Judaism猶太教

General Information 一般信息

Moses initiated Judaism about 1600 BC.猶太教的摩西開始公元前約1600年。

The religion and culture of the Jewish people.在宗教和文化的猶太人民。 Jewish civilization includes historical, social, and political dimensions in addition to the religious.猶太文明包括歷史,社會和政治層面,除了宗教。 The word "Judaism" derives from the Greek Ioudaismos, a term first used in the intertestamental period by Greek speaking Jews to distinguish their religion from hellenism (see 2 Macc. 2:21; 8:1; 14:38).單詞“猶太教”源於希臘Ioudaismos ,第一任期中所使用intertestamental期間,希臘的猶太人說來區分他們的宗教從希臘(見第2排雷協委會。 2點21分; 8:1 ; 14:38 ) 。 In the NT the word appears twice (Gal. 1:13 - 14) in reference to Paul's prior consuming devotion to Jewish faith and life.在NT一詞出現兩次( Gal. 1:13 -1 4)中提及保羅事先消費奉獻猶太信仰和生命。

Development發展

Hebrew religion began to give rise to Judaism after the destruction of the temple and the exile of Judah in 586 BC.希伯來宗教開始引起猶太教後,破壞了廟宇和流亡的猶太在公元前586 。 The term "Jew," in its biblical use, is almost exclusively postexilic. The Jewish religion of the biblical period evolved through such historical stages as the intertestamental, rabbinic, and medieval to the modern period of the nineteenth century with Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism.術語“猶太人” ,在其聖經的使用,幾乎完全是postexilic 。猶太宗教的聖經時期通過這種演變歷史階段的intertestamental ,拉比,和中世紀到現代時期的十九世紀的東正教,保守黨,並改革猶太教。

Along the way Jewish religion took on new teachings and practices. But with the lengthy development of Judaism and its many changes it is incorrect to posit, as some have done, that Jewish history produced two separate religions: an OT religion of Israel and the postexilic religion of Judaism.一路上猶太宗教了新的教義和習俗。但是,隨著長時間的發展,猶太教和它的許多變化是不正確的假定,因為有些人所做的那樣,是猶太人的歷史產生兩個不同的宗教:宗教的加時賽以色列和postexilic宗教猶太教。 Despite the shifting phases of its history, the essence of the religious teaching of Judaism has remained remarkably constant, firmly rooted in the Hebrew Scriptures (OT).儘管轉變階段的歷史,本質的宗教教學的猶太教仍然保持不變,牢牢紮根在希伯來文聖經(加時賽) 。 Judaism is a religion of ethical monotheism.猶太教是一個宗教的道德一神教。 For centuries many Jews have sought to distill its essential features from one biblical verse that calls Israel "to act justly, to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God" (Mic. 6:8).數百年來許多猶太人設法提煉其基本特徵從一個聖經詩句,要求以色列“採取行動的公正,熱愛仁慈和步行虛心您的上帝” ( Mic.六時08分) 。

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The Babylonian exile brought certain modifications in Jewish religious life.巴比倫流亡者帶來了一定的修改猶太宗教生活。 Deprived of land, temple, and cultic priestly ministrations, Judaism began to adopt a nonsacrificial religion. Jews began to gather in homes for the reading of Scripture, for prayer and instruction.被剝奪了土地,廟宇,祭司和邪教ministrations ,猶太教開始採取nonsacrificial宗教。猶太人開始收集家中的讀經,禱告和指示。 Here may be traced the earliest roots of the synagogue.在這裡可追溯到最早的基層的猶太教堂。 Now "lip sacrifice" (prayer and penitence) rather than "blood sacrifice" (sheep and goats) became central to the life of piety.現在, “唇犧牲” (祈禱和懺悔) ,而不是“血犧牲” (綿羊和山羊)成為中央的生命虔誠。

There was one thing Israel carried to Babylon and clung to dearly. It was the law, the Torah, for by it Israel was assured of its divine calling and mission.有一件事對以色列進行巴比倫和堅持的代價。這是法律,律法,因為它是以色列保證其神聖的使命和任務。 In the fifth century the "father of Judaism," Ezra the scribe, enacted religious reforms by appealing to the Torah.在第五世紀之父“的猶太教, ”以斯拉的抄寫,頒布了宗教的改革,呼籲聖經。 The priesthood was purified and mixed marriages dealt with as the principles of the law became applied to every detail of life.鐸純化和異族通婚處理的法律原則是適用於每一個細節的生活。 Gradually many Jews came to believe that here lay the only real proof of who was a true Jew: vigorous, unflinching obedience to the teachings of Torah.逐步許多猶太人來到認為,在這裡奠定了唯一真正的證明誰是真正的猶太人:充滿活力,堅定不移地服從教義的聖經。

Scribes became the priestly interpreters of the Torah, setting forth their own authoritative teachings.文士成為祭司口譯的聖經,闡明自己的權威的教義。 By the second century BC the Pharisees taught that the oral law carried the same authority as the law of Moses.到公元前二世紀的法利賽教,口頭法進行同樣的權力作為摩西律法。 Later Jesus denied that the traditions of men were equal in authority to the written law (Mark 7:1 - 23); in addition, Paul denied that man could be justified before God by perfect obedience to that law (Gal. 3).後來耶穌否認,傳統的男子平等的權力,成文法(馬克7:1 -2 3) ;此外,保羅否認他可能是有道理的上帝面前完美服從法律( G al.3 ) 。

The destruction of the temple in 70 AD and the scattering of thousands of Jews from the land brought a sudden demise to the priesthood.破壞的寺廟70 AD和散射的數以千計的猶太人從土地帶來了突然去世的神職人員。 Johanan ben Zakkai, a Pharisee, was soon permitted by the Romans to open an academy at Jabneh. Johanan本Zakkai ,一個法利賽人,很快被允許在羅馬開設一個學校在Jabneh 。 He took it upon himself to install rabbis as the keepers and legislators of Torah.他對自己安裝拉比的人員和立法者的聖經。 By word of mouth the rabbis passed their teachings from generation to generation until the oral law (Mishnah) was written down about 200 AD, Rabbi Judah ha - Nasi its chief editor.通過口耳相傳的猶太教教義通過他們一代又一代,直到口服法(米示拿)被寫下來約200名反傾銷,猶太拉比公頃-納西其總編輯。 By 500 AD the Talmud was completed with the issuing of the Gemara, a rabbinical commentary on the Mishnah.到公元500猶太法典完成了發行的革馬拉,一個猶太教評注米示拿。 The Talmud contains more than 6,000 folio pages and references to more than 2,000 scholar - teachers. It became the basic document of rabbinic Judaism, and still holds a major place in shaping Jewish thought.該塔木德包含超過6000對開頁,引用超過2000學者-教師。它成為基本文件拉比猶太教,和仍然佔據著主要發生在塑造猶太思想。

Basic Doctrines and Beliefs基本教義和信仰

According to the teaching of Judaism there is no set of beliefs upon the acceptance of which the Jew may find salvation.根據猶太教教,沒有一套信仰的接受這些猶太人可能會發現得救。 Even Maimonides' thirteen articles of faith, as close as Judaism ever came to a catechism, is not binding on the conscience of Jews.即使邁蒙尼德' 13條款的信念,接近猶太教以往任何時候都來到一個理,是不是有約束力的良心上的猶太人。 Judaism has historically put more stress upon the deed (miswa) than the creed ('ani ma 'amin, "I believe"). Nevertheless, from Talmudic times, as a way of life Judaism has been distinguished by giving special emphasis to certain beliefs and ethical values.猶太教歷來把更多強調的契據( miswa )比信條( '肛門馬阿明說: “我相信” ) 。儘管如此,從塔木德時間,作為一種生活方式猶太教一直尊敬的特別強調某些信念和道德價值觀。

In the Mishnah (Abot 1:2) one sees the broad philosophy that governed the minds of the early rabbis:在米示拿( Abot 1:2 )人們看到廣大哲學管轄心中的早期猶太:

"By three things is the world sustained: “通過三件事是世界上持續:

