Hinduism - Brahmanism印度教-婆羅門教

General Information 一般信息

Developed in northern India about 950 BC發達國家在印度北部約公元前950

The Four Vedas are the sacred books of the Hindi四吠陀是神聖的書籍,印地語

Hinduism emphasizes the necessity of escaping from material life and of extinguishing desire.印度教強調,必須擺脫物質生活和滅火的願望。 Hinduism is very ritualistic and includes extreme self denial and self punishment.印度教是非常儀式,其中包括極端的自我否定和自我懲罰。 Cows are considered sacred as are rivers.奶牛被視為神聖的河流一樣。 Most Hindus believe in the transmigration of souls (reincarnation), where when a person dies, his soul enters the body of a newborn child or even the body of an animal.大多數印度教徒相信輪迴的靈魂(轉世) ,在那裡當一個人去世,他的靈魂進入體內的新生嬰兒,甚至是身體的一種動物。 Over and over.在以上。 Therefore, devout Hindus will not kill even a fly.因此,虔誠的教徒不會殺甚至飛行。 They are vegetarians, lest by eating meat they become cannibals.他們是素食主義者,否則由吃肉他們成為食人生番。

The caste system in India is directly related to their religious beliefs.種姓制度在印度直接關係到他們的宗教信仰。 About 2500 years before Christ, a white people called the Aryans came to India (probably from Persia.)約2500年前基督,一個白色的人稱為雅利安人來到印度(可能來自波斯。 )

The Aryans formed a caste system in order to maintain the purity of their blood and to maintain white supremacy.在雅利安人形成了種姓制度,以保持純淨的鮮血和維護白人至上。 Originally, they recognized only four castes:原來,他們認識到只有4個等級:

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Later, these four castes multiplied until today where there are thousands of castes in India.後來,這四個種姓乘以直到今天那裡有成千上萬的種姓在印度。 Only Hindus practice the caste system; it is abandoned if a Hindu becomes a Mohammedan or a Christian.只有印度教徒實踐種姓制度,它是被遺棄的,如果一個印度教成為伊斯蘭教或基督教。

The castes became hereditary which meant that all sons are necessarily members of the same caste as their fathers and that he has to follow his father's occupation.在種姓成為遺傳這意味著所有的兒子必然是成員在同一種姓是他們的父親,他一直遵循父親的佔領。 The 7000 modern castes even include a caste of thieves! 7000現代種姓,甚至包括種姓的小偷!

If someone is expelled from his caste or has no caste by birth, he is known as an Untouchable, a pariah, and such a person is in a hopeless and pitiable condition. There are currently more than 60,000,000 untouchables in India.如果某人被驅逐出他的種姓或沒有種姓,因出生,他是作為一個賤民,一個賤民,和這樣的人是在絕望和可憐的條件。 目前有多個六千點〇 〇 〇萬賤民在印度。

Hinduism teaches that anyone born into a lower caste or an Untouchable is being punished for the sins committed in his past life.印度教教導我們,任何人都出生在低種姓或一個賤民正在懲罰犯下的罪過在他過去的生活。 If such a person is calmly resigned to his fate and lives rightly, he will be elevated in caste in his next life. This premise tends to make the members of the lower castes and the untouchables submissive to the terrible economic and social conditions under which they live.如果這樣的人是冷靜地辭職,他的命運和生活正確的,他將升高,種姓在其下的生活。 這個前提往往使成員的低種姓和賤民順從的可怕的經濟和社會條件下,他們活的。

Brahma is the chief god, the omnipresent one who is father of the Brahman Trinity.梵是主要神,無處不在一個誰是父親的婆羅門三一。 He has four heads, three of which (representing their Trinity) can be seen from any point of view.他有四個頭,其中3個(代表其三一)可以看到從任何角度來看。


Hinduism印度教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Hinduism, one of the great religions of the world, is the major religion of India, where nearly 85 percent of the population is classified as Hindu.印度教,一個偉大的宗教世界,是主要的宗教,印度,近百分之八十五的人口被列為印度教。 Hinduism has developed over about 4,000 years and has no single founder or creed; rather, it consists of a vast variety of beliefs and practices. Organization is minimal and hierarchy nonexistent.印度教已開發了4000多年,並沒有一個單一的創始人或信仰而是由一個龐大的各種信仰和習俗。組織是最小和等級不存在。 In its diversity, Hinduism hardly fits most Western definitions of religion; rather, it suggests commitment to or respect for an ideal way of life, known as Dharma.在它的多樣性,印度教幾乎適合大多數西方的宗教定義,相反,它意味著承諾,或尊重一個理想的生活方式,被稱為佛法。

Beliefs and Practices信仰和習俗

Caste System種姓制度

The ideal way of life is sometimes referred to in classical sources and by Hindus as the "duties of one's class and station" (varnasramadharma).理想的生活方式有時被稱為經典的來源和印度教徒的“職責之一的階級和站” ( varnasramadharma ) 。 The term "class" (varna) is one of the words connoting the Caste system peculiar to India. The ancient texts suggest four great classes, or castes: the Brahmins, or priests; the Ksatriyas, or warriors and rulers; the Vaisyas, or merchants and farmers; and the Sudras, or peasants and laborers.所謂“一流” (瓦爾納)是一個字connoting種姓制度印度特有的。 古老的文本建議4大類,或種姓:婆羅門的,或神職人員;的Ksatriyas ,或戰士和統治者;的Vaisyas ,或商人和農民;和首陀羅,或農民和工人。 A fifth class, Panchamas, or Untouchables, includes those whose occupations require them to handle unclean objects.第五類, Panchamas ,或鐵面無私,包括那些職業要求他們處理不乾淨的物體。 It is speculated that the Untouchables were originally assigned such lowly tasks because of their non Aryan origins.這是推測,鐵面無私原來分配的任務,例如卑賤,因為他們非雅利安人的起源。 This classification system hardly does justice to the modern complexity of the caste system, however.這個分類系統幾乎不正義的現代複雜的種姓制度,但是。 The classical works on dharma specify distinct duties for different classes, in keeping with the distinct roles each is expected to play in the ideal society.經典作品佛法指定不同的職責,不同的類別,以符合每一個獨特的作用,可望發揮的理想社會。

Stages of Life的人生階段

The classical works also outline four ideal stages (asrama), or stations of life, each with its own duties.經典作品還大綱四個理想階段( asrama ) ,或站的生命,每一個都有自己的職責。 The first of these is studentship (brahmacarya), from initiation at 5 to 8 years of age until marriage; the second, householdership (grihasthya), when one marries, raises a family, and takes part in society; the third, forest dwelling (vanaprasthya), after one's children have grown; and the fourth, renunciation (samnyasa), when one gives up attachment to all worldly things and seeks spiritual liberation.首先是獎學金( brahmacarya ) ,從開始在5至8歲之前結婚;第二, householdership ( grihasthya ) ,當一個人結婚,引起了家庭,並參與社會;第三,森林住宅( vanaprasthya )後,子女成長,第四,放棄( samnyasa ) ,當一個人放棄所有附件世俗的事情,並尋求精神解放。 Besides the duties that are derived from an individual's class and station, general duties (sanatanadharma) are also incumbent on all moral beings. These include honesty, courage, service, faith, self control, purity, and nonviolence.除了職責,是來自個人的階級和車站,一般職責( sanatanadharma )也義不容辭的責任人的所有道德。其中包括誠實,勇氣,服務,信念,自我控制,純度,和非暴力。

These ideal classes and stations encompass males only.這些理想的班級和車站不僅包括男性。 The position of women in Hinduism has always been ambiguous; they are, on the one hand, venerated as a symbol of the divine, on the other, treated as inferior beings.婦女的地位印度教一直是含糊不清,他們是,一方面,崇敬的象徵神聖,另一方面,被視為低人一等。 Women were traditionally expected to serve their husbands and to have no independent interests.婦女歷來預計將其丈夫,並沒有獨立的利益。 Recent movements within Hinduism, however, such as the Brahmo Samaj, have succeeded in altering this situation.最近的流動印度教,但是,如Brahmo社會報,已成功地改變這種狀況。

Aims of Life人生的目標

Dharma is only one of the four aims of life (purusartha) distinguished within Hinduism. 佛法只有一個的四個目標的生活( purusartha )尊敬的印度教。 It is thought of as superior to two others - kama, or enjoyment of desires, and artha, or material prosperity.它是認為是優於另外兩個-卡馬,或享受的慾望,和a rtha,或物質的繁榮。 These three constitute the aims of those in the world (pravritti).這三個構成的目標是在世界各地( pravritti ) 。 The fourth aim is liberation (moksa), the aim of those who renounce the world (nivritti), and this is classically viewed as the supreme end of man.第四個目標是解放( moksa ) ,其目的是誰放棄世界( nivritti ) ,這是經典視為最高月底男子。

Karma and Rebirth噶瑪和重生

A widespread feature of classical Hinduism is the belief in Transmigration of Souls, or samsara, the passage of a soul from body to body as determined by the force of one's actions, or Karma.一場大規模的特點是古典印度教的信仰輪迴的靈魂,或者輪迴,通過一個靈魂從身體到身體所確定的一個部隊的行動,或因果報應。 The strict karma theory specifies that one's type of birth, length of life, and kinds of experiences are determined by one's previous acts.嚴格的因果報應理論明確規定,一個人的類型的出生,生活的長度,和種類的經驗是確定一個以前的行為。 This is modified in popular understanding, but it probably has remained a strong influence on most Hindus throughout history.這是流行的改性的理解,但它可能仍然是一個強有力的影響,大多數印度教教徒在整個歷史。 Liberation is release from this cycle of rebirth.解放是發行從這個週期的重生。 It is typically to be achieved by working out those karmic residues which have already begun to mature, as well as by following certain practices to ensure that no further residues are produced to cause future rebirths.它通常是要達到的工作了這些殘留物業已經開始走向成熟,以及以下一些做法,以確保沒有進一步的殘留物的生產造成未來rebirths 。 The practices by which one can achieve this are frequently termed Yoga, and the theory of liberation is the core of Indian philosophy.的做法,哪一個可以做到這一點常常稱為瑜伽,和解放理論的核心是印度哲學。

Philosophy哲學

Hinduism is usually said to include six philosophical systems. The systems called Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, and Yoga emphasize yogic practices coupled with an understanding of basic principles of metaphysics and epistemology.印度教通常說,包括6名哲學體系。該系統稱為正理, Vaisheshika , Samkhya ,並強調瑜珈yogic的做法,加上理解的基本原則和形而上學的認識論。 Nyaya, in addition, includes an analysis of logic.正理,此外,包括一個分析邏輯。 The systems called Mimamsa identify the performance of ritual - the Vedic sacrifice, or actions performed in that spirit - as the means to liberation. The many Vedanta systems, taking their inspiration from the Upanishads, tend to emphasize understanding of the relationship between the self (Atman) and ultimate reality (Brahman) as the critical aspect of any path to liberation. Philosophies associated with sectarian movements, such as the Bhakti cults, frequently localized in a linguistic or cultural area within the subcontinent, emphasize the path of theistic devotion.該系統稱為彌曼差識別性能的儀式-在吠陀犧牲,或行動表現這種精神-作為手段來解放。許多韋丹塔系統,同時他們的靈感來自Up anishads,往往強調理解之間的關係,自我(阿特曼)和最終現實(婆羅門)作為關鍵方面的任何路徑解放。哲學與宗派運動,如巴克蒂邪教,經常在本地化語言或文化領域內的次大陸,強調道路的有神論的奉獻。

Hindu Deities印度教的神

The two great theistic movements within Hinduism are Vaishnavism, the cult of Vishnu, and Shaivism, the cult of Shiva.這兩個偉大的有神論流動印度教是Vaishnavism ,邪教的毗濕奴,並Shaivism ,崇拜濕婆。 Hindu belief, however, usually holds that the universe is populated by a multitude of gods.印度教的信仰,但是,通常認為,宇宙是由一個人口眾多的神。 These gods share to some extent the features of the Godhead but are seen as behaving much as humans do and as being related to each other as humans are.這些神份額在一定程度上的功能神體,但被視為表現了人類這樣做,並作為有關對方為人類。

This view is similar to that of the ancient Greeks.這種觀點是相似的古希臘人。 For example, the supreme gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva and some of the other gods are often viewed as activated through their relationships with female deities.例如,最高神梵天,毗濕奴和濕婆和其他一些神往往被視為通過他們的激活與女性神。 These female consorts to the deities are called Shakti.這些女性consorts的神被稱為沙克蒂。 Other well known gods are said to be relatives of a supreme god, such as Ganesha, the elephant - headed god, a son of Shiva and Parvati.其他眾所周知的神據說是親戚的最高神,如俄尼沙,大象-領導神的兒子濕婆和帕瓦蒂。 Kali, or Durga, the consort of Shiva, is worshiped widely throughout India in the autumn.卡利,或杜爾加的勾勾搭搭的濕婆,是供奉印度各地普遍在秋季。 Hanuman, the monkey - faced god, is depicted in many shrines, and along with Lakshmi, Vishnu's wife, is among the most important deities associated with Vaishnavism. The sets of gods recognized by different sects are by no means mutually exclusive, however.哈努曼,猴子-面對神,是描繪在許多聖地,而且隨著拉克什米,毗瑟奴的妻子,是最重要的神與V aishnavism。該套神承認的不同教派的絕不是相互排斥的,但是。

Forms of Worship形式的崇拜

Hindu worship takes many forms.印度教崇拜採取多種形式。 One of the least frequent is the congregational form so familiar in the West.其中最頻繁的是公理的形式非常熟悉在西方。 Vedic sacrifices were conducted in any open place properly consecrated. Typical Hindu daily worship (puja) includes a stop at several shrines, a visit to a temple, and home worship. A Hindu may be devoted to several gods: the image of one god, frequently a family deity, is commonly installed in a small shrine in the home; a second god, worshiped at a nearby temple, may be the divinity to which the person's caste is committed; and still another may be the god to whom the individual makes obeisance as his Guru (teacher) or his guru's tutor.吠陀犧牲,進行了在任何開放的地方妥善神聖。 典型的印度教的禮拜每天(普佳)包括停止在幾個聖地,參觀寺廟,和家庭崇拜。印度教可用於幾個神:形象的一個神,往往一個家庭神,通常是安裝在一個小神社在家裡;第二個神,崇拜在附近的寺院,可能是神而人的種姓承諾;和另外還有一個可能是神人的個人使頓首他的大師(教師)或他的導師的導師。 Because everything is sacred in a Hindu's eyes, almost anything may be considered worthy of devotion; rivers, cowpens, and the retreats of holy men are among the holy places frequented by the devout.因為一切都是神聖的印度教的眼睛,幾乎任何可被視為值得奉獻精神;河流,考彭斯和務虛會的神聖男人之間的聖地常去的虔誠。

Home Worship首頁崇拜

Home worship typically involves purification of the area through fire, water, and the drawing of symbolic diagrams. Depending on one's class and station, the frequency with which a Hindu is expected to perform the rites, and the role performed in them, will differ.主頁禮拜通常涉及淨化該地區通過火,水,並繪製象徵性的圖表。依靠自己的階級和站,頻率印度教預計執行的儀式,並發揮的作用在其中,將有所不同。 The rites involve offering food, flowers, or incense to the deity, together with appropriate recitations of sacred words or texts.儀式包括提供糧食,花卉,或香的神,加上適當的朗誦神聖的詞或文本。 An especially important ritual is known as sraddha, in which Hindu males symbolically support their father, grandfathers, and great - grandfathers in other worlds by offering water and balls of rice; this ritual dates from Vedic times.一個特別重要的儀式被稱為sraddha ,其中男性象徵性的印度教支持他們的父親,祖父,和偉大-祖父在其他世界提供水和球的水稻;這個儀式的日期從吠陀時代。 The worshiper requires the services of a priest on this occasion, as for other life cycle ceremonies such as birth, initiation, marriage, and death.需要的崇拜者的服務,一名牧師在此之際,作為對其他生命週期的儀式如出生,啟動,婚姻,和死亡。

