Saint Joseph, St. Joseph聖約瑟夫,聖若瑟

General Information 一般信息

Saint Joseph was the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. Given prominent attention in the first two chapters of Matthew and Luke, Joseph is portrayed as a carpenter in Nazareth, a righteous descendant of Bethlehem's David, and a kind husband and father. 聖約瑟夫是瑪麗的丈夫,母親的耶穌基督。鑑於突出注意的頭兩章的馬修和盧克,約瑟夫被描述成一個木匠在拿撒勒,一個正直的後裔伯利恆的大衛,以及實物的丈夫和父親。 Although little else is known of his life, Joseph's faithful cooperation in the birth of Christ earned him sainthood.雖然沒有其他人知道他的生命,約瑟夫的忠實合作的基督誕生贏得了聖人。 He is venerated by Orthodox and by Roman Catholics, who consider him the patron saint of workers.他是崇敬的東正教和羅馬天主教,誰認為他的守護神工人。 Feast days: May 1 (Western); first Sunday after Christmas (Eastern).節日: 5月1日(西方) ;第一個星期日聖誕節後(東) 。

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St. Joseph聖若瑟

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ.配偶的聖母瑪利亞和寄養父親我們的主耶穌基督。

LIFE生活

Sources來源

The chief sources of information on the life of St. Joseph are the first chapters of our first and third Gospels; they are practically also the only reliable sources, for, whilst, on the holy patriarch's life, as on many other points connected with the Saviour's history which are left untouched by the canonical writings, the apocryphal literature is full of details, the non-admittance of these works into the Canon of the Sacred Books casts a strong suspicion upon their contents; and, even granted that some of the facts recorded by them may be founded on trustworthy traditions, it is in most instances next to impossible to discern and sift these particles of true history from the fancies with which they are associated.首席信息來源生命的聖約瑟夫是第一章的第一個和第三個福音,他們實際上也是唯一可靠的消息來源,對,同時,在神聖的主教的生活,對許多其他點與救主的歷史是留的典型著作,文學在未經充分的細節,不接納這些作品到佳能的聖書蒙上了強烈的懷疑其內容; ,甚至想當然地認為一些事實他們所記錄的可能是值得信賴基礎上的傳統,它是在大多數情況下幾乎不可能辨別和篩選這些粒子的真實歷史,幻想與它們相關。 Among these apocryphal productions dealing more or less extensively with some episodes of St. Joseph's life may be noted the so-called "Gospel of James", the "Pseudo-Matthew", the "Gospel of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary", the "Story of Joseph the Carpenter", and the "Life of the Virgin and Death of Joseph".在這些未經處理製作或多或少廣泛的一些事件的聖約瑟夫的生命可能會注意到所謂的“詹姆斯福音”的“偽馬修”的“福音的耶穌的聖母”的“約瑟夫的故事木匠”和“生命的美屬維爾京和死亡的約瑟夫” 。

Genealogy家譜

St. Matthew (1:16) calls St. Joseph the son of Jacob; according to St. Luke (3:23), Heli was his father.馬太(一點16 )呼籲聖約瑟夫的兒子雅各布;據聖盧克( 3時23分) ,直升機是他的父親。 This is not the place to recite the many and most various endeavours to solve the vexing questions arising from the divergences between both genealogies; nor is it necessary to point out the explanation which meets best all the requirements of the problem (see GENEALOGY OF CHRIST); suffice it to remind the reader that, contrary to what was once advocated, most modern writers readily admit that in both documents we possess the genealogy of Joseph, and that it is quite possible to reconcile their data.這是不適合朗誦的許多和大多數各種努力來解決棘手的問題引起的分歧,雙方族譜,也不是有必要指出的解釋符合最佳的所有要求的問題(見譜系基督) ;不夠它提醒讀者,相反,曾經主張,最現代的作家容易承認,在這兩份文件,我們擁有家譜的約瑟夫,這是很有可能的調和他們的數據。

Residence住宅

At any rate, Bethlehem, the city of David and his descendants, appears to have been the birth-place of Joseph.無論如何,伯利恆市的大衛和他的後裔,似乎已經出生地點約瑟夫。 When, however, the Gospel history opens, namely, a few months before the Annunciation, Joseph was settled at Nazareth.當然而,打開福音的歷史,即前幾個月報喜,約瑟夫是在拿撒勒定居。 Why and when he forsook his home-place to betake himself to Galilee is not ascertained; some suppose -- and the supposition is by no means improbable -- that the then-moderate circumstances of the family and the necessity of earning a living may have brought about the change.為什麼當他放棄他的家庭,以自己的betake加利利沒有確定;一些猜想-和假設絕不是不大可能的-即當時的情況下適度的家庭和必要性謀生可能有帶來的變化。 St. Joseph, indeed, was a tekton, as we learn from Matthew 13:55, and Mark 6:3.聖約瑟夫,實際上是一個tekton ,因為我們學習的馬修13:55 ,和馬克6時03分。 The word means both mechanic in general and carpenter in particular; St. Justin vouches for the latter sense (Dial. cum Tryph., lxxxviii, in PG, VI, 688), and tradition has accepted this interpretation, which is followed in the English Bible.這個詞意味著一般機械和木工特別;街賈斯汀vouches後者意義( Dial.暨Tryph 。 , lxxxviii ,在前列腺素,六, 688 ) ,和傳統已經接受了這一解釋,之後是在英文聖經。

Marriage婚姻

It is probably at Nazareth that Joseph betrothed and married her who was to become the Mother of God.這可能是在拿撒勒約瑟夫訂婚和結婚誰應該成為天主之母。 When the marriage took place, whether before or after the Incarnation, is no easy matter to settle, and on this point the masters of exegesis have at all times been at variance.當婚姻發生,不論之前或之後的化身,絕不是一件輕而易舉的事來解決,並在這一點上當家作主的註釋已在任何時候都處於差額。 Most modern commentators, following the footsteps of St. Thomas, understand that, at the epoch of the Annunciation, the Blessed Virgin was only affianced to Joseph; as St. Thomas notices, this interpretation suits better all the evangelical data.最現代的評論家認為,以下的足跡,聖托馬斯,理解這一點,在時代的天使,聖母只是affianced約瑟夫;作為聖托馬斯的告示,這一解釋更適合所有的福音數據。

