Immaculate Conception聖母無染原罪堂

General Information 一般信息

The Immaculate Conception is a Roman Catholic doctrine asserting that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was preserved from the effects of Original Sin from the first moment of her conception. The doctrine was defined as a dogma binding on Catholics by Pope Pius IX in the papal bull Ineffabilis Deus (1854). The doctrine as defined was debated by theologians during the Middle Ages and was rejected by Saint Thomas Aquinas. It is based on the biblical idea of Mary's holiness (Luke 1:28), early church teachings on Mary as the "new Eve," and the belief that Mary is the mother of God (Theotokos, or "God-bearer"), articulated at the Council of Ephesus (431). 聖母無染原罪堂是一個羅馬天主教的教義主張瑪麗的母親,耶穌,保存的影響原罪從第一時刻,她的概念。學說被界定為具有約束力的教條天主教徒的庇護九在羅馬教皇牛市Ineffabilis上帝( 1854年) 。 理論的定義是辯論的神學在中世紀和被否決聖托馬斯阿奎那。它是基於聖經想法瑪麗的聖潔(路加1點28 ) ,早期教會的教義作為對瑪麗“新夏娃” ,並認為瑪麗的母親是上帝(子,或“上帝旗手” ) ,闡明在安理會的以弗所( 431 ) 。 The feast of the Immaculate Conception is observed on Dec. 8.節日的聖母無染原罪堂觀察12月8日。

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Immaculate Conception聖母無染原罪堂

General Information 一般信息

The Immaculate Conception is a Roman Catholic dogma holding that from the first instant of its creation, the soul of the Virgin Mary was free from original sin; this doctrine is not to be confused with that of the Virgin Birth, which holds that Jesus Christ was born of a virgin mother.聖母無染原罪堂是一個羅馬天主教的教義認為從第一次即時的創造,靈魂的聖母是免費的原罪; 這一理論是不能混淆在一起,在美屬維爾京誕生,它認為是耶穌基督出生的處女母親。 Despite divergent scholarly opinions, the Roman Catholic church has consistently favored belief in the Immaculate Conception; a festival of that name, the significance of which is now indefinite, was celebrated in the Eastern church as early as the 5th century and in the Western church from the 7th century.儘管有不同的學術意見,羅馬天主教會一貫主張的信念,聖母無原罪瞻禮;節日的名稱,其意義現在是無限期的,是慶祝中東歐教會早在公元5世紀和西方教堂公元7世紀。 Opposition to the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception was conducted in the 12th century by the French monastic St. Bernard of Clairvaux and in the 13th century by the famous Italian philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas. Among those who supported the doctrine was the 13th-century Scottish theologian John Duns Scotus.反對的理論,即聖母無染原罪是在12世紀由法國修道士聖伯納德的伯爾納,並於13世紀由意大利著名哲學家多瑪斯。其中包括支持誰的原則是13世紀蘇格蘭神學家約翰鄧司各脫。 The theological controversy over the Immaculate Conception gained momentum in the 19th century. Finally in 1854, Pope Pius IX issued a solemn decree declaring the Immaculate Conception to be a dogma essential for the belief of the universal church.神學爭論聖母無染原罪堂勢頭在19世紀。最後於1854年,教皇庇護九發表了一項法令,宣布莊嚴的聖母無染原罪堂是一個必不可少的教條信仰的普遍教堂。 Under the title Immaculate Conception, the Virgin Mary is invoked as the patron of the United States, Brazil, Portugal, and Corsica.標題下的聖母無染原罪堂,聖母瑪利亞是援引作為靠山的美國,巴西,葡萄牙和科西嘉島。 The feast of the Immaculate Conception is December 8.節日的聖母無染原罪堂是12月8日。


Doctrine of Immaculate Conception完美無暇的理論概念

General Information 一般信息

The principal theological development concerning Mary in the Middle Ages was the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.主要的神學發展的有關瑪麗在中世紀的原則,聖母無染原罪堂。 This doctrine, defended and preached by the Franciscan friars under the inspiration of the 13th-century Scottish theologian John Duns Scotus, maintains that Mary was conceived without original sin.這一理論,捍衛和所宣揚的方濟各修士的靈感下的13世紀的蘇格蘭神學家約翰鄧司各脫,堅持認為瑪麗的構想沒有原罪。 Dominican teachers and preachers vigorously opposed the doctrine, maintaining that it detracted from Christ's role as universal savior.多米尼加教師和傳教士堅決反對的學說,認為它有損於基督的作用,普遍的救星。 Pope Sixtus IV, a Franciscan, defended it, establishing in 1477 a feast of the Immaculate Conception with a proper mass and office to be celebrated on December 8.西斯四,一個方濟,維護它,在1477年建立節日的聖母無染原罪堂,以適當的質量和辦公室,以慶祝12月8日。 This feast was extended to the whole Western church by Pope Clement XI in 1708.這節日是擴大到整個西方教會的教皇克萊門特十一大在1708年。 In 1854 Pope Pius IX issued a solemn decree defining the Immaculate Conception for all Roman Catholics, but the doctrine has not been accepted by Protestants or by the Orthodox churches.在1854年庇護九發表了莊嚴的法令,確定了聖母無染原罪堂所有羅馬天主教徒,但這一理論沒有被接受的新教徒或由東正教教堂。 In 1950 Pope Pius XII solemnly defined as an article of faith for all Roman Catholics the doctrine of the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven.在1950年教宗碧岳十二大莊嚴地界定為一個信條的所有羅馬天主教徒的理論假設的身體瑪麗進入天堂。


Immaculate Conception聖母無染原罪堂

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Immaculate Conception is the idea that the Mother of God did not have original sin at her conception nor did she acquire elements of original sin in the development of her life, whereas all other human beings have original sin from their conception due to the fall of Adam.聖母構想是這樣的設想,即天主之母沒有原罪在她的概念也沒有,她獲得要素的原罪在發展她的生命,而所有其他人有原罪從他們的概念由於秋季亞當。 The immaculate conception is an article of faith for Roman Catholics.在完美無暇的概念是一篇文章的信仰羅馬天主教。 The Mother of God, the Virgin Mary, did not have original sin because of the direct intervention of God.母親的上帝,聖母,沒有原罪,因為直接干預上帝。 Mary was immaculate as a divine privilege.瑪麗是完美無缺的神的特權。 The Roman Catholic Church considers the doctrine of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary to be part of apostolic teaching related to both the Bible and tradition.羅馬天主教會認為,理論的完美概念的聖母瑪利亞的一部分使徒教學有關的聖經和傳統。

The doctrine is referred to, at least implicitly, in the Bible in Gen. 3:15, which indicates a woman who will battle Satan.該學說是指,至少有含蓄,在聖經中將軍3:15 ,這表明一個女人誰將撒旦戰鬥。 The woman ultimately wins the battle.這名婦女最終贏得了戰鬥。 Pope Pius IX said that this section of the Bible foretells the immaculate conception.庇護九說,這一節聖經預示著完美無暇的概念。 He described his view in "Ineffabilis Deus."他說,他認為在“ Ineffabilis上帝。 ”

In the early church Mary was often referred to as "all holy."在早期教會瑪麗通常被稱為“所有聖地。 ” Luke 1:28 which relates Gabriel's greeting to Mary "Hail, full of grace" is said to be a reference to her immaculate conception.盧克1時28分關乎加布里埃爾的問候瑪麗“冰雹,充分的寬限期”據說是參照她完美無暇的概念。 In the eighth century the church in England began to celebrate a feast of Mary's conception.在第八世紀的教堂在英格蘭開始慶祝節日瑪麗的概念。 Thomas Aquinas and Bernard of Clairvaux opposed the introduction of the feast into France.托馬斯阿奎那和貝爾納的伯爾納反對引進法國大餐。 Duns Scotus favored the feast and explained that Mary was more indebted to the redemptive power of Jesus Christ than any other human being because Christ prevented her from contracting original sin because of the foreseen merits of Christ. By 1685 most Catholics accepted the notion of the immaculate conception.鄧司各脫喜愛的節日,並解釋說,瑪麗更為負債累累的救贖力量耶穌基督比其他任何人,因為基督使她無法訂約原罪由於預見到基督的優點。通過1685年最天主教徒接受的概念完美的概念。 Clement XIII strongly favored the doctrine in the eighteenth century.克萊門特十三強烈的理論主張在18世紀。 In the nineteenth century devotion to the feast grew swiftly.在十九世紀奉獻盛宴增長迅速。 Pope Pius IX, after consulting with all bishops of the church, stated the dogma holding that "the most blessed Virgin Mary was preserved from all stain of original sin in the first instant of her conception."庇護九協商後,與所有的主教教堂,指出教條認為“最神聖聖母保存所有染原罪的第一瞬間,她的概念。 ” This took place in 1854.這發生在1854年。 The immaculate conception is a special feast for the Catholics of the United States.在完美無暇的概念是一個特殊的節日天主教徒美國。

TJ German德國的TJ
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
JB Carol, Fundamentals of Mariology; E. O'Connor, ed., the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception; M. Jugie, l'Immaculee Conception dans l'Ecriture Sainte et dans la tradition orientale.巴頓卡羅爾,基本Mariology ;體育奧康納版。的教條的聖母無染原罪;先生Jugie ,近Immaculee構想中的近寫聖德拉等傳統中的東方。


Immaculate Conception聖母無染原罪堂

Advanced Catholic Information 高級天主教信息

THE DOCTRINE中庸

In the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 8 December, 1854, Pius IX pronounced and defined that the "Blessed Virgin Mary" in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and "grace" granted by "God", in view of the "merits" of "Jesus Christ", the Saviour of the "human race", was preserved exempt from all stain of "original sin".在憲法中Ineffabilis上帝的1854年12月8號,碧岳九明顯和確定的“有福聖母”一審她的概念,通過一個獨特的特權和“寬限期”授予的“上帝” ,鑑於“是非曲直“的”耶穌基督“ ,救世主的”人類“ ,是保存免除一切污點的”原罪“ 。

"The Blessed Virgin Mary . . ." The subject of this immunity from "original sin" is the person of Mary at the moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into her body. “聖母瑪麗。 。 。 ”這個課題與豁免“原罪”的人是瑪麗此刻創造她的靈魂和其注入到了她的屍體。

". . .in the first instance of her conception . . ." The term conception does not mean the active or generative conception by her parents. “ 。 。 。一審她的概念。 。 。 ”一詞的概念並不意味著主動或生成的概念由她的父母。 Her body was formed in the womb of the "mother", and the "father" had the usual share in its formation.她的身體形成在子宮內的“母親”和“爸爸”了通常的份額在其形成。 The question does not concern the immaculateness of the generative activity of her parents.這個問題不涉及immaculateness的生成活性她的父母。 Neither does it concern the passive conception absolutely and simply ( conceptio seminis carnis, inchoata ), which, according to the order of nature, precedes the infusion of the rational soul. The person is truly conceived when the soul is created and infused into the body.它也不關心的被動觀念絕對簡單( conceptio seminis carnis , inchoata ) ,而根據該命令的性質,先注入理性的靈魂。人是真正的設想時,靈魂是創建和注入人體。 Mary was preserved exempt from all stain of "original sin" at the first moment of her animation, and sanctifying grace was given to her before sin could have taken effect in her soul.瑪麗保存免除一切污點的“原罪”在第一時刻,她的動畫,寬限期sanctifying ,並給予了她的面前罪過可採取影響她的靈魂。

". . .was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin. . ." The formal active essence of "original sin" was not removed from her soul, as it is removed from others by baptism; it was excluded , it never was simultaneously with the exclusion of sin. “ 。 。 。保存免除一切染原罪。 。 。 ”正式的積極本質“原罪”不是從她的靈魂,因為它是別人的洗禮,它排除在外,它從來就沒有同時與排斥的罪孽。 The state of original sanctity, innocence, and justice, as opposed to "original sin", was conferred upon her, by which gift every stain and fault, all depraved emotions, passions, and debilities, essentially pertaining in her soul to "original sin", were excluded.國家神聖不可侵犯的原始,純真,正義,而不是“原罪” ,是賦予她的,其中每一個污點禮物和故障,所有墮落的情感,激情,和debilities基本上是在有關她的靈魂,以“原罪“ ,被排除在外。 But she was not made exempt from the temporal penalties of Adam -- from sorrow, bodily infirmities, and death.但她沒有作出免於處罰顳亞當-從悲痛,身體虛弱,甚至死亡。

". . .by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race." The immunity from original sin was given to Mary by a singular exemption from a universal law through the same merits of "Christ", by which other men are cleansed from sin by baptism. “ 。 。 。的一個獨特的特權和寬限期天賜,鑑於案情耶穌基督,救世主的人類。 ”豁免原罪給瑪麗的一個獨特的豁免普遍規律通過同樣的優點, “基督” ,由其他男子清洗的罪孽的洗禮。 Mary needed the redeeming Saviour to obtain this exemption, and to be delivered from the universal necessity and debt ( debitum ) of being subject to original sin.瑪麗需要補償的救世主獲得這項豁免,並須交付的普遍必要性和債務( debitum )正在受原罪。 The person of Mary, in consequence of her origin from Adam, should have been subject to sin, but, being the new Eve who was to be the mother of the new Adam, she was, by the eternal counsel of God and by the merits of "Christ", withdrawn from the general law of original sin.該人的瑪麗,因此她的原產地從亞當,應該受到罪過,但目前新的除夕誰應該成為母親的新的亞當,她是由律師永恆的上帝和優點在“基督” ,從一般規律原罪。 Her redemption was the very masterpiece of "Christ's" redeeming wisdom.她的贖回是非常傑作“基督的”補償的智慧。 He is a greater redeemer who pays the debt that it may not be incurred than he who pays after it has fallen on the debtor.他是一個更大的救主誰付費的債務,它可能不會比他招致誰付費後,已經下降對債務人。

Such is the meaning of the term "Immaculate Conception."就是這樣的含義“聖母無染原罪堂。 ”

PROOF FROM SCRIPTURE從經文的證據

Genesis 3:15創世記3:15

No direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture.沒有直接或明確和嚴格的證據法則可結轉聖經。 But the first scriptural passage which contains the promise of the redemption, mentions also the Mother of the Redeemer.但在第一次聖經通過其中包含的承諾贖回,也提到母親的救世主。 The sentence against the first parents was accompanied by the Earliest Gospel ( Proto-evangelium ), which put enmity between the serpent and the woman: "and I will put enmity between thee and the woman and her seed; she (he) shall crush thy head and thou shalt lie in wait for her (his) heel" (Genesis 3:15).這一判決對第一父母陪同下最早的福音( 原福音 ) ,使之間的敵意和蛇女: “我將把你之間的敵意和一名婦女和她的種子;她(他)應愛戀你頭部和你應該是在等待她(他)踵“ (創世記3:15 ) 。 The translation "she" of the Vulgate is interpretative; it originated after the fourth century, and cannot be defended critically.翻譯“她”的拉丁文聖經是解釋性;它發源於後四世紀,不能捍衛嚴重。 The conqueror from the seed of the woman, who should crush the serpent's head, is "Christ"; the woman at enmity with the serpent is Mary.征服者從種子的女人,誰應粉碎蛇的頭,是“基督” ;的女子敵意與蛇是瑪麗。 God puts enmity between her and Satan in the same manner and measure, as there is enmity between "Christ" and the seed of the serpent.上帝把她之間的敵意和撒旦以同樣的方式和措施,有敵意“基督”和種子的蛇。 Mary was ever to be in that exalted state of soul which the serpent had destroyed in man, ie in sanctifying grace.瑪麗是以往任何時候都必須在這一崇高的靈魂狀態的蛇摧毀了在人,即在sanctifying寬限期。 Only the continual union of Mary with grace explains sufficiently the enmity between her and Satan.只有不斷地工會與瑪麗寬限期充分解釋之間的敵意她和撒旦。 The Proto-evangelium, therefore, in the original text contains a direct promise of the Redeemer.在原福音,因此,在最初的文字包含一個直接承諾的救世主。 and in conjunction therewith the manifestation of the masterpiece of His Redemption, the perfect preservation of His virginal Mother from original sin.並結合條文體現的傑作,他的救贖,完善的維護他的處女母親從原罪。

Luke 1:28盧克1時28分

The salutation of the "angel Gabriel" -- chaire kecharitomene , Hail, full of grace (Luke 1:28) indicates a unique abundance of grace, a supernatural, godlike state of soul, which finds its explanation only in the Immaculate Conception of Mary.稱呼的“天使加布里埃爾” -c hairek echaritomene,冰雹,充分的寬限期(路加1時2 8分)表示了獨特豐富的寬限期,超自然的,神聖的國家的靈魂,它認為它的解釋只有在聖母瑪利亞的構想。 But the term kecharitomene (full of grace) serves only as an illustration, not as a proof of the dogma.但是,長期kecharitomene (充分的寬限期)只作為一個例子,而不是一個證明教條。

Other texts其他法規

From the texts Proverbs 8 and Ecclesiasticus 24 (which exalt the Wisdom of God and which in the liturgy are applied to Mary, the most beautiful work of God's Wisdom), or from the Canticle of Canticles (4:7, "Thou art all fair, O my love, and there is not a spot in thee"), no theological conclusion can be drawn.從文本諺語8日和Ecclesiasticus 24個(其中發揚上帝的智慧,並在禮儀適用於瑪麗,最美麗的工作,上帝的智慧) ,或從頌歌的Canticles (四點07分, “你是所有公平,噢,我的愛,並沒有一個位置你“ ) ,沒有神學得出。 These passages, applied to the Mother of God, may be readily understood by those who know the privilege of Mary, but do not avail to prove the doctrine dogmatically, and are therefore omitted from the Constitution "Ineffabilis Deus". For the theologian it is a matter of conscience not to take an extreme position by applying to a creature texts which might imply the prerogatives of God.這些通道,適用於天主之母,可能是容易理解的誰知道那些有幸瑪麗,但不要利用證明的理論教條,因此,省略憲法“ Ineffabilis上帝。 ”對於神學是良心的問題不採取極端的立場適用於生物文本這可能意味著特權的上帝。

PROOF FROM TRADITION從傳統的證據

In regard to the sinlessness of Mary the older "Fathers" are very cautious: some of them even seem to have been in error on this matter.關於清白的瑪麗舊“父親”是非常謹慎:有的甚至似乎已經在錯誤這一問題。

But these stray private opinions merely serve to show that theology is a progressive science.但是,這些流浪私營意見只是表明,神學是一個漸進的科學。 If we were to attempt to set forth the full doctrine of the "Fathers" on the sanctity of the Blessed Virgin, which includes particularly the implicit belief in the immaculateness of her conception, we should be forced to transcribe a multitude of passages.如果我們試圖提出了充分的理論的“教父”的神聖的聖母,其中包括特別是隱含的信念, immaculateness她的概念,我們應該被迫抄寫了許多段落。 In the testimony of the "Fathers" two points are insisted upon: her absolute purity and her position as the second "Eve" (cf. I Cor. 15:22).在證詞的“教父”有兩點是堅持要求:她絕對的純潔性和她的地位,第二屆“夏娃” (見我肺心病。 15:22 ) 。

