John the Baptist施洗約翰

General Information 一般信息

John the Baptist was the forerunner of Jesus.施洗約翰是耶穌的先行者。 He was the son of Zacharias and Elizabeth, both of priestly descent (Luke 1:5-25, 56-58).他的兒子撒迦利亞和伊麗莎白,這兩個祭司後裔(路1:5-25 , 56-58 ) 。 He lived as a Nazarite in the desert (Luke 1:15; Matt 11:12-14,18). He began his ministry beyond Jordan in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar (Luke 3:1-3).他住的Nazarite在沙漠裡(路1:15 ;馬特11:12-14,18 ) 。他開始了他的部超越喬丹的15年裡厄斯愷撒(路3:1-3 ) 。 He preached baptism of repentance in preparation for the coming of the Messiah (Luke 3:4-14). He baptized Jesus (Matt 3:13-17; Mark 1:9,10; Luke 3:21; John 1:32). He bore witness to Jesus as Messiah (John 1:24-42). He was imprisoned and put to death by Herod Antipas (Matt 14:6-12; Mark 6:17-28).他鼓吹悔改的洗禮,準備在未來的彌賽亞(路3:4-14 ) 。他受洗耶穌(馬特3:13-17 ;馬克1:9,10 ;路加3時21分;約翰1:32 ) 。他見證耶穌是彌賽亞(約1:24-42 ) 。他被監禁並死希律安提帕(馬特14:6-12 ;馬克6:17-28 ) 。 He was praised by Jesus (Matt 11:7-14; Luke 7:24-28). The Disciples were loyal to him long after his death (Acts 18:25).他稱讚耶穌(馬特11:7-14 ;盧克7:24-28 ) 。門徒是忠於他長期在他死後(使徒18:25 ) 。

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John the Baptist施洗約翰

Advanced Information 先進的信息

John the Baptist was the son of Zechariah, the priest, and Elizabeth (also of priestly descent and a relative of Mary the mother of Jesus).施洗約翰的父親是撒迦利亞,牧師,和伊麗莎白(也祭司後裔和親屬瑪麗的母親,耶穌) 。 Born in the hill country of Judah, his birth having been foretold by an angel (Luke 1:11ff.), he spent his early years in the wilderness of Judea (Luke 1:80).出生於山國的猶大,他出生了預言的天使(路加1點11頁。 )時,他度過了最初幾年在荒野的朱迪亞(路1:80 ) 。 His public ministry began in the fifteenth year of the emperor Tiberius (ca. AD 27) when he suddenly appeared out of the wilderness.他的公共事務部開始在15年的皇帝提庇留(約公元27 )時,他突然出現在了荒野。

The Gospels look upon John as the fulfillment of the Elijah redivivus expectation, for both the announcing angel (Luke 1:17) and Jesus (Mark 9:11-13) expressly taught this.福音視美國為實現以利亞redivivus期望,雙方宣布天使(路加1時17分)和耶穌(馬克9:11-13 )明確告訴這一點。 Furthermore, John's garb of a "garment of camel's hair, and a leather girdle around his waist" (Matt. 3:4) was similar to the dress of Elijah (II Kings 1:8).此外,約翰的外衣的“服裝的駱駝毛,及皮革腰帶男子的腰間” (瑪特泰三時04分)是類似的服裝以利亞(二國王1:8 ) 。 Although John himself denied this identification (John 1:21-25), admitting only to being Isaiah's "voice in the wilderness" (John 1:23), it may be that he was disclaiming the popular hope for the literal resurrection of Elijah, accepting only the fulfillment of his spirit and power.雖然約翰本人否認了這一說法鑑定(約1:21-25 ) ,只承認正在以賽亞的“聲音在曠野” (約翰一時23分) ,可能是他disclaiming流行的希望字面復活以利亞,只接受履行他的精神和力量。 Indeed this was the explicit promise of the angel.事實上,這是明確承諾的天使。

John's message had a twofold emphasis: (1) the imminent appearance of the messianic kingdom, and (2) the urgent need for repentance to prepare for this event (Matt. 3:2).約翰的信息有雙重強調: ( 1 )即將出現的彌賽亞王國,和( 2 )迫切需要懺悔為準備這次活動(瑪特泰3:2 ) 。 In true prophetic fashion his concept of the nature of the kingdom was not that of the popular mind, and thus was a proper preparation for Christ.在真正的時尚預言他的概念,性質的王國並不流行的考慮,因此是一個適當的準備基督。 The multitudes expected the "day of the Lord" to be happiness for all Israel, basing their hope on racial considerations.預計在眾多的“天上帝”是幸福的所有以色列,他們希望根據種族的考慮。 John proclaimed that the kingdom was to be a rule of righteousness, inherited only by those who exhibited righteousness by the way they lived.約翰宣布,沙特將是一個法治的正氣,繼承只有那些具有正義誰的方式生活。 Thus his message of repentance was directed particularly to the Jew, for God was going to purge Israel as well as the world (Matt. 3:7-12).因此致詞懺悔是針對特別是猶太人,上帝要清除以色列以及世界(瑪特泰3:7-12 ) 。 When Jesus appeared on the scene John's role as a forerunner was completed in his personal testimony to the fact of Jesus' messiahship (John 1:29).當耶穌出現在現場約翰的作用作為一個先行者完成了他個人的證詞的事實,耶穌的messiahship (約1時29分) 。

The baptism of John complemented his preparatory task.洗禮的約翰補充他的籌備工作。 In its basic sense it was a symbolic act for the cleansing away of sin, and was thus accompanied by repentance.在其基本意義上講,它是一個象徵性行動的清洗以外的罪孽,因此伴隨著懺悔。 So Matt.因此,馬特。 3:6 says, "and they were baptized by him in the river Jordan while confessing fully (exomologoumenoi) their sins." 3時06分說, “他們洗禮的他在約旦河而懺悔完全( exomologoumenoi )他們的罪孽。 ” But in its fullest sense it was an eschatological act preparing one for admission into the messianic kingdom.但是,在充分意義上講,它是一個末世論行為之一的準備進入英國的救世主。 Thus when the Pharisees and Sadducees came for baptism, John said, "Who warned you to flee form the wrath to come?"因此,當法利賽和撒都該人來的洗禮,約翰說: “你是誰發出警告的形式逃離的憤怒來? ” (Matt. 3:7). (瑪特泰3:7 ) 。 Josephus's account of John's baptism (Antiquities xviii.5.2) is at variance with this, suggesting that its purpose was to provide a bodily purification to correspond with an already accomplished inward change.約瑟夫的帳戶約翰的洗禮(古物xviii.5.2 )不符合本,這表明其目的是提供一個身體淨化符合已經完成了向內的變化。 The historical background to John's baptism is probably Jewish proselyte baptism, with John emphasizing by this that both Jew and Gentile were ceremonially unclean as far as the true people of God were concerned.的歷史背景,約翰的洗禮可能是猶太人proselyte洗禮,與約翰強調了這一點,這兩個猶太人和詹蒂萊了隆重不潔至於真正的人民的關切上帝。 The baptism of Jesus by John (Matt. 3:13-15) is to be explained not as a sign that Jesus needed repentance, but rather that by this act he was identifying himself with mankind in the proper approach to God's kingdom.在耶穌洗禮的約翰(瑪特泰3:13-15 )是解釋不是作為一個跡象,表明耶穌需要懺悔,而是通過這種行為,他自稱與人類在適當的解決辦法,以上帝的王國。

It has long been felt that John was at one time connected with the Essenes, because of his ascetic habits and his location near the chief settlement of the sect.長期以來一直認為,約翰是在同一時間與愛色尼,因為他的苦行習慣和他的位置附近的首席解決節。 This has been given greater possibility by the recognized affinities between John and the Dead Sea Scroll (Qumran) sect, an Essenish group which dwelt on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea.這已得到了更大的可能性公認的親和力和約翰之間的死海捲軸(昆蘭)節,一個Essenish組談到西北海岸的死海。 This connection is certainly possible, for both John and the Qumran sect resided in the wilderness of Judea, both were of a priestly character, both laid emphasis on baptism as a sign of inward clensing, both were ascetic, both thought in terms of imminent judgment, and both invoked Isa.這方面當然是可能的,無論約翰和庫姆蘭節居住在荒野的朱迪亞,都是一個祭司特點,既強調了洗禮,以示抵港clensing ,都是苦行,都以為方面的迫在眉睫的判決,同時援引伊薩。 40:3 as the authority for their mission in life. 40:3的權威作為其使命壽命。 But although John may have been influenced by the sect in the early stages of his life, his ministry was far greater.但是,儘管美國可能已經影響到第二節的早期階段,他的生命,他的部大得多。 John's role was essentially prophetic; the sect's was esoteric.約翰的作用基本上是先知;該教派的是深奧的。 John issued a public call to repentance; the sect withdrew to the desert.約翰發表了一項公開呼籲悔改;該教派撤回沙漠。 John proclaimed an exhibition of repentance in the affairs of ordinary life; the sect required submission to the rigors of its ascetic life.約翰宣布展覽的懺悔事務的正常生活;該教派需要提交嚴格的苦行生活。 John introduced the Messiah; the sect still waited for his manifestation.約翰介紹了彌賽亞;該教派仍然在等待他的表現。

John's denunciation of Herod Antipas for his marriage was the cause of his death by beheading (Matt. 14:1-12).約翰的退出希律安提帕他的婚姻是他的死因的斬首(瑪特泰14:1-12 ) 。 Josephus tells us that this took place at the fortress of Machaerus near the Dead Sea.歷史學家告訴我們,這個發生在堡壘Machaerus死海附近的。 The Mandaeans were influenced by John, for he plays a large part in their writings.該曼德安影響的約翰,因為他發揮了很大一部分在其著作。 This connection may have come through John's disciples, who existed for at least twenty-five years after John's death (Acts 18:25; 19:3).這方面可能是通過約翰的門徒,誰存在至少二十五年後,約翰的死亡(使徒18:25 ; 19時03分) 。

RB Laurin包勞林
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
CH Kraeling, John the Baptist; J. Thomas, Le mouvement baptiste en Palestine et Syrie; A. Plummer, Gospel According to St. Matthew, 30-31; M. Burrows, More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls; W.甲烷Kraeling ,施洗約翰;托馬斯,樂恩運動巴蒂斯特巴勒斯坦和敘利亞的A.盧默,福音馬太, 30-31 ;伯羅斯先生,更多的光照對死海古卷;總統 Wink, John the Baptist in the Gospel Tradition; FF Bruce, NT History; E. Barnwell, "The Baptist in Early Christian Tradition," NTS 18:95ff.; CHH Scobie, John the Baptist.眨眼,施洗約翰福音中的傳統;法郎布魯斯,新台幣的歷史;體育巴恩韋爾, “浸禮會在早期基督教傳統, ”國稅18:95頁。 ; CHH斯科比,施洗約翰。


John the Baptist施洗約翰

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The "forerunner of our Lord."的“先行者我們的上帝。 ” We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels.我們只有零碎和不完善的帳目他的福音。 He was of priestly descent.他祭司後裔。 His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia (1 Chr. 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke 1:5).他的父親撒迦利亞,是一個牧師的過程中阿比亞( 1染色體。 24:10 ) ,和他的母親,伊麗莎白的問題,是女兒的阿龍(路1:5 ) 。 The mission of John was the subject of prophecy (Matt. 3:3; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1).該特派團的約翰主題的預言(瑪特泰3時零三;伊薩。 40:3 ;誤。 3:1 ) 。 His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold by an angel.他的出生,發生6個月前的耶穌,是預言的天使。 Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision (Luke 1:64).撒迦利亞,被剝奪了權力的講話,以示上帝的真理和責備自己的懷疑參照出生的兒子,有權力的言論對他恢復之際,他割禮(路1:64 ) 。 After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what is mentioned in Luke 1:80.在此沒有更多的記錄,他30年比是什麼提到盧克1:80 。 John was a Nazarite from his birth (Luke 1:15; Num. 6:1-12).約翰是一個Nazarite從他的出生(路1:15 ;數。 6:1-12 ) 。