Temple Worship寺禮拜

The priests also carry out temple worship, although the devotee may participate in the reading of certain hymns or prayers and may give flowers or money to the god directly.祭司還開展寺廟朝拜,但愛好者可以參加讀某些讚美詩或禱告,可花或金錢的神直接聯繫。 The image of a god is believed to be the god, and the cycle of worship in a temple centers on the daily life of the god, involving preparation of the god for worship - waking him up with bells, purifying him with incense, bathing him, dressing him, and feeding him.形象的神被認為是神,就這樣循環的崇拜在寺廟中心的日常生活神,涉及編制神的崇拜-他醒來了警鐘,淨化他的香火,他洗澡,穿衣他,和餵養他。 The worshiper comes to the temple to view (darshana) the god and to receive the food (prasada) that the god has touched.的崇拜者來到寺廟查看( darshana )神和接受的食品( prasada )說,上帝感動。 As in the cycle of an ordinary person, special days occur in the cycle of the god of the temple, and on these days special ceremonies are held.正如週期的一個普通的人,特別天發生在週期的神的廟宇,並就這些天的特別儀式舉行。 These are frequently the times of festivals and may involve elaborate ceremonies: pilgrimages of vast numbers of devotees, processions bearing the god's image throughout the city or countryside, and special music, plays, and dances for the occasion.這些往往是時代的節日,可能涉及制訂儀式:朝聖的廣大信徒,遊行軸承神的形象整個城市或農村,特別音樂,戲劇和舞蹈的機會。

Sacred Cities and Festivals神聖的城市和節日

The seven sacred cities of Hinduism are the following: Varanasi (Benares), Hardwar, Ayodhya, Dwarka, Mathura, Kanchipuram (Conjeeveram), and Ujjain.七個神聖的城市印度教如下:瓦拉納西(貝拿勒斯) , Hardwar ,阿約提亞, Dwarka ,馬圖拉, Kanchipuram ( Conjeeveram )和烏賈因。 Other important pilgrimage spots include Madurai, Gaya, Prayaga (Allahabad), Tirupati, and Puri.其他重要的朝聖景點包括馬杜賴,加雅, Prayaga (阿拉哈巴德) ,蒂魯帕蒂和普里。

Each of these places has one or more temples where annual festivals are celebrated that attract large numbers of pilgrims.每個這些地方有一個或多個寺廟當年度節日或活動,吸引大批朝聖者。

Certain festival days are celebrated throughout India on a day fixed according to the Hindu lunisolar calendar.某些節日慶祝印度各地每天固定根據印度教的日月日曆。 Prominent among these is Dipavali, the "Festival of Lights," occurring in October and November, at which lamps are placed around the house to welcome Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity.其中最突出的是Dipavali的“燈節” ,發生在10月和11月,在燈被安置在房子歡迎拉克什米,女神的繁榮。 Holi, a spring festival in February or March, is a day of riotous funmaking; this frequently involves temporary suspension of caste and social distinctions, and practical jokes are the order of the day.節,春節在2月或3月,這一天的繽紛funmaking ;這經常涉及暫停種姓和社會的區別,並惡作劇的議事日程。 In the fall (September and October) a ten day period is set aside to honor the Mother Goddess, culminating in Dashara, the tenth day, a day of processions and celebrations.秋季( 9月和10月) 10天內撥出紀念母親女神,最終Dashara的第十天,一天的遊行和慶祝活動。 This festival is extremely important in Bengal, where it is known as Durga Puja.這節是極為重要的孟加拉,它被稱為杜爾加普佳。

History and Literature歷史與文學

Scholars sometimes distinguish Vedism, the religion of ancient India based on the Vedas, from Hinduism, although it is difficult to pinpoint a time that demarcates them.學者有時區分Vedism ,宗教的古印度基於吠陀經,來自印度教,雖然這是很難確定的時間是劃定它們。 The Vedas were hymns of the Aryans, who invaded in the 2d millennium BC.在吠陀是讚美詩的雅利安人,誰入侵的公元前2千年。

Vedism stressed hope for a future existence in heaven and lacked the concepts of karma and rebirth; Hinduism characteristically includes karma and rebirth, and the greatest hope is for eventual release from their sway. Vedism強調,希望未來在天堂的存在和缺乏概念的氣質和再生;印度教典型的包括業和再生,最大的希望是最終釋放他們的影響力。

The Vedic deities were somewhat different from those which dominate in Hinduism, although scholars have traced the origins of Vishnu and Shiva back to Vedic counterparts.在吠陀神人有所不同那些在印度教佔主導地位,雖然學者們追踪的起源毗濕奴和濕婆回到吠陀對應。 Later Vedism is sometimes called Brahmanism because of the authority accorded the Brahmins, or priests, who performed the ritual Vedic sacrifice.後來Vedism有時是因為所謂的婆羅門教的權威給予婆羅門,或牧師,誰完成了儀式吠陀犧牲。 However, the challenge of non - Vedic religions, notably Buddhism and Jainism, led to the replacement of the rigid Brahmanical rules by more relaxed and varied forms of worship.然而,挑戰的非-吠陀宗教,特別是佛教和耆那教,導致更換剛性B rahmanical規則更加寬鬆和各種形式的崇拜。

Although the Vedas continue to be spoken of as the final authority in Hinduism, other texts of equal importance exist. Thus, a literature was developed for each of the four aims of life: various Dharmasastras, such as the Code of Manu, which detail the duties of class and station; Kamasastras, such as the Kamasutras of Vatsyayana, handbooks of pleasure, erotic and otherwise; the Arthasastra, attributed to Kautilya (fl. 300 BC), which, like Machiavelli's The Prince, offers advice to a ruler as to how to keep the throne; and the philosophical literature of the various systems, which deals with liberation and how to achieve it.雖然吠陀繼續談到的最後權威印度教,其他文本具有同等的重要性存在。因此,文學發展的四個目標的生活:各種Dharmasastras ,如法製造,其中詳細闡述了職責階級和站; Kamasastras ,如 Kamasutras的瓦茨亞亞那,手冊的樂趣,色情和其他的Arthasastra ,歸因於Kautilya ( fl. 300年) ,其中,像馬基雅維裡的王子,提供諮詢,一把尺子,以如何保持王位;和哲學文學的各種制度,其中涉及解放和如何實現它。

In addition, certain collections of tales came to be widely known in popular life, especially the two great epics, the Mahabarata and the Ramayana.此外,某些收藏的故事後來被廣為人知,在大眾的生活,尤其是兩個偉大的史詩,在Mahabarata和羅摩衍那。 The Mahabharata tells of five princes who were cheated out of their kingdom and who, after a period of banishment in the forest, returned to fight a victorious and righteous war to regain it.講述的摩訶婆羅多五王子誰是被騙去他們的王國,誰經過一段時間的放逐在森林中,回到鬥爭勝利和正義的戰爭,恢復它。 An especially beloved portion of this epic is the section called the Bhagavad Gita, in which Arjuna, one of the brothers, is counseled by his charioteer Krishna, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.特別是敬愛的這一部分是史詩的章節稱為薄伽梵歌,其中阿朱那,一個兄弟,是他的勸告charioteer裡,一個化身主毗濕奴。 The Ramayana tells the story of the ideal Hindu man, Rama, whose wife Sita is abducted by a demon, and of Rama's journey to Sri Lanka to recapture her.在羅摩衍那講述了理想的印度教人,拉瑪,他的妻子悉他是被綁架了惡魔,並拉瑪的旅程斯里蘭卡奪回了她。 Both epics are filled with didactic tales, edifying poems, and fables. It is probably through their constant retelling in the village that Hinduism is most efficiently disseminated from generation to generation. Another source of Hindu lore is the Puranas, collections of legends and myths.史詩都充滿說教的故事,啟發性的詩,和寓言。 這可能是通過不斷複述的村莊,印度教是最有效的傳播代代相傳。另一個來源印度教傳說是Puranas ,收藏的傳說和神話。

The period from roughly 500 BC to 1000 AD is sometimes spoken of as that of classical Hinduism.這一時期從大約公元前500至公元1000有時是因為講的是古典印度教。 It was during this period that the major literature was composed, the great philosophical systems developed, and the basic Vaishnava and Shaiva sects organized.這是在這一時期,文學的主要組成,偉大的哲學體系發達,基本Vaishnava和Shaiva教派組織。 After 1000, beginning in south India somewhat earlier, a spirit of devotional fervor coupled with social reform swept through India, and the period from that time until near the present is known as the bhakti period. During this time the forms of religious worship changed and diversified further. 1000年後,開始在印度南部較早,本著虔誠的熱情再加上社會改革席捲印度和期限,從那個時候到附近的本被稱為巴克提時期。在這段時間內各種形式的宗教崇拜和改變進一步多樣化。 Singing of devotional songs and poems in the vernacular rather than in Sanskrit, the language in which practically all classical Hindu literature was written, is one example.歌唱的虔誠的歌曲和詩歌中的方言,而不是在梵文,語言,其中幾乎所有的印度古典文學寫,就是一個例子。 Direct approach to the god was emphasized, and the mediating role of the priest somewhat curtailed.直接的辦法來強調神和調解作用的神父有些限制。 Love, a sentiment common to all but particularly to the most ordinary villager, is now celebrated as the way to the highest end; some bhakti philosophies hold that liberation is not the supreme goal and that loving service to God is a higher one.愛,一種情感共同所有,但尤其是對最普通的村民,現在慶祝的方式向最高目標;一些巴克提哲學認為,解放不的最高目標和愛好的服務上帝是更高的一個。

Recent developments in Hinduism are indicative of a movement away from certain aspects of classical practice, such as Suttee, a widow's suicide at her husband's funeral; caste distinctions; and even karma and rebirth.最近的事態發展表明印度教的擺脫某些方面的典型做法,如自焚,寡婦自殺丈夫的葬禮;種姓區別,甚至業和再生。

Karl H Potter卡爾H哈利波特

Bibliography: 參考書目:
AL Basham, The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism (1989); S Chennakesavan, A Critical Study of Hinduism (1980); TJ Hopkins, The Hindu Religion Tradition (1971); D Kinsley, Hinduism (1982); KK Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism (1988); R Lannoy, The Speaking Tree (1974); WD O'Flaherty, Dreams, Illusions and Other Realities (1984); LSS O'Malley, Popular Hinduism (1935); KM Sen, Hinduism (1961); P Thomas, Hindu Religion, Customs and Manners (1981); RC Zaehner, Hinduism (1962).美聯巴沙姆的起源和發展的古典印度教( 1989年) ;語Chennakesavan ,關鍵研究印度教( 1980年) ;的TJ霍普金斯,印度教的傳統( 1971年) ; D金斯利,印度教( 1982年) ; KK公司Klostermaier ,一項調查印度教( 1988年) ; R Lannoy ,樹的講話( 1974年) ;的WD奧弗萊厄蒂,夢想,幻想和其他現實( 1984年) ;支助和服務法奧馬利,大眾印度教( 1935年) ;知識森,印度教( 1961年) ; P托馬斯,印度教宗教,習俗和禮儀( 1981年) ;鋼筋混凝土Zaehner ,印度教( 1962年) 。


Shiva濕婆

General Information 一般信息

Shiva (Sanskrit for "auspicious one"), also called Siva, is the Hindu god who personifies both the destructive and the procreative forces of the universe.濕婆(梵文為“吉祥之一” ) ,也稱為濕婆是印度教神誰象徵的破壞性和生育部隊的宇宙。 As the destroyer, he is represented wearing a necklace of skulls and surrounded by demons.如驅逐艦,他是代表佩戴項鍊的頭骨和惡魔所包圍。 His reproductive aspect is symbolized by the lingam, a phallic emblem.他的生殖方面是象徵著由林甘,一個陽具標誌。 Shiva is also the god of asceticism and of art, especially dancing.濕婆也是神的禁慾主義和藝術,尤其是舞蹈。 He rides on the bull Nandi, and his consort is the mother goddess Uma, or Kali. Some Hindus worship Shiva as the supreme deity and consider him a benevolent god of salvation as well as a god of destruction.他騎在牛湳底,他的配偶是母親女神烏瑪,或卡里。一些印度教濕婆神崇拜的最高神,並認為他是仁慈的神的救恩,以及神的破壞。


Some Important Hindu Religious Documents Follow:一些重要的印度教的宗教文件如下:


The Laws of Manu法律的馬努

1500 BC 1500年

translated by G Buhler翻譯由G布勒

Chapter I第一章

1. 1 。 The great sages approached Manu, who was seated with a collected mind, and, having duly worshipped him, spoke as follows:偉大的先賢馬努接近,誰坐在了收集到,並有適當的崇拜他,以如下:
2. 2 。 'Deign, divine one, to declare to us precisely and in due order the sacred laws of each of the (four chief) castes (varna) and of the intermediate ones. '設計,神聖的一,宣布給我們準確,以便在適當的神聖法律的每個(四長)種姓(瓦爾納)和中間的。
3. 3 。 'For thou, O Lord, alone knowest the purport, (ie) the rites, and the knowledge of the soul, (taught) in this whole ordinance of the Self existent (Svayambhu), which is unknowable and unfathomable.' '為了你,主啊,僅知道的目的, (即)的儀式,和知識的靈魂, (教)在這整個條例自存在( Svayambhu ) ,這是不可知和深不可測。
4. 4 。 He, whose power is measureless, being thus asked by the high minded great sages, duly honoured them, and answered, 'Listen!'他的權力是無量,正因此,要求高思想偉大先賢,適當榮幸,並回答說, '聽!
5. 5 。 This (universe) existed in the shape of Darkness, unperceived, destitute of distinctive marks, unattainable by reasoning, unknowable, wholly immersed, as it were, in deep sleep.這(宇宙)中存在的形狀黑暗, unperceived ,貧困的特殊標誌,高不可攀的推理,不可知的,完全沉浸,因為它是在深度睡眠。

6. 6 。 Then the divine Self existent (Svayambhu, himself) indiscernible, (but) making (all) this, the great elements and the rest, discernible, appeared with irresistible (creative) power, dispelling the darkness.然後神聖的自我存在( Svayambhu本人)暗, (但)決策(所有)本,偉大的元素,其餘的辨別,出現不可抗拒的(創造性的)權力,消除黑暗。
7. 7 。 He who can be perceived by the internal organ (alone), who is subtile, indiscernible, and eternal, who contains all created beings and is inconceivable, shone forth of his own (will).他誰可以被視為由內部器官(單獨) ,誰是微妙的,無形和永恆的,誰包含了所有創建人,是不可想像的,照亮了他自己的(會) 。
8. 8 。 He, desiring to produce beings of many kinds from his own body, first with a thought created the waters, and placed his seed in them.他希望人們產生許多種類的從自己的身體,首先想到的水域建立,並把他的種子在他們。
9. 9 。 That (seed) became a golden egg, in brilliancy equal to the sun; in that (egg) he himself was born as Brahman, the progenitor of the whole world.這(種子)成為金蛋,在輝煌等於太陽在這(蛋) ,他本人出生的婆羅門,在祖的整個世界。
10. 10 。 The waters are called narah, (for) the waters are, indeed, the offspring of Nara; as they were his first residence (ayana), he thence is named Narayana.水域被稱為narah , (供)水,的確都是後代奈良;因為它們是他的第一個居住地( ayana ) ,他再命名為拉亞。

11. 11 。 From that (first) cause, which is indiscernible, eternal, and both real and unreal, was produced that male (Purusha), who is famed in this world (under the appellation of) Brahman.從這一點(第一)的事業,這是無形的,永久的,都真實和虛幻,製作,男性( Purusha ) ,誰是著名的在這個世界上(下稱呼的)婆羅門。
12. 12 。 The divine one resided in that egg during a whole year, then he himself by his thought (alone) divided it into two halves;神聖的一居住在這期間蛋全年,然後他自己,他認為(僅僅)除以它分為兩半;
13. 13 。 And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters.進出這兩個半場,他形成天地,它們之間的中間領域, 8分的地平線上,和永恆的居留權的水域。
14. 14 。 From himself (atmanah) he also drew forth the mind, which is both real and unreal, likewise from the mind egoism, which possesses the function of self consciousness (and is) lordly;由本人( atmanah ) ,他還提請提出了到,這既是現實和虛幻的,同樣從利己主義的思想,具有功能的自我意識(是)有氣派;
15. 15 。 Moreover, the great one, the soul, and all (products) affected by the three qualities, and, in their order, the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation.此外,一個偉大的靈魂,和所有(產品)受影響的三個素質,並在他們的秩序,五個機關認為該物體的感覺。