Mary as the second Eve瑪麗的第二個除夕

This celebrated comparison between "Eve", while yet immaculate and incorrupt -- that is to say, not subject to original sin -- and the Blessed Virgin is developed by:這比較慶祝“平安夜” ,同時還完美和廉政-這就是說,不受原罪-和聖母開發了:

The absolute purity of Mary絕對純潔的瑪麗

Patristic writings on Mary's purity abound.教父著作瑪麗的純度比比皆是。

St. John Damascene (Or. i Nativ. Deip., n. 2) esteems the supernatural influence of God at the generation of Mary to be so comprehensive that he extends it also to her parents.聖約翰大馬士革( Or.字母i Nativ 。 Deip 。 ,注2 )推崇的超自然的神的影響在新一代的瑪麗是如此全面的延伸,他還向她的父母。 He says of them that, during the generation, they were filled and purified by the Holy Ghost, and freed from sexual concupiscence. Consequently according to the Damascene, even the human element of her origin, the material of which she was formed, was pure and holy.他說,他們說,在一代人,他們被填補和純化的聖靈,並擺脫性concupiscence 。因此根據大馬士革,甚至人的因素,她的原產地,材料,她成立,是純粹的和神聖。 This opinion of an immaculate active generation and the sanctity of the "conceptio carnis" was taken up by some Western authors; it was put forward by Petrus Comestor in his treatise against St. Bernard and by others. Some writers even taught that Mary was born of a virgin and that she was conceived in a miraculous manner when Joachim and Anne met at the golden gate of the temple (Trombelli, "Mari SS. Vita", Sect. V, ii, 8; Summa aurea, II, 948. Cf. also the "Revelations" of Catherine Emmerich which contain the entire apocryphal legend of the miraculous conception of Mary.這種意見的一個完美無暇的積極一代的神聖“ conceptio carnis ”是由一些西方作家,這是提出的佩特魯斯Comestor在他的論文對聖伯納德和其他人。有些作者甚至告訴我們,瑪麗出生處女,她設想的奇蹟般的方式時,約阿希姆和安妮舉行了金門廟宇( Trombelli , “真理黨衛軍。簡歷” ,第二節。五,二, 8 ;大全羅非魚,二, 948 。參看。還的“啟示”的凱瑟琳默里克其中包含整個未經傳說,神奇的概念瑪麗。

From this summary it appears that the belief in Mary's immunity from sin in her conception was prevalent amongst the Fathers, especially those of the Greek Church.從這它總結看來,信念瑪麗的豁免罪孽在她的概念中是普遍存在的父親,特別是那些希臘教會。 The rhetorical character, however, of many of these and similar passages prevents us from laying too much stress on them, and interpreting them in a strictly literal sense.修辭特點,然而,許多這些以及類似的通道阻止我們奠定太多的壓力,並解釋他們在嚴格的字面意義。 The Greek Fathers never formally or explicitly discussed the question of the Immaculate Conception.希臘父親從未正式或明確討論的問題,聖母無染原罪堂。

The Conception of St. John the Baptist的概念施洗者聖約翰

A comparison with the conception of "Christ" and that of St. John may serve to light both on the dogma and on the reasons which led the Greeks to celebrate at an early date the Feast of the Conception of Mary.與比較的概念, “基督” ,以及聖約翰可能有助於輕都在和教條的原因而導致希臘人慶祝早日節的構想瑪麗。

Of these three conceptions the Church celebrates feasts.這三個觀念,教會慶祝節日。 The Orientals have a Feast of the Conception of St. John the Baptist (23 September), which dates back to the fifth century, is thus older than the Feast of the Conception of Mary, and, during the Middle Ages, was kept also by many Western dioceses on 24 September.在東方人有一個盛宴的構想施洗者聖約翰( 9月23日) ,可追溯到5世紀,因此以上的盛宴的瑪麗構想,並在中世紀,一直也由許多西方教區於9月24日。 The Conception of Mary is celebrated by the Latins on 8 December; by the Orientals on 9 December; the Conception of Christ has its feast in the universal calendar on 25 March.構想瑪麗是慶祝的拉丁人12月8日;由東方人於12月9日;概念的基督有其節日在日曆上普遍3月25日。 In celebrating the feast of Mary's Conception the Greeks of old did not consider the theological distinction of the active and the passive conceptions, which was indeed unknown to them.在慶祝節日瑪麗的構想希臘人的舊沒有考慮神學的區別的積極和消極觀念,這的確是不知道他們。

They did not think it absurd to celebrate a conception which was not immaculate, as we see from the Feast of the Conception of St. John. They solemnized the Conception of Mary, perhaps because, according to the "Proto-evangelium" of St. James, it was preceded by miraculous events (the apparition of an angel to Joachim, etc.), similar to those which preceded the conception of St. John, and that of our Lord Himself.他們並不認為這可笑的慶祝概念是不完美的,我們看到的盛宴的構想聖約翰。 solemnized他們的構想瑪麗,也許是因為,根據“原始福音”聖詹姆斯,這是之前奇蹟般的事件(幽靈的天使約阿希姆等) ,類似於之前的概念,聖約翰,而且我們的上帝。 Their object was less the purity of the conception than the holiness and heavenly mission of the person conceived.其目的是減少純度的概念比神聖使命和神聖的人的設想。 In the Office of 9 December, however, Mary, from the time of her conception, is called beautiful, pure, holy, just, etc., terms never used in the Office of 23 September (sc. of St. John the Baptist).辦公室12月9日,然而,瑪麗,從她的概念,是所謂的美麗,純潔,神聖,公正,等等,條款中從未使用過的辦公室9月23日( sc.的施洗者聖約翰) 。 The analogy of St. John s sanctification may have given rise to the Feast of the Conception of Mary.這個比喻聖約翰的神聖可能引起節日的概念瑪麗。 If it was necessary that the precursor of the Lord should be so pure and "filled with the Holy Ghost" even from his mother's womb, such a purity was assuredly not less befitting His Mother.如果有必要的前身勳爵應如此純粹和“充滿了聖靈”甚至從他母親的子宮裡,這樣的純度不小於肯定適合他的母親。 The moment of St. John's sanctification is by later writers thought to be the Visitation ("the infant leaped in her womb"), but the angel's words (Luke, i, 15) seem to indicate a sanctification at the conception.目前聖約翰成聖是後來作家認為是訪問( “嬰兒跳在她的子宮裡” ) ,但天使的話(路,我, 15歲)似乎表明,在神聖的概念。 This would render the origin of Mary more similar to that of John.這將使起源的瑪麗更類似於約翰。 And if the Conception of John had its feast, why not that of Mary?如果約翰的構想有其盛宴,為什麼不說瑪麗?

PROOF FROM REASON證據的原因

There is an incongruity in the supposition that the flesh, from which the flesh of the Son of God was to be formed, should ever have belonged to one who was the slave of that arch-enemy, whose power He came on earth to destroy. Hence the axiom of Pseudo-Anselmus (Eadmer) developed by Duns Scotus, Decuit, potuit, ergo fecit , it was becoming that the Mother of the Redeemer should have been free from the power of sin and from the first moment of her existence; God could give her this privilege, therefore He gave it to her. Again it is remarked that a peculiar privilege was granted to the prophet Jeremiah and to St. John the Baptist.有一個不協調的假定肉體,從肉體的上帝之子要形成,任何時候都應該有一個屬於誰是奴隸的拱形的敵人,他們的權力,他來到地球上的破壞。因此,公理偽Anselmus ( Eadmer )制定的鄧司各脫, Decuit , potuit ,故fecit ,它已成為母親的救世主應已擺脫權力的罪惡和從第一時刻,她的存在;上帝可以給她這個特權,因此,他送給了她。再次表示這是一個特殊的特權授予先知耶利米和施洗者聖約翰。 They were sanctified in their mother's womb, because by their preaching they had a special share in the work of preparing the way for "Christ". Consequently some much higher prerogative is due to Mary.他們是神聖的母親的子宮裡,因為他們的說教,他們有一個特殊的共享的工作鋪平了道路為“基督” 。因此一些高得多的特權是由於瑪麗。 (A treatise of P. Marchant, claiming for St. Joseph also the privilege of St. John, was placed on the Index in 1833.) Scotus says that "the perfect Mediator must, in some one case, have done the work of mediation most perfectly, which would not be unless there was some one person at least, in whose regard the wrath of God was anticipated and not merely appeased." (甲論文體育馬,聲稱為聖約瑟夫也有幸聖約翰,被列入該指數於1833年。 )司各脫說, “完美的調解,必須在某些一個案例中,也做了調解工作最完美的,它不會,除非有一些人,至少在其方面的憤怒,預計上帝,而不是僅僅姑息。 “

THE FEAST OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION節日的完美概念

The older feast of the Conception of Mary (Conc. of St. Anne), which originated in the monasteries of Palestine at least as early as the seventh century, and the modern feast of the Immaculate Conception are not identical in their object. Originally the Church celebrated only the Feast of the Conception of Mary, as she kept the Feast of St. John's conception, not discussing the sinlessness.老年人的節日概念的瑪麗( Conc.聖安娜) ,起源於寺廟巴勒斯坦至少早在7世紀,與現代節日的聖母無染原罪堂並不相同的對象。原來只有教會慶祝節日的概念瑪麗,因為她保持了節日聖約翰的概念,而不是討論清白。 This feast in the course of centuries became the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, as dogmatical argumentation brought about precise and correct ideas, and as the thesis of the theological schools regarding the preservation of Mary from all stain of original sin gained strength.這宴席的過程中,成為百年盛宴的聖母無染原罪堂,因為武斷的論證帶來了準確,正確的思想,作為論文的神學院關於維護瑪麗從所有染色原罪走強。 Even after the dogma had been universally accepted in the Latin Church, and had gained authoritative support through diocesan decrees and papal decisions, the old term remained, and before 1854 the term "Immaculata Conceptio" is nowhere found in the liturgical books, except in the invitatorium of the Votive Office of the Conception. The Greeks, Syrians, etc. call it the Conception of St. Anne ( Eullepsis tes hagias kai theoprometoros Annas , "the Conception of St. Anne, the ancestress of God").即使在教條已被普遍接受的拉丁美洲教會,並獲得了權威的支持教區教皇的法令和決定,舊的長期存在,以及1854年前的“ Immaculata Conceptio ”是沒有發現的禮儀書籍,除了在invitatorium的Votive辦事處的構想。希臘人,敘利亞人,等把它叫做觀街安妮( Eullepsis檢驗hagias偕theoprometoros安納斯 , “觀聖安妮的ancestress上帝” ) 。 "Passaglia" in his "De Immaculato Deiparae Conceptu," basing his opinion upon the "Typicon" of St. Sabas: which was substantially composed in the fifth century, believes that the reference to the feast forms part of the authentic original, and that consequently it was celebrated in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem in the fifth century (III, n. 1604). “ Passaglia ”在他的“德Immaculato Deiparae Conceptu , ”根據他的意見對“ Typicon ”聖Sabas :大大組成五世紀,認為提及節日的組成部分,真正的原始,而且因此,這是在慶祝東正教在耶路撒冷5世紀(三北1604 ) 。 But the Typicon was interpolated by the Damascene, Sophronius, and others, and, from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, many new feasts and offices were added.但Typicon是插了大馬士革, Sophronius ,和其他人,從第九至第十二世紀以來,許多新的節日和辦事處又增加了。 To determine the origin of this feast we must take into account the genuine documents we possess, the oldest of which is the canon of the feast, composed by St. Andrew of Crete, who wrote his liturgical hymns in the second half of the seventh century, when a monk at the monastery of St. Sabas near Jerusalem (d. Archbishop of Crete about 720). But the Solemnity cannot then have been generally accepted throughout the Orient, for John, first monk and later bishop in the Isle of Euboea, about 750 in a sermon, speaking in favour of the propagation of this feast, says that it was not yet known to all the faithful ( ei kai me para tois pasi gnorizetai ; PG, XCVI, 1499). But a century later George of Nicomedia, made metropolitan by Photius in 860, could say that the solemnity was not of recent origin (PG, C, 1335).要確定原產地的盛宴,我們必須考慮到真正的文件,我們擁有最古老的是佳能的盛宴,組成由聖安德魯的克里特島,誰寫他的禮儀讚美詩在下半年七世紀,當一個和尚在寺院街Sabas耶路撒冷附近(草大主教克里特島約720名) 。悲壯但不能再被普遍接受的整個東方的約翰,第一次和尚,後來主教在埃維亞島,約750個在布道,講有利於繁殖的這一盛宴,說這是還不知道的所有信徒( 榮偕我第tois鹿gnorizetai ;指引, XCVI , 1499 ) 。但是,一個世紀之後喬治Nicomedia發大都市的Photius在860 ,可以說,沒有莊嚴最近原產地(前列腺素,丙, 1335 ) 。 It is therefore, safe to affirm that the feast of the Conception of St. Anne appears in the Orient not earlier than the end of the seventh or the beginning of the eighth century.因此,安全申明,節日的概念聖安妮出現在東方不得早於月底或7月初八世紀。

As in other cases of the same kind the feast originated in the monastic communities.至於在其他情況下,同類的節日起源於僧侶的社區。 The monks, who arranged the psalmody and composed the various poetical pieces for the office, also selected the date, 9 December, which was always retained in the Oriental calendars.僧侶,誰安排psalmody組成的各種詩歌作品的辦公室,還選定的日期, 12月9日,這是永遠留在東方的日曆。 Gradually the solemnity emerged from the cloister, entered into the cathedrals, was glorified by preachers and poets, and eventually became a fixed feast of the calendar, approved by Church and State.逐步擺脫嚴肅的迴廊,進入教堂,是美化的傳教士和詩人,並最終成為一個固定的節日日曆,批准的教會和國家。 It is registered in the calendar of Basil II (976-1025) and by the Constitution of Emperor Manuel I Comnenus on the days of the year which are half or entire holidays, promulgated in 1166, it is numbered among the days which have full sabbath rest.這是登記在日曆巴西爾二世( 976-1025 ) ,並受憲法的皇帝曼努埃爾一世Comnenus對今年的天有一半或整個假期, 1166年頒布的,它的編號之間的天已經全安息日休息。 Up to the time of Basil II, Lower Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia still belonged to the Byzantine Empire; the city of Naples was not lost to the Greeks until 1127, when Roger II conquered the city. The influence of Constantinople was consequently strong in the Neapolitan Church, and, as early as the ninth century, the Feast of the Conception was doubtlessly kept there, as elsewhere in Lower Italy on 9 December, as indeed appears from the marble calendar found in 1742 in the Church of S. Giorgio Maggiore at Naples.最多的時候巴西爾二世,下意大利,西西里島和撒丁島仍然屬於拜占庭帝國的城市那不勒斯不是輸給了希臘人,直到1127年,當羅傑二世征服了的城市。影響君士坦丁堡因此強勁在那不勒斯教會,並早在第九世紀,節日的概念無疑是有備存,作為別處下意大利12月9日,確實顯示出大理石的日曆中發現1742年在美國教會的喬治教堂在那不勒斯。 Today the Conception of St. Anne is in the Greek Church one of the minor feasts of the year. The lesson in Matins contains allusions to the apocryphal "Proto-evangelium" of St. James, which dates from the second half of the second century (see SAINT ANNE).今天,觀聖安娜是希臘教會的一個小節日的一年。教訓中Matins包含典故的未經證實“原始福音”的聖雅各福群,其中日期從下半年的第二個世紀(見聖安妮) 。 To the Greek Orthodox of our days, however, the feast means very little; they continue to call it "Conception of St. Anne", indicating unintentionally, perhaps, the active conception which was certainly not immaculate.希臘東正教的天,然而,節日的手段很少;他們繼續稱之為“觀聖安妮” ,表示無意,也許積極的概念這當然不是完美無缺。 In the Menaea of 9 December this feast holds only the second place, the first canon being sung in commemoration of the dedication of the Church of the Resurrection at Constantinople. Menaea在12月9日這個節日不僅擁有第二位,第一次被星佳能在紀念奉獻教會的復活在君士坦丁堡。 The Russian hagiographer Muraview and several other Orthodox authors even loudly declaimed against the dogma after its promulgation, although their own preachers formerly taught the Immaculate Conception in their writings long before the definition of 1854.俄羅斯hagiographer Muraview和其他一些作者甚至東正教declaimed大聲對教條頒布後,雖然自己以前任教傳教士的聖母無染原罪堂在其著作早在1854年的定義。

In the "Western Church" the feast appeared (8 December), when in the "Orient" its development had come to a standstill.在“西方教會”的盛宴似乎( 12月8日) ,當在“東方”的發展已陷入停頓。 The timid beginnings of the new feast in some Anglo-Saxon monasteries in the eleventh century, partly smothered by the Norman conquest, were followed by its reception in some chapters and dioceses by the Anglo-Norman clergy.怯生生的開端新的節日在一些盎格魯撒克遜寺廟於11世紀,這部分是悶死的諾曼征服,其次是其接待的某些章節和教區的盎格魯諾曼的神職人員。 But the attempts to introduce it officially provoked contradiction and theoretical discussion, bearing upon its legitimacy and its meaning, which were continued for centuries and were not definitively settled before 1854.但是,有人企圖引入正式挑起矛盾和理論探討,同時呼籲其合法性和意義,這是持續數百年,並沒有最終解決之前, 1854年。 The "Martyrology of Tallaght" compiled about 790 and the "Feilire" of St. Aengus (800) register the Conception of Mary on 3 May.該“ Martyrology的Tallaght ”編制約790和“ Feilire ”聖Aengus ( 800 )註冊構想瑪麗5月3日。 It is doubtful, however, if an actual feast corresponded to this rubric of the learned monk St. Aengus.這是懷疑,但是,如果一個實際盛宴符合本規則的經驗教訓和尚街Aengus 。 This Irish feast certainly stands alone and outside the line of liturgicaI development.愛爾蘭盛宴這當然僅僅停留內外線liturgicaI發展。 It is a mere isolated appearance, not a living germ.這是一個單純孤立的外觀,而不是一個生活胚芽。 The Scholiast adds, in the lower margin of the "Feilire", that the conception (Inceptio) took place in February, since Mary was born after seven months -- a singular notion found also in some Greek authors.補充的註釋,在低利潤的“ Feilire ” ,即概念( Inceptio )發生在2月,因為瑪麗出生後7個月-一個獨特的概念還發現在一些希臘作家。 The first definite and reliable knowledge of the feast in the West comes from England; it is found in a calendar of Old Minster, Winchester (Conceptio S'ce Dei Genetricis Mari), dating from about 1030, and in another calendar of New Minster, Winchester, written between 1035 and 1056; a pontifical of Exeter of the eleventh century (assigned to 1046-1072) contains a "benedictio in Conceptione S. Mariae "; a similar benediction is found in a Canterbury pontifical written probably in the first half of the eleventh century, certainly before the Conquest.第一次明確和可靠的知識的盛宴在西方來自英格蘭,這是發現的舊日曆大教堂,溫徹斯特( Conceptio S'ce棣Genetricis馬里阿) ,可追溯到大約10時30分,並在另一個新的日曆的部長,溫徹斯特,書面和1035年之間的1056年,一個宗座埃克塞特的11世紀( 1046年至1072年分配)載有“ benedictio在Conceptione南Mariae ” ;了類似的祝福被發現在坎特伯雷主教書面可能在上半年的11世紀,當然之前征服。 These episcopal benedictions show that the feast not only commended itself to the devotion of individuals, but that it was recognized by authority and was observed hy the Saxon monks with considerable solemnity.這些主教benedictions表明,節日不僅讚揚自己的獻身精神的個人,但它是公認的權威和觀察雜交撒克遜僧侶相當嚴肅。 The existing evidence goes to show that thc establishment of the feast in England was due to the monks of Winchester before the Conquest (1066).現有的證據去表明,四氫大麻酚建立盛宴在英格蘭是由於僧侶的溫徹斯特前征服( 1066 ) 。