This basic teaching is further underscored by the threefold function of the synagogue as a "house of study" (for learning of Torah), "house of prayer" (for worship of God), and "house of assembly" (for the care of community needs).這一基本教學是進一步強調了三方面功能的猶太教堂作為一個“家學” (學習的聖經) , “房子的祈禱” (禮拜上帝) ,以及“議會” (為照顧社會需要) 。

Contemporary Judaism often speaks of four foundational pillars of the Jewish faith, each interacting as a major force as part of the covenant: (1) The Torah, always a living law as the written Torah is understood in light of the oral Torah; (2) God, a unity (one), spiritual (not a body), and eternal; (3) The people (Israelites Jews), called into being by God as members of one family, a corporate personality, a community of faith; and (4) The land (known today as Eretz Yisrael), a bond going back to Abraham, the "father of the Hebrew people" (Gen. 17:7 - 8).當代猶太教常常談到的四個基本支柱的猶太信仰,每一個互動的一支重要力量的一部分契約: ( 1 )聖經,始終是活的法律的書面理解聖經根據的口頭律法; ( 2 )上帝,一個團結(一) ,精神(而不是一個機構) ,以及永恆的; ( 3 )人(以色列人猶太人) ,到被稱為上帝的成員一個家庭,一個企業的個性,一個社區的信念;和( 4 )土地(俗稱今天Eretz以色列) ,債券可追溯到亞伯拉罕之父“希伯來人” (創17時07分-8 ) 。

In its modern expression Judaism is also shaped by the following traditional beliefs:在其現代表達猶太教也形成了以下的傳統信仰:

(1) Man is pivotal in the universe. He sees himself as partner with God in the unending process of creation. ( 1 ) 人是關鍵中的宇宙。他認為自己是上帝的合作夥伴在永無休止的過程中創造。 In rabbinic thought, "God needs man as much as man needs God."在拉比思想, “上帝需要人多的人需要上帝。 ”

(2) Man is a responsible moral agent, fully accountable for his acts. He is free to shape his own destiny. ( 2 ) 人是一個負責任的道德代理人,全面負責他的行為。他是免費的塑造自己的命運。

(3) Human progress is possible as man realizes the great potential within him. The nature of man is basically good, or neutral, free from the encumbrance of original sin. ( 3 ) 人類的進步是可能的人實現了巨大的潛力在他。性質的人基本上是良好的,或中立,不受抵押權的原罪。 Thus man may be optimistic and hopeful about his future.因此,男子可能是樂觀和充滿希望的對自己的未來。

(4) "This - worldliness" is a distinguishing mark of Judaism. The Hebrew Scriptures focus more on earth and man than upon heaven and God. ( 4 ) “這-世”是一個顯著標誌猶太教。希伯來聖經更加注重地球和人類比對天堂和上帝。 Hence, lengthy speculation about the afterlife and otherworldy realities has never occupied a major position in Jewish thought.因此,長時間的猜測和來世otherworldy現實從來沒有被佔領的一個重大的立場猶太思想。

(5) All of life must be regarded as sacred. Man is to seek to imitate God in sanctifying his every action. 5 )所有的生命必須被視為神聖的。人是尋求模仿上帝sanctifying他的每一次行動。 Time must be imbued with the seeds of eternity.時間必須是充滿永恆的種子。

(6) Man is to pursue peace, justice, and righteousness. Salvation is dependent upon the betterment of society through good deeds. Historically, Jews have seen the Messiah as God's anointed human representative (not a God - man) who would usher in a golden age of societal and spiritual redemption. ( 6 ) 人是追求和平,正義和正氣。救國取決於改善社會通過良好的事蹟。從歷史上看,猶太人看到了彌賽亞作為神的受膏者人的代表(不是上帝-男子)誰將迎來一個黃金時代的社會和精神救贖。 Today, however, Reform Judaism teaches that the Messianic Age will appear when humankind collectively, by its acts, reaches a level of true enlightenment, peace, and justice.然而,今天,改革猶太教教導我們,時代的救世主時會出現人類的集體,其行為,達到一定程度的真正的啟示,和平和正義。

MR Wilson韋敬
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography: 參考書目:
L Baeck, The Essence of Judaism; H Danby, The Mishnah; H Donin, To Be a Jew; EJ, X; A Hertzberg, ed., Judaism; GF Moore, Judaism; M Steinberg, Basic Judaism; L Trepp, Judaism: Development and Life. L Baeck ,本質猶太教; H丹柏,該米示拿; H Donin ,將一個猶太人;伯克利分校,第十一個赫茲伯格,編輯。 ,猶太教;石墨摩爾,猶太教; M斯坦伯格,基本猶太教; L Trepp ,猶太教:發展和生活。


Judaism猶太教

Additional Information 附加信息

Several distinct approaches to Judaism presently exist.有幾個不同的辦法,目前存在的猶太教。

Conservative Judaism保守猶太教

Established to preserve in America the historical Judaism.建立維護在美國歷史猶太教。 Beliefs include the Torah, and the dietary laws of traditional Judaism, use of the Hebrew language, men worship with their heads covered.信念包括聖經和法律的飲食傳統猶太教,使用希伯來語,男性崇拜的首長包括在內。

There are currently around 1,500,000 Conservative Jews in the United States, worshipping in 762 Synagogues.目前有大約150.0萬保守的猶太人在美國,崇拜在762猶太教堂。

Orthodox Judaism正統猶太教

Preserves the theology and traditions of Old World Jewry in the New World.保留了神學和傳統的舊世界猶太人在新的世界。 It assigns equal authority to the written and oral law and to the ancient Jewish codes of the Torah and Talmud.它賦予的權力,以平等的書面和口頭法律和古老的猶太法典的聖經和猶太法典。 The Torah is all-important and basic to everything else, since it is Of God.在聖經是所有重要的和基本的一切,因為它是上帝。 The coming Messiah will be a descendent of David.即將到來的彌賽亞將是一個後裔,大衛。 The Biblical dietary laws are strictly observed.聖經飲食法得到嚴格遵守。 Hebrew is used in synagogue prayers, English in the sermons.希伯萊語是用來祈禱的猶太教堂,英文中的說教。

Hasidic Orthodox (Hasidism) opposes all changes or innovation in dress, speech and education.哈西德派東正教( Hasidism )反對一切改變或創新的著裝,語言和教育。 The German and western European is less severe, adopting some modern changes.德國和西歐沒有那麼嚴重,採用一些現代的變化。

There are currently around 1,075,000 Orthodox Jews in the United States, worshipping in 800 Synagogues.目前有大約1075000東正教猶太人在美國,崇拜800猶太教堂。

Reconstructionist Judaism Reconstructionist猶太教

This denomination attempts to combine Jewish beliefs with the environment of a modern democratic state (America).這面額企圖結合猶太信仰與環境的現代民主國家(美國) 。 It feels that Judaism is an evolving religion rather than static as the other Jewish groups believe.它認為,猶太教是一個不斷發展的宗教,而不是靜態的其他猶太人團體認為。 This originated in 1934 under the leadership of Mordecai Kaplan.這起源於1934年的領導下,莫德卡普蘭。

Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (1881-1983) was an American rabbi who founded Reconstructionism, a movement based on the view that Judaism is essentially a religious civilization.莫迪凱梅納海姆卡普蘭( 1881年至1983年)是美國拉比成立Reconstructionism誰,一個運動的基礎上認為,猶太教基本上是一個宗教文明。

Kaplan was born in Švenèionys, Lithuania.卡普蘭出生在Švenèionys ,立陶宛。 At the age of eight, he was brought to the United States.在八歲那年,他被帶到美國。 After studying at the College of the City of New York and at Columbia University, he was ordained (1902) at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, where he later became principal (1909) of the teachers institute, dean (1931), and dean emeritus (1947).後就讀於大學的紐約市,並在哥倫比亞大學,他被任命( 1902 )在猶太神學院的美國,在那裡他後來成為校長( 1909年)的教師學院院長( 1931年) ,和院長退休( 1947年) 。

