Sabbath law, all the breaches of it which he has committed during ever so many weeks are to be considered as only one error or one sin.它打開了放下的原則是,如果一個人要么不知道或忘記,整個安息日的法律,所有的破壞它,他已承諾在任何時候都如此眾多的週應被視為只有一個錯誤或一個罪惡。

If he has broken the Sabbath law by mistaking the day, every Sabbath thus profaned must be atoned for; but he has broken the law because he thought that what he did was permissible, then every separate infringement constitutes a separate sin, although labors which stand related as species to the genus are regarded as only one work.如果他打破了安息日法律的誤認一天,每安息日從而褻瀆必須得到懲罰,但他已經觸犯法律,因為他認為他做過什麼,是允許的,那麼每一個單獨的侵權構成一個單獨的罪過,但勞動者的立場有關物種屬被視為只有一個工作。

It follows, that guilt attaches to the state of mind rather than to the outward deed. Next, 39 chief or 'fathers' of work (Aboth) are enumerated, all of which are supposed to be forbidden in the Bible.因此,這內疚重視的心理狀態,而不是向外公。 下一步, 39個長或'爸爸'的工作( Aboth )列舉,所有這些都是應該禁止的聖經。 They are: sowing, ploughing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, sifting (selecting), grinding, sifting in a seive, kneading, baking; shearing the wool, washing it, beating it, dyeing it, spinning, putting it on the weaver's beam, making a knot, undoing a knot, sewing two stitches, tearing in order to sew two stitches; catching deer, killing, skinning, salting it preparing its skin, scraping off its hair, cutting it up, writing two letters, scraping in order to write two letters; building, pulling down, extinguishing fire, lighting fire, beating with the hammer, and carrying from one possession into the other. 它們是:播種,耕耘,收穫,結合層,脫粒,風,篩選(選擇) ,研磨,篩選了seive ,揉,烘烤;剪羊毛,洗它,戰勝它,它染色,紡紗,把它在織的光束,使結,解開疙瘩,縫紉兩針,撕裂,以縫合兩針;捕鹿,殺害,剝皮,醃製它編寫的皮膚,刮其頭髮,切斷了,寫了兩封信,刮,以寫兩封信;建設,推倒,滅火,消防照明,毆打的錘子,並進行從一個擁有成其他。

The number 39 is said to represent the number of times that the word 'labour' occurs in the Bibical text, and all these Aboth or 'fathers of work are supposed to be connected with some work that had been done about the Tabernacle, or to be kindred to such work. Again, each of these principal works involved the prohibition of a number of others which were derived from them, and hence called their 'descendants' (toledoth). 39人數據說代表了多少次這個詞'勞動'發生在Bibical文字,所有這些Aboth或父親的工作理應是與一些工作,已經完成的會幕,或被親屬等工作。同樣,每一個這些主要工程包括禁止其他一些是來自他們,因此要求他們'子孫' ( toledoth ) 。 The 39 principal works have been arranged in four groups: the first (1 - 11) referring to the preparation of bread; the second (12 - 24) all connected with dress; the third (25 - 33) all connected with writing; and the last (34 - 39) to all the work necessary for a private house.在39個主要工程已安排了四組:第一( 1 -1 1)指的是準備麵包;第二( 1 2- 24 )所有與服裝;第三(2 5 -3 3)所有與寫作;和過去( 34 -3 9)的所有工作必需的私人住宅。

Another Rabbi derives the number 39 (of these Aboth) from the numerical value of the initial word in Exod.另一個拉比產生的數量39 (這些Aboth )從數值的初步字Exod 。 35:1, although in so doing he has to change the last letter 'the' into 'a' to make 39). 35:1 ,儘管這樣做,他必須改變過去的信'的'到'一' ,使39條) 。 [The Rabbis contend for the lawfulness of changing 'the' into 'a' for the sake of an interpretation. [本拉比爭的合法性的改變'的'到'一'是為了解釋。 Sop expressly here (Jer. Shabb. 9b) and in Jer.這裡明確燮( Jer. Shabb 。 9B條) ,並在哲。 Peah 20b into Lev. Peah 20B條到列夫。 19:24).] Further explanations must here be added. 19:24 ) 。 ]進一步的解釋必須在這裡補充。 If you scatter two seeds, you have been sowing.如果您散射兩個種子,您已播種。 In general, the priciple is laid down, that anything by which the ground may be benefited is to be considered a 'work' or 'labour,' even if it were to sweep away or to break up a clod of earth.一般來說,原則是放下,這其中任何理由可受益是被視為一個'工作'或'勞動' ,即使是掃除或打破了一個冷地球。 Nay, to pluck a blade of grass was a sin.唔,以採摘葉片草是一種罪過。 Similarly, it was sinful labour to do anything that would promote the ripening of fruits, such as to water, or even to remove a withered leaf.同樣,這是罪孽深重的勞動力做任何事情,促進成熟的水果,如供水,或什至刪除枯萎葉片。