The Normans on their arrival in England were disposed to treat in a contemptuous fashion English liturgical observances; to them this feast must have appeared specifically English, a product of insular simplicity and ignorance.諾曼在他們抵達英國被棄置處理中英文輕蔑的時尚禮儀紀念活動;給他們這個節日必須有具體出現英文,一個產品的島嶼簡單和無知。 Doubtless its public celebration was abolished at Winchester and Canterbury, but it did not die out of the hearts of individuals, and on the first favourable opportunity the feast was restored in the monasteries.毫無疑問,其公共慶祝活動被取消在溫切斯特和坎特伯雷,但它沒有死了的心個人,並在第一的有利時機節日恢復的寺廟。 At Canterbury however, it was not re-established before 1328.在坎特伯雷然而,這不是重新建立之前, 1328 。 Several documents state that in Norman times it began at Ramsey, pursuant to a vision vouchsafed to Helsin or AEthelsige, Abbot of Ramsey on his journey back from Denmark, whither he had been sent by William I about 1070. An angel appeared to him during a severe gale and saved the ship after the abbot had promised to establish the Feast of the Conception in his monastery. However we may consider the supernatural feature of the legend, it must be admitted that the sending of Helsin to Denmark is an historical fact.幾個文件指出,在諾曼時候開始,拉姆齊,根據遠見vouchsafed以Helsin或AEthelsige ,艾博特的拉姆齊他的旅程從丹麥,何處,他已發出的威廉一世約1070 。一個天使似乎在他嚴重的大風和保存船舶後的住持答應設立節日的概念在他的寺院。然而,我們可以考慮的特點神的傳說,它必須承認,派遣Helsin丹麥是一個歷史事實。 The account of the vision has found its way into many breviaries, even into the Roman Breviary of 1473. The Council of Canterbury (1325) attributes the re-establishment of the feast in England to "St. Anselm", Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1109).該帳戶的遠見已經發現它在許多breviaries ,甚至到羅馬祈禱的1473年。安理會的坎特伯雷( 1325 )屬性重新建立的盛宴在英國的“聖安瑟倫” ,坎特伯雷大主教(四。 1109 ) 。 But although this great doctor wrote a special treatise "De Conceptu virginali et originali peccato", by which he laid down the principles of the Immaculate Conception, it is certain that he did not introduce the feast anywhere. The letter ascribed to him, which contains the Helsin narrative, is spurious.但是,儘管這個偉大的醫生寫了一特殊的論文“德Conceptu virginali等originali peccato ” ,由他奠定了原則,即聖母無染原罪,這是一定的,他沒有提出任何地方的盛宴。賦予的信給他,其中包含Helsin敘事的,是虛假的。 The principal propagator of the feast after the Conquest was Anselm, the nephew of St. Anselm.主要傳播的盛宴後,征服了安瑟倫的侄子聖安瑟倫。 He was educated at Canterbury where he may have known some Saxon monks who remembered the solemnity in former days; after 1109 he was for a time Abbot of St. Sabas at Rome, where the Divine Offices were celebrated according to the Greek calendar.他在坎特伯雷,他可能已經知道一些僧侶撒克遜誰想起了莊嚴的前幾天後,他1109年曾經有一段時間住持聖Sabas在羅馬,在神聖的辦公室,慶祝根據希臘的日曆。 When in 1121 he was appointed Abbot of Bury St. Edmund's he established the feast there; partly at least through his efforts other monasteries also adopted it, like Reading, St.當1121年他被任命為住持的伯里聖埃德蒙的他成立了節日那裡;部分,至少通過他的努力,其他寺廟也通過它,就像讀,街 Albans, Worcester, Cloucester, and Winchcombe.奧爾本斯,伍斯特市, Cloucester ,和公園。

But a number of others decried its observance as hitherto unheard of and absurd, the old Oriental feast being unknown to them.但是,另一些人譴責它的尊重,作為迄今聞所未聞的和荒謬的,舊的東方節日被不明他們。 Two bishops, Roger of Salisbury and Bernard of St. Davids, declared that the festival was forbidden by a council, and that the observance must be stopped.兩位主教,羅傑的索爾茲伯里和聖貝爾納戴維斯宣布,電影節被禁止了理事會,並遵守必須予以制止。 And when, during the vacancy of the See of London, Osbert de Clare, Prior of Westminster, undertook to introduce the feast at Westminster (8 December, 1127), a number of monks arose against him in the choir and said that the feast must not be kept, for its establishment had not the authority of Rome (cf. Osbert's letter to Anselm in Bishop, p. 24).時,在空缺的見的倫敦, Osbert的克萊爾,威斯敏斯特之前,進行了介紹節日西敏寺( 1127年12月八日) ,一些僧人對他產生的合唱團和說,必須盛宴不保持,它沒有建立權威的羅馬(參見Osbert的信安瑟倫的主教,第24頁) 。 Whereupon the matter was brought before the Council of London in 1129.於是,這個問題提交安理會的第1129倫敦。 The synod decided in favour of the feast, and Bishop Gilbert of London adopted it for his diocese.主教會議決定贊成票的盛宴,吉爾伯特和主教倫敦通過他的教區。 Thereafter the feast spread in England, but for a time retained its private character, the Synod of Oxford (1222) having refused to raise it to the rank of a holiday of obligation.此後,節日在英國蔓延,但在一段時間內保留其私人性質,牛津主教會議( 1222 )拒絕提高它的排名節日的義務。 In Normandy at the time of Bishop Rotric (1165-83) the Conception of Mary, in the Archdiocese of Rouen and its six suffragan dioceses, was a feast of precept equal in dignity to the Annunciation.在諾曼底的時候主教Rotric ( 1165年至1183年)的概念瑪麗,在魯昂大主教和六個教區副主教,是一個節日的戒律享有平等的尊嚴的報喜。 At the same time the Norman students at the University of Paris chose it as their patronal feast.同時,諾曼學生在巴黎大學選擇它作為自己patronal盛宴。 Owing to the close connection of Normandy with England, it may have been imported from the latter country into Normandy, or the Norman barons and clergy may have brought it home from their wars in Lower Italy, it was universally solemnised by the Greek inhabitants.由於密切聯繫諾曼底與英格蘭,它可能已被進口國,後者到諾曼底,或諾曼貴族和神職人員可能已經把它從他們的家庭戰爭中下意大利,人們普遍由solemnised希臘居民。

During the Middle Ages the Feast of the Conception of Mary was commonly called the "Feast of the Norman nation", which shows that it was celebrated in Normandy with great splendour and that it spread from there over Western Europe.在中世紀的盛宴的概念是常見的瑪麗所謂的“盛宴的諾曼的國家” ,這表明,這是慶祝諾曼底偉大的輝煌,它從那裡蔓延超過西歐。 "Passaglia" contends (III, 1755) that the feast was celebrated in Spain in the seventh century. “ Passaglia ”爭辯(三, 1755年)說,節日慶祝西班牙在第七世紀。 Bishop Ullathorne also (p. 161) finds this opinion acceptable.主教Ullathorne也(第161頁)認為這個意見可以接受的。 If this be true, it is difficult to understand why it should have entirely disappeared from Spain later on, for neither does the genuine Mozarabic Liturgy contain it, nor the tenth century calendar of Toledo edited by Morin. The two proofs given by "Passaglia" are futile: the life of St. Isidore, falsely attributed to St.如果這是真的,這是很難理解為什麼它應該有完全消失由西班牙之後,也沒有為真正的摩沙拉聖禮遏制它,也不是10世紀托萊多日曆編輯的莫林。兩國所提供的證據“ Passaglia ”是徒勞的:生命的聖伊西多爾,虛假歸因於聖 Ildephonsus, which mentions the feast, is interpolated, while, in the Visigoth lawbook, the expression "Conceptio S. Mariae" is to be understood of the Annunciation. Ildephonsus ,其中提到的盛宴,是插,同時,在Visigoth法典中, “ Conceptio南Mariae ”是可以理解的報喜。

THE CONTROVERSY爭議

No controversy arose over the Immaculate Conception on the European continent before the twelfth century.沒有任何爭議,出現了聖母無染原罪堂歐洲大陸的前12世紀。 The Norman clergy abolished the feast in some monasteries of England where it had been established by the Anglo-Saxon monks.諾曼神職人員廢除了節日在一些寺廟的英格蘭隊在已經建立的盎格魯撒克遜僧侶。 But towards the end of the eleventh century, through the efforts of "Anselm the Younger", it was taken up again in several Anglo-Norman establishments.但接近年底的11世紀,通過努力, “塞爾姆年輕” ,有人再次在幾個盎格魯諾曼機構。 That "St. Anselm the Elder" re-established the feast in England is highly improbable, although it was not new to him.這“聖安瑟倫老年”重新設立了宴會在英國是極不可能,但它不是新的給他。 He had been made familiar with it as well by the Saxon monks of Canterbury, as by the Greeks with whom he came in contact during exile in Campania and Apulin (1098-9).他已熟悉它,以及由撒克遜坎特伯雷僧侶,由希臘人與他接觸了流亡在坎帕尼亞和Apulin ( 1098-9 ) 。 The treatise "De Conceptu virginali" usually ascribed to him, was composed by his friend and disciple, the Saxon monk "Eadmer of Canterbury".該論文“德Conceptu virginali ”通常歸咎於他,是由他的朋友和徒弟,撒克遜和尚“ Eadmer坎特伯雷” 。 When the canons of the cathedral of Lyons, who no doubt knew Anselm the Younger Abbot of Burg St. Edmund's, personally introduced the feast into their choir after the death of their bishop in 1240, St. Bernard deemed it his duty to publish a protest against this new way of honouring Mary.當大砲的里昂大教堂,毫無疑問,誰知道安瑟倫年輕的伯格住持聖埃德蒙的個人介紹了他們的節日合唱團去世後,他們的主教在1240年,聖伯納德認為他有責任發表了抗議針對這一新的方式履行瑪麗。 He addressed to the canons a vehement letter (Epist. 174), in which he reproved them for taking the step upon their own authority and before they had consulted the Holy See.他給大砲強烈的信( Epist. 174 ) ,他在責備他們採取的步驟其自身的權威和之前他們已經徵求了羅馬教廷。

Not knowing that the feast had been celebrated with the rich tradition of the Greek and Syrian Churches regarding the sinlessness of Mary, he asserted that the feast was foreign to the old tradition of the Church. Yet it is evident from the tenor of his language that he had in mind only the active conception or the formation of the flesh, and that the distinction between the active conception, the formation of the body, and its animation by the soul had not yet been drawn.不知道節日慶祝已與豐富的傳統,希臘和敘利亞的教會就清白的瑪麗,他斷言,宴席是外國的古老傳統的教會。然而,很明顯的男高音歌唱家,他的語言他考慮到只有積極的概念或形成的血肉,而且之間的區別的積極觀念,成立了機構,其動畫的靈魂尚未得出。 No doubt, when the feast was introduced in England and Normandy, the axiom "decuit, potuit, ergo fecit", the childlike piety and enthusiasm of the simplices building upon revelations and apocryphal legends, had the upper hand.毫無疑問,當宴席介紹了在英格蘭和諾曼底,公理“ decuit , potuit ,故fecit ”的童稚的虔誠和熱情的基礎上simplices揭露和未經證實的傳說,已佔上風。 The object of the feast was not clearly determined, no positive theological reasons had been placed in evidence.該物體的宴席是沒有明確的決定,沒有任何積極的神學原因被安置在證據。

St. Bernard was perfectly justified when he demanded a careful inquiry into the reasons for observing the feast.聖伯納德是天經地義的,他要求認真調查的原因,觀察盛宴。 Not adverting to the possibility of sanctification at the time of the infusion of the soul, he writes that there can be question only of sanctification after conception, which would render holy the nativity not the conception itself (Scheeben, "Dogmatik", III, p. 550). Hence Albert the Great observes: "We say that the Blessed Virgin was not sanctified before animation, and the affirmative contrary to this is the heresy condemned by St. Bernard in his epistle to the canons of Lyons" (III Sent., dist. iii, p. I, ad 1, Q. i). St.沒有adverting的可能性成聖的時候,注入靈魂,他寫道,就不會有問題不僅是神聖的概念後,這將會使神聖的耶穌而不是概念本身( Scheeben , “ Dogmatik ” ,三,磷。 550 ) 。因此阿爾貝大指出: “我們說,聖母不是神聖面前動畫,扶持和與此相悖的是異端的譴責聖伯納德在他的書信向里昂大砲” (三發。區。三,第一,廣告1 ,問:我) 。街 Bernard was at once answered in a treatise written by either Richard of St. Victor or Peter Comestor.貝爾納是在一次回答中撰寫的論文也理查德聖維克多或彼得Comestor 。 In this treatise appeal is made to a feast which had been established to commemorate an insupportable tradition.在此論文提出上訴的盛宴已經成立,以紀念一個受不了傳統。 It maintained that the flesh of Mary needed no purification; that it was sanctified before the conception.它堅持認為,肉瑪麗不需要淨化; ,這是神聖的概念面前。 Some writers of those times entertained the fantastic idea that before Adam fell, a portion of his flesh had been reserved by God and transmitted from generation to generation, and that out of this flesh the body of Mary was formed (Scheeben, op. cit., III, 551), and this formation they commemorated by a feast.一些作家的時代宴請了美妙的想法,在亞當下跌,部分他的肉體已經預留了上帝,並轉交代代相傳,並擺脫這種肉的屍體瑪麗成立( Scheeben ,同前。前。 ,三, 551 ) ,這形成紀念他們的盛宴。 The letter of St. Bernard did not prevent the extension of the feast, for in 1154 it was observed all over France, until in 1275, through the efforts of the Paris University, it was abolished in Paris and other dioceses.該信的聖伯納德並不妨礙延長的盛宴,在1154年有人對法國所有,直至在1275年通過的努力,巴黎大學,它廢除了在巴黎和其他教區。

After the saint's death the controversy arose anew between Nicholas of St. Albans, an English monk who defended the festival as established in England, and Peter Cellensis, the celebrated Bishop of Chartres. Nicholas remarks that the soul of Mary was pierced twice by the sword, ie at the foot of the cross and when St. Bernard wrote his letter against her feast (Scheeben, III, 551).在聖的死引起的爭議再次尼古拉斯之間的聖奧爾本斯,英文和尚誰捍衛了節日的設立在英格蘭,和彼得Cellensis ,著名的主教沙特爾。尼古拉斯的話的靈魂,是瑪麗穿兩次用劍,即在腳下的十字架和聖伯納德時,他的信中寫道對她的盛宴( Scheeben ,三, 551 ) 。 The point continued to be debated throughout the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and illustrious names appeared on each side.這一點繼續進行辯論,整個第十三和第十四世紀,傑出的名字出現在每個方面。 St. Peter Damian, Peter the Lombard, Alexander of Hales, St. Bonaventure, and Albert the Great are quoted as opposing it.聖彼得達米安,彼得的倫巴第,亞歷山大的海爾斯,聖文德,和阿爾貝的大都是援引反對。 St. Thomas at first pronounced in favour of the doctrine in his treatise on the "Sentences" (in I. Sent. c. 44, q. I ad 3), yet in his "Summa Theologica" he concluded against it. Much discussion has arisen as to whether St. Thomas did or did not deny that the Blessed Virgin was immaculate at the instant of her animation, and learned books have been written to vindicate him from having actually drawn the negative conclusion.聖托馬斯首先突出了贊成票,他的學說在論文的“刑罰” (在一發送。角44 ,問:我的廣告3 ) ,但在他的“神學大全”他的結論反對。很多的討論出現了是否聖托馬斯沒有或沒有否認這一聖母是完美無暇的即時在她的動畫,書籍和教訓已經書面證明他確實有負面擬定的結論。

Yet it is hard to say that St. Thomas did not require an instant at least, after the animation of Mary, before her sanctification.然而,就很難說,聖托馬斯並不需要一個即時至少,在動畫的瑪麗,在她面前成聖。 His great difficulty appears to have arisen from the doubt as to how she could have been redeemed if she had not sinned. This difficulty he raised in no fewer than ten passages in his writings (see, eg, Summa III:27:2, ad 2).他極大的困難似乎已經出現了疑問,她本來可以贖回,如果她沒有犯過罪。這種困難,他提出的沒有少於10個段落在他的著作(例如,見大全三: 27:2 ,廣告2 ) 。

But while St. Thomas thus held back from the essential point of the doctrine, he himself laid down the principles which, after they had been drawn together and worked out, enabled other minds to furnish the true solution of this difficulty from his own premises.但聖托馬斯從而阻礙了從基本點的理論,他放下自己的原則後,他們已經制訂共同制定,使其他思想提供真正的解決這個困難來自他自己的房舍。

In the thirteenth century the opposition was largely due to a want of clear insight into the subject in dispute. The word "conception" was used in different senses, which had not been separated by careful definition.在13世紀的反對,主要是因為一個要明確的洞察這一問題的爭端。單詞“概念”被用來在不同的感官,尚未分離仔細界定。 If St. Thomas, St.如果聖托馬斯,聖 Bonaventure, and other theologians had known the doctrine in the sense of the definition of 1854, they would have been its strongest defenders instead of being its opponents. We may formulate the question discussed by them in two propositions, both of which are against the sense of the dogma of 1854:博納旺,和其他的神學家已經知道的理論意義上的定義1854年,他們本來最強烈的維護者,而不是其對手。我們會制定討論的問題他們在兩個命題,這兩者都是對的感覺對教條的1854年:

  1. the sanctification of Mary took place before the infusion of the soul into the fiesh, so that the immunity of the soul was a consequence of the sanctification of the flesh and there was no liability on the part of the soul to contract original sin.在神聖的瑪麗發生在注入的靈魂到fiesh ,使免疫功能的靈魂是一個後果是神聖的肉體,也沒有承擔賠償責任的一部分,靈魂的合同原罪。 This would approach the opinion of the Damascene concerning the hoiiness of the active conception.這將辦法的意見,關於大馬士革hoiiness積極的概念。
  2. The sanctification took place after the infusion of the soul by redemption from the servitude of sin, into which the soul had been drawn by its union with the unsanctified flesh.在成聖發生後,注入靈魂的贖回從奴役的罪孽,到其中的靈魂已經制訂了工會與unsanctified肉。 This form of the thesis excluded an immaculate conception.這種形式的論文被排除一個完美的概念。