In 1916 he established the Jewish Center in New York City, where he served as rabbi until 1922. 1916年他成立了猶太中心在紐約市,在那裡他擔任拉比,直到1922年。 He then established the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, which became the core of Reconstructionism. The movement was defined in the Reconstructionist, a periodical he edited, that was dedicated to "the advancement of Judaism as a religious civilization, to the upbuilding of Eretz Yisrael [the land of Israel] as the spiritual center of the Jewish People, and to the furtherance of universal freedom, justice, and peace."然後,他成立了協會,提高猶太教,成為核心Reconstructionism 。運動被界定在Reconstructionist ,他期刊編輯,這是奉獻給了“提高作為一個猶太教宗教文明的upbuilding的Eretz以色列[以色列土地]作為精神中心的猶太人民,以及促進普遍自由,正義與和平。 “ Among Kaplan's writings that define the movement are Judaism as a Civilization (1934) and The Religion of Ethical Nationhood (1970).在卡普蘭的著作,定義運動的猶太教作為一個文明( 1934年)和宗教倫理建國( 1970年) 。

There are currently around 65,000 Reconstructionist Jews in the United States, worshipping in 100 Synagogues.目前有大約6.5萬Reconstructionist猶太人在美國,崇拜100猶太教堂。

Reform Judaism改革猶太教

This liberal Judaism uses shortened synagogue services with organ music and vernacular references.這個寬鬆的猶太教會堂縮短使用服務機構的音樂和白話參考。 The feel that Judaism should "alter its externals to strengthen its eternals." Reform holds that there is divine authority only in the written law of the Old Testament (its main distinction from Orthodox.) They feel that the practices of dietary laws and covering the head at worship are outmoded and should be abandoned.在猶太教認為,應該“改變其外部加強其eternals 。 ”認為,改革是神聖的權力只能在法律的書面舊約(其主要區別東正教。 )他們認為,飲食習俗的法律和覆蓋頭部禮拜過時,應該拋棄。 They do not believe in the messianic restoration of the Jewish state. They are abandoning belief in a personal Messiah, but still expect a coming messianic age.他們不相信救世主恢復猶太國家。他們放棄信仰的個人彌賽亞,但仍期待未來救世主的年齡。 They advocate maintaining those Jewish customs, traditions and values in Israel which have inspirational value.他們主張維持這些猶太習俗,傳統和價值觀在以色列有鼓舞人心的價值。

There are currently around 1,500,000 Reform Jews in the United States, worshipping in 896 Synagogues.目前有大約150.0萬改革猶太人在美國,崇拜在896猶太教堂。

Karaites卡拉派信徒

Karaites or Caraites (from Hebrew qârâ,"to read") are a Jewish sect, considered heretical by Orthodox Jews, which believes in the strict interpretation of the Jewish Scriptures and rejects the Talmud and the rabbinical traditions incorporated in Judaism during the first six centuries AD.卡拉派信徒或Caraites (從希伯來文加拉, “改為” )是一個猶太節,認為邪教的東正教猶太人,認為在嚴格解釋猶太聖經和反對猶太法典和猶太教的傳統猶太教納入上半年世紀廣告。 The sect was founded in Baghdâd (now in Iraq) about 765 by Anan ben David, a Jewish religious leader.該節創立於巴格達(現在在伊拉克)大約765所阿南本大衛,一個猶太宗教領袖。 The doctrine of Karaism is also called Ananism.理論Karaism也被稱為Ananism 。 The sect survives in several Middle Eastern countries, with some 17,000 adherents.節下來的幾個中東國家,有一些17000追隨者。

There are currently around 1,500 Karaite Jews in the United States, worshipping in two Synagogues.目前有大約1500 Karaite猶太人在美國,崇拜的兩個猶太教堂。

There are also Liberal and Progressive wings of Judaism.也有自由黨和進步猶太教翅膀。

These numbers total approximately 4,140,000 Jews in the United States, although there are sources that give 6,015,000 as the total for North America (with around 70,000 in Canada.)這些數字總額約為414.0萬猶太人在美國,雖然有消息來源,使601.5萬總為北美(約70000在加拿大。 )


Judaism猶太教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Judaism, the religion of the Jews, claims over 14 million adherents throughout the world.猶太教,宗教的猶太人,索賠超過1400萬的信徒在世界各地。 It is the oldest living religion in the Western world.這是最古老的宗教生活在西方世界。 Historically, Judaism served as the matrix for Christianity and Islam, the other two great monotheistic religions, which together with Judaism claim half the world's population as adherents.從歷史上看,猶太教擔任矩陣的基督教和伊斯蘭教,其他兩個偉大的一神教,連同猶太教索賠一半的世界人口的追隨者。

Beliefs信念

Judaism was the first religion to teach Monotheism, or belief in one God.猶太教是第一次宗教教一神教,或信仰一個上帝。 This belief is the basis of Judaism and is summed up in the opening words of the Shema, recited daily: "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One" (Deut. 6:4).這種信念的基礎是猶太教和總結了中的開頭語射麻,每天背誦: “聽ö以色列,主我們的上帝,上帝是一個” (申命記6點04分) 。 Jews believe that God's providence extends to all people but that God entered into a special Covenant with the ancient Israelites. They do not believe that they were chosen for any special privileges but rather to bring God's message to humanity by their example.猶太人相信,上帝的普羅維登斯延伸到所有的人,但上帝進入了一個特殊的盟約與古代以色列人。他們不相信他們選擇的任何特別的特權,而是把上帝的訊息給人類提供了學習榜樣。 Belief in a coming Messiah has been a source of optimism for Jews.相信在未來的彌賽亞一直是樂觀的猶太人。

The beliefs of Judaism have never been formulated in an official creed; Judaism stresses conduct rather than doctrinal correctness. Its adherents have a considerable measure of latitude in matters of belief, especially concerning the messianic future and immortality.信仰的猶太教從來沒有制定正式的信條; 猶太教強調行為,而不是理論上的正確性。及其追隨者有相當程度的緯度事項的信仰,尤其是關於未來的救世主和永生。 Judaism is a this - world religion; its objective is a just and peaceful world order on earth.猶太教是這一點-世界宗教;它的目標是一個公正與和平的世界秩序的地球上。 This hope is assured by the belief that God is the Lord of history as well as of nature.這種希望是有保證的,認為上帝是上帝的歷史以及性質。

The basic source of Jewish belief is the Hebrew Bible (called the "Old Testament" by Christians), especially its first five books, called the Torah or the Pentateuch. The Torah was traditionally regarded as the primary revelation of God and his law to humanity; it is considered as valid for all time. 的基本來源是猶太信仰的希伯來文聖經(所謂的“舊約”的基督教徒) ,特別是其第一個五年的書籍,所謂的聖經或五。的聖經傳統視為首要啟示上帝和他的律師對人類它被認為是適用於所有時間。 Its laws were clarified and elaborated in the oral Torah, or the tradition of the elders, and were eventually written down in the Mishnah and Talmud. Thus, Judaism did not stop developing after the Bible was completed. The traditional Jewish prayer book is an important result of this process of development, reflecting the basic beliefs of Judaism as well as changes in emphasis in response to changing conditions. During the Middle Ages, systematic codes of talmudic law were compiled.其法律作了澄清,並闡述了在口頭律法,或傳統的老人,並最終被寫下來的米示拿和他勒目。 因此,猶太教並沒有停止發展後,聖經已經完成。傳統的猶太祈禱書是一個重要的由於這一發展進程,反映了基本信仰猶太教以及改變重點針對不斷變化的條件。在中世紀,有系統的守則塔木德法彙編。 Jewish literature - legal, ethical, philosophic, mystical, and devotional - is virtually endless.猶太文學-法律,道德,哲學,神秘,並虔誠的-幾乎是無止境的。

Practices實踐

Judaism has a system of law, known as Halachah, regulating civil and criminal justice, family relationships, personal ethics and manners, social responsibilities - such as help to the needy, education, and community institutions - as well as worship and other religious observances.猶太教有一個法律制度,稱為Halachah ,調節民事和刑事司法,家庭關係,個人的職業道德和禮儀,社會責任-如幫助貧困,教育和社會機構-以及宗教和其他宗教紀念活動。 Some laws once deemed very important, for example, laws governing the offering of sacrifice and most rules of ceremonial defilement and purification, have not been practiced since the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD.有些法律一旦被視為非常重要的,例如,法律提供的犧牲和最規則的禮儀污辱和淨化,沒有得到實行,因為破壞了第二聖殿在耶路撒冷的70個廣告。