It will not be without interest to recall here, unreliable though they are, the lengthy stories concerning St. Joseph's marriage contained in the apocryphal writings.這不會是沒有興趣在這裡回顧,雖然他們不可靠的是,冗長的故事關於聖約瑟夫的婚姻中所載的未經證實的著作。 When forty years of age, Joseph married a woman called Melcha or Escha by some, Salome by others; they lived forty-nine years together and had six children, two daughters and four sons, the youngest of whom was James (the Less, "the Lord's brother").當四十年的年齡,約瑟夫已婚婦女要求Melcha或Escha一些,莎樂美由他人;他們生活四十九年在一起,有6個子女,兩個女兒,四個兒子,最年輕的人是詹姆斯(欠“上帝的兄弟“ ) 。 A year after his wife's death, as the priests announced through Judea that they wished to find in the tribe of Juda a respectable man to espouse Mary, then twelve to fourteen years of age.一年後他的妻子死後,作為牧師宣布通過朱迪亞,他們希望找到在部落的猶大一個體面的人信奉聖母瑪利亞,然後12至14歲。 Joseph, who was at the time ninety years old, went up to Jerusalem among the candidates; a miracle manifested the choice God had made of Joseph, and two years later the Annunciation took place.約瑟夫,誰當時九十年歲,上升到耶路撒冷之間的候選人;一個奇蹟體現了上帝選擇了約瑟夫,兩年後的報喜發生。 These dreams, as St. Jerome styles them, from which many a Christian artist has drawn his inspiration (see, for instance, Raphael's "Espousals of the Virgin"), are void of authority; they nevertheless acquired in the course of ages some popularity; in them some ecclesiastical writers sought the answer to the well-known difficulty arising from the mention in the Gospel of "the Lord's brothers"; from them also popular credulity has, contrary to all probability, as well as to the tradition witnessed by old works of art, retained the belief that St. Joseph was an old man at the time of marriage with the Mother of God.這些夢想,因為聖杰羅姆風格他們,許多基督教藝術家引起他的靈感(見,例如,拉斐爾的“ Espousals維爾京” ) ,是無效的權力;但它們在收購過程中一些年齡受歡迎;在教會他們一些作家尋求答案眾所周知的困難引起提到福音的“上帝的兄弟” ;他們也很受歡迎輕信了,違反了所有的可能性,以及傳統的見證歲藝術作品,保留相信,聖約瑟夫是一名男子在結婚時與天主之母。

The Incarnation化身

This marriage, true and complete, was, in the intention of the spouses, to be virgin marriage (cf. St. Augustine, "De cons. Evang.", II, i in PL XXXIV, 1071-72; "Cont. Julian.", V, xii, 45 in PL. XLIV, 810; St. Thomas, III:28; III:29:2).這婚姻,真正和徹底的,是在有意的配偶,是處女婚姻(參見聖奧古斯丁, “德意見。 Evang 。 ”二,我在特等三十四, 1071年至一〇七二年; “控制。朱利安“ 。 ,五,十二, 45名特等。四十四, 810 ;聖托馬斯三: 28 ;三: 29:2 ) 。 But soon was the faith of Joseph in his spouse to be sorely tried: she was with child.但很快的信念,約瑟夫在他的配偶是嚴峻的考驗:她是兒童。 However painful the discovery must have been for him, unaware as he was of the mystery of the Incarnation, his delicate feelings forbade him to defame his affianced, and he resolved "to put her away privately; but while he thought on these things, behold the angel of the Lord appeared to him in his sleep, saying: Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost. . . And Joseph, rising from his sleep, did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him, and took unto him his wife" (Matthew 1:19, 20, 24).然而痛苦的發現必須是,他不知道他的神秘的化身,他的微妙的感情禁止他affianced詆毀他,他決心“把她帶走私人,但同時,他認為對這些事情,你看天使的上帝似乎他在睡覺,他說:約瑟夫的兒子大衛,恐懼不採取瑪麗告訴你你的妻子,因為這是在她的設想,是在聖靈。 。 。和約瑟夫上升從他的睡眠,但作為天使的上帝已命令他,並告訴他的妻子“ (馬太1時19分, 20 , 24 ) 。

The Nativity and the Flight to Egypt在耶穌和埃及航班

A few months later, the time came for Joseph and Mary to go to Bethlehem, to be enrolled, according to the decree issued by Caesar Augustus: a new source of anxiety for Joseph, for "her days were accomplished, that she should be delivered", and "there was no room for them in the inn (Luke 2:1-7). What must have been the thoughts of the holy man at the birth of the Saviour, the coming of the shepherds and of the wise men, and at the events which occurred at the time of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, we can merely guess; St. Luke tells only that he was "wondering at those things which were spoken concerning him" (k12:33). New trials were soon to follow. The news that a king of the Jews was born could not but kindle in the wicked heart of the old and bloody tyrant, Herod, the fire of jealousy. Again "an angel of the Lord appeared in sleep to Joseph, saying: Arise, and take the child and his mother, and fly into Egypt: and be there until I shall tell thee" (Matthew 2:13).幾個月後,來到當時的約瑟夫和瑪麗去伯利恆,入學,根據頒布法令,奧古斯都愷撒:一個新的焦慮根源約瑟夫,為“天是她的成就,她應該交付“和”沒有任何的餘地他們在旅店(路2:1-7 ) 。什麼必須是思想的聖地男子在誕生的救世主,未來的牧羊人和智者,並在事件發生的時候,介紹耶穌在聖殿,我們只能猜測;聖盧克只告訴他是“不知道這些事情,講了關於他” ( k12 : 33 ) 。新的審判很快遵循。消息說,國王的猶太人出生無法點燃,但在邪惡的核心歲和血腥的暴君,希律王,火的嫉妒。再次“天使的上帝出現在睡眠約瑟夫他說:出現,並帶著孩子和他的母親,並飛入埃及:與在那裡,直到我將告訴你“ (馬太2時13分) 。

Return to Nazareth返回拿撒勒

The summons to go back to Palestine came only after a few years, and the Holy Family settled again at Nazareth.傳票回到巴勒斯坦僅僅幾年後,和羅馬家庭解決再次在拿撒勒。 St. Joseph's was henceforth the simple and uneventful life of an humble Jew, supporting himself and his family by his work, and faithful to the religious practices commanded by the Law or observed by pious Israelites.聖若瑟從此簡單和平靜生活的卑微的猶太人,支持他和他的家庭,他的工作,忠實於宗教習俗指揮由法律或觀察虔誠的猶太人。 The only noteworthy incident recorded by the Gospel is the loss of, and anxious quest for, Jesus, then twelve years old, when He had strayed during the yearly pilgrimage to the Holy City (Luke 2:42-51).唯一值得注意的事件記錄的是福音的損失,急於追求,耶穌,然後12歲時,他迷路在每年前往聖城(路2:42-51 ) 。

Death死亡

This is the last we hear of St. Joseph in the sacred writings, and we may well suppose that Jesus's foster-father died before the beginning of Savior's public life.這是過去我們聽到的聖約瑟夫在神聖的著作,我們可以假設耶穌的寄養父親去世開始前救主的公共生活。 In several circumstances, indeed, the Gospels speak of the latter's mother and brothers (Matthew 12:46; Mark 3:31; Luke 8:19; John 7:3), but never do they speak of His father in connection with the rest of the family; they tell us only that Our Lord, during His public life, was referred to as the son of Joseph (John 1:45; 6:42; Luke 4:22) the carpenter (Matthew 13:55).在一些情況下,的確,福音講後者的母親和兄弟(馬太12:46 ;馬克3點31分;盧克8點19 ;約翰7:3 ) ,但他們從來沒有談論他的父親與其他家庭;他們告訴我們,只有我們的主,在他的公共生活,被稱為的兒子約瑟夫(約翰1:45 ; 6時42分;盧克4時22分)木匠(馬太13:55 ) 。 Would Jesus, moreover, when about die on the Cross, have entrusted His mother to John's care, had St. Joseph been still alive?將耶穌,此外,死時約在十字架上,已委託他的母親約翰的照料,已被聖約瑟夫還活著?