The theologians forgot that between sanctification before infusion, and sanctification after infusion, there was a medium: sanctification of the soul at the moment of its infusion.忘記的神學之間的神聖輸液前 ,和成聖輸液 ,有一個中型:神聖的靈魂目前輸液。 To them the idea seemed strange that what was subsequent in the order of nature could be simultaneous in point of time.他們的想法似乎奇怪的是,什麼是以後的順序排列的性質可以同時在的時間點。 Speculatively taken, the soul must be created before it can be infused and sanctified but in reality, the soul is created snd sanctified at the very moment of its infusion into the body. Their principal difficulty was the declaration of St. Paul (Romans 5:12) that all men have sinned in Adam. The purpose of this Pauline declaration, however, is to insist on the need which all men have of redemption by "Christ".推測採取的靈魂必須創造才能注入和神聖,但在現實中,靈魂是建立在硝化神聖的時刻其注入到身體。他們的主要困難是申報聖保羅(羅馬書5 : 12 ) ,所有男人都犯過罪的亞當。這樣做的目的保宣言,然而,就是堅持這需要所有的人都贖回了“基督” 。 Our Lady was no exception to this rule.聖母無例外。 A second difficulty was the silence of the earlier Fathers.第二個困難是沉默的父親早。 But the divines of those times were distinguished not so much for their knowledge of the Fathers or of history, as for their exercise of the power of reasoning.但divines這些傑出的時代沒有這麼多的知識,父親或歷史,為他們行使權力的推理。 They read the Western Fathers more than those of the Eastern Church, who exhibit in far greater completeness the tradition of the Immaculate Conception.他們閱讀了西方父親多於東部教會,誰展覽大得多完整性傳統的聖母無染原罪堂。 And many works of the Fathers which had then been lost sight of have since been brought to light.和許多作品,其中的父親當時被忽略了已被揭露。 The famous Duns Scotus (d. 1308) at last (in III Sent., dist. iii, in both commentaries) laid the foundations of the true doctrine so solidly and dispelled the objections in a manner so satisfactory, that from that time onward the doctrine prevailed.著名的鄧司各脫(草1308 )在去年(在第三寄件。區。三,在這兩個評)奠定了基礎,真正使理論紮實,驅散了反對意見的方式,以便令人滿意的,從那個時候起,理論佔了上風。 He showed that the sanctification after animation -- sanctificatio post animationem -- demanded that it should follow in the order of nature ( naturae ) not of time ( temporis ); he removed the great difficulty of St. Thomas showing that, so far from being excluded from redemption, the Blessed Virgin obtained of her Divine Son the greatest of redemptions through the mystery of her preservation from all sin.他表示,在成聖後,動畫-s anctificatio後a nimationem-要求,它應遵循的順序排列的性質(自然)沒有時間(時間);他取消了極大的困難聖托馬斯顯示,迄今為止被排除贖回,聖母,她得到神的兒子最大的贖回通過她的神秘保存從所有罪孽。 He also brought forward, by way of illustration, the somewhat dangerous and doubtful argument of Eadmer (S. Anselm) "decuit, potuit, ergo fecit."他還提出,通過舉例說明,有些危險和可疑的論點Eadmer (南安瑟倫) “ decuit , potuit ,故fecit 。 ”

From the time of Scotus not only did the doctrine become the common opinion at the universities, but the feast spread widely to those countries where it had not been previously adopted. With the exception of the Dominicans, all or nearly all, of the religious orders took it up: The Franciscans at the general chapter at Pisa in 1263 adopted the Feast of the Conception of Mary for the entire order; this, however, does not mean that they professed at that time the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Following in the footsteps of their own Duns Scotus, the learned Petrus Aureolus and Franciscus de Mayronis became the most fervent champions of the doctrine, although their older teachers (St. Bonaventure included) had been opposed to it.唯一的例外是多米尼加人,所有或幾乎所有的宗教命令了它:在方濟一般比薩章在1263年通過了節日的概念瑪麗對整個秩序;然而,這並不意味著他們聲稱,當時的理論,即聖母無染原罪。以下的足跡,他們自己的鄧司各脫的教訓佩特魯斯Aureolus和方濟Mayronis成為冠軍最熱切的理論,儘管他們的老教師(包括聖文德)一直反對。 The controversy continued, but the defenders of the opposing opinion were almost entirely confined to the members of the Dominican Order.爭論仍在繼續,但維護者的反對意見幾乎完全限於成員的多米尼加秩序。 In 1439 the dispute was brought before the Council of Basle where the University of Paris, formerly opposed to the doctrine, proved to be its most ardent advocate, asking for a dogmatical definition.在1439爭端提交安理會的巴塞爾在巴黎大學的前身反對理論,證明是其最忠實的倡導者,要求武斷的定義。 The two referees at the council were John of Segovia and John Turrecremata (Torquemada).這兩個裁判在安理會塞戈維亞的約翰和約翰Turrecremata ( Torquemada ) 。 After it had been discussed for the space of two years before that assemblage, the bishops declared the Immaculate Conception to be a doctrine which was pious, consonant with Catholic worship, Catholic faith, right reason, and Holy Scripture; nor, said they, was it henceforth allowable to preach or declare to the contrary (Mansi, XXXIX, 182).之後進行了討論的空間,前兩年的組合,主教宣布聖母無染原罪堂是一個理論是虔誠的,符合天主教崇拜,信仰天主教,右原因,聖經也說,他們是它今後允許鼓吹或宣布相反(曼西,三十九, 182號) 。 The Fathers of the Council say that the Church of Rome was celebrating the feast.父親對安理會說,羅馬教會是慶祝節日。

This is true only in a certain sense.這是真正的只在一定的意義。 It was kept in a number of churches of Rome, especially in those of the religious orders, but it was not received in the official calendar.這是保存在一些教堂,羅馬,尤其是在那些對宗教的訂單,但沒有收到官方的日曆。 As the council at the time was not ecumenical, it could not pronounce with authority.安理會當時沒有基督教,但它不能發音與權威。 The memorandum of the Dominican Torquemada formed the armoury for all attacks upon the doctrine made by St. Antoninus of Florence (d. 1459), and by the Dominicans Bandelli and Spina.該備忘錄多米尼加Torquemada形成了軍械庫的所有攻擊的學說所作的聖安東尼佛羅倫薩(草1459 ) ,以及多米尼加Bandelli和脊柱。

By a Decree of 28 February, 1476, "Sixtus IV" at last adopted the feast for the entire Latin Church and granted an indulgence to all who would assist at the Divine Offices of the solemnity (Denzinger, 734).通過頒布了一項法令1476年2月28號, “西斯四”在去年通過了宴整個拉丁美洲教會和授予放縱所有誰將協助在神聖的辦事處的嚴肅( Denzinger , 734 ) 。 The Office adopted by "Sixtus IV" was composed by Leonard de Nogarolis, whilst the Franciscans, since 1480, used a very beautiful Office from the pen of Bernardine dei Busti ( Sicut Lilium ), which was granted also to others (eg to Spain, 1761), and was chanted by the Franciscans up to the second half of the nineteenth century.該廳通過的“西斯四”組成的倫納德德Nogarolis ,而濟, 1480年以來,採用了非常漂亮的辦公室從鋼筆的Bernardine代Busti ( Sicut百合 ) ,這是理所當然也給他人(例如,西班牙, 1761 ) ,並高喊的濟增長的第二十九世紀下半葉。 As the public acknowledgment of the feast of "Sixtus IV" did not prove sufficient to appease the conflict, he published in 1483 a constitution in which he punished with excommunication all those of either opinion who charged the opposite opinion with heresy (Grave nimis, 4 Sept., 1483; Denzinger, 735).由於公開承認的節日“西斯四”沒有證明不足以平息衝突,他1483年出版的一部憲法,他處以罰所有這些都認為誰負責相反的意見異端(墓nimis , 4 9月, 1483 ; Denzinger , 735 ) 。 In 1546 the Council of Trent, when the question was touched upon, declared that "it was not the intention of this Holy Synod to include in the decree which concerns original sin the Blessed and Immaculate Virgin Mary Mother of God" (Sess. V, De peccato originali, v, in Denzinger, 792).在1546年理事會的遄達,當這個問題涉及宣稱, “這是不打算羅馬主教這包括在該法令涉及原罪的祝福和無玷聖母天主之母” ( Sess.五,德peccato originali ,五,在Denzinger , 792 ) 。 Since, however, this decree did not define the doctrine, the theological opponents of the mystery, though more and more reduced in numbers, did not yield.但是,由於這項法令並沒有確定理論,反對神學的奧秘,但更多的人數減少,沒有收益。 "St. Pius V" not only condemned proposition 73 of Baius that "no one but "Christ" was without original sin, and that therefore the Blessed Virgin had died because of the sin contracted in Adam, and had endured afilictions in this life, like the rest of the just, as punishment of actual and original sin" (Denzinger, 1073) but he also issued a constitution in which he forbade all public discussion of the subject. “聖皮烏斯V ”形不僅譴責命題73 Baius “任何人,但”基督“是沒有原罪,因此聖母已經死亡,因為罪在亞當合同,並在afilictions忍受這種生活,像其他的公正,作為懲罰的實際和原罪“ ( Denzinger , 1073 ) ,但他也發出了憲法,他禁止所有公共討論這個問題。 Finally he inserted a new and simplified Office of the Conception in the liturgical books ("Super speculam", Dec., 1570; "Superni omnipotentis", March, 1571; "Bullarium Marianum", pp. 72, 75).最後,他插入一個新的和簡化的辦公室觀念禮儀書籍( “超級speculam ” , 12月, 1570年; “ Superni omnipotentis ” , 3月, 1571年; “ Bullarium薊” ,頁。 72 , 75 ) 。

Whilst these disputes went on, the great universities and almost all the great orders had become so many bulwarks for the defense of the dogma.雖然這些糾紛了,偉大的大學和幾乎所有的大訂單已成為許多壁壘的防禦的教條。 In 1497 the University of Paris decreed that henceforward no one should be admitted a member of the university, who did not swear that he would do the utmost to defend and assert the Immaculate Conception of Mary.在1497年巴黎大學規定,從今以後任何人都不應被接納的成員大學,誰不發誓,他會竭盡所能,以維護和伸張的聖母瑪利亞的構想。 Toulouse followed the example; in Italy, Bologna and Naples; in the German Empire, Cologne, Maine, and Vienna; in Belgium, Louvain; in England before the Reformation.圖盧茲效法;在意大利,博洛尼亞和那不勒斯;在德意志帝國,科隆,緬因州,和維也納;在比利時魯汶;在英格蘭面前的改革。 Oxford and Cambridge; in Spain Salamanca, Tolerio, Seville, and Valencia; in Portugd, Coimbra and Evora; in America, Mexico and Lima.牛津大學和劍橋大學;在西班牙薩拉曼卡, Tolerio ,塞維利亞和瓦倫西亞;在Portugd ,科英布拉和埃武拉;在中美洲,墨西哥和利馬。

The Friars Minor confirmed in 1621 the election of the Immaculate Mother as patron of the order, and bound themselves by oath to teach the mystery in public and in private.在天主教方濟會在1621年確認的選舉聖母媽媽為靠山的秩序,約束自己的誓言教之謎在公共和私人。 The Dominicans, however, were under special obligation to follow the doctrines of St. Thomas, and the common conclusion was that St. Thomas was opposed to the Immaculate Conception.多米尼加然而,在特殊義務,按照理論,聖托馬斯,共同的結論是,聖托馬斯反對聖母無染原罪堂。 Therefore the Dominicans asserted that the doctrine was an error against faith (John of Montesono, 1373); although they adopted the feast, they termed it persistently "Sanctificatio BMV" not "Conceptio", until in 1622 Gregory V abolished the term "sanctificatio".因此,多米尼加斷言理論是一個錯誤的信仰(約翰Montesono , 1373 ) ;雖然他們通過了節日,他們稱之為它堅持“ Sanctificatio BMV ”而非“ Conceptio ” ,直到在1622年格里高利奧五世廢除“一詞sanctificatio ” 。 Paul V (1617) decreed that no one should dare to teach publicly that Mary was conceived in original sin, and Gregory V (1622) imposed absolute silence ( in scriptis et sermonibus etiam privatis ) upon the adversaries of the doctrine until the Holy See should define the question.保五( 1617 )頒布法令,任何人都不應敢於公開教瑪麗設想原罪,和格里高利奧五世( 1622 )實行絕對的沉默scriptis等sermonibus etiam privatis )根據對手的理論,直到羅馬教廷界定的問題。 To put an end to all further cavilling, "Alexander VII" promulgated on 8 December 1661, the famous constitution "Sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum", defining the true sense of the word conceptio , and forbidding all further discussion against the common and pious sentiment of the Church.為了制止一切進一步cavilling , “亞歷山大七”頒布1661年12月八號,著名的憲法“ Sollicitudo Omnium公司Ecclesiarum ” ,確定了真正意義上的字conceptio ,並禁止所有對進一步討論的共同情感和虔誠的教會。 He declared that the immunity of Mary from original sin in the first moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into the body was the object of the feast (Densinger, 1100).他宣布豁免瑪麗從原罪在第一時刻創造她的靈魂和輸液進入人體的對象的盛宴( Densinger , 1100 ) 。

EXPLICIT UNIVERSAL ACCEPTANCE明確的普遍接受

Since the time of "Alexander VII", long before the final definition, there was no doubt on the part of theologians that the privilege was amongst the truths revealed by God.由於時間的“亞歷山大七” ,只要在最後的定義,毫無疑問的是神學的特權之一所揭示的真理的上帝。 Wherefore "Pius IX", surrounded by a splendid throng of cardinals and bishops, 8 December 1854, promulgated the dogma. A new Office was prescribed for the entire "Latin Church" by "Pius IX" (25 December, 1863), by which decree all the other Offices in use were abolished, including the old Office Sicut lilium of the Franciscans, and the Office composed by "Passaglia" (approved 2 Feb., 1849).何故“庇護九” ,周圍是燦爛的大群樞機主教和主教, 1854年12月8日,頒布了教條。一個新的辦公室是明為整個“拉丁教會”的“庇護九” ( 1863年12月25日) ,其中令所有其他辦事處使用被取消,其中包括舊的辦公室Sicut百合的方濟,辦事處組成的“ Passaglia ” (批准1849年2月2日) 。 In 1904 the golden jubilee of the definition of the dogma was celebrated with great splendour ("Pius X", Enc., 2 Feb., 1904). 1904年五十週年的定義教條慶祝懷著極大的輝煌( “庇護X ”的,電子海圖。 , 1904年2月2號) 。 Clement IX added to the feast an octave for the dioceses within the temporal possessions of the pope (1667). "Innocent XII" (1693) raised it to a double of the second class with an octave for the universal Church, which rank had been already given to it in 1664 for Spain, in 1665 for Tuscany and Savoy, in 1667 for the "Society of Jesus", the Hermits of St. Augustine, etc., Clement XI decreed on 6 Dec., 1708, that the feast should be a holiday of obligation throughout the entire Church.克萊門特九增加了節日倍頻為教區的時間範圍內的財產,教皇( 1667年) 。 “無辜的十二大” ( 1693 )提出這雙重的第二級與倍頻為普世教會,這已經排名已經賦予它在1664年的西班牙,在1665年的托斯卡納和薩沃伊,在1667年的“耶穌會” ,在隱士的聖奧古斯丁等,克萊門特十一頒布的1708年12月六日,即宴席應是假日的義務整個教會。

At last Leo XIII, 30 Nov 1879, raised the feast to a double of the first class with a vigil, a dignity which had long before been granted to Sicily (1739), to Spain (1760) and to the "United States" (1847).在去年利奧十三世, 1879年11月30號,提出了節日雙重一流的晚會,一個尊嚴,早就被授予意大利西西里島( 1739年) ,西班牙( 1760年)和“美國” ( 1847年) 。 A Votive Office of the Conception of Mary, which is now recited in almost the entire Latin Church on free Saturdays, was granted first to the Benedictine nuns of St. Anne at Rome in 1603, to the Franciscans in 1609, to the Conventuals in 1612, etc. The Syrian and Chaldean Churches celebrate this feast with the Greeks on 9 December; in Armenia it is one of the few immovable feasts of the year (9 December); the schismatic Abyssinians and Copts keep it on 7 August whilst they celebrate the Nativity of Mary on 1 May; the Catholic Copts, however, have transferred the feast to 10 December (Nativity, 10 September). The Eastern Catholics have since 1854 changed the name of the feast in accordance with the dogma to the "Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary."阿Votive辦公室瑪麗的構想,現在背誦在幾乎整個拉丁美洲的自由教會星期六,獲得第一至本篤會修女聖安妮在羅馬1603年,以方濟在1609年,向Conventuals 1612等敘利亞和迦勒底教會慶祝這一節日的希臘人於12月9日,在亞美尼亞它是少數不動產節日的一年( 12月9日) ; Abyssinians的分裂和科普特人保持於8月7日,而他們慶祝耶穌瑪麗5月1日;天主教科普特人,但是,節日移交至12月10日(耶穌, 9月10日) 。東部天主教徒自1854年改變了名稱的宴席按照教條的“聖母觀聖母瑪利亞。 “

The "Archdiocese of Palermo" solemnizes a Commemoration of the Immaculate Conception on 1 September to give thanks for the preservation of the city on occasion of the earthquake, 1 September, 1726.該“大主教巴勒莫” solemnizes紀念聖母無染原罪堂於9月1日給感謝維護城市之際,地震, 1726年9月1日。 A similar commemoration is held on 14 January at "Catania" (earthquake, 11 Jan., 1693); and by the Oblate Fathers on 17 Feb., because their rule was approved 17 Feb., 1826.類似的紀念活動是1月14日舉行的“卡塔尼亞” (地震, 1693年一月十一日) ;和獻主會於2月17日,因為他們的規則是批准1826年2月17日。 Between 20 September 1839, and 7 May 1847, the privilege of adding to the "Litany of Loretto" the invocation, "Queen conceived without original sin", had been granted to 300 dioceses and religious communities.從1839年9月20號,和1847年5月7日,有幸加入到“一連串的洛雷托”援引“英國女王的設想沒有原罪” ,獲得了300個教區和宗教社區。 The Immaculate Conception was declared on 8 November, 1760, principal "patron" of all the possessions of the crown of Spain, including those in America.聖母無染原罪堂宣布對1760年十一月八日,主要的“靠山”的所有財物的冠,西班牙,包括那些在美國。 The decree of the first Council of Baltimore (1846) electing Mary in her Immaculate Conception principal "Patron" of the "United States", was confirmed on 7 February, 1847.該法令的第一屆理事會巴爾的摩( 1846年)選舉瑪麗在她的聖母無染原罪的主要“贊助”的“美國” ,證實1847年2月7日。