He spent his early years in the mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea (Matt. 3:1-12).他花早年在山區道之間的猶太躺在耶路撒冷和死海(瑪特泰3:1-12 ) 。 At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from "every quarter" were attracted to him.終於,他出來到公共生活,和偉大的眾多由“每季度”吸引了他。 The sum of his preaching was the necessity of repentance.在總結他的說教是必須懺悔。 He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a "generation of vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting to external privileges (Luke 3:8). "As a preacher, John was eminently practical and discriminating. Self-love and covetousness were the prevalent sins of the people at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined charity and consideration for others. The publicans he cautioned against extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder."他譴責撒都該人和法利為“新一代的毒蛇” ,並警告他們的愚蠢信任的外部特權(路加3點08分) 。 “作為一個佈道者,約翰是非常實際和歧視。自治愛情和貪婪人普遍存在的罪過的人在逃。上,因此,他責成慈善和為他人考慮。 publicans他的告誡不要勒索,士兵們打擊犯罪和掠奪。 “ His doctrine and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and the people from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the banks of the Jordan.他的理論和方式的生活激起了整個南部的巴勒斯坦人民和來自全國各地蜂擁而至的地方,他對銀行的約旦。 There he baptized thousands unto repentance.在那裡,他受洗數千你們懺悔。

The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth (Matt. 3:5), and he came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special ground that it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" (3: 15).在名利的約翰達成的耳朵耶穌在拿撒勒(瑪特泰三點05分) ,他來自加利利到約旦將約翰的洗禮,在特殊的理由是,它成了他“履行所有正義” ( 3 : 15 ) 。 John's special office ceased with the baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase as the King come to his kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to bear testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him out to his disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." His public ministry was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for the sin of having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip (Luke 3:19). He was shut up in the castle of Machaerus (qv), a fortress on the southern extremity of Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded. His disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told Jesus all that had occurred (Matt. 14:3-12). John's death occurred apparently just before the third Passover of our Lord's ministry. Our Lord himself testified regarding him that he was a "burning and a shining light" (John 5:35).約翰的特別辦公室,停止與耶穌洗禮,誰現在必須“隨著國王來到他的王國。他繼續說,然而,一段時間來證明的Messiahship耶穌。他指出他對他的弟子說: “看哪,天主的羔羊。 ”他的公共事務部突然(後6個月左右大概)結束,他被拋入監獄的希律王,他曾責備的罪惡採取了對自己的妻子,他的弟弟菲利普(路加3點19 ) 。他被關在城堡的Machaerus ( qv ) ,一個堡壘的最南端Peraea , 9英里以東的死海,在這裡,他被斬首。他的弟子,在托運的無頭屍體的墳墓,去告訴耶穌都發生了(瑪特泰14:3-12 ) 。約翰的死亡發生之前,顯然只是第三逾越節我們的上帝部。我們的主本人就他作證說,他是一個“燃燒和一個光輝的光“ (約5點35分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


John the Baptist's Baptism施洗約翰的洗禮

Advanced Information 先進的信息

John's Baptism was not Christian baptism, nor was that which was practised by the disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion.約翰的洗禮沒有基督教的洗禮,也不是,這是實行門徒以前我們的上帝的十字架。 Till then the New Testament economy did not exist.至此聖經新經濟並不存在。 John's baptism bound its subjects to repentance, and not to the faith of Christ.約翰的洗禮約束其主題的懺悔,而不是信仰基督教。 It was not administered in the name of the Trinity, and those whom John baptized were rebaptized by Paul (Acts 18:24; 19:7).這不是管理的名義三一,而這些人約翰被rebaptized洗禮的保羅(使徒18:24 ; 19點07分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


John the Baptist's Baptism of Christ施洗約翰的洗禮基督

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Christ had to be formally inaugurated into the public discharge of his offices.基督要正式成立進入公眾履行他的辦公室。 For this purpose he came to John, who was the representative of the law and the prophets, that by him he might be introduced into his offices, and thus be publicly recognized as the Messiah of whose coming the prophecies and types had for many ages borne witness.為此目的,他來到約翰,誰是代表法律和先知,到他可能被引入到他的辦公室,因此,公開承認彌賽亞其未來的預言和類型有許多年齡負擔證人。 John refused at first to confer his baptism on Christ, for he understood not what he had to do with the "baptism of repentance."約翰起初拒絕授予他對基督的洗禮,他不理解,他必須做的“悔改的洗禮。 ” But Christ said, "'Suffer it to be so now,' NOW as suited to my state of humiliation, my state as a substitute in the room of sinners."但是,耶穌說: “ '患它是現在,現在適合我的國家的侮辱,我的國家作為替代在會議室的罪人。 ” His reception of baptism was not necessary on his own account.他接待的洗禮,沒有必要對自己的帳戶。

It was a voluntary act, the same as his act of becoming incarnate.這是一個自願的行為一樣,他的行為成為體現。 Yet if the work he had engaged to accomplish was to be completed, then it became him to take on him the likeness of a sinner, and to fulfil all righteousness (Matt. 3:15).然而,如果他的工作進行了完成要完成,然後它成為他採取對他像一個罪人,並履行所有正義(瑪特泰3:15 ) 。 The official duty of Christ and the sinless person of Christ are to be distinguished.這位官員的責任基督和無罪的人,基督是加以區別。 It was in his official capacity that he submitted to baptism.這是在他的官方身份,他提交的洗禮。 In coming to John our Lord virtually said, "Though sinless, and without any personal taint, yet in my public or official capacity as the Sent of God, I stand in the room of many, and bring with me the sin of the world, for which I am the propitiation."在接下來的約翰勳爵實際上我們說, “雖然無罪,並沒有任何個人的污點,但在我的公共或官方身份發送的上帝,我站在房間中的許多人,並把我的罪惡的世界,而我和解。 “ Christ was not made under the law on his own account.基督是沒有法律根據自己的帳戶。 It was as surety of his people, a position which he spontaneously assumed.這是作為擔保人他的人民,這一立場,他自發地承擔。 The administration of the rite of baptism was also a symbol of the baptism of suffering before him in this official capacity (Luke 12:50).管理的洗禮儀式也象徵著苦難的洗禮之前,他在這個官方身份(路12:50 ) 。 In thus presenting himself he in effect dedicated or consecrated himself to the work of fulfilling all righteousness.在就此提出自己的影響,他專門或自己神聖的工作,履行所有正義。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


John the Baptist施洗約翰

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Essene saint and preacher; flourished between 20 and 30 CE; fore-runner of Jesus of Nazareth and originator of the Christian movement.厄色尼聖和佈道者;蓬勃發展20至30名行政長官;前列,亞軍的拿撒勒的耶穌和發端的基督教運動。 Of his life and character Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 5, § 2) says:他的生活和性格約瑟夫( “螞蟻。 ”十八。 5條第2款)說:

"He was a good man [comp. ib. 1, § 5], who admonished the Jews to practise abstinence [ἀρετὴν = "Pharisaic virtue" = "perishut"; comp. "BJ" ii. 8, § 2], lead a life of righteousness toward one another and of piety [εὐσέβειαν = "religious devotion"] toward God, and then join him in the rite of bathing [baptism]; for, said he, thus would baptism be acceptable to Him [God] if they would use it not simply for the putting away of certain sins [comp. II. Sam. xi. 4] or in the case of proselytes [see Soṭah 12b; comp. Gen. R. i.], but for the sanctification of the body after the soul had beforehand been thoroughly purified by righteousness. The people flocked in crowds to him, being stirred by his addresses. King Herod Antipas, fearing lest the great influence John had over the people might be used by him to raise a rebellion, sent him to the fortress of Macherus as a prisoner, and had him put to death. “他是一個好人[補償。興業。 1 ,第5 ] ,誰告誡猶太人信奉禁慾[ ἀρετὴν = ” Pharisaic憑藉“ = ” perishut “ ;補償。 ”北京“二。 8日,第2 ] ,鉛生命對正義和彼此的虔誠[ εὐσέβειαν = “宗教奉獻” ]對上帝,然後與他一道在儀式洗澡[洗禮] ;的,他說,因此,將接受洗禮他[上帝]如果他們將利用它不是簡單的把某些以外的罪孽[補償。二。山姆。喜。 4 ] ,或如屬proselytes [見Soṭah 12B條;補償。將軍河島] ,但對神聖的正文後的靈魂已經事先得到徹底淨化正氣。人聚集在人群中他說,正在激起他的地址。希律王安提帕,他們擔心,以免影響很大約翰的人可能是他所使用的提高叛亂,送他的堡壘Macherus作為一個囚犯,並把他死刑。

"The people in their indignation over this atrocious act beheld in the destruction which came soon afterward upon the army of Herod a divine punishment." “人民的憤慨,這一殘暴行徑看見在銷毀其中事後不久後軍隊的希律王神的懲罰。 ”

Legend of Birth.傳奇的誕生。

John the Baptist was made the subject of a legendary narrative embodied in Luke i.施洗約翰作了主題的一個傳奇敘事體現在盧克島 5-25, 57-80, and iii. 5月25日, 57-80 ,和三。 1-20, according to which he was the son of Zacharias, a priest of the section of Abia, and of Elisabeth, also of priestly descent, and was born in their old age. The angel Gabriel announced John's birth to Zacharias while that priest stood at the altar offering incense, and told him that this child would be a Nazarite for life ("nezir 'olam"; Nazir i. 2); filled with the Holy Spirit from his mother's womb, he would be called upon to convert the children of Israel to God, and with the power of Elijah would turn the hearts of the fathers to the children while preparing the people for the Lord (Mal. iii. 24 [AV iv. 6]). 1月20日,根據他的兒子撒迦利亞,一名神父的部分阿比亞和伊麗莎白,也祭司後裔,出生在晚年。天使加布里埃爾宣布約翰的誕生而撒迦利亞神父站在祭壇提供香火,並告訴他,這個孩子將是一個Nazarite生命( “ nezir ' olam ” ;納齊爾卡島2 ) ;充滿聖靈從他母親的子宮裡,他將被要求轉換兒童對以色列的上帝,並與力量將轉向以利亞心中的父親的孩子而準備的人的上帝( Mal.三。 24 [視聽四。 6 ] ) 。 Zacharias, hesitating to believe the message, was struck dumb, and his mouth was opened again only after the birth of the child, when at the circumcision a name was to be given him; then he answered simultaneously with his wife that he should be called "John," as the angel had foretold.撒迦利亞,猶豫相信的訊息,被愚蠢的,而且他的嘴再次被打開後,才子女出生時,在割禮的名稱應給他,然後他回答的同時,他的妻子,他應該被稱為“約翰, ”作為天使的預言。 Zacharias, filled with the Holy Spirit, blessed God for the redemption of the people of Israel from the hand of their enemies (the Romans) through the house of David (a Messianic view altogether at variance with the New Testament conception), and prophesied that the child John should be called "Prophet of the Highest," one that would show how salvation should be obtained by remission of sins (through baptism; comp. Midr. Teh. to Ps. cxix. 76), so that through him a light from on high would be brought to "those that sit in darkness."撒迦利亞,充滿聖靈,上帝保佑贖回以色列人民的手,他們的敵人(羅馬)通過家裡的大衛(一期彌賽亞完全不同的新約全書的概念) ,並預言這約翰的兒童應被稱為“先知最高, ”一將顯示如何拯救應當得到緩解的罪孽(通過洗禮;補償。 Midr 。的。到PS 。 cxix 。 76 ) ,因此,通過他的輕型從高將提請“那些坐在黑暗。 ”