16. 16 。 But, joining minute particles even of those six, which possess measureless power, with particles of himself, he created all beings.但是,加入細微顆粒物甚至那些六,擁有無量電力,粒子時,他創造了一切人。
17. 17 。 Because those six (kinds of) minute particles, which form the (creator's) frame, enter (a - sri) these (creatures), therefore the wise call his frame sarira, (the body.)由於這6個(種)細微顆粒,構成(作者)的框架內,輸入(一-斯里蘭卡) ,這些(生物) ,因此,他呼籲明智的框架舍利, (身體) 。
18. 18 。 That the great elements enter, together with their functions and the mind, through its minute parts the framer of all beings, the imperishable one.這偉大的內容輸入,連同其職能和心靈,通過它分鐘部分的成幀器的眾生的不朽之一。
19. 19 。 But from minute body ( - framing) particles of these seven very powerful Purushas springs this (world), the perishable from the imperishable.但是,從分機構( -幀)粒子的這7個非常強大的P urushas泉水今(世界)中,易腐的不朽。
20. 20 。 Among them each succeeding (element) acquires the quality of the preceding one, and whatever place (in the sequence) each of them occupies, even so many qualities it is declared to possess.其中每個成功(元)收購的質量,前面的人,無論位(順序)每人佔有,即便如此,許多品質,現宣布擁有。

21. 21 。 But in the beginning he assigned their several names, actions, and conditions to all (created beings), even according to the words of the Veda.但在開始他指派的幾個名字,行動和條件,所有(創建人) ,甚至根據的話吠陀。
22. 22 。 He, the Lord, also created the class of the gods, who are endowed with life, and whose nature is action; and the subtile class of the Sadhyas, and the eternal sacrifice.他,上帝也創造了一流的神,是誰賦予了生命,其性質是行動;和微妙類Sadhyas ,以及永恆的犧牲。
23. 23 。 But from fire, wind, and the sun he drew forth the threefold eternal Veda, called Rik, Yagus, and Saman, for the due performance of the sacrifice.但是,從火,風,太陽,他提請提出了三個永恆的吠陀,所謂的里克, Yagus ,以及薩滿,對於因業績的犧牲。
24. 24 。 Time and the divisions of time, the lunar mansions and the planets, the rivers, the oceans, the mountains, plains, and uneven ground.時間和分裂的時間,在月球大廈和行星,河流,海洋,高山,平原,地面和不均衡的。
25. 25 。 Austerity, speech, pleasure, desire, and anger, this whole creation he likewise produced, as he desired to call these beings into existence.緊縮,言論,很高興,願望,和憤怒,這整個創作,他同樣製作,因為他希望呼籲這些人存在。

26. 26 。 Moreover, in order to distinguish actions, he separated merit from demerit, and he caused the creatures to be affected by the pairs (of opposites), such as pain and pleasure.此外,為了區分的行動,他從分隔值得記過,他造成的動物受到影響的配對(對立統一) ,如疼痛和快樂。
27. 27 。 But with the minute perishable particles of the five (elements) which have been mentioned, this whole (world) is framed in due order但是,隨著粒子分鐘易腐的五個(要素) ,其中已經提到,整個(世界)是在適當的框架秩序
28. 28 。 But to whatever course of action the Lord at first appointed each (kind of beings), that alone it has spontaneously adopted in each succeeding creation.但是,無論行動方針勳爵在首次任命每個(類人) ,僅它已自發地通過在每一個成功創造。
29. 29 。 Whatever he assigned to each at the (first) creation, noxiousness or harmlessness, gentleness or ferocity, virtue or sin, truth or falsehood, that clung (afterwards) spontaneously to it.無論他分配給每個在(一)建立, noxiousness或無害,溫柔或兇猛,美德或罪孽,真理或謬誤,即堅持(後)自發地給它。
30. 30 。 As at the change of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its distinctive marks, even so corporeal beings (resume in new births) their (appointed) course of action.截至變化的四季每個季節自行承擔其獨特的標誌,即便如此,有形的人(恢復在新產)他們(任命)的行動方針。

31. 31 。 But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra to proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet.但是,為了繁榮的世界,他造成了梵書的剎帝利的Vaisya ,並著手桃一點從他的嘴裡,他的手臂,他的大腿,他的腳。
32. 32 。 Dividing his own body, the Lord became half male and half female; with that (female) he produced Virag.劃分自己的身體,上帝變成一半男性和一半女性;與(女) ,他製作維拉格。
33. 33 。 But know me, O most holy among the twice born, to be the creator of this whole (world), whom that male, Virag, himself produced, having performed austerities.但我知道,噢,最神聖的兩次出生,是創造這一整個(世界) ,其中,男性,維拉格,自己生產的,具有履行austerities 。
34. 34 。 Then I, desiring to produce created beings, performed very difficult austerities, and (thereby) called into existence ten great sages, lords of created beings,然後我,希望創建人生產,演出非常困難austerities ,和(從而)存在所謂的10大聖賢,領主的創建人,
35. 35 。 Mariki, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Praketas, Vasishtha, Bhrigu, and Narada. Mariki , Atri , Angiras , Pulastya , Pulaha , Kratu , Praketas , Vasishtha , Bhrigu ,並納茹阿達。

36. 36 。 They created seven other Manus possessing great brilliancy, gods and classes of gods and great sages of measureless power,它們創造了其他七個馬努斯擁有巨大的輝煌,神和類別的神和偉大的先賢的無量權力,
37. 37 。 Yakshas (the servants of Kubera, the demons called) Rakshasas and Pisakas, Gandharvas (or musicians of the gods), Apsarases (the dancers of the gods), Asuras, (the snake deities called) Nagas and Sarpas, (the bird deities called) Suparnas and the several classes of the manes, Yakshas (僕人的Kubera ,所謂的惡魔) Rakshasas和Pisakas ,甘達爾瓦(或樂神) , Apsarases (舞者的神) , Asuras , (蛇神所謂)納迦和Sarpas , (鳥神呼籲) Suparnas和幾個班級的鬃毛,
38. 38 。 Lightnings, thunderbolts and clouds, imperfect (rohita) and perfect rainbows, falling meteors, supernatural noises, comets, and heavenly lights of many kinds, Lightnings ,雷電和雲彩,不完善( rohita )和完美的彩虹,屬於流星雨,超自然的噪音,彗星,和天上的燈多種,
39. 39 。 (Horse faced) Kinnaras, monkeys, fishes, birds of many kinds, cattle, deer, men, and carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, (馬面臨) Kinnaras ,猴子,魚類,鳥類的許多種,牛,鹿,男人和食肉獸,兩排牙齒,
40. 40 。 Small and large worms and beetles, moths, lice, flies, bugs, all stinging and biting insects and the several kinds of immovable things.小型和大型蠕蟲和甲蟲,蛾類,蝨子,蒼蠅,漏洞,所有的刺痛和咬昆蟲和幾種不動產的事情。

41. 41 。 Thus was this whole (creation), both the immovable and the movable, produced by those high minded ones by means of austerities and at my command, (each being) according to (the results of) its actions.因此,這是整個(創造) ,無論是不動產和動產,由這些高志同道合的方式austerities和我的命令, (每個)根據(結果)它的行動。
42. 42 。 But whatever act is stated (to belong) to (each of) those creatures here below, that I will truly declare to you, as well as their order in respect to birth.但不論行為是指出(屬於)至(每個)這些動物在這裡下面,我將真正宣布向你,以及他們為了尊重出生。
43. 43 。 Cattle, deer, carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, Rakshasas, Pisakas, and men are born from the womb.牛,鹿,食肉獸,兩排牙齒, Rakshasas , Pisakas ,男子出生的胎兒。
44. 44 。 From eggs are born birds, snakes, crocodiles, fishes, tortoises, as well as similar terrestrial and aquatic (animals).從卵出生鳥,蛇,鱷魚,魚,龜,以及類似的陸地和水生(動物) 。
45. 45 。 From hot moisture spring stinging and biting insects, lice, flies, bugs, and all other (creatures) of that kind which are produced by heat.從炎熱潮濕春季刺痛和咬蟲,蝨子,蒼蠅,漏洞,和所有其他(生物)的那種這是產生熱量。

46. 46 。 All plants, propagated by seed or by slips, grow from shoots; annual plants (are those) which, bearing many flowers and fruits, perish after the ripening of their fruit;所有的植物,以種子繁殖或單,增長到地上;年度植物(是) ,其中,同時許多鮮花和水果,亡後,其成熟的果實;
47. 47 。 (Those trees) which bear fruit without flowers are called vanaspati (lords of the forest); but those which bear both flowers and fruit are called vriksha. (這些樹) ,其中結出果實沒有花朵被稱為vanaspati (領主的森林) ;但這些都負有鮮花和水果被稱為vriksha 。
48. 48 。 But the various plants with many stalks, growing from one or several roots, the different kinds of grasses, the climbing plants and the creepers spring all from seed or from slips.但是,各種植物有許多秸稈,從一個或幾個根源,不同種類的草,在攀援植物和食人族春季全部來自種子或從單。
49. 49 。 These (plants) which are surrounded by multiform Darkness, the result of their acts (in former existences), possess internal consciousness and experience pleasure and pain.這些(廠) ,其中四周都是黑暗多種形式,由於他們的行為(前存在) ,擁有內部的意識和經驗,很高興和痛苦。
50. 50 。 The (various) conditions in this always terrible and constantly changing circle of births and deaths to which created beings are subject, are stated to begin with (that of) Brahman, and to end with (that of) these (just mentioned immovable creatures).的(各種)的條件總是在這個可怕的和不斷變化的循環,出生和死亡的創建人是主題,是說一開始(即)婆羅門,並結束(即)這些(剛才提到的不動產動物) 。

51. 51 。 When he whose power is incomprehensible, had thus produced the universe and men, he disappeared in himself, repeatedly suppressing one period by means of the other.當他的權力是不可思議的,因此產生了宇宙和男子,他消失在自己,一再壓制一個時期的方式的。
52. 52 。 When that divine one wakes, then this world stirs; when he slumbers tranquilly, then the universe sinks to sleep.當神聖的一醒來,那麼這個世界上激起;當他slumbers平靜,那麼宇宙匯睡覺。
53. 53 。 But when he reposes in calm sleep, the corporeal beings whose nature is action, desist from their actions and mind becomes inert.但是,當他reposes在平靜的睡眠,人的物質,其性質是採取行動,停止他們的行動和精神成為惰性。
54. 54 。 When they are absorbed all at once in that great soul, then he who is the soul of all beings sweetly slumbers, free from all care and occupation.當他們吸收一次在這一偉大的靈魂,然後他誰是靈魂,是眾生甜蜜slumbers ,不受任何照顧和佔領。
55. 55 。 When this (soul) has entered darkness, it remains for a long time united with the organs (of sensation), but performs not its functions; it then leaves the corporeal frame.當這個(靈魂)已進入黑夜,但它仍然很長一段時間團結的機關(感覺) ,但沒有履行其職責;然後離開肉體的框架。

56. 56 。 When, being clothed with minute particles (only), it enters into vegetable or animal seed, it then assumes, united (with the fine body), a (new) corporeal frame.當被衣服與細微顆粒物(只) ,它進入植物或動物的種子,然後假設,統一(與罰款的機構) ,一個(新的)物質的框架。
57. 57 。 Thus he, the imperishable one, by (alternately) waking and slumbering, incessantly revivifies and destroys this whole movable and immovable (creation).因此,他的不朽之一,由(輪流)清醒和沉睡,並不斷revivifies和摧毀整個動產和不動產(創造) 。
58. 58 。 But he having composed these Institutes (of the sacred law), himself taught them, according to the rule, to me alone in the beginning; next I (taught them) to Mariki and the other sages.但他在這些機構組成(神聖法律) ,親自教他們,根據規則,我獨自開始;接下來我(教他們) ,以Mariki和其他聖人。
59. 59 。 Bhrigu, here, will fully recite to you these Institutes; for that sage learned the whole in its entirety from me. Bhrigu ,在這裡,將充分念給你這些院校;為聖人的教訓整個全部由我。
60. 60 。 Then that great sage Bhrigu, being thus addressed by Manu, spoke, pleased in his heart, to all the sages, 'Listen!'然後,這個偉大的聖人Bhrigu ,因此被處理的馬努,談到高興在他的心臟,所有的聖賢, '聽!

61. 61 。 Six other high minded, very powerful Manus, who belong to the race of this Manu, the descendant of the Self existent (Svayambhu), and who have severally produced created beings,其他6個高頭腦,非常強大的馬努斯,誰屬於本賽季吉諾比利的後裔自我存在( Svayambhu ) ,誰也連帶產生創造人,
62. 62 。 (Are) Svarokisha, Auttami, Tamasa, Raivata, Kakshusha, possessing great lustre, and the son of Vivasvat. (是) Svarokisha , Auttami , Tamasa , Raivata , Kakshusha ,擁有巨大的光澤,和兒子Vivasvat 。
63. 63 。 These seven very glorious Manus, the first among whom is Svayambhuva, produced and protected this whole movable and immovable (creation), each during the period (allotted to him).這七個非常光榮馬努斯,首先是其中Svayambhuva ,生產和保護整個動產和不動產(創造) ,每個期間(分配給他的) 。
64. 64 。 Eighteen nimeshas (twinklings of the eye, are one kashtha), thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one muhurta, and as many (muhurtas) one day and night. 18 nimeshas ( twinklings的眼睛,是一個kashtha ) , 30 kashthas一個黑熱病,第三十二kalas一個muhurta ,多達( muhurtas )一晝夜。
65. 65 。 The sun divides days and nights, both human and divine, the night (being intended) for the repose of created beings and the day for exertion.太陽劃分幾天幾夜,包括人力和神聖的,晚上(即意)為長眠的創建人及每天消耗。

66. 66 。 A month is a day and a night of the manes, but the division is according to fortnights.一個月是一天一夜的鬃毛,但分工是根據fortnights 。 The dark (fortnight) is their day for active exertion, the bright (fortnight) their night for sleep.黑暗(兩週)是他們每天活躍的消耗,光明(雙週)他們晚上的睡眠。
67. 67 。 A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division is (as follows): the half year during which the sun progresses to the north will be the day, that during which it goes southwards night.一年了一天一夜的神,他們的分工是(如下) :上半年在此期間,太陽進展以北將是一天,在這期間不用向南夜晚。
68. 68 。 But hear now the brief (description of) the duration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the several ages (of the world, yuga) according to their order.但是,現在聽到的簡短(描述)的期限和一晚一天的婆羅門和幾個年齡(世界上年代)根據自己的秩序。
69. 69 。 They declare that the Krita age (consists of) four thousand years (of the gods); the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number.
70. 70 。 In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one.在其他三個年齡與他們twilights之前和之後,數千名和數百人減少了一個。

71. 71 。 These twelve thousand (years) which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four (human) ages, are called one age of the gods.這些12000 (年)因而被剛才提到的4個(人)的年齡,被稱為一個時代的神。
72. 72 。 But know that the sum of one thousand ages of the gods (makes) one day of Brahman, and that his night has the same length.但知道的總和1000年齡神(使)為期一天的婆羅門,他晚上有相同的長度。
73. 73 。 Those (only, who) know that the holy day of Brahman, indeed, ends after (the completion of) one thousand ages (of the gods) and that his night lasts as long, (are really) men acquainted with (the length of) days and nights.這些(只,誰)都知道,神聖的一天婆羅門,實際上結束後(完成) 1000年齡(神)和他的夜晚,只要持續, (真的)男子熟悉(長度)幾天幾夜。
74. 74 。 At the end of that day and night he who was asleep, awakes and, after awaking, creates mind, which is both real and unreal.在結束這一天晚上,他和誰是睡著了, awakes之後,甦醒,創造銘記,這既是現實和不現實的。
75. 75 。 Mind, impelled by (Brahman's) desire to create, performs the work of creation by modifying itself, thence ether is produced; they declare that sound is the quality of the latter.有鑑於此,迫於(婆羅門)的願望創造,執行工作的創建,修改本身,然後甲醚的生產,他們宣布,聲音的質量後者。

76. 76 。 But from ether, modifying itself, springs the pure, powerful wind, the vehicle of all perfumes; that is held to possess the quality of touch.但是,從乙醚,修改本身,泉水的純潔,強大的風力,車輛的所有香水,也就是擁有了質量的聯繫。
77. 77 。 Next from wind modifying itself, proceeds the brilliant light, which illuminates and dispels darkness; that is declared to possess the quality of colour;下一步風力修改本身,收益的光輝,它照亮和驅除黑暗,這是申報擁有的質量,顏色;
78. 78 。 And from light, modifying itself, (is produced) water, possessing the quality of taste, from water earth which has the quality of smell; such is the creation in the beginning.從輕,修改本身, (生產)水,擁有的質量,口味,從水地球有質量的氣味;等是創造的開端。
79. 79 。 The before mentioned age of the gods, (or) twelve thousand (of their years), being multiplied by seventy one, (constitutes what) is here named the period of a Manu (Manvantara).之前提到的年齡神, (或) 12000 (其年) ,被乘以71 , (是什麼)在這裡命名為期馬努( Manvantara ) 。
80. 80 。 The Manvantaras, the creations and destructions (of the world, are) numberless; sporting, as it were, Brahman repeats this again and again.該Manvantaras的創作和破壞(世界,是)無數;運動,因為它是,這個婆羅門重複一次又一次。