Frederick G. Holweck弗雷德里克灣Holweck

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII 天主教百科全書,體積七


Immaculate Conception聖母無染原罪堂

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The doctrine In the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 8 December, 1854, Pius IX pronounced and defined that the Blessed Virgin Mary "in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin."該學說在憲法Ineffabilis上帝的1854年12月8日,碧岳九明顯和確定的祝福聖母“一審她的概念,通過一個獨特的特權和寬限期天賜,鑑於案情耶穌基督,救世主的人類,保存免除一切染原罪。 “

"The Blessed Virgin Mary..." “的祝福聖母... ”

The subject of this immunity from original sin is the person of Mary at the moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into her body.這個課題與豁免原罪的人是瑪麗此刻創造她的靈魂和其注入到了她的屍體。

"...in the first instance of her conception..." “ ...在初審,她的概念... ”

The term conception does not mean the active or generative conception by her parents.這個詞的概念並不意味著主動或生成的概念由她的父母。 Her body was formed in the womb of the mother, and the father had the usual share in its formation.她的屍體成立於子宮的母親,父親通常的份額在其形成。 The question does not concern the immaculateness of the generative activity of her parents.這個問題不涉及immaculateness的生成活性她的父母。 Neither does it concern the passive conception absolutely and simply (conceptio seminis carnis, inchoata), which, according to the order of nature, precedes the infusion of the rational soul. The person is truly conceived when the soul is created and infused into the body.它也不關心的被動觀念絕對簡單( conceptio seminis carnis , inchoata ) ,而根據該命令的性質,先注入理性的靈魂。人是真正的設想時,靈魂是創建和注入人體。 Mary was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin at the first moment of her animation, and sanctifying grace was given to her before sin could have taken effect in her soul.瑪麗保存免除一切染原罪在第一時刻,她的動畫,寬限期sanctifying ,並給予了她的面前罪過可採取影響她的靈魂。

"...was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin..." “ ...保存免除一切染原罪... ”

The formal active essence of original sin was not removed from her soul, as it is removed from others by baptism; it was excluded, it never was in her soul. Simultaneously with the exclusion of sin.正式的積極本質原罪不是從她的靈魂,因為它是從別人的洗禮,它被排除在外,它從來就沒有在她的靈魂。同時排斥的罪孽。 The state of original sanctity, innocence, and justice, as opposed to original sin, was conferred upon her, by which gift every stain and fault, all depraved emotions, passions, and debilities, essentially pertaining to original sin, were excluded.國家神聖不可侵犯的原始,純真,正義,而不是原罪,是賦予她的,其中每一個污點禮物和故障,所有墮落的情感,激情,和debilities ,基本上有關原罪,被排除在外。 But she was not made exempt from the temporal penalties of Adam -- from sorrow, bodily infirmities, and death.但她沒有作出免於處罰顳亞當-從悲痛,身體虛弱,甚至死亡。

"...by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race." “ ...通過一個獨特的特權和寬限期天賜,鑑於案情耶穌基督,救世主的人類。 ”

The immunity from original sin was given to Mary by a singular exemption from a universal law through the same merits of Christ, by which other men are cleansed from sin by baptism.豁免原罪給瑪麗的一個獨特的豁免普遍規律通過同樣的優點,基督,其中男子是從清洗罪孽的洗禮。 Mary needed the redeeming Saviour to obtain this exemption, and to be delivered from the universal necessity and debt (debitum) of being subject to original sin.瑪麗需要補償的救世主獲得這項豁免,並須交付的普遍必要性和債務( debitum )正在受原罪。 The person of Mary, in consequence of her origin from Adam, should have been subject to sin, but, being the new Eve who was to be the mother of the new Adam, she was, by the eternal counsel of God and by the merits of Christ, withdrawn from the general law of original sin.該人的瑪麗,因此她的原產地從亞當,應該受到罪過,但目前新的除夕誰應該成為母親的新的亞當,她是由律師永恆的上帝和優點基督,從一般規律原罪。 Her redemption was the very masterpiece of Christ's redeeming wisdom.她的贖回是非常傑作基督的救贖智慧。 He is a greater redeemer who pays the debt that it may not be incurred than he who pays after it has fallen on the debtor.他是一個更大的救主誰付費的債務,它可能不會比他招致誰付費後,已經下降對債務人。

Such is the meaning of the term "Immaculate Conception."就是這樣的含義“聖母無染原罪堂。 ”

Proof from Scripture從聖經證明

Genesis 3:15創世記3:15

No direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture.沒有直接或明確和嚴格的證據法則可結轉聖經。 But the first scriptural passage which contains the promise of the redemption, mentions also the Mother of the Redeemer.但在第一次聖經通過其中包含的承諾贖回,也提到母親的救世主。 The sentence against the first parents was accompanied by the Earliest Gospel (Proto-evangelium), which put enmity between the serpent and the woman: "and I will put enmity between thee and the woman and her seed; she (he) shall crush thy head and thou shalt lie in wait for her (his) heel" (Genesis 3:15).這一判決對第一父母陪同下最早的福音(原福音) ,使之間的敵意和蛇女: “我將把你之間的敵意和一名婦女和她的種子;她(他)應愛戀你頭部和你應該是在等待她(他)踵“ (創世記3:15 ) 。 The translation "she" of the Vulgate is interpretative; it originated after the fourth century, and cannot be defended critically.翻譯“她”的拉丁文聖經是解釋性;它發源於後四世紀,不能捍衛嚴重。 The conqueror from the seed of the woman, who should crush the serpent's head, is Christ; the woman at enmity with the serpent is Mary.征服者從種子的女人,誰應粉碎蛇的頭,是基督;的女子敵意與蛇是瑪麗。 God puts enmity between her and Satan in the same manner and measure, as there is enmity between Christ and the seed of the serpent.上帝把她之間的敵意和撒旦以同樣的方式和措施,有基督之間的敵意和種子的蛇。 Mary was ever to be in that exalted state of soul which the serpent had destroyed in man, ie in sanctifying grace.瑪麗是以往任何時候都必須在這一崇高的靈魂狀態的蛇摧毀了在人,即在sanctifying寬限期。 Only the continual union of Mary with grace explains sufficiently the enmity between her and Satan.只有不斷地工會與瑪麗寬限期充分解釋之間的敵意她和撒旦。 The Proto-evangelium, therefore, in the original text contains a direct promise of the Redeemer, and in conjunction therewith the manifestation of the masterpiece of His Redemption, the perfect preservation of His virginal Mother from original sin.在原福音,因此,在最初的文字包含一個直接承諾的救世主,並結合條文體現的傑作,他的救贖,完善的維護他的處女母親從原罪。

Luke 1:28盧克1時28分

The salutation of the angel Gabriel -- chaire kecharitomene, Hail, full of grace (Luke 1:28) indicates a unique abundance of grace, a supernatural, godlike state of soul, which finds its explanation only in the Immaculate Conception of Mary. But the term kecharitomene (full of grace) serves only as an illustration, not as a proof of the dogma.稱呼的天使加布里埃爾-c hairek echaritomene,冰雹,充分的寬限期(路加1點2 8分)表示了獨特豐富的寬限期,超自然的,神聖的國家的靈魂,它認為它的解釋只有在聖母瑪利亞的構想。但任期kecharitomene (充分的寬限期)只作為一個例子,而不是一個證明教條。

Other texts其他法規

From the texts Proverbs 8 and Ecclesiasticus 24 (which exalt the Wisdom of God and which in the liturgy are applied to Mary, the most beautiful work of God's Wisdom), or from the Canticle of Canticles (4:7, "Thou art all fair, O my love, and there is not a spot in thee"), no theological conclusion can be drawn.從文本諺語8日和Ecclesiasticus 24個(其中發揚上帝的智慧,並在禮儀適用於瑪麗,最美麗的工作,上帝的智慧) ,或從頌歌的Canticles (四點07分, “你是所有公平,噢,我的愛,並沒有一個位置你“ ) ,沒有神學得出。 These passages, applied to the Mother of God, may be readily understood by those who know the privilege of Mary, but do not avail to prove the doctrine dogmatically, and are therefore omitted from the Constitution "Ineffabilis Deus".這些通道,適用於天主之母,可能是容易理解的誰知道那些有幸瑪麗,但不要利用證明的理論教條,因此,省略憲法“ Ineffabilis上帝” 。 For the theologian it is a matter of conscience not to take an extreme position by applying to a creature texts which might imply the prerogatives of God.對於神學這是一個良知問題不要採取極端的立場適用於生物文本這可能意味著特權的上帝。

Proof from Tradition從傳統的證明

In regard to the sinlessness of Mary the older Fathers are very cautious: some of them even seem to have been in error on this matter.關於清白的瑪麗老父親非常謹慎:有的甚至似乎已經在錯誤這一問題。

Origen, although he ascribed to Mary high spiritual prerogatives, thought that, at the time of Christ's passion, the sword of disbelief pierced Mary's soul; that she was struck by the poniard of doubt; and that for her sins also Christ died (Origen, "In Luc. hom. xvii").俄利根,但他歸因於瑪麗高的精神特權,認為,在基督的激情,劍刺穿難以置信瑪麗的靈魂; ,她驚訝的匕首疑問; ,並為她的罪孽也基督死亡(奧利, “在呂克。昏。十七” ) 。

In the same manner St. Basil writes in the fourth century: he sees in the sword, of which Simeon speaks, the doubt which pierced Mary's soul (Epistle 259).以同樣的方式寫入聖巴西爾在第四世紀:他看到的劍,其中西梅翁說,懷疑這穿瑪麗的靈魂(書第259段) 。

St. Chrysostom accuses her of ambition, and of putting herself forward unduly when she sought to speak to Jesus at Capharnaum (Matthew 12:46; Chrysostom, Hom. xliv; cf. also "In Matt.", hom. 4).金口街指責她的野心,並把自己前進時,不適當地要求發言耶穌在Capharnaum (馬太12:46 ;金口,紅。四十四;比照。還“在馬特。 ”昏。 4 ) 。

But these stray private opinions merely serve to show that theology is a progressive science.但是,這些流浪私營意見只是表明,神學是一個漸進的科學。 If we were to attempt to set forth the full doctrine of the Fathers on the sanctity of the Blessed Virgin, which includes particularly the implicit belief in the immaculateness of her conception, we should be forced to transcribe a multitude of passages.如果我們試圖提出了充分的理論的父輩對神聖的聖母,其中包括特別是隱含的信念, immaculateness她的概念,我們應該被迫抄寫了許多段落。 In the testimony of the Fathers two points are insisted upon: her absolute purity and her position as the second Eve (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:22).在證詞的父親有兩點是堅持要求:她絕對的純潔性和她的地位,第二夜(見哥林多前書15:22 ) 。

Mary as the second Eve瑪麗的第二個除夕

This celebrated comparison between Eve, while yet immaculate and incorrupt -- that is to say, not subject to original sin -- and the Blessed Virgin is developed by:這慶祝除夕比較,同時還完美和廉政-這就是說,不受原罪-和聖母開發了:

Justin (Dialog. cum Tryphone, 100), Irenaeus (Contra Haereses, III, xxii, 4), Tertullian (De carne Christi, xvii), Julius Firmicus Maternus (De errore profan. relig xxvi), Cyril of Jerusalem (Catecheses, xii, 29), Epiphanius (Hæres., lxxviii, 18), Theodotus of Ancyra (Or. in S. Deip n. 11), and Sedulius (Carmen paschale, II, 28).賈斯汀( Dialog.暨Tryphone , 100 ) ,愛任紐(魂斗羅Haereses ,三, 22 , 4 ) ,良(德卡爾內基督,十七) ,朱利葉斯Firmicus Maternus (德errore profan 。 relig XXVI )號決議,西里爾耶路撒冷( Catecheses ,十二, 29歲) ,埃皮法尼烏斯( Hæres. , lxxviii , 18歲) , Theodotus的Ancyra ( Or.在美國Deip第11號) ,並Sedulius (卡門paschale ,二, 28 ) 。

The absolute purity of Mary絕對純潔的瑪麗

Patristic writings on Mary's purity abound.教父著作瑪麗的純度比比皆是。

The Fathers call Mary the tabernacle exempt from defilement and corruption (Hippolytus, "Ontt. in illud, Dominus pascit me"); Origen calls her worthy of God, immaculate of the immaculate, most complete sanctity, perfect justice, neither deceived by the persuasion of the serpent, nor infected with his poisonous breathings ("Hom. i in diversa"); Ambrose says she is incorrupt, a virgin immune through grace from every stain of sin ("Sermo xxii in Ps. cxviii);父親要求的窩棚瑪麗不受污辱和腐敗(西波呂, “ Ontt 。諭中,主pascit箱” ) ;奧利要求她無愧于上帝,完美無暇的完美,最完整的神聖,完美的正義,既不欺騙的勸說的蛇,也感染了他的有毒breathings ( “紅。 i的潛” ) ;劉漢銓說,她是廉政,處女免疫通過寬限期從各個染色的罪孽( “ Sermo 22在PS 。 cxviii ) ;

Maximus of Turin calls her a dwelling fit for Christ, not because of her habit of body, but because of original grace ("Nom. viii de Natali Domini"); Theodotus of Ancyra terms her a virgin innocent, without spot, void of culpability, holy in body and in soul, a lily springing among thorns, untaught the ills of Eve, nor was there any communion in her of light with darkness, and, when not yet born, she was consecrated to God ("Orat. in S. Dei Genitr.").馬克西穆斯都靈她呼籲住宅適合基督,而不是因為她身體的習慣,但由於原來的寬限期( “姓名。 ㈧德納塔利多米尼” ) ; Theodotus條件的Ancyra她處女無辜的,沒有現貨,無效的罪責神聖的身體和靈魂,百合雨後春筍般的荊棘, untaught弊病的前夕,也沒有任何共融在她的光與黑暗,並在尚未出生,她是神聖的上帝( “ Orat 。在S 。棣Genitr 。 “ ) 。

In refuting Pelagius St. Augustine declares that all the just have truly known of sin "except the Holy Virgin Mary, of whom, for the honour of the Lord, I will have no question whatever where sin is concerned" (De naturâ et gratiâ 36).在駁斥伯拉糾聖奧古斯丁宣布,所有的只是真正知道的罪孽“除外聖母瑪利亞,其中,為的榮譽勳爵,我會毫無疑問,無論是在有關罪孽” (德等自然特惠36 ) 。

Mary was pledged to Christ (Peter Chrysologus, "Sermo cxl de Annunt. BMV"); it is evident and notorious that she was pure from eternity, exempt from every defect (Typicon S. Sabae); she was formed without any stain (St. Proclus, "Laudatio in S. Dei Gen. ort.", I, 3);瑪麗是保證基督(彼得Chrysologus , “消抗安胎口服液Sermo德Annunt 。 BMV ” ) ;這是明顯的,臭名昭著的,她是純粹從永恆,免除一切缺損( Typicon由鯖江) ;她形成沒有任何污點(聖。 Proclus , “在美國Laudatio棣將軍端口。 ”我, 3 ) ;

she was created in a condition more sublime and glorious than all other natures (Theodorus of Jerusalem in Mansi, XII, 1140); when the Virgin Mother of God was to be born of Anne, nature did not dare to anticipate the germ of grace, but remained devoid of fruit (John Damascene, "Hom. i in BV Nativ.", ii).她創造的條件和更崇高的光榮超過所有其他性質(西奧多耶路撒冷曼西,十二, 1140年) ;時,美屬維爾京天主之母要出生的安妮,自然不敢預測胚芽的寬限期,但仍缺乏水果(約翰大馬士革, “紅。我在公司Nativ 。 ”二) 。

The Syrian Fathers never tire of extolling the sinlessness of Mary.敘利亞的父親不厭其煩地歌頌了清白的瑪麗。 St. Ephraem considers no terms of eulogy too high to describe the excellence of Mary's grace and sanctity: "Most holy Lady, Mother of God, alone most pure in soul and body, alone exceeding all perfection of purity ...., alone made in thy entirety the home of all the graces of the Most Holy Spirit, and hence exceeding beyond all compare even the angelic virtues in purity and sanctity of soul and body . . . . my Lady most holy, all-pure, all-immaculate, all-stainless, all-undefiled, all-incorrupt, all-inviolate spotless robe of Him Who clothes Himself with light as with a garment . ... flower unfading, purple woven by God, alone most immaculate" ("Precationes ad Deiparam" in Opp. Graec. Lat., III, 524-37).聖Ephraem認為沒有條件悼詞太高來形容優秀的瑪麗的恩典和神聖: “最神聖的夫人,天主之母,獨自最純潔的靈魂和身體,僅超過所有完善的純度僅取得....,在你整個家庭的所有青睞的大多數聖靈,從而超過所有比較以後甚至天使般的美德在純潔和神聖的靈魂和身體。 。 。 。我的夫人最神聖的,所有純,都完美無暇,全不銹鋼,全undefiled ,全廉,全不可侵犯一塵不染長袍的他誰的衣服自己的光與一家服裝。 ...花unfading ,紫色編織的上帝,就有最完美的“ ( ” Precationes廣告Deiparam “在有機磷農藥。 Graec 。叻。 ,三, 524-37 ) 。

To St. Ephraem she was as innocent as Eve before her fall, a virgin most estranged from every stain of sin, more holy than the Seraphim, the sealed fountain of the Holy Ghost, the pure seed of God, ever in body and in mind intact and immaculate ("Carmina Nisibena"). Jacob of Sarug says that "the very fact that God has elected her proves that none was ever holier than Mary; if any stain had disfigured her soul, if any other virgin had been purer and holier, God would have selected her and rejected Mary".聖Ephraem她是無辜的除夕之前,她的秋天,處女最疏遠每染色的罪孽,更不是神聖的天使,密封噴泉的聖靈,純淨種子的上帝,以往在身體和銘記完整和完美無暇的( “布蘭Nisibena ” ) 。雅各布的Sarug說, “事實本身,上帝選出她的證明,沒有人比以往任何時候都神聖瑪麗,如果有任何污點毀容她的靈魂,如果任何其他處女已經純潔和神聖,上帝選擇了她,並拒絕了瑪麗“ 。 It seems, however, that Jacob of Sarug, if he had any clear idea of the doctrine of sin, held that Mary was perfectly pure from original sin ("the sentence against Adam and Eve") at the Annunciation.看來,然而,雅各布的Sarug ,如果他有任何清晰的概念理論的罪孽,認為瑪麗是完全純粹從原罪( “一句對亞當和夏娃” )在報喜。

St. John Damascene (Or. i Nativ. Deip., n. 2) esteems the supernatural influence of God at the generation of Mary to be so comprehensive that he extends it also to her parents.聖約翰大馬士革( Or.字母i Nativ 。 Deip 。 ,注2 )推崇的超自然的神的影響在新一代的瑪麗是如此全面的延伸,他還向她的父母。 He says of them that, during the generation, they were filled and purified by the Holy Ghost, and freed from sexual concupiscence.他說,他們說,在一代人,他們被填補和純化的聖靈,並擺脫性concupiscence 。