John remained hidden in the desert until, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, the word of God came to him, and he stepped forth, saying in the words of Isa.約翰仍然隱藏在沙漠中,直到在15年的留,上帝的話,來他,他提出辭職,說的話伊薩。 xl.坐標。 2-5: "Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand" (Matt. iii. 2), and preaching to the people to undergo baptism in repentance for the remission of their sins, and instead of relying on the merit of their father Abraham like hypocrites ("many-colored vipers"; see Hypocrisy), to prepare for the coming day of judgment and its fiery wrath by fruits of righteousness, sharing their coats and their meat with those that had none. 2-5 : “悔改業:為天國在手” (瑪特泰三。 2 ) ,並鼓吹人民接受悔改的洗禮為緩解他們的罪孽,而不是依靠的優點他們的父親亞伯拉罕像偽君子( “許多顏色毒蛇” ,見偽善) ,準備在未來一天的判決,其激烈憤怒的果實正氣,分享他們的外套和他們的肉與那些已經沒有了。 To the publicans also he preached the same, telling them to exact no moretaxes than those prescribed; to the soldiers he declared that they should avoid violence and calumny (as informers) and be content with their wages.為了publicans ,他還鼓吹相同的,告訴他們沒有確切moretaxes比明;的士兵,他宣布,他們應避免暴力和誹謗(如告密者)和內容與他們的工資。 (The sermon of John the Baptist given here is obviously original with him, and the similar one of Jesus, Matt. xii. 33-34, xxiii. 33, is based thereon.) When asked whether he was the Messiah, he answered that with his baptism of repentance he would only prepare the people for the time when the Messiah would come as judge to baptize them with fire, to winnow them and burn the chaff with fire unquenchable (the fire of Gehenna; comp. Sibyllines, iii. 286; Enoch, xlv. 3, lv. 4, lxi. 8)-a conception of the Messiah which is widely different from the one which saw the Messiah in Jesus. (在講道施洗約翰的考慮在這裡顯然是與他原來,和一個類似耶穌,馬特。十二。 33-34 ,二十三。 33歲,是基於就此。 )當記者問他是否彌賽亞,他回答說,他悔改的洗禮,他只準備的人的時候,彌賽亞將擔任法官,以洗他們與火,以簸,並焚燒了箔條與火難以抑制(火Gehenna ;補償。 Sibyllines ,三。 286 ;伊諾克,第四十五。 3 ,低壓。 4 , lxi 。 8 )一個概念的彌賽亞廣泛不同於其中看到了救世主耶穌。

Among the many that came to the Jordan to undergo the rite of baptism in response to the call of John, was Jesus of Nazareth, and the influence wrought through him created a new epoch in those circles among which Christianity arose, so that henceforth the whole life-work of John the Baptist was given a new meaning-as if in his Messianic expectations he had Jesus in view as the true Messiah (see Matt. iii. 14; John i. 26-36).在許多人來到約旦接受成年禮的洗禮響應號召,約翰,是拿撒勒的耶穌,以及造成的影響通過他創建了一個新的時代在這些圈子其中包括基督教的產生,所以,從今以後,整個生活工作施洗約翰獲得了新的含義,猶如在他的救世主,他期望在耶穌認為,真正的彌賽亞(見馬特。三。 14 ;約翰島26-36 ) 。

His Appearance.他的外觀。

John the Baptist was regarded by the multitude as a great prophet (Matt. xiv. 5; Mark xi. 32).施洗約翰被視為由多種是一個偉大的先知(瑪特泰十四。 5 ;馬克喜。 32 ) 。 His powerful appeal (see Matt. xi. 12) and his whole appearance reminded the people forcibly of Elijah the prophet; "he wore raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey" (Matt. iii. 4; comp. xi. 7-8).他的強有力的呼籲(見馬特。喜。 12 )和他的整個外觀提醒人們強行的以利亞先知, “他穿的服飾駱駝的頭髮,和皮腰帶他的腰;和他的肉蝗蟲和野生蜂蜜” (馬特。三。 4 ;補償。喜。 7-8 ) 。 He stationed himself near some water-fountain to baptize the people, at Bethabara (John i. 28) or Ænon (John iii. 23).他本人駐紮附近的一些水,噴泉,以洗禮的人民,在Bethabara (約翰島28日)或Ænon (約三。 23 ) 。 While he "preached good tidings unto the people" (Luke iii. 18), that is, announced to them that the redemption was at hand, he made his disciples prepare for it by fasting (Matt. ix. 14, xi. 18, and parallel passages).雖然他“宣揚好消息告訴人們” (路加三。 18日) ,即宣布向他們贖回是一方面,他提出他的弟子準備它的空腹(瑪特泰㈨ 。 14日,十一。 18和平行通道) 。 The prayer he taught his disciples was probably similar to the so-called Lord's Prayer (Luke xi. 1).祈禱他教他的弟子可能是類似的所謂主禱文(路加十一。 1 ) 。 John, however, provoked the wrath of King Herod because in his addresses he reproached the king for having married Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evil things he had done.約翰然而,挑起了憤怒的希律王,因為他的地址,他責備國王結婚而Herodias ,他的弟弟菲利普的妻子,和所有的邪惡的東西,他做了。 Herod therefore sent for him and put him in prison.因此,希律王送他並把他在獄中。 It was while in prison that John heard of the work of preaching or healing done by Jesus (Matt. xi. 2-19; Luke vii. 18-35).這是在監獄中,約翰聽到工作的說教或癒合所做的耶穌(瑪特泰喜。 2-19 ;盧克七。 18-35 ) 。 Herod was afraid of the multitude and would not put John to death; but Herodias, says the legend (Matt. xiv. 6; Mark vi. 19 et seq.), had plotted revenge, and when on Herod's birthday a feast was given at which Herodias' daughter ingratiated herself into his favor by her dancing, she, at the instigation of her mother, asked that the head of John the Baptist be given her on a charger, and the cruel petition was granted.希律王怕眾多,並不會把約翰死刑;但是Herodias說,傳說(瑪特泰十四。 6 ;馬克六。 19起。 )曾策劃報復,當在希律王的生日宴會是在而Herodias的女兒獻媚他本人贊成由她跳舞,她在其唆使她的母親,要求該負責人施洗約翰給予她一個充電器,和殘酷的請願書是理所當然的。 John's disciples came and buried his body.約翰的弟子來到他的屍體埋葬。

The influence and power of John continued after his death, and his fame was not obscured by that of Jesus, who was taken by Herod to be John risen from the dead (Matt. xiv. 1-2 and parallel passages).的影響力和權力繼續約翰去世後,他的名氣不是模糊的耶穌,誰是由希律王將約翰從死裡復活(瑪特泰十四。 1-2和平行通道) 。 His teaching of righteousness (Matt. xxi. 32) and his baptism (Luke vii. 29) created a movement which by no means ended with the appearance of Jesus.他的教學的正義(瑪特泰21 。 32歲)和他的洗禮(路七。 29 )建立了一個運動,絕非結束時,出現了耶穌。 There were many who, like Apollos of Alexandria in Ephesus, preached only the baptism of John, and their little band gradually merged into Christianity (Acts xviii. 25, xix. 1-7).有很多誰,就像阿波羅的亞歷山大在以弗所,鼓吹只有洗禮的約翰,他們的小樂隊逐漸併入基督教(使徒十八。 25 , 19 。 1-7 ) 。 Some of the disciples of John placed their master above Jesus.一些門徒約翰把上述主耶穌。 John had thirty apostles, of whom Simon Magus claimed to be the chief (Clementine, Recognitions, i. 60, ii. 8; ib. Homilies, ii. 23). No doubt along the Jordan the work begun by John the Baptist was continued by his disciples, and later the Mandæans, called also "Sabians" (from "ẓaba'" = "to baptize") and "Christians according to John," retained many traditions about him (see Brandt, "Die Mandäische Religion," pp. 137, 218, 228; "Mandäer," in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc.").約翰第三十二使徒,其中西門空氣自稱為首席(克萊門汀,認識島60 ,二。 8 ;興業。講道詞,二。 23 ) 。毫無疑問,沿約旦已經開始的工作施洗約翰繼續由他的弟子,後來的曼德安,也稱為“ Sabians ” (選自“扎巴” = “以洗” )和“基督信徒根據約翰” ,保留許多傳統對他的(見勃蘭特, “模具Mandäische宗教” ,頁。 137 , 218 , 228 ; “ Mandäer , ”在赫爾佐格,克, “實時Encyc 。 ” ) 。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.赫爾佐克,克,實時Encyc 。 sv Johannes der Täufer (where the whole literature is given); Soltau, in Vierteljahrschrift für Bibelkunde, 1903, pp.西沃特約翰內斯之Täufer (在整個文學是) ;索爾鐸, Vierteljahrschrift在Bibelkunde獻給, 1903年,頁。 37 et seq.K. 37等seq.K.


St. John the Baptist施洗者聖約翰

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are the canonical Gospels.的主要來源有關生命和省施洗者聖約翰是典型福音。 Of these St. Luke is the most complete, giving as he does the wonderful circumstances accompanying the birth of the Precursor and items on his ministry and death.這些聖盧克是最完整,讓像他那樣的美好陪同的情況下誕生的前兆和他的項目部和死亡。 St. Matthew's Gospel stands in close relation with that of St. Luke, as far as John's public ministry is concerned, but contains nothing in reference to his early life.馬太的福音站在密切相關的聖盧克而言,約翰的公共部門而言,而是包含任何提及他早年的生活。 From St. Mark, whose account of the Precursor's life is very meagre, no new detail can be gathered.從聖馬克,其帳戶的前驅體的生命是非常微薄的,沒有任何新的細節可以看出。 Finally, the fourth Gospel has this special feature, that it gives the testimony of St. John after the Saviour's baptism.最後,第四個福音了這一特殊功能,它提供的證詞後,聖約翰救世主的洗禮。 Besides the indications supplied by these writings, passing allusions occur in such passages as Acts 13:24; 19:1-6; but these are few and bear on the subject only indirectly.除了所提供的跡象表明這些著作,通過典故發生在這種通道的行為13:24 ; 19:1-6 ;但這些都是少數,並承擔關於這個問題的唯一間接的。 To the above should be added that Josephus relates in his Jewish Antiquities (XVIII, v, 2), but it should be remembered that he is woefully erratic in his dates, mistaken in proper names, and seems to arrange facts according to his own political views; however, his judgment of John, also what he tells us regarding the Precursor's popularity, together with a few details of minor importance, are worthy of the historian's attention.上述應該說,約瑟夫與他的猶太古物(十八,五, 2 ) ,但應該記住,他是可悲的不穩定在他的日期,誤在適當的名字,似乎安排的事實根據自己的政治意見,但是,他的判斷約翰,也是他告訴我們關於前驅體的受歡迎程度,加上一些細節的未成年人的重要性,是值得歷史學家的關注。 The same cannot be said of the apocryphal gospels, because the scant information they give of the Precursor is either copied from the canonical Gospels (and to these they can add no authority), or else is a mass of idle vagaries.也不能說,未經證實的福音,因為他們很少提供信息的前兆或者複製的典型福音(和這些他們可以添加沒有權力) ,或者是一個大規模的閒置變幻無常。