According to the apocryphal "Story of Joseph the Carpenter", the holy man reached his hundred and eleventh year when he died, on 20 July (AD 18 or 19). St.據未經證實“的故事約瑟夫木匠” ,神聖的人達到了100和11年他去世時,於7月20日(公元18日或19日) 。街 Epiphanius gives him ninety years of age at the time of his demise; and if we are to believe the Venerable Bede, he was buried in the Valley of Josaphat. In truth we do not know when St. Joseph died; it is most unlikely that he attained the ripe old age spoken of by the "Story of Joseph" and St. Epiphanius. The probability is that he died and was buried at Nazareth.埃皮法尼烏斯給了他90年的年齡時,他的消亡;如果我們相信尊者比德,他被安葬在河谷約薩法特。說實話,我們不知道什麼時候死亡聖約瑟夫,這是最不可能的他達到了成熟的老談到了“約瑟夫的故事”和聖埃皮法尼烏斯。概率是,他死後被埋葬在拿撒勒。

DEVOTION TO SAINT JOSEPH奉獻聖約瑟夫

Joseph was "a just man".約瑟夫是“公正的人” 。 This praise bestowed by the Holy Ghost, and the privilege of having been chosen by God to be the foster-father of Jesus and the Spouse of the Virgin Mother, are the foundations of the honour paid to St. Joseph by the Church.這讚美賦予的聖靈,並榮幸地被選中了上帝是寄養父親耶穌的配偶屬維爾京媽媽,是基金會的名譽向聖約瑟夫的教會。 So well-grounded are these foundations that it is not a little surprising that the cult of St. Joseph was so slow in winning recognition.因此,良好的基礎,這些基礎,這是不是有點令人吃驚的是,邪教的聖約瑟夫是如此緩慢,贏得認可。 Foremost among the causes of this is the fact that "during the first centuries of the Church's existence, it was only the martyrs who enjoyed veneration" (Kellner).其中最主要的原因,這是一個事實,即“在第一世紀的教會的存在,它只是誰的烈士享有崇拜” (凱爾納) 。 Far from being ignored or passed over in silence during the early Christian ages, St. Joseph's prerogatives were occasionally descanted upon by the Fathers; even such eulogies as cannot be attributed to the writers among whose works they found admittance bear witness that the ideas and devotion therein expressed were familiar, not only to the theologians and preachers, and must have been readily welcomed by the people.遠遠不能忽視或越過默默地在早期基督教的年齡,聖約瑟夫的特權偶爾descanted由父親;即使這樣悼詞作為不能歸因於作家的作品中他們發現納見證的思想和奉獻精神其中表示很熟悉,不僅是神學家和傳教士,而且必須有隨時被歡迎的人。 The earliest traces of public recognition of the sanctity of St. Joseph are to be found in the East.最早的痕跡公開承認神聖的聖約瑟夫都在東方。 His feast, if we may trust the assertions of Papebroch, was kept by the Copts as early as the beginning of the fourth century.他的盛宴,如果我們可以信任的說法Papebroch ,被關押的科普特人早在年初的四世紀。 Nicephorus Callistus tells likewise -- on what authority we do not know -- that in the great basilica erected at Bethlehem by St. Helena, there was a gorgeous oratory dedicated to the honour of our saint. Nicephorus卡利斯圖斯告訴同樣-什麼權力,我們不知道-在偉大的教堂建在伯利恆的聖赫勒拿島,有一個美麗的小禮拜堂致力於履行我們的聖。 Certain it is, at all events, that the feast of "Joseph the Carpenter" is entered, on 20 July, in one of the old Coptic Calendars in our possession, as also in a Synazarium of the eighth and nineth century published by Cardinal Mai (Script. Vet. Nova Coll., IV, 15 sqq.).一定是在所有的事件,該節日“約瑟夫木匠”是進入7月20日,在一個舊的科普特人的日曆我們掌握的,也是在Synazarium第八屆和第九屆世紀出版的樞機主教麥( Script.獸醫。新學院。 ,四, 15 sqq 。 ) 。 Greek menologies of a later date at least mention St. Joseph on 25 or 26 December, and a twofold commemoration of him along with other saints was made on the two Sundays next before and after Christmas.希臘的menologies日後至少提到聖約瑟夫25日或12月26日,並有雙重紀念他連同其他聖人了關於這兩個星期日明年之前和之後聖誕節。

In the West the name of the foster-father of Our Lord (Nutritor Domini) appears in local martyrologies of the ninth and tenth centuries, and we find in 1129, for the first time, a church dedicated to his honour at Bologna.在西方的名字寄養的父親我們的主( Nutritor多米尼)出現在當地martyrologies的第九和第十世紀,我們發現在1129年,第一次,教堂專門為他而設的博洛尼亞。 The devotion, then merely private, as it seems, gained a great impetus owing to the influence and zeal of such saintly persons as St. Bernard, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Gertrude (d. 1310), and St. Bridget of Sweden (d. 1373).的獻身精神,那麼僅僅是私人的,因為它看來,獲得了巨大的推動力,由於影響力和熱情如聖潔的人聖伯納德,聖托馬斯阿奎那,聖格特魯德(草第1310 ) ,和聖布里奇特瑞典(草1373號決議) 。 According to Benedict XIV (De Serv. Dei beatif., I, iv, n. 11; xx, n. 17), "the general opinion of the learned is that the Fathers of Carmel were the first to import from the East into the West the laudable practice of giving the fullest cultus to St. Joseph". His feast, introduced towards the end shortly afterwards, into the Dominican Calendar, gradually gained a foothold in various dioceses of Western Europe. Among the most zealous promoters of the devotion at that epoch, St. Vincent Ferrer (d. 1419), Peter d'Ailly (d. 1420), St. Bernadine of Siena (d. 1444), and Jehan Charlier Gerson (d. 1429) deserve an especial mention.據篤十四(德服務。棣beatif 。 ,我,四,第11號; XX條,注17 ) , “一般認為的教訓是,父輩的人焦糖首次進口從東到西值得稱讚的做法給予充分宗教局向聖約瑟夫。 “他的盛宴,介紹了即將結束不久,到多米尼加日曆,逐漸站穩腳跟各教區西歐。其中最熱心的推動者的投入這一時代,聖文森特費雷爾(草1419年) ,彼得德阿伊(草1420年) ,聖伯娜丁錫耶納(草1444 ) ,以及漢沙利耶格爾森(草1429 )值得特別一提。 Gerson, who had, in 1400, composed an Office of the Espousals of Joseph particularly at the Council of Constance (1414), in promoting the public recognition of the cult of St. Joseph.格爾森,誰曾在1400年,組成一個辦公室Espousals約瑟夫特別是在安理會的康斯坦茨( 1414 ) ,在促進公眾認識邪教的聖約瑟夫。 Only under the pontificate of Sixtus IV (1471-84), were the efforts of these holy men rewarded by Roman Calendar (19 March).只有根據教皇的西斯四( 1471年至1484年) ,是這些努力的神聖男子獎勵羅馬日曆( 3月19日) 。 From that time the devotion acquired greater and greater popularity, the dignity of the feast keeping pace with this steady growth.從那個時候獲得更大的奉獻精神和更大的普及,尊嚴的盛宴跟上這一穩步增長。 At first only a festum simplex, it was soon elevated to a double rite by Innocent VIII (1484-92), declared by Gregory XV, in 1621, a festival of obligation, at the instance of the Emperors Ferdinand III and Leopold I and of King Charles II of Spain, and raised to the rank of a double of the second class by Clement XI (1700-21).起初只是單純festum ,但很快被提升到一個雙重禮無辜八( 1484年至1492年) ,申報的格雷戈里十五,在1621年,一個節日的義務,在實例皇帝斐迪南三和利奧波德一世和查爾斯二世國王,西班牙和提高官兵的雙重第二類的克萊門特十一( 1700年至1721年) 。 Further, Benedict XIII, in 1726, inserted the name into the Litany of the Saints.此外,本篤十三,在1726年,插入的名字進入一連串的聖徒。