Individual practices still widely observed include the dietary laws (Kosher); rules concerning the marital relationship, daily prayer, and study; and the recital of many blessings, especially before and after meals.個別做法仍然普遍遵守包括飲食法(猶太) ;規則關於婚姻關係,每日祈禱,並研究和演奏了許多祝福,尤其是之前和之後的飯菜。 The Sabbath and festivals are observed both in the home and in the Synagogue, a unique institution for prayer and instruction that became the model for the church in Christianity and for the mosque in Islam.安息日和節日都遵守在家裡和在猶太教堂,一個獨特的機構,禱告和指示,成為模型的基督教教堂和清真寺的伊斯蘭教。 Traditionally observant Jews wear tefillin, or Phylacteries, on their forehead and left arm during morning prayers, and affix to their doorposts a mezuzah, a little box containing a parchment scroll inscribed with passages of the Torah that emphasize the unity of God, his providence, and the resulting duty of serving him.傳統的觀察力猶太人磨損tefillin ,或Phylacteries ,他們的前額和左臂在早上祈禱,並追究其doorposts 1 mezuzah ,一個小盒子羊皮紙捲軸1刻有通道的聖經,強調團結的上帝,他的普羅維登斯,以及由此產生的責任他服務。 In accordance with biblical law, men wear a fringed shawl (tallith) during prayer.按照聖經的法律,男子穿搖曳的披肩( tallith )在祈禱。 Covering the head is a widespread custom.覆蓋的頭部是一種普遍的習慣。

The Jewish religious calendar, of Babylonian origin, consists of 12 lunar months, amounting to about 354 days.猶太宗教日曆,巴比倫的起源,組成12個農曆月,約為三五四天。 Six times in a 19 year cycle a 13th month is added to adjust the calendar to the solar year. 6次在19年的週期第13個月新增,調整日曆的太陽年。 The day is reckoned from sunset to sunset.這一天估計從日落到日落。

The Sabbath, from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday, is observed by refraining from work and by attending a synagogue service. Friday evening is marked in the home by the lighting of a lamp or candles by the woman of the household, the recital of the kiddush (a ceremonial blessing affirming the sanctity of the day) over a cup of wine, and the blessing of children by parents.安息日,從週五日落到週六日落,是觀察,不要工作,並通過參加猶太教堂服務。週五晚上的特點是在家裡的照明燈或蠟燭的女人的家庭,演奏的kiddush (祝福儀式肯定的神聖天)超過了一杯酒,祝福兒童的父母。 The end of the Sabbath is marked by parallel ceremonies called havdalah.結束安息日的特點是所謂的平行havdalah儀式。 Similar home ceremonies occur on the festivals.類似的家庭儀式上發生的節日。

The holidays prescribed in the Torah are the two "days of awe," Rosh Hashanah (New Year) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), and three joyous festivals, Passover, Shavuoth (Feast of Weeks), and the Feast of Tabernacles.假期中訂明的律法是兩個“天的敬畏, ”猶太新年(新年)和贖罪日(贖罪日) ,和3個愉快的節日,逾越節, Shavuoth (七七節) ,和住棚節。 Later additions are the festive occasions of Chanukah and Purim, and the fast of the Ninth of Av (Tishah be - Av), commemorating the destruction of the Temple.後來增添了節日的光明和普珥節,和快速的九屆的大道( Tishah是-大道) ,紀念破壞廟。

On the 8th day after birth, male children are circumcised as a sign of the covenant with Abraham; the boy is named during the ceremony.第8天出生後,男性兒童的割禮作為簽署該公約與亞伯拉罕;的男孩是在命名儀式。 Girls are named at a synagogue service. At the age of 13, a boy is deemed responsible for performing the commandments (Bar Mitzvah). To mark his new status, the bar mitzvah takes part in the Bible readings during a synagogue service.女孩被命名為一個猶太教堂服務。 在13歲,一個男孩被認為是負責執行的戒律(酒吧Mitzvah ) 。為了紀念他的新地位,酒吧mitzvah參加朗誦聖經猶太教堂中的服務。 (The synagogue service is sometimes popularly referred to as the bar mitzvah.) A similar ceremony for girls (bat mitzvah) is a recent innovation. Somewhat older is the confirmation ceremony for both sexes introduced by Reform Judaism; it is usually a class observance on or near Shavuoth. (猶太教堂服務的,有時人們稱為酒吧mitzvah 。 ) 一個類似的儀式,女孩(蝙蝠mitzvah )是最近的創新。還算是老年人的確認儀式,男女雙方介紹了猶太教改革,它通常是一個一流的紀念或附近Shavuoth 。

Judaism has characteristic, but not unparalleled, customs concerning marriage and death and mourning.猶太教的特點,但不是獨一無二的,海關關於婚姻及死亡和哀悼。 The importance attached to recital of the Kaddish prayer by mourners dates from the Middle Ages.重視演奏的Kaddish祈禱哀悼日期從中世紀。 The prayer itself is much older and was originally recited as the conclusion of a sermon; it is related in thought and language to the "Lord's Prayer" of Christians.祈禱本身就是很多老年人和原本背誦作為締結一項講道,這是有關的思想和語言的“主禱文”的基督徒。 After the disasters during the First Crusade, the Jews of central and later eastern Europe introduced a memorial service on Yom Kippur and on other holidays; they also began to observe the anniversary of the death of parents.災害後,在第一遠征,猶太人中央和東歐後來介紹了追悼會的贖罪日和其他節假日,他們也開始觀察週年,逝世的父母。

History歷史

In the biblical account, the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob received the revelation of the one, true God, who promised special protection to the Israelite tribes (of whom there were 12, descended from the 12 sons of Jacob, who was also called Israel).在聖經的帳戶,始祖亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各得到了啟示之一,真正的上帝,誰承諾的特別保護以色列人部落(其中有12個,下降的12個兒子雅各布,誰也叫以色列) 。

Origins起源

Many 19th century scholars held that monotheism gradually emerged out of Polytheism, the evolution being complete only with the great prophets in the 8th century BC and later.許多19世紀的學者認為,一神教逐漸的多神教,演變完整只有在偉大的先知在公元前8世紀和以後。 Today many are convinced that monotheism was already a reality in the days of Moses (13th century BC) and that later prophets developed more fully only the ethical and spiritual implications of the belief.今天,許多相信,一神教已經是一個現實的日子摩西(公元前13世紀) ,以及後來的先知更充分地擬定只有道德和精神影響的信念。 All the Israelite tribes agreed on the worship of one God named Yahweh (GOD); they shared the memory of slavery in Egypt, the deliverance under Moses, and the Mosaic covenant and revelation at Sinai.所有的以色列人部落同意崇拜一個上帝命名為耶和華(上帝) ,他們共同的記憶奴隸制在埃及,摩西下解脫,並鑲嵌公約和在西奈的啟示。 Although some practices were borrowed from surrounding peoples (agricultural festivals, civil jurisprudence), the Israelite religion was kept pure of paganism through the strenuous efforts of the prophets.雖然有些做法是借用周圍的人民(農業節慶,民間判例) ,宗教的以色列人保持純潔的異教通過艱苦的努力先知。

Unparalleled in any other Near Eastern religion are Judaism's prohibition of images, observance of the Sabbath, dietary laws, legislation guaranteeing support of the poor as a matter of right, and protection of slaves and animals against cruelty. When a loose tribal confederation was replaced by a national state under Kings Saul and David a national Temple in Jerusalem helped unify the people spiritually. 無與倫比的任何其他近東宗教猶太教的禁止圖像,遵守安息日,飲食的法律,法規的支持保障窮人作為一項權利,並保護動物的奴隸和對殘酷。當一個鬆散的邦聯部落取代一個國家狀態下的國王掃羅和大衛一個國家在耶路撒冷聖殿幫助統一人民在精神上。 After the division of the kingdom following the death (c. 933) of Solomon, the northern kingdom of Israel also had national shrines.經過分工的王國去世之後, (角933 )所羅門群島,北部的以色列王國也有民族聖地。