81. 81 。 In the Krita age Dharma is four footed and entire, and (so is) Truth; nor does any gain accrue to men by unrighteousness.在Krita年齡佛法是4足和整個,以及(也是如此)的真相,也沒有任何收益獲得男子unrighteousness 。
82. 82 。 In the other (three ages), by reason of (unjust) gains (agama), Dharma is deprived successively of one foot, and through (the prevalence of) theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit (gained by men) is diminished by one fourth (in each).在其他( 3歲) ,因(不公正)的收益(宗教) ,達摩先後被剝奪了一隻腳,並通過(流行)盜竊,謊言和欺詐的優點(獲得男子)是減少了四分之一(每個) 。
83. 83 。 (Men are) free from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four hundred years in the Krita age, but in the Treta and (in each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by one quarter (男性)免於疾病,完成其所有目標,和生活四百年的Krita年齡,但在Treta和(每個)的成功(歲)他們的生活是減少四分之一
84. 84 。 The life of mortals, mentioned in the Veda, the desired results of sacrificial rites and the (supernatural) power of embodied (spirits) are fruits proportioned among men according to (the character of) the age.生活的凡人,中所提到的吠陀,所期望的結果的祭祀和(超自然的)所體現的力量(精神)是水果的男性比例根據(性質的)的年齡。
85. 85 。 One set of duties (is prescribed) for men in the Krita age, different ones in the Treta and in the Dvapara, and (again) another (set) in the Kali, in a proportion as those ages decrease in length.一組的職責(明)的男子在Krita年齡,不同的在Treta和Dvapara ,和(再次)其他(套)的卡里,在一定比例的那些年齡下降的長度。

86. 86 。 In the Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the performance of) austerities, in the Treta (divine) knowledge, in the Dvapara (performance of) sacrifices, in the Kali liberality alone.在Krita年齡長(德)被宣布為(的表現) austerities ,在Treta (神)的知識,在Dvapara (性能)的犧牲,在卡利僅慷慨。
87. 87 。 But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate (duties and) occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet.但是,為了保護這個宇宙,他最輝煌的一個單獨的分配(職責和)職業者誰源自他的嘴,手臂,大腿,和腳。
88. 88 。 To Brahmanas he assigned teaching and studying (the Veda), sacrificing for their own benefit and for others, giving and accepting (of alms).為了Brahmanas他指派的教學和學習(在吠陀) ,犧牲自己的利益和他人,給予和接受(的施捨) 。
89. 89 。 The Kshatriya he commanded to protect the people, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the Veda), and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures;剎帝利,他的指揮,以保護人民賦予的禮物,提供犧牲,學習(在吠陀) ,以及避免自己的重視感官的樂趣;
90. 90 。 The Vaisya to tend cattle, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the Veda), to trade, to lend money, and to cultivate land.該Vaisya趨向牛,賦予禮物,提供犧牲,學習(在吠陀) ,貿易,貸款和培育土地。

91. 91 。 One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra, to serve meekly even these (other) three castes.只有一個佔領主明的桃一點,服務謙和即使這些(其他)三個等級。
92. 92 。 Man is stated to be purer above the navel (than below); hence the Self existent (Svayambhu) has declared the purest (part) of him (to be) his mouth.人是說要純潔以上的臍橙(比下文) ;因此,自我存在( Svayambhu )已宣布純淨(部分) ,他(是)他的嘴。
93. 93 。 As the Brahmana sprang from (Brahman's) mouth, as he was the first born, and as he possesses the Veda, he is by right the lord of this whole creation.如梵書源自(婆羅門)的嘴裡,因為他是第一個出生的,當他擁有吠陀,他是上帝的權利的整個創作。
94. 94 。 For the Self existent (Svayambhu), having performed austerities, produced him first from his own mouth, in order that the offerings might be conveyed to the gods and manes and that this universe might be preserved.對於存在的自我( Svayambhu ) ,具有履行austerities ,製作他首先從自己的嘴巴,以使該產品可能會轉達給神和鬃毛,這可能是宇宙中保存。
95. 95 。 What created being can surpass him, through whose mouth the正在創建什麼可以超過他,通過他的嘴

(contimues . . . ) ( contimues 。 。 。 )



The Song Celestial這首歌天體

400 BC公元前400

or

Bhagavad - Gita薄伽梵-歌

translated by Sir Edwin Arnold主席先生翻譯的埃德溫阿諾德

Chapter I第一章

Dhritirashtra. Dhritirashtra 。 Ranged thus for battle on the sacred plain -因此不等戰鬥的神聖平原-
On Kurukshetra - say, Sanjaya!論Kurukshetra -也就是說,散! say
What wrought my people, and the Pandavas?是什麼造成我國人民和Pandavas ?
Sanjaya.散。 When he beheld the host of Pandavas,當他看見的Pandavas東道國,
Raja Duryodhana to Drona drew,拉賈Duryodhana以Drona提請,
And spake these words: "Ah, Guru! see this line,和spake這些話: “啊,大師!看到這一行,
How vast it is of Pandu fighting men,如何絕大多數是潘杜戰鬥的男子,
Embattled by the son of Drupada,四面楚歌的兒子Drupada ,
Thy scholar in the war!你學者的戰爭! Therein stand ranked站在那裡排名
Chiefs like Arjuna, like to Bhima chiefs,酋長像阿朱那,要皮馬酋長,
Benders of bows; Virata, Yuyudhan, Benders的弓箭; Virata , Yuyudhan ,
Drupada, eminent upon his car, Drupada ,知名人士在他的車,
Dhrishtaket, Chekitan, Kasi's stout lord, Dhrishtaket , Chekitan ,克卡西的胖老爺,
Purujit, Kuntibhoj, and Saivya, Purujit , Kuntibhoj ,並Saivya ,
With Yudhamanyu, and Uttamauj隨著Yudhamanyu ,並Uttamauj
Subhadra's child; and Drupadi's; - all famed!蘇芭德茹阿的孩子;和Drupadi的; -所有著名的!

All mounted on their shining chariots!所有安裝在其光輝的戰車!
On our side, too, - thou best of Brahmans!在我們一邊,也-你最好的婆羅門! see看見
Excellent chiefs, commanders of my line,優秀的酋長,我的指揮官線,
Whose names I joy to count: thyself the first,他們的名字我感到高興的伯爵:你自己第一次,
Then Bhishma, Karna, Kripa fierce in fight,然後,比什馬,卡爾納, Kripa激烈戰鬥,
Vikarna, Aswatthaman; next to these Vikarna , Aswatthaman ;旁邊的這些
Strong Saumadatti, with full many more強Saumadatti ,充分有更多的
Valiant and tried, ready this day to die勇敢和審判,準備這一天死
For me their king, each with his weapon grasped,對我來說,他們的國王,他的每一個掌握核武器,
Each skilful in the field.每一個嫻熟的領域。 Weakest - meseems -最弱-m eseems-
Our battle shows where Bhishma holds command,我們的戰鬥顯示比什馬持有的命令,
And Bhima, fronting him, something too strong!和皮馬,面對他,太強大了!
Have care our captains nigh to Bhishma's ranks有照顧我們的隊長幾乎以比什馬的隊伍
Prepare what help they may!準備哪些幫助他們! Now, blow my shell!"現在,打擊我的殼! “

Then, at the signal of the aged king,然後,在信號的年齡國王
With blare to wake the blood, rolling around隨著blare喚醒血液,滾動圍繞
Like to a lion's roar, the trumpeter喜歡獅子的轟鳴聲,在吹鼓手
Blew the great Conch; and, at the noise of it,爆炸的巨大海螺; ,並在它的噪音,
Trumpets and drums, cymbals and gongs and horns小號和鼓,鈸和鑼鼓和喇叭
Burst into sudden clamour; as the blasts闖入突然喧嘩;的爆炸事件
Of loosened tempest, such the tumult seemed!暴風雨的鬆動,例如動盪似乎!
Then might be seen, upon their car of gold然後可能會看到,在他們的汽車的黃金
Yoked with white steeds, blowing their battle shells,誘發白色駿,吹彈的鬥爭,
Krishna the God, Arjuna at his side:克里希納上帝,阿朱那在他身邊:
Krishna, with knotted locks, blew his great conch克里希納,與結鎖,引爆他的偉大海螺
Carved of the "Giant's bone;" Arjuna blew雕刻的“巨人之骨; ”阿朱那引爆
Indra's loud gift; Bhima the terrible -因陀羅的響亮的禮物;皮馬可怕的-
Wolf - bellied Bhima - blew a long reed - conch;沃爾夫-腹皮馬-引爆一個長期蘆葦-海螺;
And Yudhisthira, Kunti's blameless son,和尤帝士提爾,妻琨緹的無辜的兒子,
Winded a mighty shell, "Victory's Voice;"嗦強大的殼, “勝利之聲” ;
And Nakula blew shrill upon his conch和Nakula引爆尖叫他的海螺

Named the "Sweet sounding," Sahadev on his命名為“甜蜜的冠冕堂皇, ”他薩哈德夫
Called "Gem bedecked," and Kasi's Prince on his.所謂的“寶石裝飾” ,並克卡西王子他。
Sikhandi on his car, Dhrishtadyumn, Sikhandi他的汽車, Dhrishtadyumn ,
Virata, Satyaki the Unsubdued, Virata , Satyaki的Unsubdued ,
Drupada, with his sons, (O Lord of Earth!) Drupada ,他的兒子, (主啊地球! )
Long armed Subhadra's children, all blew loud,長期武裝衝突蘇芭德茹阿的兒童,所有的爆炸聲音,
So that the clangour shook their foemen's hearts,因此,在鏗鏘聲搖搖foemen的心,
With quaking earth and thundering heav'n.隨著發抖的地球和雷鳴般的heav'n 。
Then 'twas -然後'第三世界科學院-
Beholding Dhritirashtra's battle set, Beholding Dhritirashtra的戰鬥設定,
Weapons unsheathing, bows drawn forth, the war武器unsheathing ,制定了弓箭,戰爭
Instant to break - Arjun, whose ensign badge瞬間打破-古塔,其軍旗徽章
Was Hanuman the monkey, spake this thing是哈努曼猴, spake這件事
To Krishna the Divine, his charioteer:為了克里希納神,他的charioteer :
"Drive, Dauntless One! to yonder open ground “驅動器,一個無畏!到那邊空地
Betwixt the armies; I would see more nigh中間的軍隊;我想看到更多的近

These who will fight with us, those we must slay這些誰將與我們作鬥爭,這些我們必須殺死
Today, in war's arbitrament; for, sure,今天,在戰爭的arbitrament ;的,肯定的是,
On bloodshed all are bent who throng this plain,在流血都執意誰大群這一平原,
Obeying Dhritirashtra's sinful son."服從Dhritirashtra的罪孽深重的兒子。 “

Thus, by Arjuna prayed, (O Bharata!)因此,阿朱那祈禱, (海外巴茹阿特! )
Between the hosts that heavenly Charioteer之間的主機,天上Charioteer
Drove the bright car, reining its milk white steeds將光明的汽車,抑制其乳白色駿
Where Bhishma led, and Drona, and their Lords.凡比什馬領導, Drona ,他們的上議院。
"See!" “瞧! ” spake he to Arjuna, "where they stand, spake他向阿朱那“ ,他們的立場,
Thy kindred of the Kurus:" and the Prince你的親屬的Kurus : “與王子
Marked on each hand the kinsmen of his house,標明每手的麵團他的房子,
Grandsires and sires, uncles and brothers and sons, Grandsires和sires ,叔伯和兄弟和兒子,
Cousins and sons - in - law and nephews, mixed堂兄弟和兒子-中-法和侄子,混合
With friends and honoured elders; some this side,與朋友和榮幸的長者;一些這方面,
Some that side ranged: and, seeing those opposed,一些副作用包括: ,看到那些反對,
Such kith grown enemies - Arjuna's heart這種朋友種植的敵人-阿朱那的心
Melted with pity, while he uttered this:熔融與憐憫,而他說出這一點:
Arjuna.阿朱那。 Krishna!克里希納! as I behold, come here to shed我看見,來這裡跌
Their common blood, yon concourse of our kin,其共同的血液,馮匯合我們的親人,
My members fail, my tongue dries in my mouth,我的成員失敗,我的舌頭乾涸在我的嘴,
A shudder thrills my body, and my hair阿不寒而栗刺激我的身體,和我的頭髮

Bristles with horror; from my weak hand slips刷毛與恐怖;從我弱手纜
Gandiv, the goodly bow; a fever burns Gandiv ,在優美的弓;發燒燒傷
My skin to parching; hardly may I stand;我的皮膚無從;幾乎可我站在;
The life within me seems to swim and faint;生活在我看來游泳和微弱;
Nothing do I foresee save woe and wail!我沒有預見挽救方針和哀號!
It is not good, O Keshav!這是不是好,氧凱沙夫! nought of good化為烏有良好
Can spring from mutual slaughter!春天可以從相互屠殺! Lo, I hate盧古嘉利,我恨
Triumph and domination, wealth and ease,凱旋和統治,財富和易用性,
Thus sadly won!因此,可悲的贏了! Aho!阿霍! what victory什麼勝利
Can bring delight, Govinda!可以帶來喜悅,戈文達! what rich spoils什麼豐富的戰利品
Could profit; what rule recompense; what span可利潤;什麼規則的補償;什麼跨度
Of life itself seem sweet, bought with such blood?生命本身似乎甜,買這種血?
Seeing that these stand here, ready to die,看到這些站在這裡,隨時準備死了,
For whose sake life was fair, and pleasure pleased,為了他的生命是公平的,並高興高興,
And power grew precious: - grandsires, sires, and sons,和電力增長珍貴: -g randsires, s ires,和兒子,
Brothers, and fathers - in - law, and sons - in - law,兄弟,和父親-中-法,和兒子-中-法,
Elders and friends!長者和朋友們! Shall I deal death on these我應該處理這些死亡

Even though they seek to slay us?雖然他們設法殺死我們? Not one blow,沒有一個打擊,
O Madhusudan! ö Madhusudan ! will I strike to gain我將爭取罷工
The rule of all Three Worlds; then, how much less該規則的所有三個世界;那麼,如何少得多
To seize an earthly kingdom!要抓住一個世俗王國! Killing these這些殺害
Must breed but anguish, Krishna!但必須滋生痛苦,克里希納! If they be如果他們是
Guilty, we shall grow guilty by their deaths;有罪,我們將犯的增長他們的死亡;
Their sins will light on us, if we shall slay他們的罪孽將根據我們,如果我們將殺死
Those sons of Dhritirashtra, and our kin;這些兒子Dhritirashtra ,我們的親人;
What peace could come of that, O Madhava?什麼樣的和平可能的,噢,瑪達瓦?
For if indeed, blinded by lust and wrath,如果確實,簡直到了利令智昏和憤怒,
These cannot see, or will not see, the sin這些看不到,或將不會看到的罪惡
Of kingly lines o'erthrown and kinsmen slain,線的王道o'erthrown和麵團中被殺害,
How should not we, who see, shun such a crime -如何不應該,我們誰看到,順這樣的罪行-
We who perceive the guilt and feel the shame -我們是誰感知感到內疚和恥辱-
O thou Delight of Men, Janardana? ö你快樂的男人,佳納爾丹?
By overthrow of houses perisheth由推翻的房屋perisheth