One festival in the year, however, was not deemed enough to satisfy the piety of the people.一個節日的一年,但不認為足以滿足虔誠的人。 The feast of the Espousals of the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph, so strenuously advocated by Gerson, and permitted first by Paul III to the Franciscans, then to other religious orders and individual dioceses, was, in 1725, granted to all countries that solicited it, a proper Office, compiled by the Dominican Pierto Aurato, being assigned, and the day appointed being 23 January.節日的Espousals的聖母和聖若瑟,因此極力倡導的格爾森,並首次允許由保羅三方濟會,然後到其他宗教的訂單和個人的教區,是在1725年,給所有國家,徵求它,一個適當的辦公室,由多米尼加Pierto Aurato ,分配,以及被指定的日期1月23日。 Nor was this all, for the reformed Order of Carmelites, into which St. Teresa had infused her great devotion to the foster-father of Jesus, chose him, in 1621, for their patron, and in 1689, were allowed to celebrate the feast of his Patronage on the third Sunday after Easter.也不是這一切,為改革秩序Carmelites ,到聖德肋撒其中注入了她偉大的獻身精神,寄養的父親耶穌,選擇了他,在1621年,他們的靠山,並在1689年,被允許以慶祝節日他的聲名顯赫的第三個星期日復活節後。 This feast, soon adopted throughout the Spanish Kingdom, was later on extended to all states and dioceses which asked for the privilege.這盛宴,很快通過了整個西班牙王國,後來就擴大到所有國家和教區的要求特權。 No devotion, perhaps, has grown so universal, none seems to have appealed so forcibly to the heart of the Christian people, and particularly of the labouring classes, during the nineteenth century, as that of St. Joseph.沒有奉獻精神,也許有這樣的普遍增長,但似乎已提出上訴,以便強行核心的基督教人民,特別是勞動階級,在十九世紀,因為這聖約瑟夫。

This wonderful and unprecedented increase of popularity called for a new lustre to be added to the cult of the saint.這個美好的和空前增加的人氣呼籲建立一個新的光彩被添加到邪教的聖。 Accordingly, one of the first acts of the pontificate of Pius IX, himself singularly devoted to St. Joseph, was to extend to the whole Church the feast of the Patronage (1847), and in December, 1870, according to the wishes of the bishops and of all the faithful, he solemnly declared the Holy Patriarch Joseph, patron of the Catholic Church, and enjoined that his feast (19 March) should henceforth be celebrated as a double of the first class (but without octave, on account of Lent).因此,第一個行為的教皇的庇護九,本人奇異專門聖約瑟夫,是向整個教會節日的贊助( 1847年) ,並在12月, 1870年,根據的願望主教和所有信徒,他鄭重宣布羅馬主教約瑟夫,靠山的天主教教會,並責成他的盛宴( 3月19日)今後應發慶祝雙一流(但不八,考慮到四旬期) 。 Following the footsteps of their predecessor, Leo XIII and Pius X have shown an equal desire to add their own jewel to the crown of St. Joseph: the former, by permitting on certain days the reading of the votive Office of the saint; and the latter by approving, on 18 March, 1909, a litany in honour of him whose name he had received in baptism.經過的足跡,他們的前任,利奧十三世和庇護X中表現出平等的渴望加入自己的寶石的皇冠聖約瑟夫:前,允許在某些日子閱讀votive辦公室聖和後者批准, 3月18日, 1909年,一連串的榮譽,他的名字,他收到的洗禮。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯L Souvay 。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。 In memory of Father Joseph Paredom The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.在記憶的父親約瑟夫Paredom的天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


(Old Testament) Joseph (舊約)約瑟夫

General Information 一般信息

Joseph, the 11th son of Jacob and the first son of Jacob's favorite wife, Rachel, is the biblical hero in the drama of Genesis 37-50.約瑟夫, 11雅各的兒子和兒子雅各布最喜愛的妻子,雷切爾,是聖經中的英雄戲劇起源37-50 。 Joseph's favored status and his coat of many colors, a gift from his father, caused his brothers to be jealous, and they staged his accidental "death."約瑟夫的最惠國待遇地位和他的外衣,許多顏色,禮物從他的父親,造成他的兄弟是嫉妒,他們上演他的意外“死亡。 ” Joseph was actually taken to Egypt, where his ability to interpret dreams brought him into favor with the pharaoh.約瑟夫實際上是採取埃及,在那裡他有能力來解釋使他夢想成討好法老。 Joseph became a high Egyptian official.約瑟夫成為一個高埃及官員。 When, during a famine, his unsuspecting brothers sought grain in Egypt, the forgiving Joseph--whom his brothers did not at first recognize--arranged a family reunion.當期間,飢荒,他的毫無戒心的兄弟尋求糧食在埃及,寬恕約瑟夫-其中他的兄弟在沒有首先認識到-安排了與家人團聚。 Thus the whole family of Jacob moved to Egypt and lived there until the Exodus.因此,整個家庭的雅各布轉移到埃及和生活在那裡,直到出。


Jo'seph

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Joseph, remover or increaser.約瑟夫,去除或increaser 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Joseph約瑟夫