Prophets先知

The Prophets exercised decisive influence on all development in Israel.先知行使決定性的影響所有在以色列的發展。 From the time of the 11th century BC prophet Samuel, they ceased to be mere soothsayers and became more and more national leaders, speaking in the name of God (the Hebrew word for prophet is navi, meaning "spokesman").從時間的公元前11世紀先知塞繆爾,他們不再是僅僅soothsayers ,並成為越來越多國家的領導人發言,以真主的名義(希伯來先知一詞是導航,意思是“發言人” ) 。 They upheld strict principles of justice and humanity, criticizing bluntly the most powerful forces in the nation.他們堅持嚴格的原則,正義和人道,直言不諱地批評最強大的力量的國家。 They warned of national disaster unless a radical improvement of religious and moral standards was realized.他們警告說,全國性的災難,除非從根本上改善宗教和道德標準的實現。 The reform movement led by King Josiah (c. 640 - 609 BC), based on the Book of Deuteronomy, was probably undertaken under prophetic influence; the reforms included abolishing all local shrines and sanctuaries and limiting sacrifice to the Temple in Jerusalem.改革運動由國王喬賽亞(角640 -公元前6 09)的基礎上,圖書的申命記,很可能是根據先知的影響;的改革包括取消所有地方神社和避難所,並限制向犧牲在耶路撒冷的聖殿。

This dramatized belief in one God and reduced the importance of sacrifice in the daily life of the worshiper.這戲劇信仰一個上帝,並減少了犧牲的重要性的日常生活中的崇拜者。 The gap left by the abolition of the local shrines was eventually filled by the establishment of the Synagogue, but there is no clear reference to this new institution until some four centuries later.留下的空白,廢除地方神社,最終填補建立猶太教堂,但沒有明確提到這一新的機構,直到大約40世紀後。 The most mature and eloquent expression of prophetic ideals is found in the recorded speeches of the later prophets, beginning in the 8th century BC with the prophet Amos.最成熟和雄辯的表達的預言是理想中的發言記錄後先知,開始在公元前8世紀的先知阿摩司。

The Exile and Foreign Influences流放和外國的影響

The fall of both kingdoms and the Babylonian Captivity (586 - 538 BC) were perceived as a confirmation of the prophetic predictions and therefore of the truth of their message.秋季這兩個王國和巴比倫籠養( 586 -5 38年)被視為證實了這一預言的預言,因此,真理的訊息。 Thus the Israelites were prepared to listen to the prophets of hope who now appeared, promising not only national restoration but also the ultimate redemption of all peoples from idolatry, injustice, and war.因此,以色列人願意傾聽先知誰的希望現在看來,前途不僅國家恢復,而且最終的贖回從各國人民的偶像,不公正,和戰爭。

Returning exiles were leaders in the revival of the Palestinian center (now confined to the area of the former southern kingdom of Judah) and the building of the Second Temple.選舉刺客領導人在恢復巴勒斯坦中心(目前僅限於該地區的前南部的猶太王國)和建設的第二聖殿。 The high priests usually served as official representatives to the Persian government and to the succeeding empires.高神父通常擔任官方代表向政府和波斯的繼承帝國。 In the middle of the 5th century BC, the final form was given to the Torah - in the opinion of many scholars, a composite of laws, narratives, and poems dating from different periods, but with beginnings going back to Moses; and the people formally accepted the Torah as the rule for their life.中間的公元前5世紀,最後的形式給予了托拉-在許多人認為學者,一個綜合的法律,說明,和詩歌歷史可以追溯到不同的時期,但開端可以追溯到摩西;和人民正式接受了聖經的規則,他們的生活。 Shortly thereafter the Samaritans broke away from the main body of Judaism; small numbers of this sect still survive.此後不久,撒瑪利亞脫離主體的猶太教;小號碼本節仍然生存。

During this period, prophecy waned and finally disappeared, but the writings of the great prophets were compiled and accepted as sacred literature.在此期間,預言減弱並最終消失,但著作的偉大先知彙編和接受為神聖的文學。 Other books were composed - notably, wisdom literature, such as Job - and many of them were eventually included in the Bible.其他書籍組成-值得注意的是,智慧文學,如工作-其中許多人最終被列入聖經。

Some elements of Persian religion were incorporated into Judaism: a more elaborate doctrine of Angels; the figure of Satan; and a system of beliefs concerning the end of time, including a predetermined scheme of world history, a final judgment (Last Judgment), and the Resurrection of the dead.有些內容波斯宗教被納入猶太教:一個更詳細的理論天使;的數字是撒旦;和制度的信仰關於結束的時間,其中包括一個預定的計劃,世界歷史,最後判決(最後的審判) ,以及復活的死亡。 These ideas were expounded in many visionary documents called apocalypses; none of them was included in the Hebrew Bible except the Book of Daniel (Apocalypse Eschatology).這些想法,闡述了許多富有遠見的文件要求啟示;其中沒有包括在希伯來文聖經以外的但以理書(啟示末世論) 。

Hellenism and Judaism希臘和猶太教

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great (d. 323 BC), Judea (as Judah came to be called) passed under the rule of Alexander's Egyptian successors (the Ptolemies) and later his Syrian successors (the Seleucids).繼征服的亞歷山大大帝(草323年) ,朱迪亞(如猶太來到被稱為)通過的統治下亞歷山大的埃及的繼任者(在托勒密)和敘利亞之後,他的繼任者(在Seleucids ) 。 Under these Hellenistic rulers, Jewish life was changed both inwardly and outwardly, in Palestine and in the growing Diaspora.根據這些古希臘的統治者,猶太人的生活被改變了內向和外向,在巴勒斯坦和散居增長。 In Alexandria, which acquired a large Jewish population, novel forms of Judaism emerged. The Bible was translated into Greek (the Septuagint), the first of innumerable translations.在亞歷山德里亞,其中獲得了大量猶太居民,新形式的猶太教出現。 聖經被翻譯成希臘文(該譯本) ,第一次無數的翻譯。 New explanations of the Torah were devised in the 1st century AD by Philo of Alexandria.新的解釋,制定了聖經在公元1世紀由亞歷山大斐羅。

The Greek language and customs also affected Palestinian Jewry; the Jewish emphasis on study may be in part the result of Greek influence.希臘語言和風俗也影響了巴勒斯坦猶太人;猶太人重視研究可能是部分原因希臘的影響。 But while many Jews were attracted to pagan customs and attitudes, the majority resisted these trends. The attempt of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV to impose the Greek religion by force aroused open rebellion led by the Maccabees, a Jewish priestly family.但是,雖然許多猶太人被吸引到異教的習俗和態度,大多數抵制這些趨勢。企圖的塞琉國王安提四強加希臘宗教用武力打開叛亂引起領導的馬加比,一名猶太牧師家庭。 During the short period of Judean independence under the Maccabees (also called Hasmoneans) a movement of proselytizing began that was apparently not organized but was nevertheless energetic. Large numbers of persons, disillusioned with the old pagan cults, adopted Judaism formally or attached themselves unofficially to the synagogue.在短期內朱迪亞獨立的馬加比(也稱為哈斯摩年王朝)的運動開始的說教是顯然不是有組織的,但仍精力充沛。大量的人,幻想與舊的異教邪教,猶太教通過正式或非正式地重視自己來猶太教堂。