Zachary, the father of John the Baptist, was a priest of the course of Abia, the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which the priests were divided (1 Chronicles 24:7-19); Elizabeth, the Precursor's mother, "was of the daughters of Aaron", according to St. Luke (1:5); the same Evangelist, a few verses farther on (1:36), calls her the "cousin" (syggenis) of Mary. 451的父親施洗約翰,是一個牧師的過程中阿比亞,第八屆的24課程納入其中祭司分成(歷代誌上24:7-19 ) ;伊麗莎白前驅體的母親, “是女兒的亞倫“ ,據聖盧克( 1:5 ) ;相同的傳播者,一些更遠的詩句( 1:36 ) ,要求她為”表妹“ ( syggenis )的瑪麗。 These two statements appear to be conflicting, for how, it will be asked, could a cousin of the Blessed Virgin be "of the daughters of Aaron"?這兩項聲明似乎是矛盾的,如何,這將是問,可表弟的聖母是“女兒的亞倫” ? The problem might be solved by adopting the reading given in an old Persian version, where we find "mother's sister" (metradelphe) instead of "cousin".這個問題可能得到解決,通過閱讀中的老波斯版本,我們在那裡找到“媽媽的妹妹” ( metradelphe ) ,而不是“表兄弟” 。

A somewhat analogous explanation, probably borrowed from some apocryphal writing, and perhaps correct, is given by St. Hippolytus (in Nicephor., II, iii).一種略為類似的解釋,可能借用一些未經書面,也許正確的,是由聖西波呂(在Nicephor 。 ,二,三) 。 According to him, Mathan had three daughters: Mary, Soba, and Ann.據他說, Mathan有三個女兒:瑪麗,蕎麥麵,和Ann 。 Mary, the oldest, married a man of Bethlehem and was the mother of Salome; Soba married at Bethlehem also, but a "son of Levi", by whom she had Elizabeth; Ann wedded a Galilean (Joachim) and bore Mary, the Mother of God.瑪麗,最古老的,已婚男子伯利恆和母親是莎樂美;蕎麥麵已婚在伯利恆還,而是一個“兒子列維” ,由被她伊麗莎白;安拘泥於一伽利略(約阿希姆)和負有瑪麗的母親上帝。 Thus Salome, Elizabeth, and the Blessed Virgin were first cousins, and Elizabeth, "of the daughters of Aaron" on her father's side, was, on her mother's side, the cousin of Mary.因此,莎樂美,伊麗莎白,以及聖母首次表兄弟,和伊麗莎白, “女兒的亞倫”她父親的一方,是對她母親的一方,表妹瑪麗。 Zachary's home is designated only in a vague manner by St. Luke: it was "a city of Juda", "in the hill-country" (I, 39). 451家被指定只能在一個模糊的方式聖盧克:這是“一個城市的猶大” , “在山國” (我, 39歲) 。 Reland, advocating the unwarranted assumption that Juda might be a misspelling of the name, proposed to read in its stead Jutta (Joshua 15:55; 21:16; DV; Jota, Jeta), a priestly town south of Hebron.雷蘭,倡導不必要的假設,即猶大可能是一個錯誤的名稱,建議改為取而代之尤塔(約書亞15:55 ; 21:16 ;家庭;霍塔,鍾氏) ,一個牧師城鎮希伯倫南部。 But priests did not always live in priestly towns (Mathathias's home was at Modin; Simon Machabeus's at Gaza).但是神父沒有永遠活在祭司城鎮( Mathathias的家在莫丁;西蒙Machabeus的在加沙地帶) 。 A tradition, which can be traced back to the time before the Crusades, points to the little town of Ain-Karim, five miles south-west of Jerusalem.的傳統,這可以追溯到之前的時間十字軍東征,指出,小城鎮的艾因卡里姆, 5英里西南耶路撒冷。

The birth of the Precursor was announced in a most striking manner.誕生的前兆宣布在最引人注目的方式。 Zachary and Elizabeth, as we learn from St. Luke, "were both just before God, walking in all the commandments and justifications of the Lord without blame; and they had no son, for that Elizabeth was barren" (i, 6-7). 451和伊麗莎白,因為我們學習的聖盧克, “都只是在上帝面前,走在所有的戒律和理由上帝沒有責備;和他們沒有兒子,因為這是伊麗莎白不毛之地” (一, 6-7 ) 。 Long they had prayed that their union might be blessed with offspring; but, now that "they were both advanced in years", the reproach of barrenness bore heavily upon them.只要他們祈禱,他們的工會可能是得天獨厚的後代,但是現在, “他們都是先進的幾年” ,在責備的不孕症承擔很大程度上取決於他們。 "And it came to pass, when he executed the priestly function in the order of his course before God, according to the custom of the priestly office, it was his lot to offer incense, going into the temple of the Lord. And all the multitude of the people was praying without, at the hour of incense. And there appeared to him an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And Zachary seeing him, was troubled, and fear fell upon him. But the angel said to him: Fear not, Zachary, for thy prayer is heard; and they wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John: and thou shalt have joy and gladness, and many shall rejoice in his nativity. For he shall be great before the Lord; and shall drink no wine nor strong drink: and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb. And he shall convert many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias; that he may turn the hearts of the fathers unto the children, and the incredulous to the wisdom of the just, to prepare unto the Lord a perfect people" (i, 8-17). “它來傳遞,當他執行的祭司職能的秩序當然他的上帝面前,根據客戶的祭司辦公室,這是他可以提供許多幫助香,進入廟主。所有的許許多多的人祈禱沒有,在小時的香火。而且似乎有一個天使他的上帝,站在右邊的祭壇上香。而且扎卡里看見他,感到不安,並擔心落在他。但天使對他說:沒有恐懼, 451 ,為你祈禱是聽取和他們的妻子伊麗莎白應承擔你一個兒子,和你應該要求他的名字約翰:和你應該有喜悅和歡樂,許多人應慶幸在他的耶穌。對於他應在偉大的上帝; ,並應喝葡萄酒也沒有強有力的飲料是:他應充滿聖靈,甚至從他母親的子宮內。並須轉換許多兒童對以色列的上帝上帝。而且他將繼續在他面前的精神和力量的埃利亞斯; ,他可能把心中的父親告訴孩子們,並以不可思議的智慧,公正,準備祂上帝一個完美的人“ (一, 8-17 ) 。 As Zachary was slow in believing this startling prediction, the angel, making himself known to him, announced that, in punishment of his incredulity, he should be stricken with dumbness until the promise was fulfilled.至於451是緩慢相信這個驚人的預測,天使,讓他知道他宣布,在懲罰他的懷疑,他應該是飽經與70年代之前,是履行承諾。 "And it came to pass, after the days of his office were accomplished, he departed to his own house. And after those days, Elizabeth his wife conceived, and hid herself five months" (i, 23-24). “這是過去,幾天後他的辦公室有成就,他離開自己的房子。之後那些日子,他的妻子伊麗莎白的設想,並隱瞞自己5個月” (一, 23日至24日) 。

Now during the sixth month, the Annunciation had taken place, and, as Mary had heard from the angel the fact of her cousin's conceiving, she went "with haste" to congratulate her.現在,在第六屆一個月,報喜已發生,並在瑪麗聽取了天使的事實,她的表哥的設想,她去“與戒急用忍” ,以祝賀她。 "And it came to pass, that when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant" -- filled, like the mother, with the Holy Ghost -- "leaped for joy in her womb", as if to acknowledge the presence of his Lord. Then was accomplished the prophetic utterance of the angel that the child should "be filled with the Holy Ghost even from his mother's womb". “它來傳遞,當伊麗莎白聽取了招呼瑪麗,嬰兒” -填補,像母親,與聖靈- “躍升為喜悅,她的子宮裡” ,因為如果承認他的存在主。然後是完成了先知話語的天使,兒童應“是充滿了聖靈甚至從他母親的子宮裡。 ” Now as the presence of any sin whatever is incompatible with the indwelling of the Holy Ghost in the soul, it follows that at this moment John was cleansed from the stain of original sin.現在存在的任何罪惡無論是不符合留置的聖靈中的靈魂,因此,在這一時刻約翰被清洗的污點原罪。 When "Elizabeth's full time of being delivered was come. . .she brought forth a son" (i, 57); and "on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child, and they called him by his father's name Zachary. And his mother answering, said: Not so, but he shall be called John. And they said to her: There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. And they made sign to his father, how he would have him called. And demanding a writing table, he wrote, saying: John is his name. And they all wondered" (i, 59-63).當“伊麗莎白的全職正在交付到來。 。 。她提出了一個兒子” (一, 57 ) ;和“第八天他們來到circumcise兒童,他們打電話給他,他父親的名字451 。而且他的媽媽回答說:不是這樣,但他應被稱為約翰。而且他們對她說:有沒有你的親屬是所謂的這個名字。他們簽署了向他的父親,他將如何他呼籲。而且要求採用書面形式的表,他寫道,他說:約翰是他的名字。他們都知道“ (一, 59-63 ) 。 They were not aware that no better name could be applied (John, Hebrew; Jehohanan, ie "Jahweh hath mercy") to him who, as his father prophesied, was to "go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways; to give knowledge of salvation to his people, unto remission of their sins: through the bowels of the mercy of our God" (i, 76- 78).他們沒有意識到,沒有更好的名字可以適用(約翰文,希伯來文; Jehohanan ,即“ Jahweh上帝憐憫” ) ,以他誰,因為他的父親預言,是“走出去之前,面對上帝編寫的方式;以讓知識的拯救他的人民,你們緩解他們的罪孽:通過腸子的擺佈我們的上帝“ (一, 76 -7 8) 。 Moreover, all these events, to wit, a child born to an aged couple, Zachary's sudden dumbness, his equally sudden recovery of speech, his astounding utterance, might justly strike with wonderment the assembled neighbours; these could hardly help asking: "What an one, think ye, shall this child be?"此外,所有這些事件,即,出生的孩子的中年夫婦, 451突然70年代,他同樣突然恢復的講話,他驚人的話語,也許公正罷工,好奇地聚集在鄰國;這些難以不禁要問: “什麼是一,你們認為,應是這個孩子? “ (i, 66). (一66 ) 。