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes of Manasses and Ephraim.第十一屆兒子雅各布,在初生的瑞秋,並立即祖先的部落Manasses和以法蓮。 His life is narrated in Gen., xxx, 22-24; xxxvii; xxxix-1, wherein contemporary scholars distinguish three chief documents (J, E, P).他的一生是在講述將軍,三十,22 - 24 ;三十七;三十九- 1 ,其中當代學者區分三個主要文件的事業單位一覽( J ,電子,磷) 。 (See ABRAHAM) The date of his eventful career can be fixed only approximately at the present day, for the Biblical account of Joseph's life does not name the particular Pharaoh of his time, and the Egyptian customs and manners therein alluded to are not decisive as to any special period in Egyptian history. (見亞伯拉罕)的日期,他多事的職業生涯可以固定大約只有目前每天的聖經到約瑟夫的生活並不特別的名字法老的時間,和埃及的習俗和禮儀有提到,是不是決定性的任何特殊時期在埃及的歷史。 His term of office in Egypt falls probably under one of the later Hyksos kings (see EGYPT).他的任期在埃及可能屬於下一個後來Hyksos國王(見埃及) 。 His name, either contracted from Jehoseph (Psalm 81:6, in the Hebrew) or abbreviated from Joseph-El (cf. Karnak inscription of Thothmes III, no. 78), is distinctly connected in Gen., xxx, 23, 24, with the circumstances of his birth and is interpreted: "may God add".他的名字,無論從合同Jehoseph (詩篇81:6 ,在希伯來文)或簡稱由約瑟夫薩爾瓦多(參見卡納克題詞Thothmes三,沒有。 78 ) ,是連接中明顯將軍,三十, 23 , 24 ,在這種情況下他的出生和解釋: “願上帝增加” 。 He was born in Haran, of Rachel, Jacob's beloved and long-barren wife, and became the favourite son of the aged patriarch.他出生在哈蘭的雷切爾雅各布的敬愛和長期荒蕪的妻子,並成為最喜愛的兒子年齡元老。 After Jacob's return to Chanaan, various circumstances made Joseph the object of the mortal hatred of his brothers.雅各布後返回Chanaan ,各種情況作出約瑟夫對象的致命仇恨他的兄弟。 He had witnessed some very wicked deed of several among them, and they knew that it had been reported to their father.他目睹了一些非常惡毒的行為的若干其中,他們知道這已經報告給他們的父親。 Moreover, in his partiality to Joseph, Jacob gave him an ample garment of many colours, and this manifest proof of the patriarch's greater love for him aroused the jealousy of Joseph's brothers to such an extent that "they could not speak peaceably to him".此外,在他的偏袒約瑟夫雅各布給了他足夠的許多服裝的顏色,這表現證明了家長的更大的愛,他引起了嫉妒約瑟夫的兄弟到這樣的程度, “他們可能不會講他的和平” 。 Finally, with the imprudence of youth, Joseph told his brothers two dreams which clearly portended his future elevation over them all, but which, for the present, simply caused them to hate him all the more (Genesis 37:1-11).最後,由於輕率的青年,約瑟夫說他的兄弟兩個夢想這顯然預示自己的未來海拔超過他們所有,但,就目前來說,只是造成他們恨他,更(創37:1-11 ) 。 In this frame of mind, they seized upon the first opportunity to get rid of the one of whom they spoke as "the dreamer".在這種心境,他們抓住了第一次機會,擺脫其中一人以他們為“夢想家” 。 As they fed their father's flocks in Dothain (now Tell Dothain, about fifteen miles north of Sichem), they saw from afar Joseph, who had been sent by Jacob to inquire about their welfare, coming to them, and they at once resolved to reduce to naught all his dreams of future greatness.隨著他們聯儲其父親的雞群在Dothain (現在告訴Dothain ,約十五公里Sichem ) ,他們從遠處看到約瑟夫,誰已發出的雅各布,詢問他們的福利,來他們,他們立刻解決,以減少化為烏有所有的夢想,未來的偉大之處。 At this point the narrative in Genesis combines two distinct accounts of the manner in which the brothers of Joseph actually carried out their intention of avenging themselves upon him.在這一點上的說明成因結合了兩種不同的帳戶的方式,這對兄弟約瑟夫實際上履行了他們的意圖報復他自己。 These accounts present slight variations, which are examined in detail by recent commentators on Genesis, and which, far from destroying, rather confirm the historical character of the fact that, through the enmity of his brothers, Joseph was brought down to Egypt.這些賬戶本略有變化,這是詳細審查最近評論員成因,並遠離銷毀,而不是確認的歷史性質的事實,即通過的敵意,他的兄弟們,約瑟夫被擊落埃及。 To protect themselves they dipped Joseph's fine garment into the blood of a kid, and sent it to their father.為了保護自己,他們下跌約瑟夫的罰款服裝進入血液的一個孩子,並發給他們的父親。 At the sight of this blood-stained garment, Jacob naturally believed that a wild beast had devoured his beloved son, and he gave himself up to the most intense grief (xxxvii, 12-35).在看到這個沾滿鮮血的服裝,自然雅各布認為,野獸吃掉了自己心愛的兒子,他給自己的最強烈的悲痛(三十七, 12-35 ) 。