To pick fruit, or even to lift it from the ground, would be like reaping.要採摘水果,甚至取消它從地面,將像收穫。 If for example, a mushroom were cut, there would be twofold sin, since by the act of cutting, a new one would spring in its place.如果舉例來說,蘑菇被切斷,將有兩方面的罪過,因為行為所切割,建立一個新的春天,它的位置。 According to the Rabbis of Caesarea, fishing, and all that put an end to life, must be ranked with harvesting.根據拉比的愷撒,捕魚,和所有結束了生命,必須排名與收穫。 In connection with the conduct of the disciples in rubbing the ears of corn on the Sabbath, it is interesting to know that all work connected with food would be classed as one of the toledoth, of binding into sheaves.關於行為的弟子在擦耳玉米的安息日,有趣的是知道,所有的工作與食品將被歸類為一個toledoth ,有約束力的成層。 If a woman were to roll wheat to take away these husks, she would be guilty of sifting with a sieve.如果一個女人被推出小麥帶走這些穀粒,她將是犯了一個篩選篩。 If she were rubbing the ends of the stalks, she would be guilty of threshing.如果她被揉兩端的秸稈,她將犯有脫粒。 Is she were cleaning what adheres to the side of a stalk, she would be guilty of sifting.她是什麼人打掃堅持一方的秸稈,她將是犯了篩選。 If she were brushing the stalk, she would be guilty fo grinding.如果她被刷柄,她將是有罪的磨削。 If she were throwing it up in her hands, seh would be guilty of winnowing.如果她被扔在她的雙手,腦室將犯有風。 Distinctions like the following are made: A radish may be dipped into salt, but not left in it too long, since this would be to make pickle.區分下列一樣了:一個蘿蔔可能會下跌到鹽,但不能留在它太長,因為這將是使鹹菜。

A new dress might be put on, irrespective of the danger that in so doing it might be torn.一種新的服裝可能投放,不論危險,這樣做可能是蹂躪。 Mud on the dress might be crushed in the hand and shaken off, but the dress must not be rubbed (for fear of affecting the material).泥的衣服可能會被粉碎的手,擺脫,但穿著不能抹(怕影響材料) 。 If a person took a bath, opinions are divided, whether the whole body should be dried at once, or limb after limb.如果一個人在洗澡,意見分歧,無論是整個身體應立即曬乾,或術後肢體。 If water had fallen on the dress, some allowed the dress to be shaken but not wrung; other, to be wrung but not shaken.如果水已經下降的服裝,一些服裝允許將動搖但迫使其他,將迫使但不能動搖。 One Rabbi allowed to spit into the handkerchief, and that although it may necessitate the compressing of what had been wetted; but there is a grave discussion whether it was lawful to spit on the ground, and then to rub it with the foot, because thereby the earth may be scratched.一位拉比允許吐到手絹,雖然它可能需要什麼壓縮已經濕潤;但有一個嚴重的討論它是否是合法的吐在地上,然後用擦腳,因為從而地球可能會刮傷。 It may, however, be done on stones.然而,可能要做石頭。 In the labour of grinding would be included such an act as crushing salt.在勞動力的磨削將被列入這樣一個作為粉碎鹽。

To sweep, or to water the ground, would involve the same sin as beating out the corn.要掃,或水的地面,將涉及相同的罪孽作為擊敗了玉米。 to lay on a plaster would be a grievous sin; to scratch out a big letter, leaving room for two small ones, would be a sin, but to write one big letter occupying the room of two small letters was no sin.奠定了石膏將是一場極其深重的罪孽;刮壞了大信,留有餘地,兩個小的,將是一種罪過,但寫的信一個大房間裡佔領的兩個小字母,沒有罪孽。 To change one letter into another might imply a double sin.要改變一個字母到另一個可能意味著雙重罪孽。 And so on through endless details!等等通過無休止的細節!

