Lamaism喇嘛教

General Information 一般信息

Lamaism is the Tibetan religion of about 3 million Tibetans and 7 million Mongols and others.藏傳佛教是藏族的宗教大約300萬西藏人和700多萬蒙古族和其他人。 The Dalai Lama is the equivalent of the Pope for them.達賴喇嘛相當於教皇他們。 A secondary leader is the Teshu Lama (or Panchen Lama).二級領導人是Teshu喇嘛(或班禪喇嘛) 。 These two are regarded as 'Living Buddhas', being reincarnations of Buddha passing from one existence to another.這兩個被視為'活佛' ,是佛陀的轉世從一個到另一個存在。 When one dies, his successor is sought from among the baby boys born at the time the leader passed away because it is believed that the soul of the Buddha has only passed into another existence.當一個人去世,他的繼任者是尋求之間的男嬰出生時的領導人去世了,因為它認為的靈魂,是佛陀只有通過到另一個存在。

Lamaism is considered a corrupt form of Buddhism.藏傳佛教被視為一種腐敗形式的佛教。 It is sometimes called the Yellow Religion.它有時被稱為黃河宗教。 In some areas it has degenerated into a form of spirit worship.在一些地區它已經演變成一種形式的精神崇拜。

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Lamaism - Tibetan Buddhism藏傳佛教-藏傳佛教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Tibetan Buddhism, also called Lamaism, is a distinctive form of Buddhism that arose (7th century) in Tibet and later spread throughout the Himalayan region, including the neighboring countries of Bhutan, Nepal, and Sikkim.藏傳佛教,也稱為喇嘛教,是一種獨特的形式出現的佛教(公元7世紀)在西藏,後來傳遍整個喜馬拉雅地區,包括周邊國家,不丹,尼泊爾和錫金。 The history of Tibetan Buddhism can be divided into three periods.歷史的藏傳佛教可分為三個時期。 During the 7th - 9th century AD Buddhism was first introduced from India and was slowly accepted under Buddhist kings in the face of opposition by adherents of the indigenous shamanistic religion of Tibet, Bon.在7日-公元9世紀佛教最初是從印度引進,並慢慢地接受了國王根據佛教在面對反對信徒的土著薩滿教的宗教,西藏,邦。 Instrumental in this process were the Indian Mahayana Buddhist masters Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita.在這過程中,印度大乘佛教大師Padmasambhava和Shantarakshita 。 During the 9th century, however, King gLang Dar Ma persecuted the new faith and effectively eclipsed it for some time.在9世紀,但是,國王gLang達累斯薩拉姆馬迫害的新的信念和有效地掩蓋它一段時間。

The second period began with the reintroduction of Buddhism from India and its successive reform in the 11th century.第二階段開始,重新佛教從印度和歷屆改革的11世紀。 Powerful ecclesiastical organizations were established and soon began to rule the countryside in alliance with clans of nobles or the distant Mongol rulers.強大的宗教組織建立了,並很快開始統治農村同盟部族貴族或遙遠的蒙古統治者。 During this period the Tibetan Buddhist canon (notable for its accurate translations of now - lost Sanskrit texts and its helpful commentaries) was compiled, and some of the sects that have persisted to the present were formed.在此期間,藏傳佛教經典(顯著的準確翻譯現在-失去了梵文文本及其有益的評注)的編制,以及一些教派已經堅持本形成。 These include the Sa - skya - pa, the rNying - ma - pa (who traced their roots back to Padmasambhava), and the bKa'rgyud - pa (to which belonged the famous yogi Milarepa, or Mi - la ras - pa, 1040 - 1123).這些措施包括薩-章嘉-巴的r N ying-馬-巴(誰找到自己的根回到P a dm asambhava),以及b K a' rgyud-巴(這屬於著名的瑜珈密勒日巴,或美-法語角-巴, 10 4 0 -1 123年) 。

The third period began with the great reformer Tsong - kha - pa (1357 - 1419), who founded the dGe - lugs - pa sect - the so called Yellow Hats - to which the line of the Dalai Lamas belongs.第三個時期開始的偉大的改革者聰-卡-巴( 1 3 57年至1 4 19年) ,誰創立了橋-派-巴節-所謂的黃帽子-該行屬於達賴喇嘛。 Each of these lamas was thought to be the reincarnation of his predecessor (as well as that of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara) and became, at least nominally, the religious and secular ruler of the country.所有這些喇嘛被認為是轉世他的前任(以及千手觀音菩薩) ,並成為,至少在名義上,在宗教和世俗統治者的國家。 In 1959 the present, or 14th, Dalai Lama fled the Chinese presence in Tibet along with thousands of ordinary Tibetans and many other high incarnate lamas. 1959年至今,或14日,達賴喇嘛逃離了中國在西藏與數以千計的普通藏族和其他許多高化身喇嘛。 Since then they have all been living in exile, primarily in India but also in Nepal and elsewhere.自那時以來,他們都生活在流亡國外,主要在印度,而且在尼泊爾和其他地方。