Their sweet continuous household piety,他們甜蜜的家庭孝道持續,
And - rites neglected, piety extinct -和-被忽視的儀式,虔誠滅絕-
Enters impiety upon that home;進入impiety後,家庭;
Its women grow unwomaned, whence there spring婦女成長unwomaned ,何處有春天
Mad passions, and the mingling up of castes,瘋狂的激情,和交融的種姓
Sending a Hellward road that family,發送Hellward道路,家庭,
And whoso wrought its doom by wicked wrath.和whoso造成其滅亡的邪惡的憤怒。
Nay, and the souls of honoured ancestors不,和靈魂的榮幸祖先
Fall from their place of peace, being bereft法爾從自己的位置的和平,正在失去
Of funeral cakes and the wan death water.葬禮的蛋糕和死亡的灣水。
So teach our holy hymns.因此,教導我們的神聖的讚美詩。 Thus, if we slay因此,如果我們殺死
Kinsfolk and friends for love of earthly power,親屬和朋友的愛人間權力,
Ahovat! Ahovat ! what an evil fault it were!什麼是邪惡的故障它!
Better I deem it, if my kinsmen strike,更好我認為,如果我的麵團罷工
To face them weaponless, and bare my breast面對這些weaponless ,和我的乳房裸露
To shaft and spear, than answer blow with blow.為了軸和矛,而不是答案的打擊與打擊。

So speaking, in the face of those two hosts,所以說,在面對這兩個東道主,
Arjuna sank upon his chariot seat,阿朱那沉沒在他的戰車上座位,
And let fall bow and arrows, sick at heart.秋天,讓弓和箭,病人的心。

Here Endeth Chapter I of the在這裡Endeth第一章

Bhagavad-Gita,薄伽梵歌,

Entitled "Arjun - Vishad,"題為“古塔-V ishad”

Or "The Book of the Distress of Arjuna."或“一書的阿朱那窘迫。 ”

Chapter II第二章

Sanjaya.散。 Him, filled with such compassion and such grief,他,充滿了這種同情和悲傷等,
With eyes tear dimmed, despondent, in stern words眼睛淚液變暗,沮喪,嚴詞
The Driver, Madhusudan, thus addressed:司機, Madhusudan ,從而解決:
Krishna.克里希納。 How hath this weakness taken thee?如何上帝這一弱點,採取了你?
Whence springs何處溫泉
The inglorious trouble, shameful to the brave,該不光彩的麻煩,可恥的勇敢,
Barring the path of virtue?除了道路的美德? Nay, Arjun!不,阿君!
Forbid thyself to feebleness!禁止對弱智你自己! it mars它火星
Thy warrior name!你的戰士的名字! cast off the coward - fit!擺脫懦夫-適合!
Wake!醒來! Be thyself!是你自己! Arise, Scourge of thy Foes!出現,禍害你的反對者!
Arjuna.阿朱那。 How can I, in the battle, shoot with shafts我該如何,在戰鬥中,拍攝豎井
On Bhishma, or on Drona - O thou Chief!論比什馬,或Drona -啊,你長! -
Both worshipful, both honourable men?這worshipful ,既體面的男人嗎?

Better to live on beggar's bread更好地生活在乞丐的麵包
With those we love alive,有了這些,我們的愛活著,
Than taste their blood in rich feasts spread,味道比他們的血液中豐富的節日蔓延,
And guiltily survive!和guiltily生存!
Ah!啊! were it worse - who knows?被糟糕的是-誰知道? - to be -將
Victor or vanquished here,維克多或戰敗這裡,
When those confront us angrily當我們面對這些憤怒
Whose death leaves living drear?葉其死刑生活drear ?
In pity lost, by doubtings tossed,可惜在失去了doubtings拋出,
My thoughts - distracted - turn我的思緒-分散-反過來
To Thee, the Guide I reverence most,為了你,我的指南最崇敬,
That I may counsel learn:我可能律師了解:
I know not what would heal the grief我不知道什麼治愈的悲痛
Burned into soul and sense,燒傷到靈魂和責任感,
If I were earth's unchallenged chief -如果我是地球的質疑首席-
A god - and these gone thence!上帝-這些經歷再!

Sanjaya.散。 So spake Arjuna to the Lord of Hearts,因此, spake阿朱那上帝的心,
And sighing, "I will not fight!"並嘆了口氣: “我不會打! ” held silence then.然後舉行了沉默。
To whom, with tender smile, (O Bharata!)人與招標的微笑, (海外巴茹阿特! )
While the Prince wept despairing 'twixt those hosts,雖然王子哭絕望的' twixt這些主機,
Krishna made answer in divinest verse:克里希納作出回答divinest詩句:
Krishna.克里希納。 Thou grievest where no grief should be!你grievest沒有悲傷應該! thou speak'st你speak'st
Words lacking wisdom!缺乏智慧的話! for the wise in heart以明智的心
Mourn not for those that live, nor those that die.哀悼不是為那些生活,也沒有那些死去。
Nor I, nor thou, nor any one of these,沒有我,也沒有你,也沒有任何其中之一,
Ever was not, nor ever will not be,以往任何時候都沒有,也永遠不會,
For ever and for ever afterwards.永遠永遠以後。
All, that doth live, lives always!所有,即doth生活,生命永遠! To man's frame人的內
As there come infancy and youth and age,由於是初級階段和青年的年齡,
So come there raisings - up and layings - down因此,今後有融資-和l ayings-下跌
Of other and of other life - abodes,其他和其他生活-a bodes,
Which the wise know, and fear not.而明智的知道,沒有恐懼。 This that irks -這是irks -

Thy sense - life, thrilling to the elements -你的感覺-生命,驚心動魄的內容-
Bringing thee heat and cold, sorrows and joys,把你的冷熱,痛苦和歡樂,
'Tis brief and mutable! '那簡短的,變化無常的! Bear with it, Prince!熊與王子!
As the wise bear.作為明智的負擔。 The soul which is not moved,靈魂這不是感動,
The soul that with a strong and constant calm靈魂,在一個強大和持續的平靜
Takes sorrow and takes joy indifferently,表示悲痛,並喜悅漠然,
Lives in the life undying!生活在永恆的生命! That which is這是
Can never cease to be; that which is not永遠不能停止,這是不
Will not exist.將不存在。 To see this truth of both看到這個真理都
Is theirs who part essence from accident,誰是他們的本質是因事故,
Substance from shadow.物質的影子。 Indestructible,堅不可摧,
Learn thou!了解你! the Life is, spreading life through all;生命是通過傳播生活的所有;
It cannot anywhere, by any means,它不能任何地方以任何手段,
Be anywise diminished, stayed, or changed.被anywise減少,停留,或改變。
But for these fleeting frames which it informs但是,對於這些稍縱即逝幀它通知
With spirit deathless, endless, infinite,隨著精神不死,無休止的,無限的,

They perish.他們滅亡。 Let them perish, Prince!讓他們滅亡,王子! and fight!和打擊!
He who shall say, "Lo! I have slain a man!"誰應他說, “羅!我已經殺害一名男子! ”
He who shall think, "Lo! I am slain!"誰應他認為, “羅!殺害我! ” those both這些都
Know naught!知道一事無成! Life cannot slay.生活不能殺死。 Life is not slain!生命是不是殺害!
Never the spirit was born; the spirit shall cease to be never;永遠的精神出生;的精神將不再從來沒有;
Never was time it was not; End and Beginning are dreams!從來就沒有時間沒有;結束,並開始是夢想!
Birthless and deathless and changeless remaineth the spirit for ever; Birthless和不死remaineth和不變的精神永遠;
Death hath not touched it at all, dead though the house of it seems!死亡上帝沒有觸及它所有,但死者的房子似乎!
Who knoweth it exhaustless, self sustained,誰knoweth它不竭,自我持續,
Immortal, indestructible, - shall such不朽的,堅不可摧, -應如
Say, "I have killed a man, or caused to kill?"說: “我打死了一個人,或者造成死亡? ”

Nay, but as when one layeth不,但是,當一個layeth
His worn out robes away,他破舊的長袍消失,
And, taking new ones, sayeth, ,並考慮新的定居點, sayeth ,
"These will I wear today!" “這些,我會穿今天! ”
So putteth by the spirit所以putteth精神
Lightly its garb of flesh,輕其外衣的肉體,
And passeth to inherit passeth和繼承
A residence afresh.重新住宅。

I say to thee weapons reach not the Life;我要告訴你沒有達到武器的生命;
Flame burns it not, waters cannot o'erwhelm,火焰燃燒不,水不能o'erwhelm ,
Nor dry winds wither it.也不幹風枯萎它。 Impenetrable,溫迪,
Unentered, unassailed, unharmed, untouched, Unentered , unassailed ,安然無恙,未,
Immortal, all - arriving, stable, sure,不朽的,所有-抵達,穩定,當然,
Invisible, ineffable, by word看不見,說不出,字
And thought uncompassed, ever all itself,並認為uncompassed ,以往所有的本身,
Thus is the Soul declared!因此,正在申報的靈魂! How wilt thou, then, -你如何枯萎,然後-
Knowing it so, - grieve when thou shouldst not grieve?明知如此, -當你悲傷s houldst不傷心?
How, if thou hearest that the man new - dead如何,如果你hearest ,該名男子新-死亡
Is, like the man new - born, still living man -一樣,是新的男子-出生後,仍住人-
One same, existent Spirit - wilt thou weep?一個相同的,存在的精神-枯萎你哭泣?
The end of birth is death; the end of death年底出生死亡;結束死亡
Is birth: this is ordained!是出生:這是注定! and mournest thou,和mournest你,
Chief of the stalwart arm!處長健壯手臂! for what befalls為befalls
Which could not otherwise befall?而不能以其他方式降臨? The birth出生

Of living things comes unperceived; the death生活的東西來unperceived ;死亡
Comes unperceived; between them, beings perceive:來自unperceived ;他們之間存在的看法:
What is there sorrowful herein, dear Prince?什麼是此處有悲,親愛的王子?

Wonderful, wistful, to contemplate!奇妙的,想家,考慮到!
Difficult, doubtful, to speak upon!困難,令人懷疑,說話時!
Strange and great for tongue to relate,奇怪的和偉大的母語涉及,
Mystical hearing for every one!神秘的聽證會每一個!
Nor wotteth man this, what a marvel it is,男子也wotteth這一點,什麼一個奇蹟是,
When seeing, and saying, and hearing are done!當看到,並說,和聽力都完成了!

This Life within all living things, my Prince!這生命的萬物,我的王子!
Hides beyond harm; scorn thou to suffer, then,隱藏超出傷害;鄙視你受苦,那麼,
For that which cannot suffer.對於那些不能受到損害。 Do thy part!做你的一部分!
Be mindful of thy name, and tremble not!記住你的名字,並沒有發抖!
Nought better can betide a martial soul可以更好地化為烏有發生於1軍魂
Than lawful war; happy the warrior比合法的戰爭;高興武士
To whom comes joy of battle - comes, as now,誰是歡樂的戰鬥-來了,現在一樣,
Glorious and fair, unsought; opening for him光榮和公正的, unsought ;開放供他
A gateway unto Heav'n.網關祂Heav'n 。 But, if thou shunn'st但是,如果你shunn'st
This honourable field - a Kshattriya -這一光榮的領域-一個K shattriya-
If, knowing thy duty and thy task, thou bidd'st如果你知道你的職責和任務,你bidd'st
Duty and task go by - that shall be sin!職責和任務去了-這應罪孽!
And those to come shall speak thee infamy和那些來談論你的恥辱

From age to age; but infamy is worse從年齡的年齡,但更糟糕的是恥辱
For men of noble blood to bear than death!對於男人的崇高血液承受比死亡!
The chiefs upon their battle chariots酋長在其戰鬥戰車
Will deem 'twas fear that drove thee from the fray.會認為'第三世界擔心驅使你從競爭。
Of those who held thee mighty souled the scorn這些誰你威武舉行的蔑視souled
Thou must abide, while all thine enemies你必須遵守,而所有你的敵人

(continues . . . ) (繼續。 。 。 )


Hinduism印度教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices existing in India that have grown out of ancient Brahminism, and which stand in sharp contrast to orthodox, traditional Brahminism today.印度教在其狹義的,是聚集的宗教信仰和習俗在印度現有已發展了古代Brahminism ,其中的立場形成鮮明對比的是正統的,傳統的Brahminism今天。 Hinduism is the popular, distorted, corrupted side of Brahminism.印度教是受歡迎的,歪曲,損壞的一側Brahminism 。 In its broad sense, it comprises those phases of religous, social, and intellectual life that are generally recognized in India today as the legitimate outgrowth of ancient Brahmin institutions, and hence are tolerated by the Brahmin priests as compatible with Brahmin traditions.在其廣泛的意義上講,它包括階段的宗教,社會,生命和智慧是普遍公認的今天,印度作為合法的產物,古代婆羅門機構,因而是不能容忍的婆羅門祭司為符合婆羅門傳統。 Far from being a uniform system of worship, Hinduism, in this large sense, comprises, besides orthodox Brahminism, the numerous sectarian developments of cult in honour of Vishnu, Siva, and their associates, in which for centuries the great mass of the people have found satisfaction for their religious cravings.遠遠不是一個統一的制度的崇拜,印度教,在此大型意義上說,包括,除了正統的Brahminism ,眾多的教派發展的邪教榮幸地毗濕奴,濕婆,他們的同夥,其中數百年的巨大質量的人找到滿意的渴望,他們的宗教信仰。 In Hinduism, as distinguished from the heretical sects of India, it is of minor importance what sort of worship is adopted, provided one recognizes the supremacy of the Brahmins and the sacredness of Brahmin customs and traditions.在印度教,作為區別於邪教印度,這是未成年人的重要性什麼樣的崇拜是通過提供了一個認識到至高無上的地位婆羅門和神聖的婆羅門的習俗和傳統。 In the pantheistic all-god Brahma, the whole world of deities, spirits, and other objects of worship is contained, so that Hinduism adapts itself to every form of religion, from the lofty monotheism of the cultivated Brahmin to the degraded nature-worship of the ignorant, half savage peasant.在pantheistic所有神梵天,整個世界的神,烈酒,和其他物體的崇拜載,因此,印度教本身適應各種形式的宗教,從崇高的一神教的耕地婆羅門的退化的自然崇拜無知,半野蠻的農民。 Hinduism, to quote Monier Williams, "has something to offer which is suited to all minds. Its very strength lies in its infinite adaptability to the infinite diversity of human characters and human tendencies. It has its highly spiritual and abstract side suited to the metaphysical philosopher151its practical and concrete side suited to the man of affairs and the man of the world-its esthetic and ceremonial side suited to the man of poetic feeling and imagination-its quiescent and contemplative side suited to the man of peace and lover of seclusion. Nay, it holds out the right hand of brotherhood to nature-worshippers, demon-worshippers,印度教,引用莫尼爾威廉姆斯, “已提供的東西是適用於所有心中。它的力量在於它的無限適應性的無限多樣性的人類角色和人權的傾向。據其高度抽象的精神和一方適合於形而上學philosopher151its實際和具體的一方適合的人事務和人的世界的審美和禮儀方面適合該名男子的詩的感覺和想像力,其靜態和沉思一邊適合該名男子的和平與情人隱居。奈,它擁有了右手的兄弟情誼,以自然崇拜者,妖魔,祈禱,

animal-worshippers, tree-worshippers, fetish-worshippers.動物崇拜者,綠樹環繞的信徒,迷信,朝拜。 It does not scruple to permit the most grotesque forms of idolatry, and the most degrading varieties of superstition.它沒有顧忌,允許的最荒唐形式的偶像崇拜,最有辱人格的品種的迷信。 And it is to this latter fact that yet another remarkable peculiarity of Hinduism is mainly due-namely, that in no other system in the world is the chasm more vast which separates the religion of the higher, cultured, and thoughtful classes from that of the lower, uncultured, and unthinking masses" (Brahmanism and Hinduism, 1891, p. 11). Hinduism is thus a national, not a world religion, it has never made any serious effort to proselytize in countries outside of India. The occasional visits of Brahmins to countries of Europe and America, and their lectures on religious metaphysics are not to be mistaken for genuine missionary enterprises. Not to speak of its grosser phases, Hinduism, even in its highest form known as Brahminism, could not take root and flourish in countries where the caste system and the intricate network of social and domestic customs it implies do not prevail. Nor has Hinduism exercised any notable influence on European thought and culture. The pessimism of Schopenhauer and his school is indeed very like the pessimism of Buddhism and of the Vedanta system of philosophy, and seems to have been derived from one of these sources. But apart from this unimportant line of modern speculation, and from the abortive theosophic movement of more recent times, one finds no trace of Hindu influence on Western civilization. We have nothing to learn from India that makes for higher culture. On the other hand, India has much of value to learn from Christian civilization.這是這一事實,後者的又一顯著特點印度教的主要原因是,即在沒有其他系統在世界上是更巨大的鴻溝分隔的宗教較高,培養和周到的階層,在較低,落後的,人民群眾和輕率“ (婆羅門教和印度教, 1891年,第11頁) 。印度教因此是一個國家,不是一個世界宗教,它從來沒有取得任何認真的努力,以宗教信仰的國家以外的印度。偶爾訪問婆羅門到歐洲國家和美國,他們的講課對宗教的形而上學不能被誤認為是真正的傳教企業。不說話的大階段,印度教,甚至在其最高形式稱為Brahminism ,不能生根和蓬勃發展國家的種姓制度和錯綜複雜的網絡社會和國內海關這意味著不佔上風。印度教也沒有行使過任何顯著的影響,歐洲的思想和文化。的悲觀主義叔本華和他的學校的確是非常喜歡悲觀的佛教和韋丹塔系統的哲學,似乎已經從其中的一個來源。但是,除了這不重要線的現代投機,並從流產theosophic運動更近時代,一個沒有發現任何痕跡的印度教影響西方文明。我們沒有什麼可借鑒印度,使更高的文化。另一方面,印度有很大的價值,了解基督教文明。