The Mishnah continues to explain that, in order to involve guilt, the thing carried from one locality to another must be sufficient to be entrusted for safekeeping.該米示拿繼續解釋說,為了讓內疚,事情進行的從一個地方到另一個必須足以將委託保管。 The quantity is regulated: as regards the food of animals, to the capacity of their mouth; as regards man, a dried fig is the standard.數量規定:對於食物的動物,有能力的嘴裡;方面的人,幹無花果的標準。 As regards fluids, the measure is as much wine as is used for one cup, that is, the measure of the cup being a quarter of a log, and wine being mixed with water in the proportion of three parts water to one of wine, 1 / 16 of a log.至於液體,這一措施既是葡萄酒是用於一個杯子,這就是衡量的杯子是一個季度的記錄,葡萄酒正在與水混合的比例由三部分組成的一個水的葡萄酒, 1 / 16的記錄。 [It has been calculated by Herzfeld that a log = 0.36 of a litre; '6 hen's eggs'.] As regards milk, a mouthful; of honey, sufficient to lay on a wound; of oil, sufficient to anoint the smallest member; of water, sufficient to wet eye salve; and of all other fluids, a quarter of a log. [據計算,一個赫茲費爾德日誌= 0.36升; '6雞蛋' 。 ]至於牛奶,一口;蜂蜜,足以奠定一個傷口;的石油,足以視作最小的成員;水,足以眼睛濕膏;和所有其他液體,有四分之一的日誌。

As regarded other substances, the standard as to what constituted a burden was whether the thing could be turned to any practical use, however trifling.至於認為其他物質的,標準的,以什麼構成負擔的事情是否可以拒絕任何實際用途,但小事。 Thus, two horse's hairs might be made into a birdtrap; a scrap of clean paper into a custom house notice; a small piece of paper written upon might be converted into a wrapper for a small flagon.因此,兩個馬的毛髮可能會變成birdtrap ;一張乾淨的紙變成一個自定義房子通知書;一小塊的書面文件時可能會轉化為包裝的一個小酒壺。 In all these cases, therefore, transport would involve sin.在所有這些情況,因此,運輸將涉及罪孽。 Similarly, ink sufficient to write two letters, wax enough to fill up a small hole, even a pebble with which you might aim at a little bird, or a small piece of broken earthenware with which you might stir the coals, would be 'burdens!'同樣的,足夠的墨水寫了兩封信,蠟足以彌補一個小洞,甚至是鵝卵石,你可能會著眼於小鳥,或一小塊破碎的陶器與您可能會引起的煤,將負擔!

Passing to another aspect of the subject, the Mishnah lays it down that, in order to constitute sin, a thing must have been carried from one locality into another entirely and immediately, and that it must have been done in the way in which things are ordinarily carried.傳遞到另一個方面的議題,米示拿規定下來,為了構成罪,必須事已進行從一個地方到另一個完全和立即,而且它必須是這樣做的方式,事情通常進行。 If an object which one person could carry is caried by two, they are not guilty.如果一個物體有一人可攜帶caried是由兩個,它們是不認罪。 Finally, like all labour on the Sabbath, that of cutting one's nails or hair involves moral sin, but only if it is done in the ordinary way, otherwise only the lesser sin of the breach of the Sabbath rest.最後,像所有勞工的安息日,即削減一個人的指甲或頭髮涉及道德罪過,但只有這樣做是在普通的方式,否則只有較小的罪惡違反安息日休息。 A very interesting notice in connection with St. John 5, is that in which it is explained how it would not involve sin to carry a living person on a pallet, the pallet being regarded only as an accessory to the man; while to carry a dead body in such manner, or even the smallest part of a dead body, would involve guilt.一個非常有趣的通知與聖約翰5日,是在它解釋了如何將不涉及罪孽進行生活的人一個托盤,托盤被視為只能作為一種輔助的人;同時攜帶屍體的方式,或者即使是最小的一部分,一具屍體,將涉及有罪。