As to the date of the birth of John the Baptist, nothing can be said with certainty.至於日期的誕生施洗約翰,沒有什麼可以肯定。 The Gospel suggests that the Precursor was born about six months before Christ; but the year of Christ's nativity has not so far been ascertained.福音表明前驅出生約六個月公元前;但一年的基督誕生迄今尚未確定。 Nor is there anything certain about the season of Christ's birth, for it is well known that the assignment of the feast of Christmas to the twenty-fifth of December is not grounded on historical evidence, but is possibly suggested by merely astronomical considerations, also, perhaps, inferred from astronomico-theological reasonings.也不是有什麼特定的季節耶穌的誕生,因為它是眾所周知的,即轉讓的聖誕大餐的第二十五屆12不接地的歷史證據,但很可能僅僅是建議的天文因素,也也許,推斷天文神學reasonings 。 Besides, no calculations can be based upon the time of the year when the course of Abia was serving in the Temple, since each one of the twenty-four courses of priests had two turns a year.此外,沒有計算的依據可以根據當時的一年的過程中阿比亞是服務於寺,因為每一個04年的神父課程有兩個滿一年。 Of John's early life St. Luke tell us only that "the child grew, and was strengthened in spirit; and was in the deserts, until the day of his manifestation to Israel" (i, 80).約翰的早期生命聖盧克告訴我們,只是說“孩子長大,並加強精神; ,並在沙漠,直到有一天,他對以色列表現” (一, 80 ) 。 Should we ask just when the Precursor went into the wilderness, an old tradition echoed by Paul Warnefried (Paul the Deacon), in the hymn, "Ut queant laxis", composed in honour of the saint, gives an answer hardly more definite than the statement of the Gospel: "Antra deserti teneris sub annis. . .petiit . . ."如果我們要求公正的前兆時,走進原野,一個古老的傳統呼應Warnefried保羅(保羅執事) ,在讚美詩“ , UT斯達康queant laxis ”組成,紀念聖,給出了一個答案幾乎更明確的比聲明福音: “ Antra漠teneris分絲卡安妮。 。 。 petiit 。 。 。 ” Other writers, however, thought they knew better.其他作家,但是,想到他們知道更好。 For instance, St. Peter of Alexandria believed St. John was taken into the desert to escape the wrath of Herod, who, if we may believe report, was impelled by fear of losing his kingdom to seek the life of the Precursor, just as he was, later on, to seek that of the new-born Saviour.舉例來說,聖彼得亞歷山大認為聖約翰被帶到沙漠逃生的憤怒希律王,誰,如果我們可以相信的報告,是迫於害怕失去他的王國,尋求生命的前兆,就像他後來說,尋求新出生的救世主。 It was added also that Herod on this account had Zachary put to death between the temple and the altar, because he had prophesied the coming of the Messias (Baron., "Annal. Apparat.", n. 53).有人說希律王還對這個帳戶扎卡里把死亡之間的寺廟和祭壇,因為他預言未來的弭賽亞( Baron. , “年鑑。 Apparat 。 ”注53 ) 。 These are worthless legends long since branded by St. Jerome as "apocryphorum somnia".這些都是毫無價值的傳說,因為長期的品牌由聖杰羅姆為“ apocryphorum失眠症” 。

Passing, then, with St. Luke, over a period of some thirty years, we reach what may be considered the beginning of the public ministry of St. John (see BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGY).傳承,那麼,與聖盧克,一個時期一些三十年,我們達到什麼可考慮的開頭公安部聖約翰(見聖經年代) 。 Up to this he had led in the desert the life of an anchorite; now he comes forth to deliver his message to the world.到目前為止,他已導致在沙漠中生活的一個隱士,現在他來了提供他的信息世界。 "In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar. . .the word of the Lord was made unto John, the son of Zachary, in the desert. And he came into all the country about the Jordan, preaching" (Luke 3:1-3), clothed not in the soft garments of a courtier (Matthew 11:8; Luke 7:24), but in those "of camel's hair, and a leather girdle about his loins"; and "his meat" -- he looked as if he came neither eating nor drinking (Matthew 11:18; Luke 7:33) -- "was locusts and wild honey" (Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6); his whole countenance, far from suggesting the idea of a reed shaken by the wind (Matthew 11:7; Luke 7:24), manifested undaunted constancy. “在15年的統治厄斯愷撒。 。 。的話,上帝是祂約翰的兒子, 451 ,在沙漠中。與他進入該國所有的約旦,鼓吹” (路3條: 1-3 ) ,衣服不軟服裝的朝臣(馬太11時08分;盧克7時24分) ,但在這些“駱駝的頭髮,和皮革腰帶他的腰”和“他的肉” -他看上去好像他既不吃也不喝(馬太11:18 ;盧克7點33分) -“是蝗蟲和野生蜂蜜” (馬太3時0 4分;馬克1 :6) ;他的整個面容,遠離暗示想法動搖了蘆葦隨風(馬太十一時07分;盧克7時24分) ,表現出大無畏恆常。 A few incredulous scoffers feigned to be scandalized: "He hath a devil" (Matthew 11:18).有幾個懷疑scoffers假裝是震驚: “他上帝魔鬼” (馬太11:18 ) 。 Nevertheless, "Jerusalem and all Judea, and all the country about Jordan" (Matthew 3:5), drawn by his strong and winning personality, went out to him; the austerity of his life added immensely to the weight of his words; for the simple folk, he was truly a prophet (Matthew 11:9; cf. Luke 1:76, 77).然而, “耶路撒冷和所有的朱迪亞,與所有國家的約旦” (馬太3點05分) ,他得出的強大和獲獎的個性,去他的緊縮的生命增加了巨大的重量他的話;為簡單的民歌,他是一個真正的先知(馬太11點09 ;比照。盧克1:76 , 77 ) 。 "Do penance: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand" (Matthew 3:2), such was the burden of his teaching. “不要懺悔:為天國在手” (馬太3:2 ) ,這種負擔是他的教學。 Men of all conditions flocked round him.男子的所有條件,他周圍聚集。

Pharisees and Sadducees were there; the latter attracted perhaps by curiosity and scepticism, the former expecting possibly a word of praise for their multitudinous customs and practices, and all, probably, more anxious to see which of the rival sects the new prophet would commend than to seek instruction. But John laid bare their hypocrisy.法利賽和撒都該人在那裡,後者吸引了也許好奇心和懷疑,前預計可能是讚揚他們的眾多習俗和做法,以及所有可能,更渴望看到它的對手新教派的先知將讚揚比尋求指示。但約翰戳穿他們的虛偽。 Drawing his similes from the surrounding scenery, and even, after the Oriental fashion, making use of a play on words (abanimbanium), he lashed their pride with this well-deserved rebuke: "Ye brood of vipers, who hath shewed you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of penance. And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham for our father. For I tell you that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doth not yield good fruit, shall be cut down, and cast into the fire" (Matthew 3:7-10; Luke 3:7-9).他繪製線蟲從周圍的景色,甚至之後,東方時尚,利用文字遊戲( abanimbanium ) ,他抨擊他們的驕傲與此受之無愧的訓斥: “葉病的毒蛇,誰上帝shewed你逃離從憤怒呢?帶來因此,水果值得懺悔。並認為不是說在你們,我們已經亞伯拉罕為我們的父親。對於我告訴你,神是能夠對這些石塊,提高了兒童的亞伯拉罕。對於現在的斧頭規定的根樹木。每個樹doth因此,不能產生良好的成果,應降低,並拋入火“ (馬太3:7-10 ;盧克3:7-9 ) 。 It was clear something had to be done.很顯然發生了許多工作要做。 The men of good will among the listeners asked: "What shall we do?" (Probably some were wealthy and, according to the custom of people in such circumstances, were clad in two tunics.-Josephus, "Antiq.", XVIII, v, 7).男子的良好意願,聽眾問: “我們怎麼辦? ” (也許有些人富裕,按照習俗,人們在這種情況下,有兩個穿著tunics. ,約瑟夫, “ Antiq 。 ”十八,五, 7 ) 。 "And he answering, said to them: He that hath two coats, let him give to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do in like manner" (Luke 3:11). “他回答說,對他們說:他是上帝兩個大衣,讓他給他說,上帝沒有,他說上帝肉,讓他做喜歡的方式” (路加3時11 ) 。 Some were publicans; on them he enjoined not to exact more than the rate of taxes fixed by law (Luke 3:13).有些人publicans ;他們責成他沒有確切以上的速度稅收定額由法律規定(路加3時13分) 。 To the soldiers (probably Jewish police officers) he recommended not to do violence to any man, nor falsely to denounce anyone, and to be content with their pay (Luke 3:14).的士兵(可能是猶太人警察) ,他建議不要暴力,任何人,也不虛假,譴責任何人,並且內容與他們的薪酬(路加3點14分) 。 In other words, he cautioned them against trusting in their national privileges, he did not countenance the tenets of any sect, nor did he advocate the forsaking of one's ordinary state of life, but faithfulness and honesty in the fulfillment of one's duties, and the humble confession of one's sins.換言之,他告誡他們不要相信在國家的特權,他沒有面容原則的任何派別,也沒有鼓吹放棄一個人的普通生活狀態,但忠誠和誠實履行自己的職責,以及謙卑懺悔自己的罪孽。

To confirm the good dispositions of his listeners, John baptized them in the Jordan, "saying that baptism was good, not so much to free one from certain sins [cf. St. Thomas, "Summ.為了確認良好的處分,他的聽眾,約翰洗禮他們在約旦, “說,洗禮是好的,不是要免費從某些罪孽[比照。聖托馬斯, ”薩姆。 Theol.", III, A. xxxviii, a. 2 and 3] as to purify the body, the soul being already cleansed from its defilements by justice" (Josephus, "Antiq.", XVIII, vii). Theol 。 “ ,三,字母a.三十八,字母a.第2和第3 ]作為淨化身體,心靈被清洗已經從污穢的正義” (約瑟夫, “ Antiq 。 ”十八,七) 。 This feature of his ministry, more than anything else, attracted public attention to such an extent that he was surnamed "the Baptist" (ie Baptizer) even during his lifetime (by Christ, Matthew 11:11; by his own disciples, Luke 7:20; by Herod, Matthew 14:2; by Herodias, Matthew 14:3).此功能的部,比任何事情都重要,吸引公眾注意的程度,他是姓“浸信會” (即Baptizer ) ,即使在他的一生(基督,馬修11:11 ;他自己的弟子,盧克7日: 20 ;的希律王,馬修14點02分;的Herodias ,馬修14點03 ) 。 Still his right to baptize was questioned by some (John 1:25); the Pharisees and the lawyers refused to comply with this ceremony, on the plea that baptism, as a preparation for the kingdom of God, was connected only with the Messias (Ezekiel 36:25; Zechariah 13:1, etc.), Elias, and the prophet spoken of in Deuteronomy 18:15.不過他有權洗了質疑一些(約1點25分) ;的法利賽和律師拒絕遵守這個儀式,在認罪的洗禮,作為一個準備王國的上帝,是連接只有弭賽亞(以西結36:25 ;撒迦利亞13點01分,等等) ,埃利亞斯,並先知談到在申命記18:15 。 John's reply was that he was Divinely "sent to baptize with water" (John 1:33); to this, later on, our Saviour bore testimony, when, in answer to the Pharisees trying to ensnare him, he implicitly declared that John's baptism was from heaven (Mark 11:30).約翰的回答是,他是神“發送到洗禮與水” (約1點33分) ;這一點,後來,我們的救主見證,當時在回答法利賽人試圖ensnare他時,他含蓄地宣布,約翰的洗禮是從天上(馬克11:30 ) 。 Whilst baptizing, John, lest the people might think "that perhaps he might be the Christ" (Luke 3:15), did not fail to insist that his was only a forerunner's mission: "I indeed baptize you with water; but there shall come one mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to loose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: whose fan is in his hand and he will purge his floor; and will gather the wheat into his barn, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire" (Luke 3:16, 17).雖然洗禮,約翰,以免人可能會認為“或許他可能是耶穌” (路3:15 ) ,沒有忘記堅持認為,他只是一個先行者的使命: “我確實洗你的水;但應來一個比我強大的latchet他們的鞋,我不值得為鬆散的:他應洗你的聖靈與火:他們的球迷是他的手,他將他的發言清除; ,並將收集到他的小麥穀倉,但糠,他將燒傷難以抑制火“ (路加3點16分, 17 ) 。 Whatever John may have meant by this baptism "with fire", he, at all events, in this declaration clearly defined his relation to the One to come. Here it will not be amiss to touch on the scene of the Precursor's ministry.無論約翰可能意味著這個洗禮“玩火” ,他在所有的事件,在這個宣言明確界定了有關一個來。這裡將不會見怪談談現場的前驅體部。 The locality should be sought in that part of the Jordan valley (Luke 3:3) which is called the desert (Mark 1:4).地方應設法在這部分約旦河谷(路加3時03分) ,其中被稱為沙漠(馬克1:4 ) 。 Two places are mentioned in the Fourth Gospel in this connection: Bethania (John 1:28) and Ennon (AV Ænon, John 3:23).兩地中提到的第四福音在這方面: Bethania (約1點28 )和Ennon (影音Ænon ,約翰3點23分) 。 As to Bethania, the reading Bethabara, first given by Origen, should be discarded; but the Alexandrine scholar perhaps was less wrong in suggesting the other reading, Bethara, possibly a Greek form of Betharan; at any rate, the site in question must be looked for "beyond the Jordan" (John 1:28).至於Bethania ,閱讀Bethabara ,首先由奧利,應該拋棄;但亞歷山大的學者也許是錯的情況比較少在暗示其他閱讀, Bethara ,可能是希臘形式的Betharan ;無論如何,該網站的問題必須尋找“超越喬丹” (約翰1時28分) 。 The second place, Ennon, "near Salim" (John 3:23), the extreme northern point marked in the Madaba mosaic map, is described in Eusebius's "Onomasticon" as being eight miles south of Scythopolis (Beisan), and should be sought probably at Ed-Deir or El-Ftur, a short distance from the Jordan (Lagrange, in "Revue Biblique", IV, 1895, pp. 502-05).第二, Ennon , “附近的薩利姆” (約3時23分) ,北部地區的極端點標示在瑪達巴鑲嵌圖,描述的是優西比烏的“ Onomasticon ”作為八英里南部Scythopolis (備三) ,並應設法也許在愛德華代爾或法Ftur ,很短的距離從約旦(拉格朗日,在“雜誌Biblique ” ,四, 1895年,頁。 502-05 ) 。 Moreover, a long-standing tradition, traced back to AD 333, associates the activity of the Precursor, particularly the Baptism of the Lord, with the neighbourhood of Deir Mar-Yuhanna (Qasr el-Yehud).此外,長期的傳統,追溯到公元333 ,同夥活動的前兆,尤其是洗禮的上帝,與附近的代爾年3月Yuhanna (烏姆卡斯爾埃及Yehud ) 。