The Sects教派

The worldliness of the later Maccabees alienated most of their subjects, and effective leadership passed more and more to pious and learned laymen, especially after the Romans established control in 63 BC. These laymen formed the party of the Pharisees (separatists); democratic in spirit, the Pharisees sought to adapt the laws of the Torah to changing needs, utilizing old popular traditions (oral Torah), which they expanded by the free method of Midrash, or verse - by - verse interpretation of scripture.在世故的疏遠後馬加比大部分的科目,並通過有效的領導越來越多,以虔誠和教訓外行人,特別是在羅馬設立控制在63年代。 這些外行人形成了黨的法利賽人(分裂) ;民主的精神的法利尋求適應的法律聖經不斷變化的需要,利用民間傳統歲(口頭律法) ,他們擴大了免費的方法米德拉士,或詩句-由-詩的解釋經文。 Their opponents, the Sadducees, were drawn largely from the wealthy classes and from the priesthood; conservative in religious matters, the Sadducees interpreted scripture strictly, disregarding the oral tradition and popular customs, and rejecting the doctrine of resurrection. The Pharisees were followed by the majority; all subsequent Judaism was pharisaic, and the roots of Christianity and Islam are found in pharisaic Judaism.他們的對手, 在撒都該人,得出主要來自富裕階層和神職人員;保守的宗教問題,解釋經文撒都該人嚴格,不顧口述傳統和流行的習俗,並拒絕理論的復活。的法利其次是多數;其後所有猶太教是pharisaic ,以及基層的基督教和伊斯蘭教是在pharisaic猶太教。 ( The Essenes were a sort of right wing, monastic splinter group of the Pharisees; they probably wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls.)愛色尼人的一種右翼勢力,僧侶分裂集團的法利賽人;他們可能寫了死海古卷。 )

Talmudic or Rabbinic Judaism塔木德或拉比猶太教

After the disastrous revolt against Rome in 66 - 70 AD, the pharisaic leaders, whose successors bore the title Rabbi, rallied the people around the synagogue and the academies of learning.經過災難性的反抗羅馬在66 -7 0則廣告中, p harisaic領導人,他的繼任者承擔的標題拉比,凝聚了周圍的人的猶太教堂和院校學習。 Through centuries of effort (recorded in the Mishnah, Talmud, and many works of midrash) they produced a disciplined and loyal Jewish community.經過幾百年的努力(記在米示拿,塔木德,許多作品米特拉斯) ,他們製作了一個紀律和忠誠的猶太社區。

The earliest Christians differed from other Jews chiefly in their belief that Jesus was the messiah.最早的基督徒不同於其他的猶太人主要是在他們認為耶穌是救世主。 But under the leadership of Saint Paul and others, gentile Christianity soon became dominant, and the break between the two religions became complete.但是的領導下,聖保羅和其他人,猶太人基督教很快成為佔主導地位,並打破兩國之間的宗教成為完成。 When the Roman Empire became officially Christian in the 4th century AD, the Jews became subject to many discriminatory laws, including a prohibition against seeking or even accepting converts.當羅馬帝國正式成為基督教在公元4世紀,猶太人開始受到許多歧視性的法律,包括禁止尋求或接受甚至轉換。

In the 4th century, religious and legal leadership was assumed more and more by the Babylonian center of learning; and from the 5th century, the Babylonian Talmud was generally accepted as the authoritative source of law.在4世紀,宗教和法律的領導承擔更多的巴比倫學習中心; ,從公元5世紀,巴比倫塔木德被普遍接受作為權威的法律淵源。 Thereafter world leadership remained with the Babylonian scholars; the heads of the academies, called Gaonim ("excellencies"), provided information and advice on legal and other questions to the Diaspora communities.此後世界各地領導留在巴比倫學者;元首的院校,所謂Gaonim ( “大人” ) ,提供信息和諮詢有關法律問題和其他問題的散居社區。 In the 8th century, the sect of Karaites broke away, rejecting tradition and rabbinic authority, and seeking to live by the letter of the biblical law.在8世紀,該教派的卡拉派信徒脫離,拒絕傳統和拉比的權力,並尋求生活的信聖經的法律。 After four centuries of vigorous activity, the sect declined; today only remnants survive.經過四個世紀的積極活動,節下降;今天只有殘留物生存。

Philosophy and Mysticism哲學和神秘主義

By 1000 AD, the Babylonian center was in decline, but new centers of Jewish culture emerged in North Africa and in Muslim Spain. (The Spanish Jews, together with the oriental communities, came to be known as Sephardim, and those of Christian Europe as Ashkenazim. The two groups differ somewhat in liturgical forms, in the pronunciation of Hebrew, in their music, and in many customs.) Under tolerant rulers, Jews participated actively in the Arabic cultural renaissance.到公元1000年,巴比倫的中心是在下降,但新的中心出現了猶太文化在北非和穆斯林西班牙。 (西班牙猶太人,連同東方社區,後來被稱為Sephardim ,而歐洲基督教Ashkenazim 。兩組有所不同的禮儀形式,在希伯來文發音,在他們的音樂,而且在許多風俗習慣。 )根據寬容的統治者,猶太人積極參加了阿拉伯語文化復興。 In addition to commentaries on the Bible and Talmud, they also wrote extensively on grammar, science, and philosophy, usually in Arabic, and produced outstanding poetry in Hebrew, both religious and secular.除了評注聖經和猶太法典,他們還寫了大量關於語法,科學和哲學,通常是在阿拉伯文,並產生優秀詩歌希伯來文,宗教和世俗。

Although the first important Jewish philosopher was the Gaon Saadia in Baghdad (10th century), nearly all of his important successors were of Spanish origin, including the preeminent Maimonides.雖然第一個重要的猶太哲學家是Gaon Saadia在巴格達( 10世紀) ,幾乎所有的重要繼任者的西班牙血統,其中包括著名的邁蒙尼德。 These philosophers were scholastics, like their Muslim and Christian contemporaries, drawing largely on the works of Aristotle and the Neoplatonists.這些哲學家被scholastics一樣,他們的穆斯林和基督教的同時代人,主要借鑒的作品亞里士多德和Neoplatonists 。 Like Philo, they tended to explain difficult Bible passages as allegories.斐羅一樣,他們往往難以解釋聖經段落的寓言。 Their writings were welcomed by intellectuals trying to harmonize revealed religion with the new scientific learning.他們的著作受到歡迎的知識分子試圖揭示宗教的統一與新的科學的學習。 But the masses were not interested in them, and many of the orthodox leaders regarded the new doctrines as subversive.但是,群眾不關心他們,許多正統的領導人認為,新理論的顛覆。 After the death of Maimonides, his admirers and detractors waged a bitter struggle in Christian Spain and the Provence.去世後,邁蒙尼德,他的崇拜者與反對者展開了激烈的鬥爭基督教西班牙和普羅旺斯。 His last important successor, Chisdai Crescas (d. 1410), undertook a critique of Aristotle in the interest of simple faith.他最後一次重要的繼任者, Chisdai Crescas (草1410 ) ,進行了批評亞里士多德的利益,簡單的信仰。

More lasting and widespread was the influence of Kabbalah ("tradition"), a term that includes various mystical doctrines and practices.更持久和廣泛的影響卡巴拉( “傳統” ) ,一個術語,包括各種神秘的理論和做法。 Mystical elements appear in the old apocalypses and in talmudic and gaonic literature.神秘的內容出現在舊的啟示,並在塔木德和gaonic文獻。 There were mystical movements in Europe as well, culminating in the 13th and 14th centuries in southern France and northern Spain.有神秘的運動在歐洲以及,終於在第13和14世紀在法國南部和西班牙北部。 A wealth of kabbalistic writings was produced, including the Zohar ("splendor") of Moses de Leon (13th century).大量的著作kabbalistic製作,包括佐哈爾( “輝煌” )摩西德萊昂( 13世紀) 。

There are many kabbalistic systems.有許多kabbalistic系統。 In addition to true mystical experience, they contain mythological and magical elements, reinterpretations of biblical and talmudic passages and of prayers and commandments, Neoplatonic ideas, and messianic speculations.除了真正的神秘經驗,它們包含神話和神奇的元素, reinterpretations聖經和猶太法典通道和祈禱和誡命, Neoplatonic的想法,救世主揣測。 The tragedies that befell the Jews of Spain, culminating in the expulsion of 1492, called for stronger comfort than rational philosophies could offer.悲劇降臨的猶太人,西班牙,終於在1492年驅逐,要求更強有力的舒適性比合理的理念可以提供。 This was in some measure provided by Kabbalah, with its enthralling mysteries and increasing emphasis on messianism.這在一定程度上提供了卡巴拉,其奧秘和enthralling越來越重視彌賽亞。 The Jews of central and eastern Europe also cultivated Kabbalah.猶太人的中歐和東歐也耕地卡巴拉。 These communities were unsurpassed in talmudic learning; French scholars contributed much to biblical studies also.這些社區在塔木德無與倫比的學習;法國學者很大的貢獻聖經研究還。 They introduced a number of legal changes to improve the status of women including a formal ban on polygamy.他們推出了一系列的法律改革,以提高婦女的地位,包括正式禁止一夫多妻制。