From this the Mishnah proceeds to discuss what is analogous to carrying, such as drawing or throwing.從這個收益的米示拿,討論什麼是類似於攜帶,如繪圖或投擲。 Other 'labours' are similarly made the subject of inquiry, and it is shown how any approach to them involves guilt.其他'勞動'了同樣主題的調查,並顯示出它是如何向他們的做法涉及有罪。 The rule here is, that anything that might prove of lasting character must not be done on the Sabbath.這裡的規則是,任何可能證明是持久的性質不能做的安息日。 The same rule applies to what might prove the beginning of work, such as letting the hammer fall on the anvil; or to anything that might contribute to improve a place, to gathering as much wood as would boil an egg, to uprooting weeds, to writing two letters of a word, in short, to anything that might be helpful in, or contribute towards, some future work.該規則同樣適用於哪些可能證明年初的工作,如讓錘落在鐵砧;或任何可能有助於改善一個地方,收集了木材作為將煮雞蛋,以拔除雜草,以兩封信寫的字,簡言之,任何可能有幫助,或有助於,一些未來的工作。

The Mishnah next passes to such work in which not quantity, but quality, is in question, such as catching deer.旁邊的米示拿通行證等工作中而不是數量,而是質量,是有問題,如捕鹿。 Here it is explained that anything by which an animal might be caught is included in the prohibition.在這裡解釋說,其中任何一種動物可能是被列入禁止。 So far is this carried that, if a deer had run into a house, and the door were shut upon it, it would involve guilt, and this, even if, without closing the door, persons seated themselves at the entry to prevent the exit of the animal.迄今為止進行的是,如果一隻鹿遇到了一所房子,和門被關閉後,它涉及有罪,這,即使沒有關閉的大門,坐在自己的人在入境,以防止出口動物。

Passing over the other chapters, which similarly illustrate what are supposed to be Biblical prohibitions of labour as defined in the 39 Aboth and their toledoth, we come, in the 16th chapter of the tractate, to one of the most intersting parts, containing such Sabbath laws as, by their own admission, were imposed only by the Rabbis.在經過其他章節,這同樣說明了什麼是應該禁止的聖經勞動中所界定的39 Aboth及其toledoth ,我們在第16章的短文,以一個最有趣的部分,含有這種安息日法律,他們自己也承認,只有實行由拉比。 These embrace: 1.這些包括: 1 。 Things forbidden, because they might lead to a transgression of the Biblical commune; 2.禁止的事情,因為它們可能導致的海侵聖經社區; 2 。 Such as are like the kind of labour supposed to be forbidden in the Bible; 3.如像這樣的勞動理應被禁止在聖經; 3 。 Such as are regarded as incompatible with the honour due to the Sabbath.如被視為不符合榮幸由於安息日。 In the first class are included a number of regulations in case of a fire: All portions of Holy Scripture, whether in the original or translated, and the case in which they are laid; the phylacteries and their case, might be rescued from the flames.在第一類包括若干規定的情況下,爆炸引發了大火:所有部分聖經,無論是在原始或翻譯,以及案件中,他們規定;的phylacteries和他們的情況,可能是解救出來的火焰。

Of food or drink only what was needful for the Sabbath might be rescued; but if the food were in a cupbord or basket the whole might be carried out.的食物或飲料不僅是必需的安息日可能獲救;但是,如果食物中cupbord或籃子整個可能進行。 Similarly, all utensils needed for the Sabbath meal, but of dress only what was absolutely necessary, might be saved, it being, however, provided, that a person might put on a dress, save it, to go back and put on another, and so on.同樣,所有的食具需要的安息日餐,但只有服裝是絕對必要的,可能被保存,它不過,目前提供的,一個人可能穿上衣服,將它保存,回去放在另一等等。 Again, anything in the house might be covered with skin so as to save it from the flames, or the spread of the flames might be areested by piling up vessels. It was not lawful to ask a Gentile to extinguish the flame, but not duty to hinder him, if he did so.同樣,任何在家裡可能涉及皮膚,以保存它的火焰,或蔓延的大火可能是由areested打樁船隻。這是不合法想問一個詹蒂萊將火炬熄滅,但不是義務阻止他,如果他這樣做了。 It was lawful to put a vessel over a lamp, to prevent the ceiling from catching fire; similarly, to throw a vessel over a scorpion, although on that point there is doubt.這是合法的把船一盞燈,以防止上限從著火,同樣也把船隻的蝎子,但在這一點上有疑問。 On the other hand, it is allowed, if a Gentile has lighted a lamp on the Sabbath, to make use of it, the fiction being, however, kept up that he did it for himself, and not for the Jew.另一方面,這是允許的,如果一個詹蒂萊已點燃一盞燈的安息日,利用它,小說然而,目前跟上,他沒有為自己,而不是猶太人。 By the same fiction the cattle may be watered, or, in fact, any other use made of his services.在同一小說的牛可能是澆水,或在事實上,任何其他使用了他的服務。