Consequently according to the Damascene, even the human element of her origin, the material of which she was formed, was pure and holy.因此根據大馬士革,甚至人的因素,她的原產地,材料,她成立,是純粹的和神聖的。 This opinion of an immaculate active generation and the sanctity of the "conceptio carnis" was taken up by some Western authors; it was put forward by Petrus Comestor in his treatise against St. Bernard and by others.這種意見的一個完美無暇的積極一代的神聖“ conceptio carnis ”是由一些西方作家,這是提出的佩特魯斯Comestor在他的論文對聖伯納德和其他人。 Some writers even taught that Mary was born of a virgin and that she was conceived in a miraculous manner when Joachim and Anne met at the golden gate of the temple (Trombelli, "Mari SS. Vita", Sect. V, ii, 8; Summa aurea, II, 948. Cf. also the "Revelations" of Catherine Emmerich which contain the entire apocryphal legend of the miraculous conception of Mary.有些作者甚至告訴我們,瑪麗出生的處女,她設想的奇蹟般的方式時,約阿希姆和安妮舉行了金門廟宇( Trombelli , “真理黨衛軍。簡歷” ,第二節。五,二, 8 ;大全羅非魚,二, 948 。參閱。還的“啟示”的凱瑟琳默里克其中包含整個未經傳說,神奇的概念瑪麗。

From this summary it appears that the belief in Mary's immunity from sin in her conception was prevalent amongst the Fathers, especially those of the Greek Church.從這個總結可以看出,信仰瑪麗的豁免罪孽在她的概念中是普遍存在的父親,特別是那些希臘教會。 The rhetorical character, however, of many of these and similar passages prevents us from laying too much stress on them, and interpreting them in a strictly literal sense.修辭特點,然而,許多這些以及類似的通道阻止我們奠定太多的壓力,並解釋他們在嚴格的字面意義。 The Greek Fathers never formally or explicitly discussed the question of the Immaculate Conception.希臘父親從未正式或明確討論的問題,聖母無染原罪堂。

The Conception of St. John the Baptist的概念施洗者聖約翰

A comparison with the conception of Christ and that of St. John may serve to light both on the dogma and on the reasons which led the Greeks to celebrate at an early date the Feast of the Conception of Mary.與比較的概念,基督和聖約翰可能有助於輕都在和教條的原因而導致希臘人慶祝早日節的構想瑪麗。

The conception of the Mother of God was beyond all comparison more noble than that of St. John the Baptist, whilst it was immeasurably beneath that of her Divine Son.的概念天主之母超出所有比較更崇高的比施洗者聖約翰,而這是不可估量的下面是她的神的兒子。

The soul of the precursor was not preserved immaculate at its union with the body, but was sanctified either shortly after conception from a previous state of sin, or through the presence of Jesus at the Visitation. Our Lord, being conceived by the Holy Ghost, was, by virtue of his miraculous conception, ipso facto free from the taint of original sin.靈魂的前身是不是完美無暇的保存在其工會的機構,但無論是神聖的概念後不久,從以前的狀態的罪孽,或通過在場的情況下耶穌的訪問。我們的上帝,正在構想的聖靈,是,憑藉其神奇的概念,事實上不受污染原罪。

Of these three conceptions the Church celebrates feasts.這三個觀念,教會慶祝節日。 The Orientals have a Feast of the Conception of St. John the Baptist (23 September), which dates back to the fifth century; it is thus older than the Feast of the Conception of Mary, and, during the Middle Ages, was kept also by many Western dioceses on 24 September.在東方人有一個盛宴的構想施洗者聖約翰( 9月23日) ,可追溯到5世紀,它是因此以上的盛宴的瑪麗構想,並在中世紀,一直也許多西方教區於9月24日。 The Conception of Mary is celebrated by the Latins on 8 December; by the Orientals on 9 December; the Conception of Christ has its feast in the universal calendar on 25 March.構想瑪麗是慶祝的拉丁人12月8日;由東方人於12月9日;概念的基督有其節日在日曆上普遍3月25日。 In celebrating the feast of Mary's Conception the Greeks of old did not consider the theological distinction of the active and the passive conceptions, which was indeed unknown to them.在慶祝節日瑪麗的構想希臘人的舊沒有考慮神學的區別的積極和消極觀念,這的確是不知道他們。 They did not think it absurd to celebrate a conception which was not immaculate, as we see from the Feast of the Conception of St. John.他們並不認為這可笑的慶祝概念是不完美的,我們看到的盛宴的構想聖約翰。 They solemnized the Conception of Mary, perhaps because, according to the "Proto-evangelium" of St. James, it was preceded by miraculous events (the apparition of an angel to Joachim, etc.), similar to those which preceded the conception of St. John, and that of our Lord Himself.他們solemnized概念的瑪麗,也許是因為,根據“原始福音”的聖雅各福群,它之前,奇蹟般的事件(幽靈的天使約阿希姆等) ,類似於之前的概念聖約翰,而且我們的上帝。 Their object was less the purity of the conception than the holiness and heavenly mission of the person conceived.其目的是減少純度的概念比神聖使命和神聖的人的設想。 In the Office of 9 December, however, Mary, from the time of her conception, is called beautiful, pure, holy, just, etc., terms never used in the Office of 23 September (sc. of St. John the Baptist).辦公室12月9日,然而,瑪麗,從她的概念,是所謂的美麗,純潔,神聖,公正,等等,條款中從未使用過的辦公室9月23日( sc.的施洗者聖約翰) 。 The analogy of St. John's sanctification may have given rise to the Feast of the Conception of Mary.這個比喻聖約翰成聖可能引起節日的概念瑪麗。 If it was necessary that the precursor of the Lord should be so pure and "filled with the Holy Ghost" even from his mother's womb, such a purity was assuredly not less befitting His Mother.如果有必要的前身勳爵應如此純粹和“充滿了聖靈”甚至從他母親的子宮裡,這樣的純度不小於肯定適合他的母親。 The moment of St.目前聖 John's sanctification is by later writers thought to be the Visitation ("the infant leaped in her womb"), but the angel's words (Luke 1:15) seem to indicate a sanctification at the conception.約翰的成聖是後來作家認為是訪問( “嬰兒跳在她的子宮裡” ) ,但天使的話(路1:15 )似乎表明,在神聖的概念。 This would render the origin of Mary more similar to that of John.這將使起源的瑪麗更類似於約翰。 And if the Conception of John had its feast, why not that of Mary?如果約翰的構想有其盛宴,為什麼不說瑪麗?

Proof from Reason從理性的證明

There is an incongruity in the supposition that the flesh, from which the flesh of the Son of God was to be formed, should ever have belonged to one who was the slave of that arch-enemy, whose power He came on earth to destroy.有一個不協調的假定肉體,從肉體的上帝之子要形成,任何時候都應該有一個屬於誰是奴隸的拱形的敵人,他們的權力,他來到地球上的破壞。 Hence the axiom of Pseudo-Anselmus (Eadmer) developed by Duns Scotus, Decuit, potuit, ergo fecit, it was becoming that the Mother of the Redeemer should have been free from the power of sin and from the first moment of her existence; God could give her this privilege, therefore He gave it to her.因此,公理偽Anselmus ( Eadmer )制定的鄧司各脫, Decuit , potuit ,故fecit ,它已成為母親的救世主應已擺脫權力的罪惡和從第一時刻,她的存在;上帝可以給她這個特權,因此,他送給了她。 Again it is remarked that a peculiar privilege was granted to the prophet Jeremiah and to St. John the Baptist.再次是說,一種特殊的特權給予先知耶利米和施洗者聖約翰。 They were sanctified in their mother's womb, because by their preaching they had a special share in the work of preparing the way for Christ.他們是神聖的母親的子宮裡,因為他們的說教,他們有一個特殊的共享的工作鋪平了道路基督。

Consequently some much higher prerogative is due to Mary.因此一些高得多的特權是由於瑪麗。 (A treatise of P. Marchant, claiming for St. Joseph also the privilege of St. John, was placed on the Index in 1833.) Scotus says that "the perfect Mediator must, in some one case, have done the work of mediation most perfectly, which would not be unless there was some one person at least, in whose regard the wrath of God was anticipated and not merely appeased." (甲論文體育馬,聲稱為聖約瑟夫也有幸聖約翰,被列入該指數於1833年。 )司各脫說, “完美的調解,必須在某些一個案例中,也做了調解工作最完美的,它不會,除非有一些人,至少在其方面的憤怒,預計上帝,而不是僅僅姑息。 “

The Feast of the Immaculate Conception七七聖母無染原罪堂

The older feast of the Conception of Mary (Conception of St. Anne), which originated in the monasteries of Palestine at least as early as the seventh century, and the modern feast of the Immaculate Conception are not identical in their object.老年人的節日概念的瑪麗(觀聖安娜) ,起源於寺廟巴勒斯坦至少早在7世紀,與現代節日的聖母無染原罪堂並不相同的對象。

Originally the Church celebrated only the Feast of the Conception of Mary, as she kept the Feast of St. John's conception, not discussing the sinlessness. This feast in the course of centuries became the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, as dogmatical argumentation brought about precise and correct ideas, and as the thesis of the theological schools regarding the preservation of Mary from all stain of original sin gained strength.原來的教會只有慶祝節日的概念瑪麗,因為她保持了節日聖約翰的概念,而不是討論清白。這個節日的過程中,成為百年盛宴的聖母無染原罪堂,因為武斷的論證帶來了精確的正確的想法,作為論文的神學院關於維護瑪麗從所有染色原罪走強。 Even after the dogma had been universally accepted in the Latin Church, and had gained authoritative support through diocesan decrees and papal decisions, the old term remained, and before 1854 the term "Immaculata Conceptio" is nowhere found in the liturgical books, except in the invitatorium of the Votive Office of the Conception.即使在教條已被普遍接受的拉丁美洲教會,並獲得了權威的支持教區教皇的法令和決定,舊的長期存在,以及1854年前的“ Immaculata Conceptio ”是沒有發現的禮儀書籍,除了在invitatorium的Votive辦事處的構想。 The Greeks, Syrians, etc. call it the Conception of St. Anne (Eullepsis tes hagias kai theoprometoros Annas, "the Conception of St. Anne, the ancestress of God"). Passaglia in his "De Immaculato Deiparae Conceptu," basing his opinion upon the "Typicon" of St. Sabas: which was substantially composed in the fifth century, believes that the reference to the feast forms part of the authentic original, and that consequently it was celebrated in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem in the fifth century (III, n. 1604).希臘人,敘利亞人,等把它叫做觀街安妮( Eullepsis檢驗hagias偕theoprometoros安納斯, “觀聖安妮的ancestress上帝” ) 。 Passaglia在他的“德Immaculato Deiparae Conceptu , ”根據他的輿論對“ Typicon ”聖Sabas :大大組成五世紀,認為提及節日的組成部分,真正的原始,因此這是在慶祝東正教在耶路撒冷5世紀(三,聯合國1604 ) 。 But the Typicon was interpolated by the Damascene, Sophronius, and others, and, from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, many new feasts and offices were added.但Typicon是插了大馬士革, Sophronius ,和其他人,從第九至第十二世紀以來,許多新的節日和辦事處又增加了。

To determine the origin of this feast we must take into account the genuine documents we possess, the oldest of which is the canon of the feast, composed by St.要確定原產地的盛宴,我們必須考慮到真正的文件,我們擁有最古老的是佳能的盛宴,組成由聖 Andrew of Crete, who wrote his liturgical hymns in the second half of the seventh century, when a monk at the monastery of St. Sabas near Jerusalem (d. Archbishop of Crete about 720).安德魯的克里特島,誰寫他的禮儀讚美詩在下半年七世紀,當和尚在寺院街Sabas耶路撒冷附近(草大主教克里特島約720名) 。 But the solemnity cannot then have been generally accepted throughout the Orient, for John, first monk and later bishop in the Isle of Euboea, about 750 in a sermon, speaking in favour of the propagation of this feast, says that it was not yet known to all the faithful (ei kai me para tois pasi gnorizetai; PG, XCVI, 1499).但嚴肅不能再被普遍接受的整個東方的約翰,第一次和尚,後來主教在埃維亞島,約750布道,講有利於繁殖的這一盛宴,說這是還不知道所有信徒(榮偕我第tois鹿gnorizetai ;指引, XCVI , 1499 ) 。 But a century later George of Nicomedia, made metropolitan by Photius in 860, could say that the solemnity was not of recent origin (PG, C, 1335).但是,一個世紀之後的Nicomedia喬治,提出大都市的Photius在860 ,可以說,沒有莊嚴最近原產地(前列腺素,丙, 1335 ) 。 It is therefore, safe to affirm that the feast of the Conception of St. Anne appears in the Orient not earlier than the end of the seventh or the beginning of the eighth century. As in other cases of the same kind the feast originated in the monastic communities.因此,安全申明,節日的概念聖安妮出現在東方不得早於月底或7月初八世紀。至於在其他情況下,同類的節日起源於寺院的社區。 The monks, who arranged the psalmody and composed the various poetical pieces for the office, also selected the date, 9 December, which was always retained in the Oriental calendars.僧侶,誰安排psalmody組成的各種詩歌作品的辦公室,還選定的日期, 12月9日,這是永遠留在東方的日曆。 Gradually the solemnity emerged from the cloister, entered into the cathedrals, was glorified by preachers and poets, and eventually became a fixed feast of the calendar, approved by Church and State.逐步擺脫嚴肅的迴廊,進入教堂,是美化的傳教士和詩人,並最終成為一個固定的節日日曆,批准的教會和國家。

It is registered in the calendar of Basil II (976-1025) and by the Constitution of Emperor Manuel I Comnenus on the days of the year which are half or entire holidays, promulgated in 1166, it is numbered among the days which have full sabbath rest.這是登記在日曆巴西爾二世( 976-1025 ) ,並受憲法的皇帝曼努埃爾一世Comnenus對今年的天有一半或整個假期, 1166年頒布的,它的編號之間的天已經全安息日休息。 Up to the time of Basil II, Lower Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia still belonged to the Byzantine Empire; the city of Naples was not lost to the Greeks until 1127, when Roger II conquered the city.最多的時候巴西爾二世,下意大利,西西里島和撒丁島仍然屬於拜占庭帝國的城市那不勒斯不是輸給了希臘人,直到1127年,當羅傑二世征服了的城市。 The influence of Constantinople was consequently strong in the Neapolitan Church, and, as early as the ninth century, the Feast of the Conception was doubtlessly kept there, as elsewhere in Lower Italy on 9 December, as indeed appears from the marble calendar found in 1742 in the Church of S. Giorgio Maggiore at Naples. Today the Conception of St. Anne is in the Greek Church one of the minor feasts of the year.的影響,因此君士坦丁堡強大的那不勒斯教會,並早在第九世紀,節日的概念無疑是有備存,作為別處下意大利12月9日,確實顯示出大理石的日曆中發現1742在教會的教堂由意大利那不勒斯。今天的觀聖安娜是希臘教會的一個小節日的一年。 The lesson in Matins contains allusions to the apocryphal "Proto-evangelium" of St. James, which dates from the second half of the second century (see SAINT ANNE).這個教訓在Matins包含典故的未經證實“原始福音”的聖雅各福群,其中日期從下半年的第二個世紀(見聖安妮) 。 To the Greek Orthodox of our days, however, the feast means very little; they continue to call it "Conception of St. Anne", indicating unintentionally, perhaps, the active conception which was certainly not immaculate.希臘東正教的天,然而,節日的手段很少;他們繼續稱之為“觀聖安妮” ,表示無意,也許積極的概念這當然不是完美無缺。 In the Menaea of 9 December this feast holds only the second place, the first canon being sung in commemoration of the dedication of the Church of the Resurrection at Constantinople. Menaea在12月9日這個節日不僅擁有第二位,第一次被星佳能在紀念奉獻教會的復活在君士坦丁堡。 The Russian hagiographer Muraview and several other Orthodox authors even loudly declaimed against the dogma after its promulgation, although their own preachers formerly taught the Immaculate Conception in their writings long before the definition of 1854.俄羅斯hagiographer Muraview和其他一些作者甚至東正教declaimed大聲對教條頒布後,雖然自己以前任教傳教士的聖母無染原罪堂在其著作早在1854年的定義。

In the Western Church the feast appeared (8 December), when in the Orient its development had come to a standstill.在西方教會出現的盛宴( 12月8日) ,當時在東方的發展已經到了停頓狀態。 The timid beginnings of the new feast in some Anglo-Saxon monasteries in the eleventh century, partly smothered by the Norman conquest, were followed by its reception in some chapters and dioceses by the Anglo-Norman clergy.怯生生的開端新的節日在一些盎格魯撒克遜寺廟於11世紀,這部分是悶死的諾曼征服,其次是其接待的某些章節和教區的盎格魯諾曼的神職人員。 But the attempts to introduce it officially provoked contradiction and theoretical discussion, bearing upon its legitimacy and its meaning, which were continued for centuries and were not definitively settled before 1854.但是,有人企圖引入正式挑起矛盾和理論探討,同時呼籲其合法性和意義,這是持續數百年,並沒有最終解決之前, 1854年。 The "Martyrology of Tallaght" compiled about 790 and the "Feilire" of St. Aengus (800) register the Conception of Mary on 3 May.該“ Martyrology的Tallaght ”編制約790和“ Feilire ”聖Aengus ( 800 )註冊構想瑪麗5月3日。 It is doubtful, however, if an actual feast corresponded to this rubric of the learned monk St. Aengus.這是懷疑,但是,如果一個實際盛宴符合本規則的經驗教訓和尚街Aengus 。 This Irish feast certainly stands alone and outside the line of liturgical development.愛爾蘭盛宴這當然僅僅停留內外線的禮儀的發展。 It is a mere isolated appearance, not a living germ.這是一個單純孤立的外觀,而不是一個生活胚芽。 The Scholiast adds, in the lower margin of the "Feilire", that the conception (Inceptio) took place in February, since Mary was born after seven months -- a singular notion found also in some Greek authors.補充的註釋,在低利潤的“ Feilire ” ,即概念( Inceptio )發生在2月,因為瑪麗出生後7個月-一個獨特的概念還發現在一些希臘作家。 The first definite and reliable knowledge of the feast in the West comes from England; it is found in a calendar of Old Minster, Winchester (Conceptio S'ce Dei Genetricis Mari), dating from about 1030, and in another calendar of New Minster, Winchester, written between 1035 and 1056; a pontifical of Exeter of the eleventh century (assigned to 1046-1072) contains a "benedictio in Conceptione S. Mariae "; a similar benediction is found in a Canterbury pontifical written probably in the first half of the eleventh century, certainly before the Conquest.第一次明確和可靠的知識的盛宴在西方來自英格蘭,這是發現的舊日曆大教堂,溫徹斯特( Conceptio S'ce棣Genetricis馬里阿) ,可追溯到大約10時30分,並在另一個新的日曆的部長,溫徹斯特,書面和1035年之間的1056年,一個宗座埃克塞特的11世紀( 1046年至1072年分配)載有“ benedictio在Conceptione南Mariae ” ;了類似的祝福被發現在坎特伯雷主教書面可能在上半年的11世紀,當然之前征服。 These episcopal benedictions show that the feast not only commended itself to the devotion of individuals, but that it was recognized by authority and was observed by the Saxon monks with considerable solemnity.這些主教benedictions表明,節日不僅讚揚自己的獻身精神的個人,但它是公認的權威和觀察撒克遜僧侶相當嚴肅。 The existing evidence goes to show that the establishment of the feast in England was due to the monks of Winchester before the Conquest (1066).現有的證據去證明,建立在英格蘭節日是由於僧侶的溫徹斯特前征服( 1066 ) 。