While thus bewailed as dead by his father, Joseph was sold into Egypt, and treated with the utmost consideration and the greatest confidence by his Egyptian master, to whom Gen., xxxvii, 36, gives the name of Putiphar ["He whom Ra (the sun-god) gave"] and whom it describes as Pharaoh's eunuch and as the captain of the royal body-guard (cf. xxxix, 1).因此, bewailed雖然死了他的父親,約瑟夫被出售到埃及和治療最大的審議和最大的信心,埃及的主人,誰將軍,三十七,第36條,提供的名稱Putiphar [ “人拉他(太陽神)給“ ]和人形容為法老的宦官,並作為隊長的皇家機構後衛(見三十九, 1 ) 。 Quick and trustworthy, Joseph soon became his master's personal attendant.快速和值得信賴的,約瑟夫很快成為他的主人的個人而來。 He was next entrusted with the superintendence of his master's house, a most extensive and responsible charge, such as was unusual in large Egyptian households.他旁邊委託監督他的主人的家,一個最廣泛的和負責任的收費,如是不尋常的大埃及家庭。 With Yahweh's blessing, all things, "both at home and in the field", became so prosperous under Joseph's management that his master trusted him implicitly, and "knew not any other things, save the bread which he ate".隨著耶和華的祝福,所有的事情, “在國內和在外地” ,變得如此繁榮下的約瑟夫的管理,他總相信他含蓄地,和“不知道任何其他東西,保存他的麵包吃” 。 While thus discharging with perfect success his manifold duties of major-domo (Egyp. mer-per), Joseph was often brought in contact with the lady of the house, for at that time there was as much free intercourse between men and women in Egypt as there is among us in the present day.因此,雖然與完美的履行他的多方面取得成功的主要職責,多摩( Egyp.濱海每次) ,約瑟夫往往是在接觸了與老太太的房子,在當時有很大的自由交往男性和女性在埃及因為我們之間在本一天。 Oftentimes she noticed the youthful and handsome Hebrew overseer, and carried away by passion, she repeatedly tempted him to commit adultery with her, till at length, resenting his virtuous conduct, she accused him of those very criminal solicitations wherewith she had herself pursued him.通常,她注意到了年輕英俊的希伯來文和監督員,並帶走了激情,她一再誘惑承諾他與她通姦,後來在長度,良性怨恨他的行為,她指責他的人非常刑事招標wherewith她自己追求他。 The credulous master believed the report of his wife, and in his wrath cast Joseph into prison.總的輕信認為,報告他的妻子,在他的憤怒演員約瑟夫關進監獄。 There also Yahweh was with His faithful servant: He gave him favour with the keeper of the prison, who soon placed in Joseph implicit confidence, and even committed to his charge the other prisoners (xxxix, 2-23).還有耶和華是與他的忠實僕人:他給了他贊成與門將的監獄,誰放置在不久約瑟夫隱含的信心,甚至他的承諾收取其他囚犯(三十九, 2月23日) 。 Shortly afterwards two of Pharaoh's officers, the chief butler and chief baker, having incurred the royal displeasure for some reason unknown to us, were put in ward in the house of the captain of the guard.不久兩個法老的官員,首席管家和長麵包,引起了王室的不滿出於某種原因不明,我們提出了在病房中院的隊長後衛。 They also were placed under Joseph's charge, and as he came in to them one morning, he noticed their unusual sadness. They could not catch the meaning of a dream which each had had during the night, and there was no professional interpreter of dreams near at hand.他們也被置於約瑟夫的費用,而且因為他是在給他們一個上午,他發現自己的不尋常的悲傷。他們無法趕上的含義,一個夢想,每個不得不在夜間,也沒有專業的翻譯夢想靠近在手。 Then it was that Joseph interpreted their dreams correctly, bidding the chief butler to remember him when restored to his office, as indeed he was three days after, on Pharaoh's birthday (xl).然後,那就是約瑟夫解釋他們的夢想正確的,投標的首席管家記住他時,恢復到他的辦公室,因為他的確是三天後,在法老王的生日( XL )號。 Two years rolled by, after which the monarch himself had two dreams, the one of the fat and lean kine, and the other of the full and withered ears.兩年前推出的,在此之後,國王本人有兩個夢想,一個的脂肪和精幹的因子,以及其他充分和枯萎的耳朵。 Great was Pharaoh's perplexity at these dreams, which no one in the realm could interpret.大是法老王的困惑在這些夢想,其中沒有一個領域中可以解釋。 This occurrence naturally reminded the chief butler of Joseph's skill in interpreting dreams, and he mentioned to the king what had happened in his own case and in that of the chief baker.這自然想起發生的首席管家約瑟夫的技能解釋的夢想,他提到國王發生了什麼事在他自己的案件,在這的首席麵包師傅。 Summoned before Pharaoh, Joseph declared that both dreams signified that seven years of plenty would immediately be followed by seven years of famine, and further suggested that one-fifth of he produce of the years of plenty be laid by as provision for the years of famine.召見之前,法老王,約瑟夫宣布,這兩個夢想標誌著長達七年的豐富將立即其次是7年的飢荒,並進一步建議,五分之一的他出示了多年的大量被解僱的規定,作為多年的飢荒。 Deeply impressed by the clear and plausible interpretation of his dreams, and recognizing in Joseph a wisdom more than human, the monarch entrusted to him the carrying out of the practical measure which he had suggested.留下了深刻的印象明確和合理的解釋,他的夢想,並認識到在約瑟夫的智慧超過人類,君主託付給他進行實際的措施,他曾建議。 for this purpose he raised him to the rank of keeper of the royal seal, invested him with an authority second only to that of the throne, bestowed on him the Egyptian name of Zaphenath-paneah ("God spoke, and he came into life"), and gave him to wife Aseneth, the daughter of Putiphares, the priest of the great national sanctuary at On (or Heliopolis, seven miles north east of the modern Cairo).為此,他提出了他的排名掌璽,他投資的權威僅次於王位,賦予他在埃及的名稱Zaphenath - paneah ( “上帝發言,他進入生活” ) ,並給他妻子Aseneth到的Putiphares女兒,牧師的偉大的民族在避難所(或赫利奧波利斯, 7英里東北現代開羅) 。

Soon the seven years of plenty predicted by Joseph set in, during which he stored up corn in each of the cities from which it was gathered, and his wife, Aseneth, bore him two sons whom he called Manasses and Ephraim, from the favorable circumstances of the time of their birth.不久,七年的很多預測約瑟夫規定,在這期間,他保存了玉米在每個城市從它聚集一堂,和他的妻子, Aseneth ,承擔他的兩個兒子他呼籲Manasses和以法蓮,從順境在其出生時。 Next came the seven years of dearth, during which by his skilful management Joseph saved Egypt from the worst features of want and hunger, and not only Egypt, but also the various countries around, which had to suffer from the same grievous and protracted famine (xli). Among these neighbouring countries was counted the land of Chanaan where Jacob had continued to dwell with Joseph's eleven brothers.接下來是長達七年的缺乏,在此期間,由他嫻熟地管理約瑟夫埃及保存最嚴重的特點,匱乏和飢餓,不僅埃及,但也不同國家和地區,其中遭受同樣的痛苦和長期的飢荒(四十一) 。其中鄰近國家計數的土地Chanaan在雅各布繼續談論與約瑟夫的11個兄弟。 Having heard that corn was sold in Egypt, the aged patriarch sent his sons thither to purchase some, keeping back, however, Rachel's second child, Benjamin, "lest perhaps he take harm in the journey".聽取了玉米銷售在埃及,年齡元老派他的兒子那兒購買一些,同時回來,然而,雷切爾的第二個孩子,本傑明, “否則他可能採取損害的旅程” 。 Admitted into Joseph's presence, his brothers failed to recognize in the Egyptian grandee before them the lad whom they had so cruelly treated twenty years before.進入約瑟夫的存在,他的兄弟未能認識到在埃及貴族面前的小伙子他們如此殘酷地對待二十年前。 He roughly accused them of being spies sent to discover the undefended passes of the eastern frontier of Egypt, and when they volunteered information about their family, he, desirous of ascertaining the truth concerning Benjamin, retained one of them as hostage in prison and sent the others home to bring back their youngest brother with them.他大約指控他們充當間諜被發現不設防通行證的東部邊境的埃及,當他們主動了解他們的家庭,他希望查明有關事實真相本傑明,保留其中一人作為人質,並在監獄中發出別人家裡帶回他們最小的弟弟他們。 On their return to their father, or at their first lodging-place on the way, they discovered the money which Joseph had ordered to be placed in their sacks.在他們返回自己的父親,或在其第一次住宿地點的道路上,他們發現其中的錢約瑟夫已下令將其放置在麻袋。 Great was their anxiety and that of Jacob, who for a time refused to allow his sons to return to Egypt in company with Benjamin.偉大的是他們的焦慮和雅各布,誰在一段時間內拒絕讓他的兒子返回埃及的公司,本傑明。 At length he yielded under the pressure of famine, sending, at the same time, a present to conciliate the favour of the Egyptian prime minister.在他取得長度的壓力下,飢荒,發送,在同一時間,現在的調解有利於埃及總理。 at the sight of Benjamin Joseph understood that his brothers had told him the truth at their first appearance before him, and he invited them to a feast in his own house.在看到本傑明約瑟夫理解,他的兄弟告訴他真相在其第一次出現在他面前,他邀請他們擺酒在他自己的房子。 At the feast he caused them to be seated exactly according to their age, and he honoured Benjamin with "a greater mess", as a mark of distinction (xlii-xliii).在他的盛宴造成他們坐在完全根據自己的年齡,他榮幸地本傑明與“更大的混亂” ,作為一個標誌區分(四十二,四十三) 。 Then they left for home, unsuspecting that at Joseph's order his divining cup had been hidden in Benjamin's sack.然後,他們離開家園,毫無戒心的,在約瑟夫的命令他的占卜杯已隱藏在本傑明的麻袋。 They were soon overtaken, charged with theft of that precious cup, which, upon search, was found in the sack where it had been hidden.他們很快超越,被控盜竊珍貴的杯子,其中,經搜查,發現了一袋在它被隱藏。 In their dismay they returned in a body to Joseph's house, and offered to remain as his bondmen in Egypt, an offer which Joseph declined, declaring that he would only retain Benjamin.在他們的失望,他們返回的一個機構,以約瑟夫的家,並表示願意繼續為他bondmen在埃及,一個提供這種約瑟夫拒絕,聲稱他將只保留本傑明。 Whereupon Juda pleads most pathetically that, for the sake of his aged father, Benjamin be dismissed free, and that he be allowed to remain in his brother's place as Joseph's bondman.於是猶大懇求最可憐,為了他的年齡的父親,本傑明被解僱自由,他被允許留在他哥哥的地方約瑟夫bondman 。 Then it was that Joseph disclosed himself to his brothers, calmed their fears, and sent them back with a pressing invitation to Jacob to come and settle in Egypt (xliv-xlv, 24).然後,那就是約瑟夫透露自己的兄弟,安撫他們的恐懼,並送他們回一個緊迫的邀請雅各來解決在埃及(四十四,第四十五, 24 ) 。