Before passing from this, we should point out that it was directed that the Hagiographa should not be read except in the evening, since the daytime was to be devoted to more doctrinal studies.在經過從這一點出發,我們應當指出,這是指示該Hagiographa不應被理解,除非在晚上,因為白天是用於更多的理論研究。 In the same connection it is added, that the study of the Mishnah is more important than that of the Bible, that of the Talmud being considered the most meritorious of all, as enabling one to understand all questions of right and wrong.在這方面它補充說,這項研究的米示拿更重要的是比聖經,即猶太法典被認為是最值得稱讚的是,作為一個有利的了解所有問題的正確和錯誤的。 Liturgical pieces, though containing the Name of God, might not be rescued from the flames.禮儀的碎片,但含有以上帝的名義,可能無法獲救的火焰。

The Gospels, and the writings of Christians, or of heretics, might not be rescued.福音,以及著作的基督徒,或異教徒,可能無法救出。 If it be asked what should be done with them on weekdays, the answer is, that the Names of God which they contain ought to be cut out, and then the books themselves burned.如果它被要求應該做些什麼與他們平日,答案是,該名稱的上帝,他們包含應該切斷了,然後自己的圖書被燒毀。 One of the Rabbis, however, would have had them burnt at once, indeed, he would rather have fled into an idolatrous temple than into a Christian church: 'for the idolators deny God because they have not known Him, but the apostates are worse.'一個拉比然而,本來他們燒毀一次,事實上,他寧願已逃入寺院的盲目崇拜比一個基督教教堂: '為idolators否認上帝,因為他們不知道,但他的變節者更糟。 To them applied Ps.他們採用物質。 139:21, and, if it was lawful to wash out in the waters of jealousy the Divine Name in order to restore peace, much more would it be lawful to burn such books, even though they contained the Divine Name, because they led to enmity between Israel and their Heavenly Father. 139:21 ,如果它是合法的洗中的水神的嫉妒的名稱,以便恢復和平,更會是合法的燒傷等書籍,即使它們包含了神聖的名稱,因為它們導致以色列之間的敵意和他們的天父。

Another chapter of the tractate deals with the question of the various pieces of furniture, how far they may be moved and used. Thus, curtains, or a lid, may be regarded as furniture, and hence used.另一章的論文涉及的問題,各種家具,多遠,他們可能會轉移和使用。因此,窗簾,或蓋子,可被視為家具,因此使用。 More intersting is the next chapter (18), which deals with things forbidden by the Rabbis because they resemble those kinds of labour supposed to be interdicted in the Bible.更有趣的是下一個章( 18 ) ,其中涉及的東西所禁止的拉比,因為它們類似於這樣的勞動理應截獲的聖經。 Here it is declared lawful, for example, to remove quantities of straw or corn in order to make room for guests, or for an assembly of students, but the whole barn must not be emptied, because in so doing the floor might be injured.在這裡宣布合法的,例如,以消除大量的稻草或玉米,以使房間的客人,或用於集會的學生,但整個穀倉絕不能倒,因為這樣做地板可能會受傷。 Again, as regards animals, some assistance might be given if an animal was about to have its young, though not to the same amount as to a woman in childbrith, for whose sake the Ssabbath might be desecrated.再次,關於動物,一些援助可以考慮,如果一種動物大約有年輕的,但不相同的數額,以一個女人在childbrith ,為他們的利益的Ssabbath可能是褻瀆。

Lastly, all might be done on the holy day needful for circumcision. At the same time, every preparation possible for the service should be made the day before.最後,所有可能做的神聖每天必需的割禮。與此同時,每一個準備盡可能的服務應作出的前一天。 The Mishnah proceeds to enter here on details not necessarily connected with the Sabbath law.該米示拿收益在此處輸入的細節不一定與安息日法。