The Normans on their arrival in England were disposed to treat in a contemptuous fashion English liturgical observances; to them this feast must have appeared specifically English, a product of insular simplicity and ignorance.諾曼在他們抵達英國被棄置處理中英文輕蔑的時尚禮儀紀念活動;給他們這個節日必須有具體出現英文,一個產品的島嶼簡單和無知。 Doubtless its public celebration was abolished at Winchester and Canterbury, but it did not die out of the hearts of individuals, and on the first favourable opportunity the feast was restored in the monasteries.毫無疑問,其公共慶祝活動被取消在溫切斯特和坎特伯雷,但它沒有死了的心個人,並在第一的有利時機節日恢復的寺廟。 At Canterbury however, it was not re-established before 1328.在坎特伯雷然而,這不是重新建立之前, 1328 。 Several documents state that in Norman times it began at Ramsey, pursuant to a vision vouchsafed to Helsin or Æthelsige, Abbot of Ramsey on his journey back from Denmark, whither he had been sent by William I about 1070.幾個文件指出,在諾曼時候開始,拉姆齊,根據遠見vouchsafed以Helsin或Æthelsige ,艾博特的拉姆齊他的旅程從丹麥,何處,他已發出的威廉一世約1070 。 An angel appeared to him during a severe gale and saved the ship after the abbot had promised to establish the Feast of the Conception in his monastery.一個天使出現在他的嚴重大風和保存船舶後的住持答應設立節日的概念在他的寺院。 However we may consider the supernatural feature of the legend, it must be admitted that the sending of Helsin to Denmark is an historical fact.但是,我們可以考慮的特點神的傳說,它必須承認,派遣Helsin丹麥是一個歷史事實。 The account of the vision has found its way into many breviaries, even into the Roman Breviary of 1473.該帳戶的遠見已經發現它在許多breviaries ,甚至到羅馬的1473祈禱。 The Council of Canterbury (1325) attributes the re-establishment of the feast in England to St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1109).安理會的坎特伯雷( 1325 )屬性重新建立的盛宴在英國聖安瑟倫,坎特伯雷大主教(草1109 ) 。 But although this great doctor wrote a special treatise "De Conceptu virginali et originali peccato", by which he laid down the principles of the Immaculate Conception, it is certain that he did not introduce the feast anywhere.但是,儘管這個偉大的醫生寫了一特殊的論文“德Conceptu virginali等originali peccato ” ,由他奠定了原則,即聖母無染原罪,這是一定的,他沒有提出任何地方的盛宴。 The letter ascribed to him, which contains the Helsin narrative, is spurious.該信歸因於他,其中載有Helsin說明,是虛假的。 The principal propagator of the feast after the Conquest was Anselm, the nephew of St. Anselm.主要傳播的盛宴後,征服了安瑟倫的侄子聖安瑟倫。 He was educated at Canterbury where he may have known some Saxon monks who remembered the solemnity in former days; after 1109 he was for a time Abbot of St. Sabas at Rome, where the Divine Offices were celebrated according to the Greek calendar.他在坎特伯雷,他可能已經知道一些僧侶撒克遜誰想起了莊嚴的前幾天後,他1109年曾經有一段時間住持聖Sabas在羅馬,在神聖的辦公室,慶祝根據希臘的日曆。 When in 1121 he was appointed Abbot of Bury St. Edmund's he established the feast there; partly at least through his efforts other monasteries also adopted it, like Reading, St. Albans, Worcester, Gloucester, and Winchcombe.當1121年他被任命為住持的伯里聖埃德蒙的他成立了節日那裡;部分,至少通過他的努力,其他寺廟也通過它,就像讀,聖奧爾本斯,伍斯特市,格洛斯特和公園。

But a number of others decried its observance as hitherto unheard of and absurd, the old Oriental feast being unknown to them.但是,另一些人譴責它的尊重,作為迄今聞所未聞的和荒謬的,舊的東方節日被不明他們。 Two bishops, Roger of Salisbury and Bernard of St. Davids, declared that the festival was forbidden by a council, and that the observance must be stopped.兩位主教,羅傑的索爾茲伯里和聖貝爾納戴維斯宣布,電影節被禁止了理事會,並遵守必須予以制止。 And when, during the vacancy of the See of London, Osbert de Clare, Prior of Westminster, undertook to introduce the feast at Westminster (8 December, 1127), a number of monks arose against him in the choir and said that the feast must not be kept, for its establishment had not the authority of Rome (cf. Osbert's letter to Anselm in Bishop, p. 24).時,在空缺的見的倫敦, Osbert的克萊爾,威斯敏斯特之前,進行了介紹節日西敏寺( 1127年12月八日) ,一些僧人對他產生的合唱團和說,必須盛宴不保持,它沒有建立權威的羅馬(參見Osbert的信安瑟倫的主教,第24頁) 。 Whereupon the matter was brought before the Council of London in 1129.於是,這個問題提交安理會的第1129倫敦。 The synod decided in favour of the feast, and Bishop Gilbert of London adopted it for his diocese.主教會議決定贊成票的盛宴,吉爾伯特和主教倫敦通過他的教區。 Thereafter the feast spread in England, but for a time retained its private character, the Synod of Oxford (1222) having refused to raise it to the rank of a holiday of obligation.此後,節日在英國蔓延,但在一段時間內保留其私人性質,牛津主教會議( 1222 )拒絕提高它的排名節日的義務。

In Normandy at the time of Bishop Rotric (1165-83) the Conception of Mary, in the Archdiocese of Rouen and its six suffragan dioceses, was a feast of precept equal in dignity to the Annunciation.在諾曼底的時候主教Rotric ( 1165年至1183年)的概念瑪麗,在魯昂大主教和六個教區副主教,是一個節日的戒律享有平等的尊嚴的報喜。 At the same time the Norman students at the University of Paris chose it as their patronal feast.同時,諾曼學生在巴黎大學選擇它作為自己patronal盛宴。 Owing to the close connection of Normandy with England, it may have been imported from the latter country into Normandy, or the Norman barons and clergy may have brought it home from their wars in Lower Italy, it was universally solemnised by the Greek inhabitants.由於密切聯繫諾曼底與英格蘭,它可能已被進口國,後者到諾曼底,或諾曼貴族和神職人員可能已經把它從他們的家庭戰爭中下意大利,人們普遍由solemnised希臘居民。 During the Middle Ages the Feast of the Conception of Mary was commonly called the "Feast of the Norman nation", which shows that it was celebrated in Normandy with great splendour and that it spread from there over Western Europe.在中世紀的盛宴的概念是常見的瑪麗所謂的“盛宴的諾曼的國家” ,這表明,這是慶祝諾曼底偉大的輝煌,它從那裡蔓延超過西歐。 Passaglia contends (III, 1755) that the feast was celebrated in Spain in the seventh century. Passaglia爭辯(三, 1755年)說,節日慶祝西班牙在第七世紀。 Bishop Ullathorne also (p. 161) finds this opinion acceptable.主教Ullathorne也(第161頁)認為這個意見可以接受的。 If this be true, it is difficult to understand why it should have entirely disappeared from Spain later on, for neither does the genuine Mozarabic Liturgy contain it, nor the tenth century calendar of Toledo edited by Morin. The two proofs given by Passaglia are futile: the life of St. Isidore, falsely attributed to St. Ildephonsus, which mentions the feast, is interpolated, while, in the Visigoth lawbook, the expression "Conceptio S. Mariae" is to be understood of the Annunciation.如果這是真的,這是很難理解為什麼它應該有完全消失由西班牙之後,也沒有為真正的摩沙拉聖禮遏制它,也不是10世紀托萊多日曆編輯的莫林。兩國所提供的證明是徒勞的Passaglia :生命的聖伊西多爾,虛假歸因於聖Ildephonsus ,其中提到的盛宴,是插,同時,在Visigoth法典中, “ Conceptio南Mariae ”是可以理解的報喜。

The controversy爭議

No controversy arose over the Immaculate Conception on the European continent before the twelfth century.沒有任何爭議,出現了聖母無染原罪堂歐洲大陸的前12世紀。 The Norman clergy abolished the feast in some monasteries of England where it had been established by the Anglo-Saxon monks. But towards the end of the eleventh century, through the efforts of Anselm the Younger, it was taken up again in several Anglo-Norman establishments.諾曼神職人員廢除了節日在一些寺廟的英格蘭隊在已經建立的盎格魯撒克遜僧侶。但接近年底的11世紀,通過努力,安瑟倫年輕,有人再次在幾個盎格魯諾曼機構。 That St. Anselm the Elder re-established the feast in England is highly improbable, although it was not new to him.聖安瑟倫老年人重新設立了宴會在英國是極不可能,但它不是新的給他。 He had been made familiar with it as well by the Saxon monks of Canterbury, as by the Greeks with whom he came in contact during exile in Campania and Apulin (1098-9).他已熟悉它,以及由撒克遜坎特伯雷僧侶,由希臘人與他接觸了流亡在坎帕尼亞和Apulin ( 1098-9 ) 。 The treatise "De Conceptu virginali" usually ascribed to him, was composed by his friend and disciple, the Saxon monk Eadmer of Canterbury.該論文“德Conceptu virginali ”通常歸咎於他,是由他的朋友和徒弟,撒克遜和尚Eadmer的坎特伯雷。 When the canons of the cathedral of Lyons, who no doubt knew Anselm the Younger Abbot of Bury St. Edmund's, personally introduced the feast into their choir after the death of their bishop in 1240, St. Bernard deemed it his duty to publish a protest against this new way of honouring Mary. He addressed to the canons a vehement letter (Epist. 174), in which he reproved them for taking the step upon their own authority and before they had consulted the Holy See.當大砲的里昂大教堂,毫無疑問,誰知道安瑟倫年輕的伯里住持聖埃德蒙的個人介紹了他們的節日合唱團去世後,他們的主教在1240年,聖伯納德認為他有責任發表了抗議針對這一新的方式履行瑪麗。他給大砲強烈的信( Epist. 174 ) ,他在責備他們採取的步驟其自身的權威和之前他們已經徵求了羅馬教廷。 Not knowing that the feast had been celebrated with the rich tradition of the Greek and Syrian Churches regarding the sinlessness of Mary, he asserted that the feast was foreign to the old tradition of the Church.不知道節日慶祝已與豐富的傳統,希臘和敘利亞的教會就清白的瑪麗,他斷言,宴席是外國的古老傳統的教會。 Yet it is evident from the tenor of his language that he had in mind only the active conception or the formation of the flesh, and that the distinction between the active conception, the formation of the body, and its animation by the soul had not yet been drawn.然而,很明顯的男高音歌唱家,他的語言,他只記住了積極的概念或形成的血肉,而且之間的區別的積極觀念,成立了機構,其動畫的靈魂尚未已制訂。 No doubt, when the feast was introduced in England and Normandy, the axiom "decuit, potuit, ergo fecit", the childlike piety and enthusiasm of the simplices building upon revelations and apocryphal legends, had the upper hand.毫無疑問,當宴席介紹了在英格蘭和諾曼底,公理“ decuit , potuit ,故fecit ”的童稚的虔誠和熱情的基礎上simplices揭露和未經證實的傳說,已佔上風。 The object of the feast was not clearly determined, no positive theological reasons had been placed in evidence.該物體的宴席是沒有明確的決定,沒有任何積極的神學原因被安置在證據。

St. Bernard was perfectly justified when he demanded a careful inquiry into the reasons for observing the feast.聖伯納德是天經地義的,他要求認真調查的原因,觀察盛宴。 Not adverting to the possibility of sanctification at the time of the infusion of the soul, he writes that there can be question only of sanctification after conception, which would render holy the nativity, not the conception itself (Scheeben, "Dogmatik", III, p. 550).沒有adverting的可能性成聖的時候,注入靈魂,他寫道,就不會有問題不僅是神聖的概念後,這將會使神聖的耶穌,而不是概念本身( Scheeben , “ Dogmatik ” ,三,第550名) 。 Hence Albert the Great observes: "We say that the Blessed Virgin was not sanctified before animation, and the affirmative contrary to this is the heresy condemned by St. Bernard in his epistle to the canons of Lyons" (III Sent., dist. iii, p. I, ad 1, Q. i).因此,阿爾貝大指出: “我們說,聖母不是神聖面前動畫,扶持和與此相悖的是異端的譴責聖伯納德在他的書信向里昂大砲” (三發。區。 ㈢山口一,廣告1 ,問:我) 。

St. Bernard was at once answered in a treatise written by either Richard of St. Victor or Peter Comestor.聖伯納德是在一次回答中撰寫的論文也理查德聖維克多或彼得Comestor 。 In this treatise appeal is made to a feast which had been established to commemorate an insupportable tradition.在此論文提出上訴的盛宴已經成立,以紀念一個受不了傳統。 It maintained that the flesh of Mary needed no purification; that it was sanctified before the conception.它堅持認為,肉瑪麗不需要淨化; ,這是神聖的概念面前。 Some writers of those times entertained the fantastic idea that before Adam fell, a portion of his flesh had been reserved by God and transmitted from generation to generation, and that out of this flesh the body of Mary was formed (Scheeben, op. cit., III, 551), and this formation they commemorated by a feast.一些作家的時代宴請了美妙的想法,在亞當下跌,部分他的肉體已經預留了上帝,並轉交代代相傳,並擺脫這種肉的屍體瑪麗成立( Scheeben ,同前。前。 ,三, 551 ) ,這形成紀念他們的盛宴。 The letter of St. Bernard did not prevent the extension of the feast, for in 1154 it was observed all over France, until in 1275, through the efforts of the Paris University, it was abolished in Paris and other dioceses.該信的聖伯納德並不妨礙延長的盛宴,在1154年有人指出整個法國,直至1275年,通過努力,巴黎大學,它廢除了在巴黎和其他教區。

After the saint's death the controversy arose anew between Nicholas of St. Albans, an English monk who defended the festival as established in England, and Peter Cellensis, the celebrated Bishop of Chartres.在聖的死引起的爭議再次尼古拉斯之間的聖奧爾本斯,英文和尚誰捍衛了節日的設立在英格蘭,和彼得Cellensis ,著名的主教沙特爾。 Nicholas remarks that the soul of Mary was pierced twice by the sword, ie at the foot of the cross and when St. Bernard wrote his letter against her feast (Scheeben, III, 551).尼古拉斯的話的靈魂,是瑪麗穿兩次用劍,即在腳下的十字架和聖伯納德時,他的信中寫道對她的盛宴( Scheeben ,三, 551 ) 。 The point continued to be debated throughout the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and illustrious names appeared on each side.這一點繼續進行辯論,整個第十三和第十四世紀,傑出的名字出現在每個方面。 St. Peter Damian, Peter the Lombard, Alexander of Hales, St. Bonaventure, and Albert the Great are quoted as opposing it.聖彼得達米安,彼得的倫巴第,亞歷山大的海爾斯,聖文德,和阿爾貝的大都是援引反對。

St. Thomas at first pronounced in favour of the doctrine in his treatise on the "Sentences" (in I. Sent. c. 44, q. I ad 3), yet in his "Summa Theologica" he concluded against it.聖托馬斯首先突出了贊成票,他的學說在論文的“刑罰” (在一發送。角44 ,問:我的廣告3 ) ,但在他的“神學大全”他的結論反對。 Much discussion has arisen as to whether St. Thomas did or did not deny that the Blessed Virgin was immaculate at the instant of her animation, and learned books have been written to vindicate him from having actually drawn the negative conclusion.許多討論出現了是否聖托馬斯沒有或沒有否認這一聖母是完美無暇的即時在她的動畫,書籍和教訓已經書面證明他確實有負面擬定的結論。 Yet it is hard to say that St. Thomas did not require an instant at least, after the animation of Mary, before her sanctification.然而,就很難說,聖托馬斯並不需要一個即時至少,在動畫的瑪麗,在她面前成聖。 His great difficulty appears to have arisen from the doubt as to how she could have been redeemed if she had not sinned.他極大的困難似乎已經出現了疑問,她本來可以贖回,如果她沒有犯過罪。 This difficulty he raised in no fewer than ten passages in his writings (see, eg, Summa III:27:2, ad 2).這種困難,他提出的沒有少於10個段落在他的著作(例如,見大全三: 27:2 ,廣告2 ) 。 But while St. Thomas thus held back from the essential point of the doctrine, he himself laid down the principles which, after they had been drawn together and worked out, enabled other minds to furnish the true solution of this difficulty from his own premises.但聖托馬斯從而阻礙了從基本點的理論,他放下自己的原則後,他們已經制訂共同制定,使其他思想提供真正的解決這個困難來自他自己的房舍。

In the thirteenth century the opposition was largely due to a want of clear insight into the subject in dispute.在13世紀的反對,主要是因為一個要明確的洞察這一問題的爭端。 The word "conception" was used in different senses, which had not been separated by careful definition.單詞“概念”被用來在不同的感官,尚未分離仔細界定。 If St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, and other theologians had known the doctrine in the sense of the definition of 1854, they would have been its strongest defenders instead of being its opponents.如果聖托馬斯,聖文德,和其他的神學家已經知道的理論意義上的定義1854年,他們本來最強烈的維護者,而不是其對手。

We may formulate the question discussed by them in two propositions, both of which are against the sense of the dogma of 1854:我們會制定討論的問題他們在兩個命題,這兩者都是對意義上的教條的1854年:

the sanctification of Mary took place before the infusion of the soul into the flesh, so that the immunity of the soul was a consequence of the sanctification of the flesh and there was no liability on the part of the soul to contract original sin.在神聖的瑪麗發生在注入的靈魂到肉體,使免疫功能的靈魂是一個後果是神聖的肉體,也沒有承擔賠償責任的一部分,靈魂的合同原罪。 This would approach the opinion of the Damascene concerning the holiness of the active conception.這將辦法的意見,關於大馬士革聖潔的積極觀念。

The sanctification took place after the infusion of the soul by redemption from the servitude of sin, into which the soul had been drawn by its union with the unsanctified flesh.在成聖發生後,注入靈魂的贖回從奴役的罪孽,到其中的靈魂已經制訂了工會與unsanctified肉。 This form of the thesis excluded an immaculate conception.這種形式的論文被排除一個完美的概念。