According to the census of 1901, the total population of India is a little more than 294,000,000 souls, of which 207,000,000 are adherents of Hinduism.根據1901年人口普查,總人口的印度是一個多294000000的靈魂,其中二○七○○○○○○頃印度教信徒。 The provinces in which they are most numerous are Assam, Bengal, Bombay, Berrar, Madras, Agra, and Oudh, and the Central Provinces.各省,他們在最有無數的阿薩姆,孟加拉,孟買, Berrar ,馬德拉斯,阿格拉,和Oudh ,中央省。 Of foreign religions, Mohammedanism has, by dint of long domination, made the deepest impression on the natives, numbering in India today nearly 62,500,000 adherents.外國宗教, Mohammedanism了,憑藉長期統治,使印象最深的本地人,編號今天在印度近六千二百五十○點〇萬追隨者。 Christianity, considering the length of time it has been operative in India, has converted but an insignificant fraction of the people from Hinduism.基督教,考慮的時間長度已經執行在印度,已經轉換,但一個微不足道的小部分人來自印度教。 The Christians of all sects, foreign officials included, number but 2,664,000, nearly one-half being Catholics.基督徒的所有教派,外國官員在內,但人數266.4萬,將近一半是天主教徒。

It was not till towards the end of the eighteenth century that Europeans-excepting Father de Nobili and a few other early missionaries-acquired any knowledge of Sanskrit and allied tongues in which the sacred literature of India was preserved.這不是到年底的18世紀,歐洲人,除了父親的諾比利和其他一些早期的傳教士獲得任何知識的梵文和盟軍的舌頭在神聖的文學,印度保存。 The extensive commerce which the English developed in Bombay and other parts of India gave occasion to English scholars to make extensive studies in this new field of Oriental research.廣泛的商業英語發達國家在孟買和印度其他地區的機會給英語學者作深入研究這一新領域的東方研究。 Sir William Jones was one of the first European scholars to master Sanskrit and to give translations of Sanskrit texts.威廉爵士瓊斯是第一個歐洲學者掌握梵文,並翻譯梵文文本。 He translated in 1789 one of Kalidasa's classic dramas, the "Sakuntalã", and in 1794 published a translation of the "Ordinances of Manu".他在1789年翻譯之一迦利大薩的經典電視劇的“ Sakuntalã ” ,並在1794年出版了一本翻譯的“條例的馬努” 。 He founded, in 1784, the Royal Asiatic Society, destined to prove a powerful means of diffusing the knowledge of Indian literature and institutions.他創立,在1784年,皇家亞洲學會,注定要成為一個強有力的手段傳播的知識,印度文學和機構。 An able, but less famous, contemporary was the Portuguese missionary, Father Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomeo, to whom belongs the honour of composing the first European grammar of the Sanskrit tongue, published at Rome in 1790.一個可以,但不到聞名,當代是葡萄牙傳教士,神父Paulinus 1 Sancto Bartholomeo ,向誰屬於榮幸地撰寫歐洲第一個語法的梵文母語,在羅馬發表在1790年。 The first important study of Indian literature and rites was made by Henry T. Colebrooke.第一個重要研究印度文學和儀式是由亨利噸Colebrooke 。 His "Miscellaneous Essays on the Sacred Writings and Religion of the Hindus", first published in 1805, became a classic in this new field of research.他的“雜論寫作的神聖和宗教的教徒” ,首先發表在1805年,成為一個典型的在這個新的研究領域。 The collection was reedited in 1873 by Professor EB Cowell, and is still a work of great value to the student of Hinduism.收集是reedited於1873年由電子束教授偶像,並仍然是一個工作具有極大的價值,以學生的印度教。 Other distinguished scholars of England who contributed to the knowledge of Brahminism and Hinduism were Horace H.其他著名學者英格蘭誰貢獻的知識Brahminism和印度教閣下是賀拉斯 Wilson, author of a Sanskrit dictionary and of a translation of the Vishnu Purana (1840) and other Hindu texts; John Muir, author of the great work "Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India, their Religions and Institutions" (5 vols., London, 1858-70), and Sir Monier Williams, whose work "Brahmanism and Hinduism, Religious Thought and Life in India" (4th ed., London, 1891), is a masterly exposition of Hinduism.威爾遜,作者梵文字典和翻譯的毗濕奴Purana ( 1840年)和其他印度教文本;約翰繆爾的作者,偉大的作品“文本原件梵文的由來和歷史的印度人民,他們的宗教和機構“ ( 5卷。 ,倫敦, 1858年至1870年)和主席先生莫尼爾威廉姆斯,他們的工作”婆羅門教和印度教,宗教思想和生活在印度“ (第4版。 ,倫敦, 1891年) ,是一個巧妙地闡述了印度教。 With these may be associated Professor Max Müller, though whose exertions the most important sacred texts of India as well as of other Oriental lands have been made accessible to English readers in the well-known collection, "The Sacred Books of the East".有了這些可能是教授繆勒,但其exertions最重要的經文,印度以及其他東方的土地已進入英文讀者在眾所周知的收集, “神聖的書籍東” 。 In America Professor William D. Whitney made valuable contributions to the understanding of the Atharva Veda and other Brahmin texts.在美國教授威廉惠特尼作出寶貴貢獻的理解阿闥婆吠陀和其他婆羅門文本。 His labours have been ably supplemented by the studies of Professors CR Lanman, M. Bloomfield, and EW Hopkins.他的辛勤勞動已幹練輔之以教授的研究責任巴里蘭曼,布盧姆菲爾德先生,以及電子戰霍普金斯。 The contributions of Continental scholars to the knowledge of the literature and religions of India are of the very greatest importance.捐款大陸學者的知識,文學和宗教的印度是非常最重要的。 The distinguished Orientalist Eugène Burnouf, in the midst of his studies on Buddhism and Zoroastrianism, found time to translate in part the "Bhagavata Purana" (Paris, 1840).尊敬的東方歐仁比爾努夫,正處於他的研究佛教和拜火教,發現的時間把部分“ Bhagavata Purana ” (巴黎, 1840年) 。 R. Roth and F. Kuhn made valuable studies on the early Vedic texts, while Chr.河羅斯和F.庫恩提出了寶貴的研究早期吠陀文,而染色體。 Lassen produced his "Indische Alterthumskunde" in four volumes (Bonn, 1844-61), a monument of erudition.拉森生產他的“ Indische Alterthumskunde ”的4卷(波恩, 1844年至1861年) ,碑的學問。 A. Weber, among other works in this field, published a "History of Indian Literature" (English translation, London, 1892).韋伯,除其他作品在這方面,出版了一本“歷史的印度文學” (英文譯本,倫敦, 1892年) 。 Eminent modern Indianists are A. Barth, author of the excellent "Religions of India" (London, 1882), H. Oldenberg, and G. Bühler, whose valuable translations of sacred texts may be found in the "Sacred Books of the East".知名人士現代Indianists是字母a.巴特,作者極好的“印度宗教” (倫敦, 1882年) ,閣下奧爾登貝格,和G.比勒,其寶貴的翻譯經文可能會發現在“聖書東” 。 Among those who have made valuable contributions to the study of Hinduism are a number of Catholic priests.在這些誰作出了寶貴的貢獻,研究印度教的一些天主教神父。 Besides Father Paulinus, already mentioned, are the Abbé Roussel, who was chosen to assist in completing the translation of the voluminous "Bhagavata Purana", begun by Burnouf, and who has besides published interesting studies on Hinduism; the Abbé Dubois, who published a masterly exposition of Modern Hinduism under the title "Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies" (Oxford, 1897); and Father J. Dahlmann, SJ Finally, it is but fair to note that considerable excellent work is being done by native Hindu scholars in translating and interpreting sacred Hindu texts.除了父親Paulinus ,已經提到的,是神甫羅素,誰被選為協助完成翻譯的長篇“ Bhagavata Purana ” ,開始比爾努夫,誰發表了除了有趣的研究印度教的神甫杜波依斯,誰出版了一本巧妙地闡述了現代印度教,題目是“印度教的禮節,習俗和儀式” (牛津, 1897年) ;和父親學者Dahlmann ,律政司司長最後,但公平地注意到,相當出色的工作正在由本地印度教學者翻譯和解釋神聖的印度教文本。 One of the most diligent is Nath Dutt, author of the following works: "The Mahabharata, Translated Literally from the Sanskrit Text", Parts I-XI (Calcutta, 1895-99); "The Bhagavadgita" (Calcutta, 1893); "The Vishnu Purana Translated into English Prose" (Calcutta, 1896).其中最勤奮的是納特達特的作者,下列作品: “在摩訶婆羅多,從字面翻譯梵文文本” ,第一至第十一章(加爾各答, 1895年至1899年) ; “的Bhagavadgita ” (加爾各答, 1893年) ; “在毗濕奴Purana翻譯成英文散文“ (加爾各答, 1896年) 。 FB Pargiter has translated into English the "Markandeya Purana", Fasc.全Pargiter已翻譯成英文的“ Markandeya Purana ”汽車運動聯合會。 i-vi (Calcutta, 1888-99), and EPC Roy, besides giving an English translation of the Mahabharata (Calcutta. 1883-96), has published the "Sree Krishna" (Calcutta, 1901).第一至六(加爾各答, 1888年至1899年) ,和EPC羅伊,除了提供英文譯本的摩訶婆羅多( Calcutta. 1883年至1896年) ,出版了“ Sree克里希納” (加爾各答, 1901年) 。 M. Battacharya has published an interesting work entitled "Hindu Castes and Sects" (Calcutta, 1896). Battacharya先生出版了一個有趣的工作,題為“印度教種姓和教派” (加爾各答, 1896年) 。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯鄧巴艾肯。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年6月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

Ann.安。 du Musée Guimet (Paris, 1885); HOPKINS, The Grand Epic of India, its Character and Origin (New York, 1901); India Old and New (New York, 1901); Religions of India (Boston, 1895); MITCHELL, The Great Religions of india (New York, 1906); WILLIAMS, Hinduism (New York, 1897); DAHLMANN, Das Mahabharata als Epos und Rechtsbuch (Berlin, 1895); IDEM, Genesis des Mahabharata (Berlin, 1899); ROUSSEL, Légendes morales de l'Inde empruntées au Bhagavata Purana et au Mahabharata (2 vols., Paris, 1900-01); IDEM, Cosmologie hindoue d'après le Bhagavata Purana (Paris, 1898); DE TASSY, Histoire de la littérature hindoue et hindoustanie (3 vols., Paris, 1870-71); WILKINS, Modern Hinduism (2nd ed., London, 1887); COLINET, Les Doctrines philosophiques et religieuses de La Bhagavadgita (Paris, 1884).杜吉梅博物館(巴黎, 1885年) ;霍普金斯,大史詩的印度,其特徵及成因(紐約, 1901年) ;印度舊與新(紐約, 1901年) ;宗教印度(波士頓, 1895年) ;米切爾偉大的宗教,印度(紐約, 1906年) ;威廉姆斯,印度教(紐約, 1897年) ; DAHLMANN ,達斯作為史詩摩訶婆羅多與Rechtsbuch (柏林, 1895年) ;同上,成因之摩訶婆羅多(柏林, 1899年) ;羅素, Légendes莫拉萊斯法國獨立empruntées太子港Bhagavata Purana等太子港摩訶婆羅多( 2第一卷和第二卷。 ,巴黎, 1900年至1901年) ;同上, Cosmologie hindoue德apr鑣樂Bhagavata Purana (巴黎, 1898年) ;德國TASSY ,史文學hindoue等hindoustanie ( 3卷。 ,巴黎, 1870年至1871年) ;威爾金斯,現代印度教(第二版。 ,倫敦, 1887年) ; COLINET ,哲學之道等宗教德拉薩Bhagavadgita (巴黎, 1884年) 。


Brahminism

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

By Brahminism is meant the complex religion and social system which grew out of the polytheistic nature-worship of the ancient Aryan conquerors of northern India, and came, with the spread of their dominion, to be extended over the whole country, maintaining itself, not without profound modifications, down to the present day.由Brahminism的目的是複雜的宗教和社會制度源自多神教性質崇拜的古代雅利安人征服印度北部,並來了,與他們傳播的統治,將擴大對整個國家,維護本身,而不是沒有深刻的修改,下降到目前的一天。 In its intricate modern phases it is generally known as Hinduism.在錯綜複雜的現代階段通常被稱為印度教。

I. BRAHMIN TEXTS一,婆羅門文本

Our knowledge of Brahminism in its earlier stages is derived from its primitive sacred books, originally oral compositions, belonging to the period between 1500-400 BC我們的知識Brahminism在其早期階段是來自它的原始的神聖的書籍,原來口頭成分,屬於期間公元前1500-400

First of all, there are four Vedas (veda means wisdom) dating from 1500 to 800 BC, and consisting首先,有四個吠陀(吠陀是指智慧)自1500年至800年,並組成

of a collection of ancient hymns (riks),the so-called Rig-Veda, in praise of the many gods;收藏古代讚美詩( riks ) ,所謂的鑽機,吠陀,在讚美的許多神;

of the Sama-veda, compiled from parts of the Rig-Veda as a song-service for the soma-sacrifice;在薩馬吠陀,彙編部分鑽機,吠陀的一首歌服務的軀體,犧牲;

of the Yajur-Veda, a liturgy composed partly of ancient hymns and partly of other prayers and benedictions to be used in the various forms of sacrifice;在雅育爾,吠陀,一個組成部分禮儀古老的讚美詩和部分其他祈禱和benedictions可用於各種形式的犧牲;

and of the Atharva-Veda, a collection of popular exorcisms and magical incantations largely inherited from primitive Aryan days.和阿闥婆吠陀,收集流行exorcisms和神奇的咒語基本上繼承了原始的雅利安人天。

Next in order are the Brahmanas (about 1000-600 BC).為了下一步的Brahmanas (約公元前1000-600 ) 。 They are a series of verbose and miscellaneous explanations of the texts, rites, and customs found in each of the four Vedas, composed expressly for the use of the Brahmins, or priests.他們的一系列詳細的解釋和雜項的案文,禮儀,海關發現在每一個四吠陀組成,明確使用的婆羅門,或祭司。 They are followed (800-500 BC) by the so-called Upanishads, concerned chiefly with pantheistic speculations on the nature of deity and the end of man; and lastly, by the Sutras (600-400 BC), which are compendious guides to the proper observance of the rites and customs.他們是遵循( 800-500年)由所謂的Upanishads ,主要關注與pantheistic猜測的性質,神和人結束;最後,由經( 600-400年) ,這是簡明指南適當的慶祝儀式和習俗。 The most important are the Grhya-Sutras, or house-guides, treating of domestic rites, and the Dharma-sutras, or law-guides, which were manuals of religious and social customs.最重要的是Grhya ,經,或房子指南,家庭治療儀,以及佛法,佛經,或法律指南,這是手冊的宗教和社會習俗。 Being meant for layman as well as priest, they reflect the popular, practical side of Brahminism, whereas the Brahmanas and Upanishads show us the religion on its priestly, speculative side.正在意味著門外漢,以及神職人員,他們反映了受歡迎的,切實可行的一側Brahminism ,而Brahmanas和Upanishads向我們展示其宗教祭司,投機一方。 Closely related to the law-guides is the justly famed metrical treatise, Manava-Dharma-Sastra, known in English as the Laws of Manu.密切相關的法律指南是著名的韻律公正論文,摩納婆,達摩,文學,英語已知的規律馬努。 It belongs probably to the fifth century BC These, together with the two sacred epics of a later age, the "Ramayana," and the "Mahabharata," embrace what is most important in sacred Brahmin literature.它屬於可能對公元前五世紀,這些,連同這兩個神聖的史詩以後的年齡, “羅摩衍那”和“摩訶婆羅多” ,擁抱是最重要的神聖的婆羅門文獻。