The 17th century saw a revival of Jewish life in Palestine. An attempt to revitalize the legal system by creating a new Sanhedrin, or central court, was unsuccessful. 17世紀看到了復興的猶太人生活在巴勒斯坦。試圖重振法律制度的建立一個新的公會,或中央法院,是不成功的。 But a 17th century mystical revival had a profound effect on Jewish thought and liturgy.但17世紀神秘的復甦產生了深刻的影響猶太人的思想和禮儀。 The messianic speculations of this new Kabbalah, taught by Isaac Luria, and the massacres of Polish Jewry in 1648 formed an explosive combination; in 1665 a Turkish Jew, Sabbatai Zevi, proclaimed himself the messiah. There had been many such messianic claimants over the centuries, but they never achieved more than a local following; Sabbatai's announcement, however, shook world Jewry.投機的救世主這一新的卡巴拉,講授的艾薩克盧里亞,和屠殺猶太人的波蘭在1648年成立了一個爆炸性的組合;在1665年土耳其猶太人, Sabbatai賽維,自封的救世主。出現了許多這樣的救世主的索賠數百年,但他們從來沒有達到以上地方以下; Sabbatai宣布然而,震撼世界的猶太人。 Thousands of believers left their homes to join him in Palestine.數以千計的信徒離開他們的家園和他一起在巴勒斯坦。 When Sabbatai broke under threats and accepted Islam, there was widespread disillusionment and despair.當Sabbatai下爆發的威脅,並接受伊斯蘭教,存在著廣泛的幻滅和絕望。 Yet a substantial number of believers kept up an underground Sabbatean movement for over a century, finding kabbalistic justifications for their leader's apostasy and awaiting his triumphant return.然而,相當數量的信徒保持一個地下Sabbatean運動超過一個世紀,尋找kabbalistic理由及其領導人的變節並等待他凱旋歸來。

A more positive mystical movement arose in eastern Europe in the 18th century. It was founded by Baal Shem Tov and was known as Hasidism. Its leaders were versed in the mysteries of Kabbalah, but they addressed themselves to the unlearned masses, teaching them a simple and joyous faith and encouraging them to express their religious feelings in ecstatic song and dance.一個更積極的神秘主義運動中出現的東歐在18世紀。 它是由巴爾閃Tov和被稱為Hasidism 。及其領導人精通神秘的卡巴拉,但他們給自己的胸無點墨群眾,教他們一個簡單的和歡樂的信仰,並鼓勵他們表達他們的宗教感情在欣喜若狂的歌舞表演。 Initially opposed by the rabbinic leaders as heretical, Hasidism survived such attacks and is today regarded as representative of extreme Orthodoxy.起初反對的拉比領導的邪教, Hasidism倖存這種攻擊,是當今被視為代表的極端正統。 The movement declined for a time because it fostered "the cult of personality" and encouraged superstition, but it seems to have regained vitality in some American cities and in Israel.運動拒絕了一段時間,因為它促進“邪教組織的人格” ,並鼓勵迷信,但它似乎已經恢復活力,美國一些城市和以色列。

Modern Developments現代發展

Except for these mystic stirrings, Jewish life from the 16th to the 19th centuries - the Ghetto period - was rather torpid. But gradually modern scientific and philosophic ideas penetrated the ghetto.除了這些神秘的爭論,猶太人的生活從16到19世紀-期間的猶太人-是相當麻痺。但逐漸現代科學和哲學思想滲透到貧民區。 These influences began to be felt in the West during the 17th century.這些影響在人們開始感到在西方在17世紀。 The Enlightenment of the 18th century witnessed discussion of improving the situation of Jews and led to their emancipation under the impact of the American and French revolutions.的啟示18世紀目睹了討論改善這一狀況的猶太人,並導致其解放的影響下,美國和法國革命。 Though progress in Germanic lands was slow and disappointing, and in eastern Europe and in the Muslim lands virtually nonexistent, the impact of new ideas was felt everywhere among Jews.雖然進展的日耳曼土地緩慢,令人失望,在東歐和在穆斯林的土地幾乎不存在的影響,新的想法感到各地之間的猶太人。 The Jewish community no longer provided its members with political status.猶太人社區不再向其成員提供了政治地位。 Wherever Jews received citizenship, the old Jewish community lost its authority; in the New World it had never existed, and in Russia it was dissolved by government order in 1844.只要猶太人收到公民,舊的猶太社區失去了其權威;在新世界它從未存在,在俄羅斯這是解散政府的命令在1844年。 No longer subject to community discipline, confused by new social and intellectual conditions, Jews were uncertain of their place in the modern world.不再受社會紀律,混淆了新的社會和智力條件下,猶太人被確定他們的位置在現代世界。

One response was Haskalah, the Hebrew word for "Enlightenment," which sought to bring modern knowledge and ideas to large numbers of Jews, using chiefly writings in modern Hebrew. Moses Mendelssohn made the pioneer effort in 18th century Berlin.一個反應是Haskalah ,希伯來文中“啟示” ,試圖把現代知識和思想的大批猶太人,使用的主要著作在現代希伯來文。摩西門德爾松所作的先驅努力, 18世紀的柏林。 His program - to combine modern education with strict Orthodox practice - was ineffective; his efforts led rather to assimilation, even to Christian baptism for worldly advancement.他的計劃-以現代教育相結合,嚴格東正教的做法-是無效的;他的努力而導致同化,甚至基督教洗禮的世俗地位。 In Austrian Poland (Galicia), Haskalah was more fruitful, resulting in new efforts to study Jewish history and literature by modern critical methods ("the science of Judaism"), a trend continued with great success in Germany.在奧地利波蘭(加利西亞) , Haskalah是更加富有成效,造成新的努力,研究猶太歷史和文學的現代重要方法( “科學的猶太教” ) ,這一趨勢繼續取得巨大的成功在德國。

In Russia, the attempt at popular education, with the slogan "Be a Jew at home and a man elsewhere," was soon recognized as futile because of the government's viciously anti Jewish policies.在俄羅斯,企圖在流行的教育,其口號是“做一個猶太人在家裡和其他地方的人” ,很快被確認為無效,因為政府的惡毒的反猶太人的政策。 In its place, a movement for Jewish nationalism arose - first expressed in secular literature in Hebrew - decades before the rise of political Zionism.在其位,一個運動的猶太人的民族主義產生的-首先表達的世俗文獻希伯來語-幾十年前崛起的政治猶太复國主義。 Later a strong socialist movement developed in urban centers, and these Jewish socialists spoke in Yiddish, the folk language, rather than in Hebrew.後來強大的社會主義運動發展的城市中心,這些猶太社會主義者以意第緒語,民間語言,而不是在希伯來文。

In the West, Enlightenment led to attempts at religious reconstruction, partly as a response to spreading indifference and apostasy that ghettoized Orthodoxy could not check.在西方,啟蒙運動導致宗教的企圖重建,部分原因是回應蔓延的冷漠和叛教的孤立東正教無法檢查。 The first reforms were external, to provide a more decorous and attractive synagogue service, with portions of the service read in the language of the country, organ and choral music, and the revival of preaching.第一次改革,外部,以提供一個更端莊和有吸引力的猶太教堂服務,部分服務內容的語言,該國機構和合唱音樂,和振興說教。 These changes aroused Orthodox opposition and sometimes government intervention.這些變化引起了東正教反對,有時政府的干預。 The Reformers had recourse to the newly developing "science of Judaism," showing that Judaism had always grown and changed.改革者求助於新發展“的科學猶太教, ”顯示,猶太教一直成長和改變。 Eventually they developed a modernist theology, rejecting the literalist understanding of Scripture and the changeless authority of the halachah.最終,他們開發出一種現代神學,反對拘泥字義的理解和聖經不變權威的halachah 。