The theologians forgot that between sanctification before infusion, and sanctification after infusion, there was a medium: sanctification of the soul at the moment of its infusion.忘記的神學之間的神聖輸液前,和成聖輸液後,有一個中型:神聖的靈魂目前其輸液。 To them the idea seemed strange that what was subsequent in the order of nature could be simultaneous in point of time. Speculatively taken, the soul must be created before it can be infused and sanctified but in reality, the soul is created snd sanctified at the very moment of its infusion into the body.他們的想法似乎奇怪的是,什麼是以後的順序排列的性質可以同時在的時間點。推測採取的靈魂必須創造才能注入和神聖,但在現實中,靈魂是建立在硝化神聖的非常時刻,其注入到身體。 Their principal difficulty was the declaration of St.他們的主要困難是宣布街 Paul (Romans 5:12) that all men have sinned in Adam.保羅(羅馬書5時12分) ,所有男人都犯過罪的亞當。 The purpose of this Pauline declaration, however, is to insist on the need which all men have of redemption by Christ.這樣做的目的保宣言,然而,就是堅持這需要所有的人都贖回了基督。 Our Lady was no exception to this rule.聖母無例外。 A second difficulty was the silence of the earlier Fathers.第二個困難是沉默的父親早。 But the divines of those times were distinguished not so much for their knowledge of the Fathers or of history, as for their exercise of the power of reasoning.但divines這些傑出的時代沒有這麼多的知識,父親或歷史,為他們行使權力的推理。 They read the Western Fathers more than those of the Eastern Church, who exhibit in far greater completeness the tradition of the Immaculate Conception.他們閱讀了西方父親多於東部教會,誰展覽大得多完整性傳統的聖母無染原罪堂。 And many works of the Fathers which had then been lost sight of have since been brought to light. The famous Duns Scotus (d. 1308) at last (in III Sent., dist. iii, in both commentaries) laid the foundations of the true doctrine so solidly and dispelled the objections in a manner so satisfactory, that from that time onward the doctrine prevailed.和許多作品,其中的父親當時被忽略了已被揭露。著名的鄧司各脫(草1308年)在去年(在第三寄件。區。三,在這兩個評)奠定了基石真正的理論,以便消除了紮實的反對意見的方式,以便令人滿意的,從那個時候起,理論佔了上風。 He showed that the sanctification after animation -- sanctificatio post animationem -- demanded that it should follow in the order of nature (naturae) not of time (temporis); he removed the great difficulty of St. Thomas showing that, so far from being excluded from redemption, the Blessed Virgin obtained of her Divine Son the greatest of redemptions through the mystery of her preservation from all sin.他表示,在成聖後,動畫-s anctificatio後a nimationem-要求,它應遵循的順序排列的性質(自然)沒有時間(時間);他取消了極大的困難聖托馬斯顯示,迄今為止被排除贖回,聖母,她得到神的兒子最大的贖回通過她的神秘保存從所有罪孽。 He also brought forward, by way of illustration, the somewhat dangerous and doubtful argument of Eadmer (S. Anselm) "decuit, potuit, ergo fecit."他還提出,通過舉例說明,有些危險和可疑的論點Eadmer (南安瑟倫) “ decuit , potuit ,故fecit 。 ”

From the time of Scotus not only did the doctrine become the common opinion at the universities, but the feast spread widely to those countries where it had not been previously adopted.從時間的司各脫不僅沒有成為學說的共同見解的大學,但節日廣泛傳播這些國家如果以前沒有通過。 With the exception of the Dominicans, all or nearly all, of the religious orders took it up: The Franciscans at the general chapter at Pisa in 1263 adopted the Feast of the Conception of Mary for the entire order; this, however, does not mean that they professed at that time the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.唯一的例外是多米尼加人,所有或幾乎所有的宗教命令了它:在方濟一般比薩章在1263年通過了節日的概念瑪麗對整個秩序;然而,這並不意味著他們聲稱,當時的理論,即聖母無染原罪。 Following in the footsteps of their own Duns Scotus, the learned Petrus Aureolus and Franciscus de Mayronis became the most fervent champions of the doctrine, although their older teachers (St. Bonaventure included) had been opposed to it.經過的足跡,他們自己的鄧司各脫的教訓佩特魯斯Aureolus和方濟Mayronis成為冠軍最熱切的理論,儘管他們的老教師(聖文德包括)已反對。 The controversy continued, but the defenders of the opposing opinion were almost entirely confined to the members of the Dominican Order.爭論仍在繼續,但維護者的反對意見幾乎完全限於成員的多米尼加秩序。 In 1439 the dispute was brought before the Council of Basle where the University of Paris, formerly opposed to the doctrine, proved to be its most ardent advocate, asking for a dogmatical definition.在1439爭端提交安理會的巴塞爾在巴黎大學的前身反對理論,證明是其最忠實的倡導者,要求武斷的定義。 The two referees at the council were John of Segovia and John Turrecremata (Torquemada). After it had been discussed for the space of two years before that assemblage, the bishops declared the Immaculate Conception to be a doctrine which was pious, consonant with Catholic worship, Catholic faith, right reason, and Holy Scripture; nor, said they, was it henceforth allowable to preach or declare to the contrary (Mansi, XXXIX, 182).這兩個裁判在安理會塞戈維亞的約翰和約翰Turrecremata ( Torquemada ) 。之後已經討論過的空間,前兩年的組合,主教宣布聖母無染原罪堂是一個理論是虔誠的,符合天主教禮拜天主教的信仰,正確的原因,聖經也說,他們,是今後允許鼓吹或宣布相反(曼西,三十九, 182號) 。 The Fathers of the Council say that the Church of Rome was celebrating the feast.父親對安理會說,羅馬教會是慶祝節日。 This is true only in a certain sense.這是真正的只在一定的意義。 It was kept in a number of churches of Rome, especially in those of the religious orders, but it was not received in the official calendar.這是保存在一些教堂,羅馬,尤其是在那些對宗教的訂單,但沒有收到官方的日曆。 As the council at the time was not ecumenical, it could not pronounce with authority.安理會當時沒有基督教,但它不能發音與權威。 The memorandum of the Dominican Torquemada formed the armoury for all attacks upon the doctrine made by St. Antoninus of Florence (d. 1459), and by the Dominicans Bandelli and Spina.該備忘錄多米尼加Torquemada形成了軍械庫的所有攻擊的學說所作的聖安東尼佛羅倫薩(草1459 ) ,以及多米尼加Bandelli和脊柱。

By a Decree of 28 February, 1476, Sixtus IV at last adopted the feast for the entire Latin Church and granted an indulgence to all who would assist at the Divine Offices of the solemnity (Denzinger, 734).通過頒布了一項法令1476年2月28號,西斯四在去年通過了宴整個拉丁美洲教會和授予放縱所有誰將協助在神聖的辦事處的嚴肅( Denzinger , 734 ) 。 The Office adopted by Sixtus IV was composed by Leonard de Nogarolis, whilst the Franciscans, since 1480, used a very beautiful Office from the pen of Bernardine dei Busti (Sicut Lilium), which was granted also to others (eg to Spain, 1761), and was chanted by the Franciscans up to the second half of the nineteenth century.該辦事處通過西斯四是組成由倫納德德Nogarolis ,而濟,自1480 ,採用了非常漂亮的辦公室從鋼筆的Bernardine代Busti ( Sicut百合) ,這是理所當然也給他人(如西班牙, 1761 ) ,並高喊的濟增長的第二十九世紀下半葉。 As the public acknowledgment of the feast of Sixtus IV did not prove sufficient to appease the conflict, he published in 1483 a constitution in which he punished with excommunication all those of either opinion who charged the opposite opinion with heresy (Grave nimis, 4 Sept., 1483; Denzinger, 735).由於公開承認的節日西斯四沒有證明不足以平息衝突,他1483年出版的一部憲法,他處以罰所有這些都認為誰負責相反的意見異端(墓nimis , 9月4日, 1483 ; Denzinger , 735 ) 。 In 1546 the Council of Trent, when the question was touched upon, declared that "it was not the intention of this Holy Synod to include in the decree which concerns original sin the Blessed and Immaculate Virgin Mary Mother of God" (Sess. V, De peccato originali, v, in Denzinger, 792).在1546年理事會的遄達,當這個問題涉及宣稱, “這是不打算羅馬主教這包括在該法令涉及原罪的祝福和無玷聖母天主之母” ( Sess.五,德peccato originali ,五,在Denzinger , 792 ) 。 Since, however, this decree did not define the doctrine, the theological opponents of the mystery, though more and more reduced in numbers, did not yield.但是,由於這項法令並沒有確定理論,反對神學的奧秘,但更多的人數減少,沒有收益。 St. Pius V not only condemned proposition 73 of Baius that "no one but Christ was without original sin, and that therefore the Blessed Virgin had died because of the sin contracted in Adam, and had endured afilictions in this life, like the rest of the just, as punishment of actual and original sin" (Denzinger, 1073) but he also issued a constitution in which he forbade all public discussion of the subject.聖皮烏斯V不僅譴責命題73 Baius說, “但沒有任何人未經基督原罪,因此聖母已經死亡,因為罪在亞當合同,並經歷了afilictions在此生活,和其他人一樣公正,作為懲罰的實際和原罪“ ( Denzinger , 1073 ) ,但他也發出了憲法,他禁止所有公共討論這個問題。 Finally he inserted a new and simplified Office of the Conception in the liturgical books ("Super speculam", Dec., 1570; "Superni omnipotentis", March, 1571; "Bullarium Marianum", pp. 72, 75).最後,他插入一個新的和簡化的辦公室觀念禮儀書籍( “超級speculam ” , 12月, 1570年; “ Superni omnipotentis ” , 3月, 1571年; “ Bullarium薊” ,頁。 72 , 75 ) 。

Whilst these disputes went on, the great universities and almost all the great orders had become so many bulwarks for the defense of the dogma.雖然這些糾紛了,偉大的大學和幾乎所有的大訂單已成為許多壁壘的防禦的教條。 In 1497 the University of Paris decreed that henceforward no one should be admitted a member of the university, who did not swear that he would do the utmost to defend and assert the Immaculate Conception of Mary.在1497年巴黎大學規定,從今以後任何人都不應被接納的成員大學,誰不發誓,他會竭盡所能,以維護和伸張的聖母瑪利亞的構想。 Toulouse followed the example; in Italy, Bologna and Naples; in the German Empire, Cologne, Maine, and Vienna; in Belgium, Louvain; in England before the Reformation.圖盧茲效法;在意大利,博洛尼亞和那不勒斯;在德意志帝國,科隆,緬因州,和維也納;在比利時魯汶;在英格蘭面前的改革。 Oxford and Cambridge; in Spain Salamanca, Toledo, Seville, and Valencia; in Portugal, Coimbra and Evora; in America, Mexico and Lima.牛津大學和劍橋大學;在西班牙薩拉曼卡,托萊多,塞維利亞和瓦倫西亞,在葡萄牙, Coimbra和埃武拉;在中美洲,墨西哥和利馬。 The Friars Minor confirmed in 1621 the election of the Immaculate Mother as patron of the order, and bound themselves by oath to teach the mystery in public and in private.在天主教方濟會在1621年確認的選舉聖母媽媽為靠山的秩序,約束自己的誓言教之謎在公共和私人。 The Dominicans, however, were under special obligation to follow the doctrines of St. Thomas, and the common conclusion was that St. Thomas was opposed to the Immaculate Conception. Therefore the Dominicans asserted that the doctrine was an error against faith (John of Montesono, 1373); although they adopted the feast, they termed it persistently "Sanctificatio BMV" not "Conceptio", until in 1622 Gregory XV abolished the term "sanctificatio".多米尼加然而,在特殊義務,按照理論,聖托馬斯,共同的結論是,聖托馬斯反對聖母無染原罪堂。因此,多米尼加斷言理論是一個錯誤的信仰(約翰Montesono , 1373 ) ;雖然他們通過了節日,他們稱之為它堅持“ Sanctificatio BMV ”而非“ Conceptio ” ,直到在1622年廢除格雷戈里十五“一詞sanctificatio ” 。 Paul V (1617) decreed that no one should dare to teach publicly that Mary was conceived in original sin, and Gregory XV (1622) imposed absolute silence (in scriptis et sermonibus etiam privatis) upon the adversaries of the doctrine until the Holy See should define the question. To put an end to all further cavilling, Alexander VII promulgated on 8 December 1661, the famous constitution "Sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum", defining the true sense of the word conceptio, and forbidding all further discussion against the common and pious sentiment of the Church.保五( 1617 )頒布法令,任何人都不應敢於公開教瑪麗設想原罪,並格雷戈里十五( 1622 )實行絕對的沉默(在scriptis等sermonibus etiam privatis )根據對手的理論,直到羅馬教廷界定的問題。為了制止一切進一步cavilling ,亞歷山大第七頒布了1661年12月8號,著名的憲法“ Sollicitudo Omnium公司Ecclesiarum ” ,確定了真正意義上的字conceptio ,並禁止所有對進一步討論的共同情感和虔誠教會。 He declared that the immunity of Mary from original sin in the first moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into the body was the object of the feast (Densinger, 1100).他宣布豁免瑪麗從原罪在第一時刻創造她的靈魂和輸液進入人體的對象的盛宴( Densinger , 1100 ) 。

Explicit universal acceptance明確的普遍接受

Since the time of Alexander VII, long before the final definition, there was no doubt on the part of theologians that the privilege was amongst the truths revealed by God.由於時間的亞歷山大七,長期在最後的定義,毫無疑問的是神學的特權之一所揭示的真理的上帝。 Wherefore Pius IX, surrounded by a splendid throng of cardinals and bishops, 8 December 1854, promulgated the dogma.何故碧岳九,周圍是燦爛的大群樞機主教和主教12月8日, 1854年,頒布了教條。 A new Office was prescribed for the entire Latin Church by Pius IX (25 December, 1863), by which decree all the other Offices in use were abolished, including the old Office Sicut lilium of the Franciscans, and the Office composed by Passaglia (approved 2 Feb., 1849).一個新的辦公室是明為整個拉丁美洲教會庇護九( 1863年12月25日) ,其中令所有其他辦事處使用被取消,其中包括舊的辦公室Sicut百合的方濟會,並組成由廳Passaglia (核准1849年2月2號) 。

In 1904 the golden jubilee of the definition of the dogma was celebrated with great splendour (Pius X, Enc., 2 Feb., 1904). 1904年五十週年的定義是著名的教條非常輝煌(碧岳十,電子海圖。 , 04年二月二日) 。 Clement IX added to the feast an octave for the dioceses within the temporal possessions of the pope (1667). Innocent XII (1693) raised it to a double of the second class with an octave for the universal Church, which rank had been already given to it in 1664 for Spain, in 1665 for Tuscany and Savoy, in 1667 for the Society of Jesus, the Hermits of St.克萊門特九增加了節日倍頻為教區的時間範圍內的財產,教皇( 1667年) 。無辜的十二( 1693 )提出這雙重的第二級與倍頻為普世教會,其中排名已經已經給出它在1664年的西班牙,在1665年的托斯卡納和薩沃伊,在1667年的耶穌會的隱士聖 Augustine, etc., Clement XI decreed on 6 Dec., 1708, that the feast should be a holiday of obligation throughout the entire Church.奧古斯丁等,克萊門特十一頒布的1708年十二月6日,該節日應該是一個節日的義務整個教會。 At last Leo XIII, 30 Nov 1879, raised the feast to a double of the first class with a vigil, a dignity which had long before been granted to Sicily (1739), to Spain (1760) and to the United States (1847).在去年利奧十三世, 1879年11月30號,提出了節日雙重一流的晚會,一個尊嚴,早就被授予意大利西西里島( 1739年) ,西班牙( 1760年)和美國( 1847年) 。 A Votive Office of the Conception of Mary, which is now recited in almost the entire Latin Church on free Saturdays, was granted first to the Benedictine nuns of St. Anne at Rome in 1603, to the Franciscans in 1609, to the Conventuals in 1612, etc. The Syrian and Chaldean Churches celebrate this feast with the Greeks on 9 December; in Armenia it is one of the few immovable feasts of the year (9 December); the schismatic Abyssinians and Copts keep it on 7 August whilst they celebrate the Nativity of Mary on 1 May; the Catholic Copts, however, have transferred the feast to 10 December (Nativity, 10 September).阿Votive辦公室瑪麗的構想,現在背誦在幾乎整個拉丁美洲的自由教會星期六,獲得第一至本篤會修女聖安妮在羅馬1603年,以方濟在1609年,向Conventuals 1612等敘利亞和迦勒底教會慶祝這一節日的希臘人於12月9日,在亞美尼亞它是少數不動產節日的一年( 12月9日) ; Abyssinians的分裂和科普特人保持於8月7日,而他們慶祝耶穌瑪麗5月1日;天主教科普特人,但是,節日移交至12月10日(耶穌, 9月10日) 。 The Eastern Catholics have since 1854 changed the name of the feast in accordance with the dogma to the "Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary."東部天主教徒自1854年改變了名稱的宴席按照教條的“聖母無染原罪聖母瑪利亞。 ”

The Archdiocese of Palermo solemnizes a Commemoration of the Immaculate Conception on 1 September to give thanks for the preservation of the city on occasion of the earthquake, 1 September, 1726.大主教巴勒莫solemnizes紀念聖母無染原罪堂於9月1日給感謝維護城市之際,地震, 1726年9月1日。 A similar commemoration is held on 14 January at Catania (earthquake, 11 Jan., 1693); and by the Oblate Fathers on 17 Feb., because their rule was approved 17 Feb., 1826.類似的紀念活動是1月14日舉行在卡塔尼亞(地震, 1693年1月11號) ;和獻主會於2月17日,因為他們的規則是批准1826年2月17號。 Between 20 September 1839, and 7 May 1847, the privilege of adding to the Litany of Loretto the invocation, "Queen conceived without original sin", had been granted to 300 dioceses and religious communities.從1839年9月20號,和1847年5月7日,有幸增加了一連串的洛雷托援引“英國女王的設想沒有原罪” ,獲得了300個教區和宗教社區。 The Immaculate Conception was declared on 8 November, 1760, principal patron of all the possessions of the crown of Spain, including those in America.聖母無染原罪堂宣布對1760年十一月八日,主要贊助人的所有財產的冠,西班牙,包括那些在美國。 The decree of the First Council of Baltimore (1846) electing Mary in her Immaculate Conception principal Patron of the United States, was confirmed on 7 February, 1847.該法令的第一屆理事會巴爾的摩( 1846年)選舉瑪麗在她的聖母無染原罪堂主要贊助美國,證實1847年2月七日。

Publication information Written by Frederick G. Holweck. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.出版信息撰稿:弗雷德里克灣Holweck 。天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年6月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Mariology Mariology
Virgin Mary 聖母
Assumption 假設
Virgin Birth 美屬維爾京誕生

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