Among the characteristic features of Tibetan Buddhism are its ready acceptance of the Buddhist Tantras as an integral and culminating part of the Buddhist way; its emphasis on the importance of the master - disciple relationship for both religious scholarship and meditation; its recognition of a huge pantheon of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, demons, and deities; its sectarianism, which resulted less from religious disputes than from the great secular powers of the rival monastic organizations; and, finally, the marked piety of both monastic and lay Tibetan Buddhists, which receives expression in their spinning of prayer wheels, their pilgrimages to and circumambulation of holy sites, prostrations and offerings, recitation of texts, and chanting of Mantras, especially the famous invocation to Avalokitesvara Om Mani Padme Hum.在特徵的藏傳佛教是其願意接受佛教Tantras作為一個不可分割的組成部分,並最終導致佛教的方式,其重視的主人-門徒關係的宗教學識和冥想;它承認一個巨大的萬神殿佛祖,菩薩,聖人,惡魔和神;其宗派主義,導致少從宗教爭端不是從偉大的世俗權力的競爭對手寺院組織,並最終顯著虔誠的寺院和藏傳佛教奠定基礎,它得到體現在他們的祈禱紡輪,他們的朝拜,並circumambulation聖地, prostrations和產品,背誦文本,並高呼的咒語,尤其是著名的調用,以千手觀音唵嘛呢叭咪吽。

Joseph M Kitagawa And John S Strong約瑟夫M北側和約翰的有力

Bibliography: 參考書目:
C Bell, The Religion of Tibet (1931); S Beyer, The Cult of Tara - Magic and Ritual in Tibet (1973); T Gyatso, The Buddhism of Tibet and and the Key to the Middle Way (1975); RA Stein, Tibetan Civilization (1972); G Tucci, The Religions of Tibet (1980); LA Waddell, Buddhism of Tibet (1939). ç貝爾,宗教,西藏( 1931年) ;語拜爾,邪教的塔拉-魔術儀式在西藏( 1 973年) ; Ť嘉措,在西藏佛教和和的關鍵中間道路( 1 975年) ;類風濕性關節炎斯坦因,西藏文明( 1972年) ; G圖斯,在西藏的宗教( 1980年) ;洛杉磯沃德爾,佛教,西藏( 1939年) 。


Dalai Lama達賴喇嘛

General Information 一般信息

Dalai Lama is the title of the religious leader of Tibetan Buddhism, who was also, until 1959, temporal ruler of Tibet. Each Dalai Lama is believed to be the reincarnation of his predecessor.達賴喇嘛的標題宗教領袖藏傳佛教,誰也,直到1959年,時間對西藏的統治者。每個達賴喇嘛被認為是轉世他的前任。 When one dies, the new incarnation is sought among newly born boys; the child is identified by his ability to pick out possessions of the former Dalai Lama from a group of similar objects.當一個人去世,新的化身之間尋求新誕生的男孩;孩子確定他有能力挑選物品前達賴喇嘛從一組類似的物體。 The Dalai Lama is also regarded as an emanation of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, the Lord of Compassion.達賴喇嘛也看作是氣的千手觀音菩薩,上帝的憐憫。

The first Dalai Lama was Gan - den Trup - pa (1391 - 1474), head of the dominant Ge - luk - pa (Yellow Hat) monastic sect and founder of the Tashi Lhunpo monastery.第一達賴喇嘛甘-登T rup-巴( 1 3 91年至1 4 74年) ,負責主導葛-鹿-巴(黃帽子)寺院節和創始人扎西Lh un po修道院。 He and his successor, however, did not actually bear the title Dalai, which was first bestowed on the third Dalai Lama (1543 - 88) by a Mongol prince in 1578 and applied retroactively.他和他的繼任者,但實際上並沒有承擔的標題達賴,這是首次賦予第三達賴喇嘛( 1543年至1588年)由蒙古王子在1578年和追溯適用。

The 14th Dalai Lama, born Tenzin Gyatso, 1935, was installed in 1940.十四世達賴喇嘛,生於丹增嘉措, 1935年,安裝於1940年。 He remained in Tibet from the Chinese takeover in 1950 until 1959, when he fled to India following an abortive Tibetan revolt against Chinese Communist rule.他仍然在西藏從中國收購在1950年直到1959年,當他逃到印度後,流產西藏反抗中國共產黨的統治。 He established a Tibetan government - in - exile in Dharmsala, India, and has worked to preserve Tibetan arts, scriptures, and medicine.他建立了西藏流亡政府-中-流亡在達蘭薩拉,印度,並努力維護西藏藝術,經文,和藥品。 In 1989 he was warded the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent struggle to end Chinese domination of his homeland. 1989年,他是抵禦諾貝爾和平獎,他的非暴力鬥爭,以結束中國統治他的祖國。

Tibet's secondary spiritual leader is the Panchen Lama.西藏中學是精神領袖班禪喇嘛。 The 10th Panchen Lama (1939 - 89) served as nominal ruler of Tibet from 1959 until 1964.十世班禪( 1939年至1989年)擔任名義上的統治者,西藏從1959年至1964年。 He was imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution but later was returned to favor.他被囚禁在文化大革命期間,但後來被送回有利。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
J Avedon, In Exile from the Land of Snows (1984); B Burman, Religion and Politics in Tibet (1979); Dalai Lama, My Land and My People (1962), Freedom in Exile (1990), and My Tibet (1990); MH Goodman, The Last Dalai Lama (1986); R Hicks and N Chogyam, Great Ocean (1990); CB Levenson, The Dalai Lama: A Biography (1989). J埃夫登,流亡在雪域( 1984年) ;乙緬族,宗教和政治在西藏( 1979年) ;達賴喇嘛,我國土地與吾民( 1962年) ,自由流放( 1990年) ,和我的西藏( 1990年) ;充電器古德曼,最後的達賴喇嘛( 1986年) ; R希克斯和N Chogyam ,大洋( 1990年) ; CB認證文森,達賴喇嘛:傳( 1989年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Buddhism 佛教

Mahayana Buddhism 大乘佛教

Theravada Buddhism 小乘

Zen Buddhism

Tantra 譚崔


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