In the following chapter (20) the tractate goes on to indicate such things as are only allowed on the Sabbath on condition that they are done differently from ordinary days.在下面的一章( 20 )的論文還表明這種事情只允許在安息日的情況下,他們做不同於平常的日子。 Thus, for example, certain solutions ordinarily made in water should be made in vinegar.例如,某些解決方案,通常在水應在醋。 The food for horses or cattle must not be taken out of the manger, unless it is immediately given to some other animal.糧食馬匹或牛絕不能斷章取義馬槽,除非是立即給予其它一些動物。 The bedding straw must not be turned with hand, but with other part of the body.稻草的床上用品決不能變成手,但與其他的身體部分。 A press in which linen is smoothed may be opened to take out napkins, but must not be screwed down again, etc.記者在其中亞麻平滑可打開拿出餐巾紙,但絕不能擰下來了,等等

The next chapter proceeds upon the principle that, although everything is to be avoided which resembles the labours referred to in the Bible, the same prohibition does not apply to such labours as resemble those interdicted by the Rabbis.下一章收益的原則,儘管一切都是要避免這種類似的勞動中所提到的聖經,同樣的禁令不適用於這種勞動作為類似於截獲的拉比。 The application of this principle is not, however, of interest to general readers.應用這一原則,但不感興趣的一般讀者。

In the 22nd chapter the Mishnah proceeds to show that all the precautions of the Rabbis had only this object: to prevent an ultimate breach of a Biblical prohibition.在第22章的米示拿的收益表明,所有的預防措施的拉比只有這個對象:以防止最終違背聖經的禁令。 Hence, where such was not to be feared, an act might be done.因此,如不擔心,這一行動可能會做。 For example, a person might bathe in mineral waters, but not carry home the linen with which he had dried himself.例如,一個人可能沐浴在礦泉水,但不攜帶回家的床單,使他本人也已乾涸。 He might anoint and rub the body, but not to the degree of making himself tired; but he might not use any artifical remedial measures, such as taking a shower bath.他可能流感病毒和擦身體,而不是程度作出自己很累,但他可能不使用任何人工補救措施,如採取了淋浴。 Bones might not be set, nor emetics given, nor any medical or surgical operation performed.骨頭可能無法確定,也不emetics給予,也沒有任何醫療或外科手術。

In the last two chapter the Mishnah points out those things which are unlawful as derogatory to the dignity of the Sabbath.在過去兩年的米示拿章指出,這些事情都是非法的貶損尊嚴的安息日。 Certain things are here of interest as bearing on the question of purchasing things for the feast day.某些事情正在瀏覽的利益關係的問題上購買東西的盛宴一天。 Thus, it is expressly allowed to borrow wine, or oil, or bread on the Sabbath, and to ieave one's upper garment in pledge, though one should not express it in such manner as to imply it was a loan.因此,明確允許借款葡萄酒,或石油,或麵包的安息日,並ieave人在服裝上的承諾,但人們不應該表達的方式,暗示這是一個貸款。

Moreover, it is expressly added that if the day before the Passover falls on a Sabbath, one may in this manner purchase a Paschal lamb, and, presumably, all else that is needful for the feast.此外,還明確表示,如果前一天的逾越節適逢星期六,人們也許會以這種方式購買了逾越節羔羊,並推測,一切是必需的盛宴。 This shows how Judas might have been sent on the eve of the Passover to purchase what was needful, for the law applying to a feast day was much less strict than that of the Sabbath.這說明猶大可能已被送往的前夕購買逾越節是必要的,對法律的適用於節日當天更嚴格的比安息日。 Again, to avoid the possibility of affecting anything written, it was forbidden to read from a tablet the names of one's guests, or the menu.再次,為了避免有可能影響書面東西,但被禁止改為從片的名字一個人的客人,或菜單。 It was lawful for children to cast lots for their portions at table, but not with strangers, for this might lead to a breach of the Sabbath, and to games of chance.這是合法的兒童演員的手在桌上的部分,但不是陌生人,因為這可能會導致違反安息日,以及遊戲的機會。 Similarly, it was improper on the Sabbath to engage workmen for the following week, nor should one be on the watch for the close of that day to begin one's ordinary work.同樣,這是不適當的安息日工人從事的下列星期,也不應該成為一個對觀看密切的那一天開始一個人的正常工作。 It was otherwise if religious obligations awaited one at the close of the Sabbath such as attending to a bride, or making preparation for a funeral.這是其他宗教義務,如果一個期待已久的密切的安息日,如出席了新娘,或為準備葬禮。