The Precursor had been preaching and baptizing for some time (just how long is not known), when Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan, to be baptized by him. Why, it might be asked, should He "who did no sin" (1 Peter 2:22) seek John's "baptism of penance for the remission of sins" (Luke 3:3)?該前驅體已說教和洗禮一段時間(僅多久不知道) ,當耶穌從加利利的約旦,是由他的洗禮。為什麼,它可能會問,如果他“誰也沒有罪惡” (彼得前書2時22分)尋求約翰的“洗禮的懺悔緩解的罪孽” (路加3時03 ) ? The Fathers of the Church answer very appropriately that this was the occasion preordained by the Father when Jesus should be manifested to the world as the Son of God; then again, by submitting to it, Jesus sanctioned the baptism of John.父親教會非常恰當的答案,這是一次注定的父親時,耶穌應體現為全世界上帝的兒子,然後再次提交給它,耶穌認可的洗禮約翰。 "But John stayed him, saying: I ought to be baptized by thee, and comest thou to me?" (Matthew 3:14). “但是約翰住,他說:我應該洗禮的你,和你的時候給我? ” (馬太3時14分) 。 These words, implying, as they do, that John knew Jesus, are in seeming conflict with a later declaration of John recorded in the Fourth Gospel: "I knew him not" (John 1:33).這些話,這意味著,作為他們這樣做了,約翰知道耶穌,似乎是在衝突與稍後宣布約翰記錄在第四福音: “我知道他不是” (約翰一時33分) 。 Most interpreters take it that the Precursor had some intimation of Jesus being the Messias: they assign this as the reason why John at first refused to baptize him; but the heavenly manifestation had, a few moments later, changed this intimation into perfect knowledge.大多數口譯是否可以認為,前驅有一些暗示耶穌是弭賽亞:他們指派,這是為什麼美國在第一次拒絕他洗,但天上的表現了,幾分鐘後,改變了這種暗示到完美的知識。 "And Jesus answering, said to him: Suffer it to be so now. For so it becometh us to fulfil all justice. Then he suffered him. And Jesus being baptized, forthwith came out of the water: and lo, the heavens were opened to him. . .And, behold, a voice from heaven, saying: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" (Matthew 3:15-17). “與耶穌回答,對他說:患這是現在。對於因此becometh我們完成所有正義。然後,他遭受他。與耶穌的洗禮,隨即出來的水:和羅湖,天空開放他。 。 。而且,你看,一個聲音從天上,他說:這是我心愛的兒子,在其中我非常高興“ (馬太3:15-17 ) 。

After this baptism, while Jesus was preaching through the towns of Galilee, going into Judea only occasionally for the feast days, John continued his ministry in the valley of the Jordan.在此洗禮,而耶穌鼓吹通過城鎮的加利利湖,進入朱迪亞只是偶爾的節日,約翰部繼續他的山谷中的約旦。 It was at this time that "the Jews sent from Jerusalem priests and Levites to him, to ask him: Who are thou? And he confessed, and did not deny: and he confessed: I am not the Christ. And they asked him: What then? Art thou Elias? And he said: I am not. Art thou the prophet? And he answered: No. They said, therefore, unto him: Who are thou, that we may give an answer to them that sent us? What sayest thou of thyself? He said: I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Isaias" (John 1:19-23).正是在這個時候, “猶太人從耶路撒冷發出神父和利給他,問他:你是誰?他供認,並沒有否認:他供認:我不是基督。他們問他:然後呢?藝術你埃利亞斯? ,他說:我不是。藝術先知你呢,他回答說:第他們說,因此,祂說:你是誰,我們可以回答他們,發送給我們?什麼祢的你自己?他說:我的聲音,一哭在荒野,使直接的方式上帝,因為先知說,伊薩亞斯“ (約1:19-23 ) 。 John denied he was Elias, whom the Jews were looking for (Matthew 17:10; Mark 9:10).約翰否認他是埃利亞斯,其中猶太人正在尋找(馬太17:10 ;馬克9:10 ) 。 Nor did Jesus admit it, though His words to His disciples at first sight seem to point that way; "Elias indeed shall come, and restore all things. But I say to you, that Elias is already come" (Matthew 17:11; Mark 9:11-12).耶穌也沒有承認這一點,但他的話,他的弟子乍一看似乎一點的方式; “埃利亞斯確實應來,並恢復所有的事情。但是,我要對你們說,這已經是埃利亞斯來” (馬太17:11 ;馬克9:11-12 ) 。 St. Matthew notes "the disciples understood, that he had spoken to them of John the Baptist" (Matthew 17:13). This was equal to saying, "Elias is not to come in the flesh."馬太指出, “門徒理解,認為他已經給他們施洗約翰的” (馬太17:13 ) 。這等於說, “埃利亞斯不來的肉。 ” But, in speaking of John before the multitude, Jesus made it plain that he called John Elias figuratively: "If you will receive it, he is Elias that is to come. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear" (Matthew 11:14, 15).但是,在發言之前,約翰眾多,耶穌作出清楚,他呼籲約翰埃利亞斯比喻: “如果你將得到它,他是埃利亞斯即來。他是上帝的耳朵聽,讓他聽到” (馬太11日: 14日, 15日) 。 This had been anticipated by the angel when, announcing John's birth to Zachary, he foretold that the child would go before the Lord "in the spirit and power of Elias" (Luke 1:17).這已經預計到時的天使,宣布約翰的出生到451 ,他預言,兒童將路要走上帝“的精神和力量的埃利亞斯” (路加一時17分) 。 "The next day, John saw Jesus coming to him and he saith: Behold the Lamb of God, behold him who taketh away the sin of the world. This is he of whom I said: After me there cometh a man, who is preferred before me: because he was before me. . .that he may be made manifest in Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.. ..And I knew him not; but he who sent me to baptize with water, said to me: He upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining upon him, he it is that baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and I gave testimony, that this is the Son of God" (John 1:20-34). “第二天,約翰看見耶穌來到他,他必:看哪,天主的羔羊,你看他誰taketh以外的罪惡世界。這是他對我說:以後我有來了一個人,誰是首選在我面前:是因為他在我面前。 。 。 ,他可能會表現在以色列,因此,我來洗禮與水.. ..我知道他不會,但他誰送我來洗了水,對我說:他對人你應該看到精神遞減,其餘的他,他那就是baptizeth與聖靈。 ,我看到,我證明了,這是上帝的兒子“ (約1:20-34 ) 。

Among the many listeners flocking to St. John, some, more deeply touched by his doctrine, stayed with him, thus forming, as around other famous doctors of the law, a group of disciples.在眾多的聽眾湧入聖約翰一些,更深深打動他的學說,他下榻的形成,因為其他各地名醫的法律,一群弟子。 These he exhorted to fast (Mark 2:18), these he taught special forms of prayer (Luke 5:33; 11:1).他告誡這些快(馬克2點18分) ,他教這些特殊形式的祈禱(路5時33分; 11:1 ) 。 Their number, according to the pseudo-Clementine literature, reached thirty (Hom. ii, 23).他們的人數,根據偽克萊門汀文學,達到三十( Hom.二, 23 ) 。 Among them was Andrew of Bethsaida of Galilee (John 1:44).其中包括安德魯伯賽大的加利利(約翰1時44 ) 。 One day, as Jesus was standing in the distance, John, pointed Him out, repeated his previous declaration: "Behold the Lamb of God".有一天,因為耶穌站在距離,約翰,他指出,他以前多次聲明: “看哪,天主的羔羊” 。 Then Andrew, with another disciple of John, hearing this, followed Jesus (John 1:36-38).然後安德魯,與另一弟子約翰,聽到這個,其次耶穌(約1:36-38 ) 。 The account of the calling of Andrew and Simon differs materially from that found in St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke; yet it should be noticed that St. Luke, in particular, so narrates the meeting of the two brothers with the Saviour, as to let us infer they already knew Him. Now, on the other hand, since the Fourth Evangelist does not say that Andrew and his companions forthwith left their business to devote themselves exclusively to the Gospel or its preparation, there is clearly no absolute discordance between the narration of the first three Gospels and that of St. John.該帳戶的要求安德魯和西蒙不同的重大發現,在聖馬太,聖馬克,和聖盧克,但應當注意到,聖盧克,尤其是這樣敘述會議的兩個兄弟救世主,因為讓我們推斷他們已經認識他。現在,另一方面,由於第四傳播者不說,安德魯和他的同伴隨即離開了他們企業專門致力於福音或其編制,顯然沒有絕對的不和諧之間的敘事前三福音和聖約翰。