II.二。 EARLY BRAHMINISM OR VEDISM早期BRAHMINISM或VEDISM

The religion of the Vedic period proper was comparatively simple.該宗教期間適當吠陀是相對簡單。 It consisted in the worship of many deities, great and small, the personified forces of nature.它包括在崇拜許多神,偉大的小國,人格化的自然力量。 Prominent among these were其中最突出的是

Varuna, the all-embracing heaven, maker and lord of all things and upholder of the moral law;伐樓拿的包羅一切的天堂,製造商和貴族的一切事物和維護者的道德法律;

the sun-god, variously known as太陽神,各種被稱為

Surya, the enemy of darkness and bringer of blessings; as蘇里亞,敵人的黑暗和bringer的祝福;作為

Pushan the nourisher;普的nourisher ;

Mitra, the omniscient friends of the good, and the avenger of deceit; as米特拉的無所不知的朋友好,和復仇者的欺騙;作為

Savitar the enlightener, arousing men to daily activity, and as Vishnu, said to have measured the earth in three great strides and Savitar的啟蒙,激發官兵日常活動,並作為毗濕奴,據說測量地球的三個很大的進步和

to have given the rich pastures to mortals;有鑑於牧場,以豐富的凡人;

the god of the air, Indra, like Mars, also, the mighty god of war, who set free from the cloud-serpent Ahi (or Vritra), the quickening rain; Rudra, later known as Siva, the blessed one, the god of the destructive thunderstorm, an object of dread to evil-doers, but a friend to the good; Agni, the fire-god, the friend and benefactor of man, dwelling on their hearths, and bearing to the gods their prayers and sacrificial offerings; Soma, the god of that mysterious plant whose inebriating juice was so dear to the gods and to man, warding off disease, imparting strength and securing immortality.神空氣,英德,像火星,同時,強大的神的戰爭,誰擺脫了雲鷲阿伊(或Vritra ) ,加快雨;樓陀羅,後來被稱為濕婆,神聖的,神破壞性的暴風雨,一個物體的恐懼,以邪惡的事,但一位朋友的良好;烈火,火勢神的朋友和恩人的男子,在其住宅壁爐,同時向神祈禱和祭祀服務;索瑪,神的神秘植物,其inebriating汁是如此親愛的神和人,抵擋疾病,傳授實力和確保不死。

There were no temples in this early period.目前還沒有在這個寺廟初期。 On a small mound of earth or of stones the offering was made to the gods, often by the head of the family, but in the more important and complicated sacrifices by the priest, or Brahmin, in union with the householder.在塿土或石塊提供了神,常常是由一家之主,但在更為重要和複雜的犧牲牧師,或婆羅門,在聯盟範圍內的住戶。 The object of every sacrifice was to supply strengthening food to the gods and to secure blessings in return.該物體的每一個犧牲是要加強糧食供應的神,並確保祝福的回報。 Human victims, though rare, were not wholly unknown, but animal victims were at this period in daily use.人權的受害者,雖然很少,並沒有完全未知的,但動物受害者都是在此期間,在日常生活中使用。 First in importance was the horse, then the ox or cow, the sheep, and the goat.一是在重要的是馬,然後牛或牛,羊和山羊。 Offerings of clarified butter, rice, wheat, and other kinds of grain were also very common.產品的澄清奶油,大米,小麥,和其他種類的糧食也很常見。 But dearer to the gods than any of these gifts, and rivaling the horse-sacrifice in solemnity, was the offering of the inebriating juice of the Soma-plant, the so-called Soma-sacrifice.但是,昂貴的神比任何禮物,和馬相媲美,在莊嚴的犧牲,是提供的inebriating汁的索瑪廠,所謂的索瑪犧牲。 Hymns of praise and petitions, chiefly for the good things of life, children, health, wealth, and success in undertakings, accompanied these sacrificial offerings.讚美詩讚美和請願,主要是對美好事物的生命,兒童,健康,財富和成功的事業,伴隨著這些犧牲的產品。 But the higher needs of the soul were not forgotten.但是,更高的需求,靈魂沒有被遺忘。 In hymns of Varuna, Mitra, and the other gods there are striking texts expressing a sense of guilt and asking for forgiveness.在讚美詩的伐樓拿,米特拉,和其他神有驚人的案文表示了罪惡感,並請求原諒。 At a time when the earlier Hebrew scriptures were silent as to the rewards and punishments awaiting man in the future life, we find the ancient rik-bards giving repeated expression to their belief in a heaven of endless bliss for the just, and in an abyss of darkness for the wicked.在這個時候早期希伯來經文是沉默的獎懲等待男子在今後的生活,我們發現古里克,管理層出局讓一再表達自己的信仰在無休止的天堂幸福的公正,並在深淵黑暗的邪惡。

Devotion to the Pitris (Fathers), or dead relatives, was also a prominent element in their religion.奉獻Pitris (父親) ,或死亡的親屬,這也是一個突出的元素在他們的宗教活動。 Although the Pitris mounted to the heavenly abode of bliss, their happiness was not altogether independent of the acts of devotion shown them by the living.雖然Pitris安裝在天上居留權的幸福,他們的幸福是不是完全獨立的行為表現出的奉獻他們的生活水平。 It could be greatly increased by offerings of Soma, rice, and water; for like the gods they were thought to have bodies of air-like texture, and to enjoy the subtile essence of food.它可以大大增加了產品的索瑪,大米和水;的神明一樣,他們被認為已機構的空氣一樣的紋理,並享有微妙的本質食物。 Hence, the surviving children felt it a sacred duty to make feast-offerings, called Sraddhas, at stated times to their departed Pitris.因此,倖存的兒童感受到它的神聖職責,使宴席,產品,所謂Sraddhas ,在規定的時間離開Pitris 。 In return for these acts of filial piety, the grateful Pitris protected them from harm and promoted their welfare.以換取這些行為孝道的感謝Pitris保護他們不受傷害,並促進他們的福利。 Lower forms of nature-worship also obtained.下形式的性質崇拜還獲得。 The cow was held in reverence.奶牛是在崇敬。 Worship was given to trees and serpents.崇拜給樹木和蛇。 Formulae abounded for healing the diseased, driving off demons, and averting evil omens. abounded公式為醫治病,驅趕惡魔,並避免邪惡的預兆。 Witchcraft was dreaded, and recourse to ordeals was common for the detection of guilt.是可怕的巫術,並訴諸於共同的磨難是為檢測有罪。

III.三。 POPULAR BRAHMINISM深受歡迎的BRAHMINISM

In the period that saw the production of the Brahmanas and the Upanishads, the Vedic religion underwent a twofold change.在這段時間看到了生產Brahmanas和Upanishads的吠陀宗教進行了兩方面的變化。 On the practical side there was an exuberant growth of religious rites and of social restrictions and duties, while on the theoretical side, Vedic belief in the efficacy of personal deities was subordinated to a pantheistic scheme of salvation.在實際方面有旺盛的增長宗教儀式和社會的限制和義務,而在理論方面,吠陀信仰的療效個人神是服從於pantheistic拯救計劃。 Thus the earlier religion developed on the one hand into popular, exoteric Brahminism, and on the other hand into priestly, esoteric Brahminism.因此,發達國家較早宗教一方面到流行,開放Brahminism ,另一方面到祭司,深奧Brahminism 。 The former is reflected in the Brahmanas and the Sutras; the latter in the Upanishads.前者是反映在Brahmanas和經,後者在Upanishads 。

The transformation to popular Brahminism was largely due to the influence of the Brahmins, or priests.改造流行Brahminism主要是由於影響的婆羅門,或祭司。 Owing to their excessive fondness for symbolic words and forms, the details of ritual became more and more intricate, some assuming so elaborate a character as to require the services of sixteen priests.由於過度喜愛象徵性的文字和形式,詳細的儀式變得越來越複雜,一些假設,以便制定一項性質,需要服務的16牧師。 The sacrifice partook of the nature of a sacramental rite, the due performance of which was sure to produce the desired end, and thus became an all-important center around which the visible and invisible world revolved. partook犧牲的性質的聖事禮儀,適當的表現的是一定要產生預期的目的,從而成為一個非常重要的圍繞著這些有形和無形的世界圍繞。 Hence it merited liberal fees to the officiating priests.因此,值得自由收費的主祭司。 Still it was not a mere perfunctory rite, for if performed by an unworthy priest it was accounted as both useless and sacrilegious.不過這不是一個單純敷衍成年禮,如果由一個不配神父是佔既是無用和褻瀆。 In keeping with this complicated liturgy was the multitude of prayers and rites which entered into the daily life of both priest and layman. The daily recitation of parts of the Vedas, now venerated as divine revelation, was of first importance, especially for the Brahmins.按照這一複雜的禮儀是眾多的祈禱和宗教儀式而進入日常生活的牧師和外行。每天背誦的部分吠陀,現在崇敬的神聖啟示,這是第一重要的,特別是婆羅門。 It was a sacred duty for every individual to recite, morning and evening, the Savitri, a short prayer in honor of the vivifying sun.這是一個神聖職責每一個人朗誦,早上和傍晚,在薩維特里,短期祈禱款待vivifying太陽。 A scrupulous regard for ceremonial purity, surpassing even that of the Jewish Pharisee, gave rise to an endless succession of purifactory rites, such as baths, sprinkling with water, smearing with ashes or cow-dung, sippings of water, suppressions of breath--all sacramental in character and efficacious for the remission of sin.仔細禮儀方面的純度,甚至超越了這一猶太法利賽人,引起了無休止的繼承purifactory儀式,如浴,灑了水,塗抹的骨灰或奶牛,牛糞, sippings的水,呼吸suppressions -所有聖事的性質和有效的緩解的罪孽。 There is reason to believe that the consciousness of guilt for sin committed was keen and vivid, and that in the performance of these rites, so liable to abuse, a penitential disposition of soul was largely cultivated.人們有理由相信,罪責意識的罪孽致力於渴望和生動,而且在執行這些習俗,所以容易被濫用,一個悔罪處置的靈魂主要是耕地。

In popular Brahminism of this period the idea of retribution for sin was made to embrace the most rigorous and far-reaching consequences, from which, save by timely penance, there was no escape.在流行Brahminism這一時期的思想因果報應了擁抱最嚴格的和影響深遠的後果,其中,保存及時懺悔,但沒有逃脫。 As every good action was certain of future recompense, so every evil one was destined to bear its fruit of misery in time to come.作為每一個良好的行動是對未來一定的補償,所以每一個邪惡的人注定要承擔其果實苦難的時間。 This was the doctrine of karma (action) with which the new idea of rebirth was closely connected.這是情感氛圍教義(行動)與新的想法,再生密切相關。 While the lasting bliss of heaven was still held out to the just, different fates after death were reserved for the wicked, varying, according to the nature and amount of guilt, from long periods of torture in a graded series of hells, to a more or less extensive series of rebirths in the forms of plants, animals, and men.雖然持久幸福的天堂仍舉行了公正,不同的命運後,保留死刑的邪惡,不同,根據性質和數額內疚,從長時間的酷刑分級一系列地獄,更或更少一系列廣泛的rebirths在形式的植物,動物,和男人。 From the grade to which the culprit was condemned, he had to pass by slow transition through the rest of the ascending scale till his rebirth as a man of honorable estate was attained. This doctrine gave rise to restrictive rules of conduct that bordered on the absurd.從年級的匪徒譴責,他已通過緩慢過渡其餘的規模遞增到他重生作為一個男人的光榮遺產實現。這一理論引起了限制性規定的行為接壤的荒謬。 Insects, however repulsive and noxious, might not be killed; water might not be drunk till it was first strained, lest minute forms of life be destroyed; carpentry, basket-making, working in leather, and other similar occupations were held in disrepute, because they could not be carried on without a certain loss of animal and plant life.昆蟲,但醜惡和有毒,可能不會被殺害;水可能不是喝醉了,直到第一次緊張,生怕分鐘的生命形式予以銷毀;木工,籃子決策,工作在皮革,以及其它類似的職業進行了聲譽,因為他們不能進行沒有一定損失的動物和植物的生命。 Some zealots went so far as to question the blamelessness of tilling the ground on account of the unavoidable injury done to worms and insects.一些痴迷者竟然blamelessness問題的翻耕的理由到了不可避免的傷害,以蠕蟲和昆蟲。 But on the other hand, the Brahmin ethical teaching in the legitimate sphere of right conduct is remarkably high.但另一方面,道德的婆羅門教中的合法權利範圍內的行為是非常高。 Truthfulness, obedience to parents and superiors, temperance, chastity, and almsgiving were strongly inculcated.真實性,服從家長和上級,戒酒,貞節,並施捨的強烈灌輸。 Though allowing, like other religions of antiquity, polygamy and divorce, it strongly forbade adultery and all forms of unchastity.雖然允許,像其他宗教的文物,一夫多妻制和離婚,堅決禁止通姦和一切形式的不貞。 It also reprobated suicide, abortion, perjury, slander, drunkenness, gambling, oppressive usury, and wanton cruelty to animals.它還reprobated自殺,墮胎,偽證罪,誹謗,酗酒,賭博,放高利貸的壓迫,以及肆意虐待動物。 Its Christianlike aim to soften the hard side of human nature is seen in its many lessons of mildness, charity towards the sick, feeble, and aged, and in its insistence on the duty of forgiving injuries and returning good for evil. Christianlike其目的是軟化硬一方的人性是在其許多經驗教訓的溫暖,慈善對生病,虛弱,和年齡的增長,並在其堅持的責任免除傷病和恢復良好的罪惡。 Nor did this high standard of right conduct apply simply to external acts.也沒有這個高標準的權利的行為僅僅適用於外部的行為。 The threefold division of good and bad acts into thought, words, and deeds finds frequent expression in Brahmánic teaching.在三重分工好的和壞的行為納入思想和言行經常發現表達Brahmánic教學。

Intimately bound up in the religious teaching of Brahminism was the division of society into rigidly defined castes.密切在宗教教學Brahminism是社會分工的硬性規定納入種姓。 In the earlier, Vedic period there had been class distinctions according to which the warrior class (Kshatriyas, or Rajanas) stood first in dignity and importance, next the priestly class (Brahmins), then the farmer class (Vaisyas), and last of all, the servile class of conquered natives (Sudras).在早些時候,吠陀時期出現了階級的區別,根據該戰士類( Kshatriyas ,或Rajanas )為第一次在尊嚴和重要性,今後的祭司階級(婆羅門) ,然後農民階級( Vaisyas ) ,和去年的所有的奴隸階級的征服本地人(首陀羅) 。 With the development of Brahminism, these four divisions of society became stereotyped into exclusive castes, the highest place of dignity being usurped by the Brahmins.隨著發展Brahminism ,這四個部門的社會變得定型成獨家種姓,地位最高的尊嚴被剝奪的婆羅門。 As teachers of the sacred Vedas, and as priests of the all-important sacrifices, they professed to be the very representatives of the gods and the peerage of the human race.作為教師的神聖吠陀,並為牧師的所有重要的犧牲,他們聲稱是非常代表神和貴族的人類。 No honor was too great for them, and to lay hands on them was a sacrilege.榮譽是沒有太大的事,而奠定的手對他們是一種褻瀆。 One of their chief sources of power and influence lay in their exclusive privilege to teach the youth of the three upper castes, for education then consisted largely in the acquisition of Vedic lore, which only priests could teach.他們的一個主要來源的權力和影響力在於其獨有特權教的青年三個上等種姓,教育然後基本上在獲取吠陀知識,這不僅可以教司鐸。 Thus the three upper castes alone had the right to know the Vedas and to take part in the sacrifices, and Brahminism, far from being a religion open to all, was exclusively a privilege of birth, from which the despised caste of Sudras was excluded.因此,這三個上等種姓就有有權知道吠陀,並參加了犧牲, Brahminism ,遠遠不是一個宗教向所有人開放,完全是一種特權的出生,來自該鄙視種姓的首陀羅被排除在外。