They upheld a doctrine of progressive revelation, equating the revelation of God with the education of the Jewish people and of all humanity.他們堅持理論逐步披露,等同於上帝的啟示與教育猶太人民和全人類。 They rejected the traditional prayers that asked for a return to the land of Israel and the restoration of sacrifices.他們拒絕傳統的祈禱要求回到以色列土地和恢復的犧牲。 Instead of a personal messiah, they envisioned a messianic age of brotherhood and peace; and instead of bodily resurrection, they taught a purely spiritual immortality.不是個人的救世主,他們設想了一種救世主年齡的兄弟情誼與和平; ,而是身體的復活,他們教一個純粹的精神不死。 They discarded many traditional observances as no longer meaningful, modified others, and introduced new ones, such as confirmation.他們拋棄許多傳統慶祝活動不再有意義,修改等,並介紹了新的,如確認。 They also affirmed the equality of women in religious matters.他們還肯定了婦女平等的宗教事務。 A second group of modernists held similar theoretical views, but retained traditional practice with only limited modifications; they became the spiritual fathers of Conservative Judaism in the United States.第二組的現代舉行了類似的理論觀點,但保留傳統做法,只有有限的修改;他們成為精神之父的保守猶太教在美國。

All parties, including the Orthodox Jews in western countries, were perfervid in patriotism toward their several lands.所有各方,包括東正教猶太人在西方國家,是非常熱心的愛國主義對他們的一些土地。 All were deeply affected by 19th century liberalism - optimistic, universalistic, and convinced of the reality of progress.大家都深刻地影響了19世紀的自由主義-樂觀,普遍性,並深信現實的進展。 The modernist movements, starting in Germany, had only modest success in Europe, but expanded greatly in North America.現代主義運動的開始,在德國,只有有限的成功在歐洲,但極大地擴大了在北美地區。 They have since acquired followers in Latin America, South Africa, Australia, and Israel. The terms Reform, Liberal, Progressive, Conservative, and Reconstructionist are used in various countries with varying shades of meaning; all designate nonorthodox versions of Jewish religion.他們獲得的追隨者,因為在拉丁美洲,南非,澳大利亞和以色列。 職權改革,自由,進步,保守, Reconstructionist被用來在不同國家不同派別的意義;所有指定nonorthodox版本的猶太宗教。

New forms of Jewish community and synagogue organization, mostly on a voluntary basis, emerged in the 19th century.新形式的猶太社區和猶太教組織的,主要是在自願的基礎上,出現在19世紀。 The old rabbinic academies (Yeshivoth) confined instruction to the Talmud and its commentaries.老拉比院校( Yeshivoth )限於指示塔木德及其評注。 At this time modern rabbinical seminaries were established whose students were exposed to the whole range of Jewish history and lore and were required to obtain a university degree as well.在這個時候現代猶太教神學院設立的學生受到的全部猶太歷史和傳說,並需獲得大學學位的。 Important works were written on Jewish theology, displaying Kantian and post - Kantian influences.重要的工程是寫在猶太神學,康德和展示後-康德的影響。 Completely new were trends toward a secularist understanding of Jewish life, more or less completely rejecting religion and finding a substitute in nationalistic and cultural activities.完全新的趨勢是向世俗的理解猶太人的生活,或多或少完全拒絕宗教和找到一個替代的民族和文化活動。

The prevailing liberal, optimistic mood gradually cooled as official oppression and widespread hatred continued in eastern Europe while Anti Semitism also flourished in the West.普遍的自由,樂觀情緒逐漸降溫的官方壓迫和普遍的仇恨繼續在東歐,同時也反主義盛行於西方。 Jewish thinkers exhibited an increasing sense of the tragic element in human life, in the style of existentialism.猶太思想家越來越表現出意義上的悲劇因素,人的生命,在風格的存在。 The trend toward Jewish nationalism took concrete form in the movement of Zionism.趨勢猶太人的民族主義採取了具體形式的猶太复國主義運動。 Initially opposed by many religious leaders of all parties and by the Jewish socialists, Zionism was vindicated by the march of events, culminating in the Holocaust.起初反對的許多宗教領袖和各方的猶太社會主義者,猶太复國主義是正確的遊行活動,最終在大屠殺中。 World Jewry, despite many divisions and disagreements, is today united in concern and support for the State of Israel, which was established in 1948.世界猶太人,儘管有許多分歧和分歧,今天是團結一致,關心和支持以色列國成立於1948年。

At present, because of political circumstances, rigid Orthodoxy is the only form of Judaism officially recognized in Israel, for example, in solemnizing marriages and in military chaplaincy. 目前,由於政治的情況下,僵硬的正統是唯一的形式,猶太教正式承認以色列,例如,在 solemnizing婚姻和軍事chaplaincy 。 But a large part of the population is remote from formal religion, and the modernist versions have difficulty making their message heard.但是,很大一部分的人口是遠離正式宗教,現代版本有困難決策聽取他們的訊息。

A great exodus of Jews from the Soviet Union began in the 1970s and reached new heights in the early '90s.偉大的大批猶太人從蘇聯開始在1970年代和達到新的高度在90年代初開始。 In the West, despite loss of members, mixed marriages, and a serious drop in the Jewish birthrate, religious institutions are flourishing. The number of synagogues and synagogue members increased dramatically after World War II.在西方國家,儘管損失的成員,異族通婚,並嚴重下降,人口出生率的猶太人,宗教機構繁榮發展。數目猶太教堂和猶太教堂的成員急劇增加,第二次世界大戰後。 There has been a remarkable resurgence of Orthodoxy after a long period of decline, and modernist groups are placing greater emphasis on tradition and ceremony.出現了顯著的東正教復活後很長一段下降,現代集團更多地側重於傳統和儀式。

Bernard J Bamberger伯納德J班貝格

Bibliography: 參考書目:
J Agus, The Evolution of Jewish Thought (1959) and The Jewish Quest (1983); L Baeck, The Essence of Judaism (1948); BJ Bamberger, The Story of Judaism (1971); JL Blau, Modern Varieties of Judaism (1966); B Blech, Understanding Judaism (1991); AA Cohen, The Natural and Supernatural Jew (1962); EL Fackenheim, What is Judaism? J阿古斯的演進猶太思想( 1959年)和猶太探索( 1983年) ; L Baeck ,本質猶太教( 1948年) ;北京班貝格,故事的猶太教( 1971年) ;巨浪布勞,現代品種的猶太教( 1966年) ;乙八具管樂器,理解猶太教( 1991年) ;機管局科恩,自然和超自然的猶太人( 1962年) ;發光Fackenheim ,什麼是猶太教? (1988); L Finkelstein, The Jews: Their History, Culture, and Religions (1971); M Gilbert, ed., The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization (1991); N Glazer, American Judaism (1973); D Goldberg and J Rayner, The Jewish People (1987); J Goldin, The Jewish Expression (1970); A Heschel, God in Search of Man (1955); M Meyer, The Origins of the Modern Jew (1967) and, as ed., Ideas of Jewish History (1987); J Neusner, The Life of the Torah: Readings in the Jewish Religious Experience (1974) and The Way of the Torah (1988); D Silver and B Martin, A History of Judaism (1974); Z Sobel and B Beit - Hallahmi, eds., Tradition, Innovation, Conflict: Judaism in Contemporary Israel (1991); G Wigoder, Encyclopedia of Judaism (1989). ( 1988年) ; L芬克爾斯坦,猶太人:他們的歷史,文化和宗教( 1971年) ; M吉爾伯特版。 ,阿特拉斯的畫報猶太文明( 1991年) ; ñ格雷澤,美國的猶太教( 1973年) ; D戈德堡和J雷納,猶太人民( 1987年) ; J戈爾丁,猶太人表達( 1970年) ;阿Heschel ,上帝在搜索的人( 1955年) ; M邁耶的起源現代猶太人( 1967年) ,作為版。 ,思想猶太人的歷史( 1987年) ; J Neusner ,生命的聖經:讀在猶太宗教經驗( 1974年)和方式的聖經( 1988年) ; D銀和B馬丁史猶太教( 1974年) ; ž索貝爾和B拜-H allahmi合編。 ,傳統,創新,衝突:在當代猶太教的以色列( 1 991年) ; G W igoder,猶太教百科全書( 1 989年) 。


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