The Precursor, after the lapse of several months, again appears on the scene, and he is still preaching and baptizing on the banks of the Jordan (John 3:23). Jesus, in the meantime, had gathered about Himself a following of disciples, and He came "into the land of Judea: and there He abode with them, and baptized" (John 3:22), -- "though Jesus himself did not baptize, but his disciples" (John 4:2).前體後,時隔幾個月,再次出現在現場,他仍然是鼓吹和洗禮的銀行約旦(約翰3點23 ) 。耶穌,在此期間,已收集到大約自己以下的弟子和他來到“到土地的朱迪亞:有他與他們居留權,並洗禮” (約翰3點22分) , -“耶穌本人雖然沒有洗,但他的弟子” (約翰4 :2) 。 -- "There arose a question between some of John's disciples and the Jews [the best Greek texts have "a Jew"] concerning purification" (John 3:25), that is to say, as is suggested by the context, concerning the relative value of both baptisms. -“有一個問題出現的一些約翰的門徒和猶太人[最好的希臘文有”猶太人“ ]關於淨化” (約3時2 5分) ,也就是說,這是建議的背景下,有關相對價值的洗禮。 The disciples of John came to him: "Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond the Jordan, to whom thou gavest testimony, behold he baptizeth, and all men come to him" (John 3:26-27).門徒約翰來到他說: “拉比,這是他跟你超越了約旦,向誰gavest你作證,你看他baptizeth ,和所有的人來找他” (約3:26-27 ) 。 They undoubtedly meant that Jesus should give way to John who had recommended Him, and that, by baptizing, He was encroaching upon the rights of John.它們無疑意味著,耶穌應該讓位給約翰誰曾建議他,並指出,洗禮,他被侵犯的權利,約翰。 "John answered and said: A man cannot receive anything, unless it be given him from heaven. You yourselves do bear me witness, that I said, I am not Christ, but that I am sent before him. He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, who standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth with joy because of the bridegroom's voice. This my joy, therefore, is fulfilled. He must increase, but I must decrease. He that cometh from above, is above all. He that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh. He that cometh from heaven, is above all. And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth. . ." “約翰回答說:一個人不能得到任何東西,除非得到他的天堂。你們為我做證人,我說,我不是基督,但我之前發出。他認為上帝是新娘新郎:但朋友的新郎誰standeth和heareth他rejoiceth與喜悅,因為新郎的聲音。這個我快樂,因此得到滿足。他必須增加,但我必須減少。他是從上面來了,是上述所有。他是地球,地球是他,和他speaketh地球。他是從天上來了,首先是。什麼上帝,他看到和聽到,他testifieth 。 。 。 “ (John 3:27-36). (約3:27-36 ) 。

The above narration recalls the fact before mentioned (John 1:28), that part of the Baptist's ministry was exercised in Perea: Ennon, another scene of his labours, was within the borders of Galilee; both Perea and Galilee made up the tetrarchy of Herod Antipas.上述敘事回顧上述事實面前(約1時28分) ,這部分浸信會的部行使佩雷亞: Ennon ,另一個場景,他的勞動,是在邊界的加利利;都佩雷亞和加利利地區取得了tetrarchy的希律安提帕。 This prince, a son worthy of his father Herod the Great, had married, likely for political reasons, the daughter of Aretas, king of the Nabathaeans.這王子,一個兒子無愧于他的父親希律王大,已經結婚了,可能出於政治原因,女兒Aretas ,國王的Nabathaeans 。 But on a visit to Rome, he fell in love with his niece Herodias, the wife of his half-brother Philip (son of the younger Mariamne), and induced her to come on to Galilee.但在訪問羅馬,他愛上了他的侄女Herodias的妻子他的同母異父兄弟菲利普(兒子的年輕Mariamne ) ,並誘導她來上加利利地區。 When and where the Precursor met Herod, we are not told, but from the synoptic Gospels we learn that John dared to rebuke the tetrarch for his evil deeds, especially his public adultery.何時何地舉行會議的前體希律王,我們不能說,但是從天氣福音,我們了解到,約翰敢於訓斥的tetrarch他的惡行,尤其是他的公共通姦。 Herod, swayed by Herodias, did not allow the unwelcome reprover to go unpunished: he "sent and apprehended John and bound him in prison".希律王,動搖Herodias ,不允許不受歡迎reprover逍遙法外:他“發出逮捕約翰和約束他在監獄中。 ” Josephus tell us quite another story, containing perhaps also an element of truth.歷史學家告訴我們,完全是另一回事的故事,也許還包含一個組成部分的真理。 "As great crowds clustered around John, Herod became afraid lest the Baptist should abuse his moral authority over them to incite them to rebellion, as they would do anything at his bidding; therefore he thought it wiser, so as to prevent possible happenings, to take away the dangerous preacher. . .and he imprisoned him in the fortress of Machaerus" (Antiq., XVIII, v, 2). “作為偉大的人群圍繞著約翰,希律王害怕,以免成為浸會應該濫用他的道德權威對他們煽動叛亂他們,因為他們做任何事在他的投標;因此,他認為明智的,以防止可能發生,以帶走的危險佈道者。 。 。 ,他被囚禁他的堡壘Machaerus “ ( Antiq. ,十八,五, 2 ) 。 Whatever may have been the chief motive of the tetrarch's policy, it is certain that Herodias nourished a bitter hatred against John: "She laid snares for him: and was desirous to put him to death" (Mark 6:19).無論可能已首席動機tetrarch的政策,肯定是Herodias營養同仇敵愾對約翰: “她奠定圈套他:是希望把他死刑” (馬克6時19分) 。 Although Herod first shared her desire, yet "he feared the people: because they esteemed him as a prophet" (Matthew 14:5).雖然希律她第一次共同的願望,但“他擔心的人:因為他們尊敬他是一個先知” (馬太14時05分) 。 After some time this resentment on Herod's part seems to have abated, for, according to Mark 6:19-20, he heard John willingly and did many things at his suggestion.一段時間後這個怨恨的希律王的部分似乎已經減弱,因為根據馬克6:19-20 ,他聽到約翰心甘情願地,並很多事情在他的建議。

John, in his fetters, was attended by some of his disciples, who kept him in touch with the events of the day.約翰,在他的腳鐐,參加了一些他的弟子,誰讓他接觸事件的一天。 He thus learned of the wonders wrought by Jesus.因此,他學到的奇蹟所造成的耶穌。 At this point it cannot be supposed that John's faith wavered in the least.在這一點上不能假設約翰的信仰動搖最少。 Some of his disciples, however, would not be convinced by his words that Jesus was the Messias.他的一些門徒,但不會相信他的話,耶穌是弭賽亞。 Accordingly, he sent them to Jesus, bidding them say: "John the Baptist hath sent us to thee, saying: Art thou he that art to come; or look we for another? (And in that same hour, he cured many of their [the people's] diseases, and hurts, and evil spirits; and to many that were blind he gave sight.) And answering, he said to them: Go and relate to John what you have heard and seen: the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are made clean, the deaf hear, the dead rise again, to the poor the gospel is preached: and blessed is he whosoever shall not be scandalized in me" (Luke 7:20-23; Matthew 11:3-6). How this interview affected John's disciples, we do not know; but we do know the encomium it occasioned of John from the lips of Jesus: "And when the messengers of John were departed, he began to speak to the multitudes concerning John. What went ye out into the desert to see? A reed shaken with the wind?"因此,他派他們去耶穌,投標人說: “施洗約翰上帝送給我們向你,他說:你他藝術藝術來;或看我們的呢? (在這同一時刻,他治好了他們的許多[人民]的疾病,傷害和辟邪的; ,並有許多盲人看不到他。 )並回答他說,對他們說:圍棋,並涉及到約翰,你聽到和看到:盲人看到,跛腳步行的麻風病人是乾淨的,聾啞人聽到,死者再次上升,給窮人的福音是鼓吹:和祝福他是誰,不得在我震驚“ (路7:20-23 ;馬太11時03分- 6 ) 。如何影響到本次採訪約翰的門徒,我們不知道,但我們知道它的encomium引起的約翰從耶穌的嘴唇: “當使者約翰離開了,他開始說話了眾多關於約翰。是什麼地方出了你們到沙漠看到嗎?蘆葦動搖的風? “ All knew full well why John was in prison, and that in his captivity he was more than ever the undaunted champion of truth and virtue.所有完全知道為什麼約翰在監獄中,而且在他的囚禁,他比以往任何時候都無所畏懼冠軍的真理和美德。 - "But what went you out to see? A man clothed in soft garments? Behold they that are in costly apparel, and live delicately, are in the houses of kings. But what went you out to see? A prophet? Yea, I say to you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written: Behold, I send my angel before thy face, who shall prepare thy way before thee. For I say to you: Amongst those that are born of women, there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptist" (Luke 7:24-28). -“但你去看看?一名男子衣服在軟服裝?看哪,他們是在昂貴的服裝,並小心翼翼地生活,是在房屋的國王。但是你去看看嗎?先知?是啊,我告訴你,超過先知。這是他的人是寫著:看哪,我將我的天使在你的臉,誰應編寫你的面前你的方式。對於我對你們說:當中那些出生的婦女,沒有更大的先知比施洗約翰“ (路7:24-28 ) 。 And continuing, Jesus pointed out the inconsistency of the world in its opinions both of himself and his precursor: "John the Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine; and you say: He hath a devil. The Son of man is coming eating and drinking: and you say: Behold a man that is a glutton and a drinker of wine, a friend of publicans and sinners. And wisdom is justified by all her children" (Luke 7:33-35). St.和持續的,耶穌指出不一致的世界的看法都本人和他的前體: “施洗約翰來到既不吃麵包,也沒有飲酒;和你說:他上帝魔鬼。兒子的人來吃飯飲用水:和你說:看哪一個人,這是暴食和飲酒的酒,一個朋友publicans和罪人。和智慧的理由是她所有的孩子“ (路7:33-35 ) 。街 John languished probably for some time in the fortress of Machaerus; but the ire of Herodias, unlike that of Herod, never abated: she watched her chance.約翰可能走入一段時期的堡壘Machaerus ;但是Herodias憤怒,不像是希律王,從來沒有減弱:她看著她的機會。 It came at the birthday feast which Herod, after Roman fashion, gave to the "princes, and tribunes, and chief men of Galilee. And when the daughter of the same Herodias [Josephus gives her name: Salome] had come in, and had danced, and pleased Herod and them that were at table with him, the king said to the damsel: Ask of me what thou wilt, and I will give it thee. . .Who when she was gone out, said to her mother, what shall I ask? But she said: The head of John the Baptist. And when she was come in immediately with haste to the king, she asked, saying: I will that forthwith thou give me in a dish, the head of John the Baptist. And the king was struck sad. Yet because of his oath, and because of them that were with him at table, he would not displease her: but sending an executioner, he commanded that his head should be brought in a dish: and gave it to the damsel, and the damsel gave it to her mother" (Mark 6:21-28).它是在壽宴的希律王,在羅馬時裝,給了“王子和tribunes ,兼加利利男子。而當女兒一樣Herodias [約瑟夫給她的名字:莎樂美]已經到來,並已跳舞,並高興地和他們希律了桌子與他,國王說的閨女:問我什麼你枯萎,我將給予你。 。 。是誰時,她出去了,說她的母親,什麼我問?但她說:負責施洗約翰。而當她來到在倉促立即向國王,她問,他說:我會認為你立即給我的一盤的負責人施洗約翰。國王感到震驚難過。然而,因為他的誓言,因為他們是與他在桌上,他不會得罪她說:但派遣一個劊子手,他指揮的,他的頭部應在菜式:給它的姑娘,和姑娘送給她的母親“ (馬克6:21-28 ) 。 Thus was done to death the greatest "amongst them that are born of women", the prize awarded to a dancing girl, the toll exacted for an oath rashly taken and criminally kept (St. Augustine).這樣做的目的是最大的死亡“他們中間有婦女所生的” ,該獎項頒發給一個舞蹈的女孩,造成死亡人數為宣誓貿然採取和保持刑事責任(聖奧古斯丁) 。 At such an unjustifiable execution even the Jews were shocked, and they attributed to Divine vengeance the defeat Herod sustained afterwards at the hands of Aretas, his rightful father-in-law (Josephus, loc. cit.).在這樣一個毫無道理的執行甚至猶太人感到震驚,他們歸因於神的復仇失敗後持續希律王的手中Aretas ,他應有的岳父(約瑟夫,同上。前。 ) 。 John's disciples, hearing of his death, "came, and took his body, and laid it in a tomb" (Mark 6:29), "and came and told Jesus" (Matthew 14:12).約翰的門徒,聽他的死亡, “來了,他的身體了,並把它的一個墳墓中” (馬克6時29分) , “來到,並告訴耶穌” (馬太14:12 ) 。