[It is curious as bearing upon a recent controversy, to note that on this occasion it is said that an Israelite may be buried in the coffin and grave originally destined for a Gentile, but not vice versi.] On the Sabbath itself it was lawful to do all that was absolutely necessary connected with the dead, such as to anoint or wash the body, although without moving the limbs, nor might the eyes of the dying be closed, a practice which, indeed, was generally denounced. [實在令人好奇同時籲請最近的爭議,地注意到,在此之際這是說,以色列人可能是埋在棺材和嚴重原先的詹蒂萊,但不是副versi 。 ]在安息日本身是合法的盡一切是絕對必要的與死亡,如流感病毒或洗身體,雖然不動了手腳,也可能眼中的死亡被封閉,這種做法的確,人們普遍譴責。

In the last chapter of the tractate the Mishnah returns to the discussion of punctilious details.在最後一章的短文回報的米示拿的討論拘泥形式的細節。 Supposing a traveller to arrive in a place just as the Sabbath commenced, he must only take from his beast of burden such objects are are allowed to be handled on the Sabbath.假如旅客到達的地方一樣安息日開始,他必須只從他的馱畜等物體可以處理的安息日。 As for the rest, he may loosen the ropes and let them fall down of themselves.至於其他,他可能放鬆繩索,讓他們倒下的自己。 Further, it is declared lawful to unloose bundles of straw, or to rub up what can only be eaten in that condition; but care must be taken that nothing is done which is not absolutely necessary.此外,它還宣布合法的放開捆稻草,或磨擦最多只能吃在這一條件;但必須謹慎小心,絕不做這完全沒有必要。 On the other hand, cooking would not be allowed, in short, nothing must be done but what was absolutely necessary to satisfy the cravings of hunger or thirst.另一方面,做飯不會允許的,總之,什麼必須做,但什麼是絕對必要的,以滿足渴望飢餓或口渴。 Finally, it was declared lawful on the Sabbath to absolve from vows, and to attend to similiar religious calls.最後,它被宣布為合法的安息日免除從誓言,並參加類似的宗教要求。

Detailed as this analysis of the Sabbath law is, we have not by any means exhausted the subject.詳細分析的安息日法是,我們沒有以任何手段用盡的問題。 Thus, one of the most curious provisions of the Sabbath law was, that on the Sabbath only such things to be touched or eaten as had been expressly prepared on a weekday with a view to the Sabbath (Bez. 2b).因此,一個最奇怪的規定,安息日法,即在安息日只有這樣的事情要觸及或食用的已明確表示準備在週末以安息日( Bez. 2b干擾素) 。 [This destination or preparation is called Hachanah.] Anything not so destined was forbidden, as the expression is 'on account of Muqtsah' ie as not having been the 'intention.' [此目的地或準備被稱為Hachanah 。 ]任何事情並非如此注定被禁止,因為表達是'考慮到Muqtsah '即尚未得到的打算。 Jewish dogmatists enumerate nearly 50 cases in which that theological term finds its application.猶太dogmatists列舉近50個案件中,認為神學長期認為其申請。

Thus, if a hen had laid on the Sabbath, the egg was forbidden, because, evidently, it could not have been destined on a weekday for eating, since it was not yet laid, and did not exist; while if the hen had been kept, not for laying but for fattening, the egg might be eaten as forming a part of the hen that had fallen off!因此,如果母雞奠定了基礎的安息日,雞蛋被禁止,因為,顯然,它不能被注定了平日的飲食,因為它是尚未奠定,根本不存在,而如果母雞已保存,而不是鋪設,但育肥,雞蛋可能會被吃掉構成的一部分,如果有脫落! But when the principle of Muqtsah is applied to the touching of things which are not used because they have become ugly (and hence are not in one's mind).但是,當Muqtsah原則是適用於感人的事情,不使用,因為它們已成為醜陋的(因而不心) 。 so that, for example, an old lamp may not be touched, or raisins during the process of drying them (because they are not eatable then), it will be seen how complicated such a law must have been.因此,例如,一個老燈可能沒有觸及,或葡萄乾過程中乾燥他們(因為他們不食用然後) ,這將是多麼複雜見過這樣的法律必須是。