It was in the land of Gessen, a pastoral district about forty miles north-east of Cairo, that Joseph called his father and brothers to settle.正是在土地Gessen ,牧場區約40公里,東部的開羅,約瑟夫稱他的父親和兄弟來解決。 There they lived as prosperous shepherds of the king, while in their misery the Egyptians were gradually reduced to sell their lands to the Crown, in order to secure their subsistence from the all-powerful prime minister of Pharaoh.他們在那裡生活的繁榮牧羊人國王,而在他們的苦難,埃及人已逐漸減少到他們的土地出售給冠,以確保他們的生活從所有強大總理法老。 And so Joseph brought it to pass that the former owners of landed property - with the exception, however, of the priests - became simple tenants of the king and paid to the royal treasury, as it were, an annual rent of one-fifth of the produce of the soil (xlvi, 28-xlvii, 26).因此,約瑟夫把它傳遞的前業主地產-除了然而,神父-成為簡單的租戶的國王和支付給王室國庫,因為它是,每年的租金有五分之一的生產的土壤(四十六, 28四十七, 26 ) 。 During Jacob's last moments, Joseph promised his father that he would bury him in Chanaan, and caused him to adopt his two sons, Manasses and Ephraim (xlvii, 25-xlviii).在雅各布的最後時刻,約瑟夫答應他的父親,他將他埋葬在Chanaan ,並造成他通過他的兩個兒子, Manasses和以法蓮(四十七, 25 XLVIII )號決議。 After his father's demise, he had his body embalmed and buried with great pomp in the Cave of Machpelah (l, 1-14).在他父親的去世,他曾防腐他的屍體埋懷著極大的盛況在洞穴Machpelah ( 1 , 1月14日) 。 He also allayed the fears of his brothers who dreaded that he should now avenge their former ill-treatment of him.他還憂慮的擔心他的兄弟誰害怕,他現在應該報復他們以前的虐待他。 He died at the age of 110, and his body was embalmed and put in a coffin in Egypt (l, 15-25).他去世的年齡為110 ,他的屍體被防腐處理,並在一個棺材在埃及( 1 , 15-25 ) 。 Ultimately, his remains were carried into Chanaan and buried in Sichem (Exodus 13:19; Joshua 24:32).最終,他的遺骨被帶入Chanaan ,埋在Sichem (出埃及記13時19分;約書亞24:32 ) 。

Such, in substance, is the Biblical account of Joseph's career.例如,在本質上,是聖經到約瑟夫的職業生涯。 In its wonderful simplicity, it sketches one of the most beautiful characters presented by Old-Testament history.在其精彩簡單,它素描一個最美麗的角色所提出舊全書的歷史。 As a boy, Joseph has the most vivid horror for the evil done by some of his brothers; and as a youth, he resists with unflinching courage the repeated and pressing solicitations of his master's wife.作為一個男孩,約瑟夫的最生動的恐怖的邪惡做了一些他的兄弟,以及作為一個青年,他反抗的勇氣與堅定的反复和緊迫徵求他的主人的妻子。 Cast into prison, he displays great power of endurance, trusting to God for his justification.鑄進監獄,他顯示強大的耐力,相信上帝,他的理由。 When raised to the rank of viceroy of Egypt, he shows himself worthy of that exalted dignity by his skilful and energetic efforts to promote the welfare of his adopted countrymen and the extension of his master's power.當提高到總督級的埃及,他證明自己無愧于這一崇高的尊嚴,他嫻熟和積極努力,以促進福利的他的同胞,並通過延長他的主人的權力。 A character so beautiful made Joseph a most worthy type of Christ, the model of all perfection, and it is comparatively easy to point out some of the traits of resemblance between Jacob's beloved son and the dearly beloved Son of God.性格如此美麗了約瑟夫一個最有價值的類型的基督,該模型的所有完善,這是比較容易指出,一些性狀的相似之處雅各布心愛的兒子和心愛的代價上帝之子。 Like Jesus, Joseph was hated and cast out by his brethren, and yet wrought out their salvation through the sufferings they had brought upon him.像耶穌,約瑟夫是憎恨和鑄造了他的兄弟,但他們帶來救恩通過的痛苦,他們帶來了他。 Like Jesus, Joseph obtained his exaltation only after passing through the deepest and most undeserved humiliations; and, in the kingdom over which he ruled, he invited his brethren to join those whom heretofore they had looked upon as strangers, in order that they also might enjoy the blessings which he had stored up for them. Like the Saviour of the world, Joseph had but words of forgiveness and blessing for all who, recognizing their misery, had recourse to his supreme power.像耶穌,約瑟夫獲得了提升之後才通過最深切和最冤枉的屈辱; ,並在英國,他的統治,他邀請他的兄弟一起在此的人他們看作陌生人,使他們也有可能享受祝福他儲存了他們。救世主一樣的世界,約瑟夫的話了,但寬恕和祝福所有誰,承認他們的苦難,求助於他的最高權力。 It was to Joseph of old, as to Jesus, that all had to appeal for relief, offer homages of the deepest respect, and yield ready obedience in all things.它是約瑟夫歲,為耶穌,所有已提出上訴救濟,提供homages的最深切的尊重,並願意服從產量在所有的事情。 Finally, to the Patriarch Joseph, as to Jesus, it was given to inaugurate a new order of things for the greater power and glory of the monarch to whom he owed his exaltation. While thus recognizing the typical meaning of Joseph's career, one should not for a moment lose sight of the fact that one is in presence of a distinctly historical character.最後,牧首約瑟夫,以耶穌,這是考慮到開創一個新秩序的事情為更大的權力和榮耀的君主,以他欠他的喜悅。雖然從而承認典型意義的約瑟夫的職業生涯,人們不應該一會兒忽視這樣一個事實,一個是存在一個明顯的歷史特徵。 Efforts have indeed been made in certain quarters to transform the history of Joseph into a story of a tribe of the same name which, at some remote period, would have attained to great power in Egypt, and which, at a much later date, popular imagination would have simply pictured as an individual.努力確實已作了某些改變歷史的約瑟夫成一個故事,一個部落的名稱相同的,在一些偏遠期間,將實現以大國埃及,其中,在更晚的日期,受歡迎想像力只是將照片作為個人。 But such a view of the Biblical account is decidedly inadmissible. To careful scholars it will always appear more difficult to think of Joseph as a tribe that rose to power in Egypt than as an individual who actually passed through the experiences which are described in Genesis.但這種看法的聖經帳戶是堅決不允許的。要認真的學者,它會永遠出現更加困難的約瑟夫認為,作為一個部落,該數字升至功率比在埃及作為個人誰實際通過經驗中所描述成因。 Again, they will always look upon the incidents narrated in the sacred record as too natural, and too closely related, to be entirely the product of fiction.再次,他們將永遠視敘述的事件在神聖的紀錄也自然,而且也密切相關,是完全的產物,小說。 The same historical character of the Biblical narrative is powerfully confirmed by the substantial agreement which contemporary critics feel bound to admit between the two principal documents (J, E), which, according to them, have been used in its composition: such an agreement points manifestly to an earlier oral tradition, which, when committed to writing in two distinct forms, was not materially affected by the altered circumstances of a later age.相同的歷史性質的聖經敘事是有力的證實了實質性協議,當代的批評感到必須承認兩國之間的主要文件的事業單位一覽( J ,電子商務) ,而根據他們已用於其組成:這樣的協議要點顯然到一個較早的口頭傳說,這時,書面承諾在兩個不同的形式,沒有重大影響的情況下改變以後的年齡。 It is finally put beyond the possibility of a doubt by the Egyptian colouring which is common to both these documents, and which will be presently described.這是最終超越的可能性,毫無疑問,由埃及染色這是常見的這兩個文件,這將是目前描述。 This Egyptian element is no mere literary dress with which the poplar fancy of a later date and in a distant land could have vested more or less happily the incidents narrated.這埃及的因素並非僅僅是服裝的文學與楊樹想像日後在一個遙遠的土地可以有既得利益或多或少愉快的事件敘述。 It belongs to the very core of the history of Joseph, and is plainly a direct reflection of the manners and customs of ancient Egypt.它屬於非常核心的歷史約瑟夫,顯然是直接反映的禮儀和習俗的古埃及。 Its constant truthfulness to things Egyptian proves the existence of an ancient tradition, dating as far back as the Egyptian period, and faithfully preserved in the composite account of Genesis.其持續不斷的真實性埃及的事情證明了存在著一個古老的傳統,日期可以追溯到埃及期間,忠實地保存在綜合考慮成因。