The lasting impression made by the Precursor upon those who had come within his influence cannot be better illustrated than by mentioned the awe which seize upon Herod when he heard of the wonders wrought by Jesus who, in his mind, was not other than John the Baptist come to life (Matthew 14:1, 2, etc.).持久的印象所作的前兆那些已經到來誰在他的影響力不能更好地說明不是提到了敬畏而抓住希律當他聽說的奇蹟所造成的耶穌誰,在他心裡,沒有以外的其他施洗約翰來生活(馬太14時01分, 2 ,等等) 。 The Precursor's influence did not die with him.前體的影響沒有死他。 It was far-reaching, too, as we learn from Acts 18:25; 19:3, where we find that proselytes at Ephesus had received from Apollo and others the baptism of John.這是意義深遠,也為我們學習行為18:25 ; 19時03分,在那裡我們發現,在以弗所proselytes收到了來自阿波羅和其他的洗禮約翰。 Moreover, early Christian writers speak of a sect taking its name from John and holding only to his baptism.此外,早期基督教作家談論節考慮其名稱由約翰和舉行不僅對他的洗禮。 The date of John the Baptist's death, 29 August, assigned in the liturgical calendars can hardly be relied upon, because it is scarcely based upon trustworthy documents.日期施洗約翰的死亡, 8月29日,在指定禮儀日曆也難以依靠,因為它幾乎沒有值得信賴的依據文件。 His burial-place has been fixed by an old tradition at Sebaste (Samaria).他埋葬地點已定的悠久傳統在Sebaste (撒馬利亞) 。 But if there be any truth in Josephus's assertion, that John was put to death at Machaerus, it is hard to understand why he was buried so far from the Herodian fortress.但是,如果有任何真理約瑟夫的說法,約翰是把死在Machaerus ,就很難理解為什麼他被安葬迄今從Herodian堡壘。 Still, it is quite possible that, at a later date unknown to us, his sacred remains were carried to Sebaste.然而,這很可能是,在稍後的日期未知對我們來說,他的神聖的遺體被運到Sebaste 。 At any rate, about the middle of the fourth century, his tomb was there honoured, as we are informed on the testimony of Rufinus and Theodoretus.無論如何,對中間的第四個世紀,他的墳墓在那裡榮幸,因為我們被告知的證詞, Rufinus和Theodoretus 。 These authors add that the shrine was desecrated under Julian the Apostate (c. AD 362), the bones being partly burned.這些作者補充說,靖國神社是褻瀆下的叛教者朱利安(角公元362 ) ,骨頭被部分燒毀。 A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria; and there, on 27 May, 395, these relics were laid in the gorgeous basilica just dedicated to the Precursor on the site of the once famous temple of Serapis.部分獲救的文物進行到耶路撒冷,然後到亞歷山大;和5月27日, 395個,這些文物被安放在美麗的教堂只是致力於前驅體在該網站上的一次著名的寺院塞拉皮斯。 The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by pious pilgrims, and St. Jerome bears witness to the miracles there wrought.該墓在Sebaste繼續,但要訪問的虔誠的朝聖者,和聖杰羅姆見證了奇蹟的存在造成的。 Perhaps some of the relics had been brought back to Sebaste.也許一些文物已被帶回Sebaste 。 Other portions at different times found their way to many sanctuaries of the Christian world, and long is the list of the churches claiming possession of some part of the precious treasure.其他部分在不同的時間發現自己的方式向許多避難所的基督教世界,和長期的名單是在教會聲稱擁有一部分寶貴的財富。 What became of the head of the Precursor is difficult to determine. Nicephorus (I, ix) and Metaphrastes say Herodias had it buried in the fortress of Machaerus; others insist that it was interred in Herod's palace at Jerusalem; there it was found during the reign of Constantine, and thence secretly taken to Emesa, in Phoenicia, where it was concealed, the place remaining unknown for years, until it was manifested by revelation in 453.什麼是首長的前兆難以確定。 Nicephorus (一,九)和Metaphrastes說Herodias了它埋葬在堡壘Machaerus ;別人堅持認為,這是interred在希律王宮殿在耶路撒冷;有發現在君士坦丁統治,進而採取秘密Emesa ,在腓尼基,在那裡被掩蓋,其餘的地方未知多年,直到它表現的啟示453 。 In the many and discordant relations concerning this relic, unfortunately much uncertainty prevails; their discrepancies in almost every point render the problem so intricate as to baffle solution.在許多不和諧的關係,關於這個遺跡,不幸的是普遍存在的不確定性很大,他們的差異幾乎在每一個點使錯綜複雜的問題,以便為擋板的解決辦法。 This signal relic, in whole or in part, is claimed by several churches, among them Amiens, Nemours, St-Jean d'Angeli (France), S. Silvestro in Capite (Rome).這個信號的遺跡,全部或部分,是人的幾座教堂,其中包括亞眠,內穆爾,聖讓德天使(法國) ,由西爾維斯特在Capite (羅馬) 。 This fact Tillemont traces to a mistaking of one St. John for another, an explanation which, in certain cases, appears to be founded on good grounds and accounts well for this otherwise puzzling multiplication of relics. The honour paid so early and in so many places to the relics of St. John the Baptist, the zeal with which many churches have maintained at all times their ill-founded claims to some of his relics, the numberless churches, abbeys, towns, and religious families placed under his patronage, the frequency of his name among Christian people, all attest the antiquity and widespread diffusion of the devotion to the Precursor.這一事實Tillemont痕跡的誤認之一聖約翰的另一解釋,在某些情況下,似乎是建立在很好的理由和決算以及其他這個令人費解的乘法的文物。這項榮譽支付,以便早日在這麼多地方文物的施洗者聖約翰的熱情,許多教會一直保持在任何時候他們毫無理由要求他的一些遺物,在無數的教堂,修道院,城鎮,家庭和宗教置於他的贊助,頻率為他的名字基督教之間的人,都證明了古代和廣泛的傳播奉獻的前兆。 The commemoration of his Nativity is one of the oldest feasts, if not the oldest feast, introduced into both the Greek and Latin liturgies to honour a saint.紀念他的誕生是一個最古老的傳統節日,如果不是最古老的節日,引入了希臘和拉丁liturgies履行聖人。 But why is the feast proper, as it were, of St.但是,為什麼是正確的盛宴,因為它是,聖 John on the day of his nativity, whereas with other saints it is the day of their death?約翰的一天,他誕生,而與其他聖人這是他們每天死亡? Because it was meant that the birth of him who, unlike the rest, was "filled with the Holy Ghost even from his mother's womb", should be signalized as a day of triumph.因為它意味著誕生他誰,不同的是休息,是“充滿了聖靈甚至從他母親的子宮裡” ,應作為一個信號一天的勝利。 The celebration of the Decollation of John the Baptist, on 29 August, enjoys almost the same antiquity.慶祝斷頭的施洗約翰, 8月29日,享有幾乎相同文物。 We find also in the oldest martyrologies mention of a feast of the Conception of the Precursor on 24 September.我們發現,也最古老的martyrologies提及節日的概念上的前兆9月24 。 But the most solemn celebration in honour of this saint was always that of his Nativity, preceded until recently by a fast.但是,最莊嚴的慶祝活動以紀念這一聖總是他的誕生,在此之前直到最近才由一個快。 Many places adopted the custom introduced by St. Sabas of having a double Office on this day, as on the day of the Nativity of the Lord.許多地方通過自定義介紹了街Sabas有一個雙重辦公室在這一天,因為當天的耶穌上帝。 The first Office, intended to signify the time of the Law and the Prophets which lasted up to St. John (Luke 16:16), began at sunset, and was chanted without Alleluia; the second, meant to celebrate the opening of the time of grace, and gladdened by the singing of Alleluia, was held during the night.第一個辦事處,旨在表明當時的法律和先知持續到聖約翰(路加16:16 ) ,開始日落,並高喊沒有哈里路亞;第二,這意味著開幕典禮的時間寬限期,並高興的唱哈利路亞舉行,在夜間。 The resemblance of the feast of St. John with that of Christmas was carried farther, for another feature of the 24th of June was the celebration of three masses: the first, in the dead of night, recalled his mission of Precursor; the second, at daybreak, commemorated the baptism he conferred; and the third, at the hour of Terce, honoured his sanctity.在相似的盛宴聖約翰與聖誕節進行更遠,另一個特點是, 6月24日是慶祝活動的群眾三個:第一,在夜深人靜,回顧了他使命的前兆;第二,天一亮,紀念他的洗禮授予;和第三,在Terce小時,他的神聖榮幸。 The whole liturgy of the day, repeatedly enriched by the additions of several popes, was in suggestiveness and beauty on a part with the liturgy of Christmas.整個禮儀的一天,反复豐富了增補的幾個教皇是在suggestiveness和美麗的部分與禮儀的聖誕節。 So sacred was St. John's day deemed that two rival armies, meeting face to face on 23 June, by common accord put off the battle until the morrow of the feast (Battle of Fontenay, 841).因此,神聖的是聖約翰天認為,兩個敵對的軍隊,舉行面對面6月23日,由共同協議推遲的戰鬥,直到明天的盛宴(豐之戰, 841 ) 。 "Joy, which is the characteristic of the day, radiated from the sacred precincts. The lovely summer nights, at St. John's tide, gave free scope to popular display of lively faith among various nationalities. Scarce had the last rays of the setting sun died away when, all the world over, immense columns of flame arose from every mountain-top, and in an instant, every town, and village, and hamlet was lighted up" (Guéranger). “歡樂,這是特有的一天,輻射區的神聖。可愛的夏天的夜晚,在聖約翰的潮流,給予免費範圍流行的展示生動的信仰不同國籍的人。稀缺了最後的光芒夕陽消失時,所有的世界上,巨大的火焰柱產生的每一個山區的頂端,並在瞬間,每個鎮,村,並村是燈火通明“ ( Guéranger ) 。 The custom of the "St. John's fires", whatever its origin, has, in certain regions, endured unto this day.自訂的“聖約翰火災” ,不論其來源,已在某些區域,忍受祂這一天。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯L Souvay 。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄的托馬斯M貝瑞特。 Dedicated to the Rickreall, Oregon (USA) Christmas Pageant The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.致力於Rickreall ,俄勒岡州(美國)聖誕大遊行的天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

Besides the Gospels and the Commentaries thereon, JOSEPHUS and the many Lives of Christ, EUSEBIUS, Hist.除了福音和評就此,約瑟夫和許多人的生命的基督,優西比烏,組織胺。 Eccl., I, xi; Acta pour servir a l'histoire eccles., I (Brussels, 1732), 36-47; notes p.傳道書。 ,我喜;學報爭取servir一近歷史埃克爾斯。 ,我(布魯塞爾, 1732 ) , 36-47 ;說明頁 210-222; HOTTINGER, Historia Orientalis (Zurich, 1660), 144-149; PACIANDI, De cultu J. Baptistae in Antiq. 210-222 ;霍廷格,東方史(蘇黎世, 1660 ) , 144-149 ; PACIANDI ,培養德學者Baptistae在Antiq 。 Christ., III (Rome, 1755); LEOPOLD, Johannes der Taufer (Lubeck, 1838); CHIARAMONTE, Vita di San Giovanni Battista (Turin, 1892); YESTIVEL, San Juan Bautista (Madrid, 1909).基督。 ,三(羅馬, 1755年) ;利奧波德,德國約翰內斯Taufer (呂貝克, 1838 ) ; CHIARAMONTE ,維塔教堂聖喬瓦尼巴蒂斯塔(都靈, 1892年) ; YESTIVEL ,聖胡安包蒂斯塔(馬德里, 1909年) 。


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