Chiefly from other tractates of the Talmud the following may here be added.主要是從其他tractates的塔木德以下可在這裡補充。 It would break the Sabbath rest to climb a tree, to ride, to swim, to clap one's hands, to strike one's side, or to dance.這將打破安息日休息爬上了一棵樹,坐,游泳,到拍一個人的手中,罷工一個方面,或跳舞。 All judicial acts, vows, and tilling were also prohibited on that day (Bez. 5:2).所有司法行為,誓言,並翻耕還禁止在這一天( Bez. 5時02分) 。 It has already been noted that aid might be given or promised for a woman in her bed.已經指出,援助可能會提供或承諾的一個女人在她的床上。 But the Law went further.但是,法律更進一步。 While it prohibited the application or use on the Sabbath of any remedies that would bring improvement or cure to the sick, 'all actual danger to life,' (Yoma 7:6) superseded the Sabbath law, but nothing short of that.雖然禁止的應用或使用的安息日的任何補救措施,將改善或治愈病人,一切實際危害生命, ' (山脈7時06分)取代了安息日的法律,但沒有任何短期的。

Thus, to state an extreme case, if on the Sabbath a wall had fallen on a person, and it were doubtful whether he was under the ruins or not, whether he was alive or dead, a Jew or Gentile, it would be duty to clear away the rubbish sufficiently to find the body.因此,為了國家的極端情況下,如果對安息日牆已經下降一個人,並懷疑他是否在廢墟下或沒有,他是否還活著或死了,一個猶太人或詹蒂萊,這將是責任清除垃圾找到足夠的屍體。 If life were not extinct the labour would have to be continued; but if the person were dead nothing further should be done to extricate the body.如果生活沒有滅絕的勞動力將不得不繼續,但如果此人已經死亡沒有進一步應該做的身體中解脫出來。 Similarly, a Rabbi allowed the use of remedies on the Sabbath in throat diseases, on the express ground that he regarded them as endangering life.同樣,一個拉比允許使用的補救措施的安息日在咽喉疾病,對地面表示,他認為這些危及生命。 On a similar principle a woman with child or a sick person was allowed to break even the fast of the Day of Atonement, while one who had a maniacal attack of morbid craving for food might on that sacred day have even unlawful food (Yoma 8:5, 6).在一項類似的原則婦女與兒童或有病的人被允許盈虧相抵快速的贖罪日,但有一個誰了瘋狂的攻擊病態的心理渴求的食物可能會就這一神聖的節日,甚至非法食品(山脈8 : 5日, 6日) 。

Such are the leading provisions by which Rabbinism enlarged the simple Sabbath law as expressed in the Bible, [Ex.這些都是領先的規定,其中Rabbinism擴大了簡單的安息日法律中所表達的聖經, [惠。 20: 8 - 11; 23:12 - 17; 34:1 - 3; Deut. 20 : 8 -1 1; 2 3:12- 17 ;3 4 :1-3 ;D e u t。 12 - 15.] and, in its anxiety to ensure its most exact observance, changed the spiritual import of its rest into a complicated code of external and burdensome ordinances. 12 -1 5。 ] ,並在其焦慮,以確保其最準確的遵守,改變了精神進口其休息到一個複雜的代碼的外部和繁瑣的條例。 Shall we then wonder at Christ's opposition to the Sabbath ordinances of the Synagogue, or, on the other hand, at the teaching of Christ on this subject, and that of his most learned and most advanced contemporaries?然後我們想在基督的反對安息日條例的猶太教堂,或在另一方面,在教學中的基督就這個問題,而他最教訓和最先進的同時代人? And whence this difference unless Christ was the 'Teacher come from God,' Who spake as never before man had spoken.和何處這種差異,除非基督是'教師來自上帝, '誰spake前所未有的男子了話。


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者愛德生提到許多參考資料在他的作品。 As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list. All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.作為一個書目資源,我們創建了一個單獨的愛德生參考清單。所有提到他的括號內顯示頁碼的作品中引用。


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