The extent of the Egyptian colouring just referred to in the history of Joseph has been closely investigated by recent scholars.的程度埃及染色剛才提到的歷史約瑟夫一直密切最近調查的學者。 The brown-skinned children of Israel, who brought camels richly laden from the East to the Nile, are drawn to life on the Egyptian monuments, and the three kinds of spices they were carrying into Egypt are precisely those which would be in demand in that country for medicinal, religious, or embalming purposes.棕色皮膚的兒童,以色列是誰把豐富的載貨駱駝從東到尼羅河,被吸引到生命的埃及古蹟,和三種調味品他們攜帶進入埃及恰恰是那些將在這需求國家醫藥,宗教或防腐的目的。 The existence of various overseers in the houses of Egyptian grandees is in perfect harmony with ancient Egyptian society, and the mer-per or superintendent of the house, such as Joseph was, is in particular often mentioned on the monuments.目前存在著各種監督員的房屋,埃及grandees是完美和諧的古埃及社會和海外的每或院長的房子,如約瑟夫,特別是經常提到的紀念碑。 To the story of Joseph and his master's wife, there is a remarkable and well-known parallel in the Egyptian "Tale of the Two Brothers".的故事中約瑟夫和他的主人的妻子,有一個顯著的和眾所周知的平行在埃及“故事的兩兄弟” 。 The functions and dreams of the chief butler and chief baker are Egyptian in their minute details.的職能和夢想的首席管家兼貝克是埃及在其微小的細節。 In the seven cows which Pharaoh saw feeding in the meadow, we have a counterpart of the seven cows of Athor, pictured in the vignette of chapter cxlviii of the "Book of the Dead". Joseph's care to shave and change his raiment before appearing in the presence of Pharaoh, is in agreement with Egyptian customs.在這7個奶牛飼養法老王看到的草甸,我們有一個對應的7個奶牛的Athor ,想像中的情景cxlviii章的“死亡之書” 。約瑟夫照顧刮臉和改變自己的服飾出現在面前在場的法老王,同意與埃及習俗。 His advice to gather corn during the seven years of plenty falls in with Egyptian institutions, since all important cities were supplied with granaries.他的意見,收集玉米在七年的大量下降,與埃及的機構,因為所有重要的城市供應了糧倉。 Joseph's investiture, his change of name at his elevation, can be easily illustrated by reference to the Egyptian monuments.約瑟夫investiture ,他更改名稱在他的海拔,可以很容易地說明了提及埃及古蹟。 The occurrence of famines of long duration, the successful efforts made to supply the corn to the people year after year while they lasted, find their parallels in recently discovered inscriptions.發生飢荒的長期性,成功地作出努力,玉米供應的人年復一年地持續,而他們,發現他們的相似之處在最近發現的銘文。 The charge of being spies, made by Joseph against his brothers, was most natural in view of the precautions known to have been taken by the Egyptian authorities for the safety of their Eastern frontier.該負責充當間諜,由約瑟夫對他的兄弟,是最自然的,鑑於眾所周知的預防措施已經採取了埃及當局的安全東部邊界。 The subsequent history of Joseph, his divining cup, his giving to his brothers changes of garments, the land of Gessen being set apart for his father and brethren, because the shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians, Joseph's embalming of his father, the funeral procession for Jacob's burial, etc., exhibit in a striking manner the great accuracy of the Biblical account in its numerous and oftentimes passing references to Egyptian habits and customs. Even the age of 110 years, at which Joseph died, appears to have been regarded in Egypt - as is shown by several papyri - as the most perfect age to be desired.隨後,約瑟夫的歷史,他的占卜杯,他給他的兄弟服裝的變化,土地的Gessen正在建立除了為他的父親和兄弟,因為牧羊人是一個令人深惡痛絕的埃及人,約瑟夫的防腐他的父親的葬禮遊行的雅各安葬等,展示了驚人的方式偉大的準確性,聖經在其眾多的傳球和經常提到的埃及風俗習慣。即使年齡的110年,在約瑟夫死亡,似乎已經被視為在埃及-這是表現出了紙莎草紙-最完美的年齡有待改進之處。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息寫弗朗西斯體育羊腿。 Transcribed by Paul T. Crowley.轉錄由保羅噸克勞利。 Dedicated to Mr. Michael Crowley and Mr. Neal Crowley and Families The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.致力於邁克爾克勞利先生和尼爾先生克勞利和家庭的天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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