The rite of initiation into Brahminism was conferred on male children only, when they began their studies under a Brahmin teacher, which took place generally in the eighth year of the Brahmin, and in the eleventh and twelfth years for the Kshatriya and the Vaisya respectively.在儀式開始到Brahminism被授予對男性兒童只,當他們開始研究,根據婆羅門的教師,這一般發生在第八個年頭的婆羅門,並在第十一屆和第十二屆年的剎帝利和Vaisya分別。 It consisted in the investiture of the sacred cord, a string of white cotton yarn tired together at the ends, and worn like a deacon's stole, suspended on the left shoulder.它包括在investiture的神聖線,一連串的白色棉紗疲憊的共同目標,像一個破舊執事的偷走了,暫停的左肩。 The investiture was a sort of sacrament in virtue of which the youth was freed from guilt contracted from his parents and became Dvi-ja, twice-born, with the right to learn the sacred Vedic texts and to take part in the sacrifices.該investiture是一種美德聖禮在該青年是擺脫負罪感合同由他的父母,並成為的DVI子,兩次出生的,有權了解神聖的吠陀文本和參加的犧牲。 The period of studentship was not long for members of the warrior and farmer castes, but for the young Brahmin, who had to learn all the Vedas by heart, it consumed nine years or more.這一時期的獎學金是不長的成員戰士和農民階級,但對年輕的婆羅門,誰必須學會所有的吠陀的心臟,它消耗的9年或更長時間。 During this period, the student was subjected to severe moral discipline. He had to rise before the sun, and was not allow to recline until after sunset. He was denied rich and dainty foods, and what he ate at his two daily meals he had to beg.在此期間,學生受到嚴重的道德紀律。他不得不引起的太陽面前,並沒有允許躺,直到日落之後。否認他是富國和可口的食物,以及吃什麼,他在他的兩個每日三餐,他乞討的。 He was expected to observe the strictest chastity.他預計將嚴格遵守貞操。 He was bound to avoid music, dancing, gambling, falsehood, disrespect to superiors and to the aged, covetousness, anger, and injury to animals.他的約束,以避免音樂,舞蹈,賭博,假話,不尊重上級和年齡的增長,貪婪,憤怒和傷害動物。

Marriage was held to be a religious duty for every twice-born.婚姻是要舉行的一項宗教責任,每兩次出生。 It was generally entered upon early in life, not long after the completion of the time of studentship.人們普遍呼籲早日進入生活,而不是長期工作完成後的時間獎學金。 Like the initiation rite, it was a solemn sacramental ceremony.像啟動儀式,這是一個莊嚴的聖禮儀式。 It was an imperative law that the bride and groom should be of the same caste in the principal marriage; for, as polygamy was tolerated, a man might take one or more secondary wives from the lower castes.這是一個勢在必行的法律,新娘和新郎應該是同一等級的主要婚姻; ,因為一夫多妻制是不能容忍的,一個人可能採取的一個或多個次要的妻子從低種姓。 For certain grave reasons, the household might repudiate his wife and marry another, but a wife on her part had no corresponding right of divorce.對於某些嚴重的原因,家庭可能會否定他的妻子和另一結婚,但她的妻子是沒有相應的權利離婚。 If her husband died, she was expected to remain for the rest of her life in chaste widowhood, if she would be honored on earth, and happy with him in heaven.如果她的丈夫去世,她預計將保持對其餘的生活在她的純潔守寡,如果她將榮幸在地球上,並樂意與他在天堂。 The later Hindu practice known as the Suttee, in which the bereaved wife threw herself on the funeral pyre of her husband, seems at this period to have been unknown.後來印度教的做法被稱為自焚,其中死者的妻子把自己的葬禮遺骨她的丈夫,似乎在此期間,已下落不明。 All knowledge of the Vedic texts was withheld from woman, but she had the right to participate with her husband in the sacrifices performed for him by some officiating priest.所有的知識是吠陀文,由婦女,但她有權參加與丈夫的犧牲對他進行一些主牧師。 One important sacrifice remained in his own hands--the morning and evening offering of hot milk, butter, and grain to the fire on the hearth, which was sacred to Agni, and was kept always burning.一個重要的犧牲留在自己手中-早上和晚上提供的熱牛奶,黃油,糧食火的壁爐,這是神聖的烈火,並始終保持燃燒。

A strong tendency to asceticism asserted itself in the Brahminism of this period.一個強有力的禁慾主義傾向,聲稱自己在Brahminism這一時期。 It found expression in the fasts preceding the great sacrifices, in the severe penances prescribed for various kinds of sin, in the austere life exacted of the student, in the conjugal abstinence to be observed for the first three days following marriage and on certain specified days of the month, but, above all, in the rigorous life of retirement and privation to which not a few devoted their declining years.它體現在齋戒前的巨大犧牲,在明嚴重penances各種罪惡,在簡樸的生活造成的學生,在夫妻禁慾必須遵守的頭三天後結婚,並於某些特定的天本月底,但最重要的是,在嚴格的退休生活和匱乏而不是少數幾個專門的暮年。 An ever increasing number of householders, chiefly Brahmins, when their sons had grown to man's estate, abandoned their homes and spent the rest of their lives as ascetics, living apart from the villages in rude huts, or under the shelter of trees, eating only the simplest kinds of food, which they obtained by begging, and subjecting themselves to extraordinary fasts and mortifications.越來越多的住戶,主要是婆羅門,當他們的兒子已成長為男人的財產,被遺棄的家園,並度過了其餘的修行生活,分開居住的村莊粗魯的小屋,或根據住房的樹木,只吃最簡單的食物,因為他們得到了乞討,並置於自己非凡的齋戒和mortifications 。 They were known as Sannyasis, or Yogis, and their severity of life was not so much a penitential life for past offenses as a means of acquiring abundant religious merits and superhuman powers.他們被稱為Sannyasis ,或Yogis ,其嚴重的生活是不是一個悔罪的生活過去的犯罪行為作為一種手段獲取豐富的宗教的優點和超人的權力。 Coupled with these mortifications was the practice of Yogi (union).加上這些mortifications的做法瑜珈(工會) 。 They would sit motionless with legs crossed, and, fixing their gaze intently on an object before them, would concentrate their thought on some abstract subject until they lapsed into a trance.他們將與一動不動地坐在雙腿交叉,並限定他們密切注視的對象面前,將思想集中在一些抽象的主題,直到他們陷入了恍惚。 In this state they fancied they were united with the deity, and the fruit of these contemplations was the pantheistic view of religion which found expression in the Upanishads, and left a permanent impress on the Brahmin mind.在這種狀態,他們以為他們是聯合國與神,與這些水果contemplations是pantheistic宗教觀這表現在Upanishads ,並留下了一個永久留下深刻印象的婆羅門銘記。

IV.四。 PANTHEISTIC BRAHMINISM PANTHEISTIC BRAHMINISM

The marked monotheistic tendency in the later Vedic hymns had made itself more and more keenly felt in the higher Brahmin circles till it gave rise to a new deity, a creation of Brahmin priests.一神教的顯著趨勢後吠陀聖歌本身取得了越來越多的敏銳地感覺到在較高婆羅門界直到它引起了一個新的神,一個創造婆羅門祭司。 This was Prabjapati, lord of creatures, omnipotent and supreme, later known as Brahmá, the personal creator of all things.這是Prabjapati ,領主的動物,全能和最高,後來被稱為布拉馬,個人創造的所有東西。 But in thus looking up to a supreme lord and creator, they were far removed from Christian monotheism.但是,在這樣尋找到最高領主和創作者,他們遠離基督教一神論。 The gods of the ancient pantheon were not repudiated, but were worshipped still as the various manifestations of Brahmá. It was an axiom then, as it has been ever since with the Hindu mind, that creation out of nothing is impossible.神古老的萬神殿並沒有否定,但仍然崇拜的各種形式的浪。這是一種公理然後,因為它一直以來都與印度教認為,這創造了什麼是不可能的。 Another Brahmin principle is that every form of conscious individuality, whether human or Divine, implies a union of spirit and matter.另一位婆羅門的原則是,一切形式的意識的個性,無論是人或神,意味著工會的精神和事項。 And so, outside the small school of thinkers who held matter to be eternal, those who stood for the supreme personal god explained the world of visible things and invisible gods as the emanations of Brahmá.因此,內外的小學校舉行的思想家誰的問題是永恆的,這些誰主張個人的最高神解釋世界的有形和無形的東西作為神的布拉馬emanations 。 They arrived at a personal pantheism.他們達成了一項個人泛神論。 But speculation did not end here.但投機並沒有到此為止。 To the prevailing school of dreamy Brahmin ascetics, whose teachings are found in the Upanishads, the ultimate source of all things was not the personal Brahmá, but the formless, characterless, unconscious spirit known at Atman (self), or, more commonly Brahmâ.當前學校的夢幻般的婆羅門修行,其教義是中發現Upanishads ,最終的來源,所有的事情不是個人梵天,但無形的, characterless ,不省人事精神知道阿特曼(自我) ,或者,更常見的浪。 (Brahmâ is neuter, whereas Brahmá, personal god, is masculine.) The heavens and the earth, men and gods, even the personal deity, Brahmá, were but transitory emanations of Brahmâ, destined in time to lose their individuality and be absorbed into the great, all-pervading, impersonal spirit. (梵天是中性的,而梵天,個人神,是男性。 )的天地,男人和神,即使是個人的神,梵天,只是短暫的布拉馬emanations ,注定在時間失去其個性和被吸收進偉大的,所有普遍,客觀的精神。 The manifold external world thus had no real existence.多方面的外部世界因此並沒有真正存在。 It was Maya, illusion.這是瑪雅人,幻想。 Brahmâ alone existed.梵天單獨存在。 It alone was eternal, imperishable.這僅是永恆的,不朽的。

This impersonal pantheism of the Brahmin ascetics led to a new conception of the end of man and of the way of salvation.這客觀泛神論的婆羅門修行導致了一個新的概念,結束男子和救贖的方式。 The old way was to escape rebirths and their attendant misery by storing up merits of good deeds so as to obtain an eternal life of conscious bliss in heaven.舊的辦法是逃避rebirths和隨之而來的痛苦的存儲優點好事,以獲得一個永恆的生命意識的幸福天堂。 This was a mistake.這是一個錯誤。 For so long as man was ignorant of his identity with Brahmá and did not see that his true end consisted in being absorbed into the impersonal all-god from which he sprang; so long as he set his heart on a merely personal existence, no amount of good works would secure his freedom from rebirth.只要人不知道他的身份與布拉馬並沒有看到他的真實目的包括在被吸收到非人格化的所有神從他興起; ,只要他確定他的心臟就只是個人的存在,再多良好的工程將確保他免受重生。 By virtue of his good deeds he would, indeed, mount to heaven, perhaps win a place among the gods.由於他的善行,他將實際上,天堂山,也許贏得一個地方的神。 but after a while his store of merits would give out like oil in a lamp, and he would have to return once more to life to taste in a new birth the bitterness of earthly existence.但一段時間後,他的商店優點將給像石油一盞燈,他將不得不再次返回到生活品位的一個新誕生的痛苦人間的存在。 The only way to escape this misery was through the saving recognition of one's identity with Brahmâ.唯一的辦法,以擺脫這種痛苦是通過節能承認一個人的身份與布拉馬。 As so as one could say from conviction, "I am Brahmâ," the bonds were broken that held him fast to the illusion of personal immortality and consequently to rebirth.正如作為一個可以說從信念, “我梵天, ”債券被打破了他的快速幻想的個人不死,因此對新生。 Thus, cultivating, by a mortified life, freedom form all desires, man spent his years in peaceful contemplation till death put an end to the seeming duality and he was absorbed in Brahmâ like a raindrop in the ocean.因此,培養,由屈辱的生命,自由形式的所有慾望,男子度過了多年的和平沉思直至死亡結束了似乎兩重性,他沉浸在梵天像雨滴在海洋中。

V. EARLY HINDUISM五,早期印度教

The pantheistic scheme of salvation just described, generally known as the Vedanta teaching, found great favor with the Brahmins and has been maintained as orthodox Brahmin doctrine down to the present day.該計劃pantheistic拯救剛才所說的,一般稱為韋丹塔教學,非常有利於發現與婆羅門並一直保持正統的婆羅門學說下跌到今天。 But it made little progress outside the Brahmin caste.但進展甚微以外的婆羅門種姓。 The mass of the people had little interest in an impersonal Brahmâ who was incapable of hearing their prayers, nor had they any relish for a final end which meant the loss forever of conscious existence.大規模的人民沒有興趣客觀布拉馬誰是不能聽取他們祈禱,他們也沒有任何佐料為最終結束這意味著永遠失去意識的存在。 And so, while the priestly ascetic was chiefly concerned with meditation on his identity with Brahmâ, and with the practice of mortification to secure freedom from all desires, the popular mind was still bent on prayer, sacrifices, and other good works in honor of the Vedic deities.因此,雖然祭司苦行主要是有關他的冥想與布拉馬身份,並與屈辱的做法,以確保免於所有的願望,考慮到流行仍一心祈禱,犧牲,和其他優秀作品的榮譽吠陀神。 But at the same time, their faith in the efficacy of these traditional gods could not be but weakened by the Brahmin teaching that freedom from rebirth was not to be obtained by acts of worship to personal deities who were powerless to secure even for themselves eternal conscious bliss.但與此同時,他們的信仰中的療效,這些傳統的神不能削弱,但由婆羅門教免受重生不是得到行為的個人崇拜神靈誰是無能為力的,以確保即使是自己永恆的意識幸福。 The result was popular development of special cults of two of the old gods, now raised to the position of supreme deity, and credited with the power to secure a lasting life of happiness in heaven.其結果是受歡迎的發展,特別邪教的兩個舊的神,提高到現在的立場最高神,並記入的權力,以確保持久的幸福生活在天堂。

It was in the priestly conception of the supreme personal Brahmá that the popular mind found its model for its new deities.這是在祭司概念的最高個人布拉馬全民牢記發現其模型,其新的神明。 Brahmá was not a traditional god, and seems never to have been a favorite object of cult with the people. Even today, there are but two temples to Brahmá in all India.梵天是不是一個傳統的神,而且似乎永遠是一個最喜歡的對象邪教的人。即使在今天,有兩個寺廟,但浪的所有印度。 His subordination to the great impersonal all-god did not help to recommend him to the popular mind.他服從一切偉大的人格神沒有幫助,建議他受歡迎的想法。 Instead we find two of the traditional gods honored with special cults, which seem to have taken rise independently in two different parts of the country and, after acquiring a local celebrity, to have spread in rivalry over the whole land.相反,我們找到兩個傳統的神榮幸,特別邪教,這似乎已採取增加獨立在兩個不同的部分地區,並在收購了當地的名人,有蔓延的競爭對整個土地。 One of these gods was the ancient storm-god Rudra, destructive in tempest and lightning, renewing life in the showers of rain, sweeping in lonely solitude over mountain and barren waste.其中的一個神靈是古代風暴神樓陀羅,破壞性的風暴和閃電,延長生命陣雨雨,席捲在孤獨寂寞的山區和貧瘠的浪費。 As the destroyer, the reproducer, and the type of the lonely ascetic, this deity rapidly rose in popular esteem under the name of Siva, the blessed.作為驅逐艦的再生和類型的孤獨苦行,這個神迅速上升,流行的自尊的名字濕婆的祝福。 The other was Vishnu, originally one of the forms of the son-god, a mild beneficent deity, whose genial rays brought gladness and growth to living creatures.另一項是毗濕奴,最初的形式之一的兒子神,溫和的善行神,其和煦的射線帶來了歡樂和成長,使生物。 His solar origin was lost sight of as he was raised to the position of supreme deity, but one of his symbols, the discus, points to his earlier character.他的太陽起源忽略了他提出的立場,最高神,但他的一個符號,鐵餅,點他早先的性質。

These two rival cults seem to have arisen in the fourth or fifth century BC As in the case of the personal god Brahmá, neither the worship of Siva nor of Vishnu did away with the honoring of the traditional gods and goddesses, spirits, heroes, sacred rivers and mountains and trees, serpents, earth, heaven, sun, moon, and stars.這兩個競爭對手邪教似乎已經出現在第四或公元前五世紀的情況一樣的個人神梵天,無論是崇拜濕婆的毗濕奴,也沒有廢除了尊重傳統的神和女神,烈酒,英雄,神聖河流和山脈和樹木,蛇,地球,天堂,太陽,月亮和星星。 The pantheism in which the Hindu mind is inevitably cast saw in all these things emanations of the supreme deity, Siva or Vishnu.在泛神論,其中印度教銘記必然是演員中看到所有這些事情emanations最高神,濕婆或毗濕奴。 In worshiping any or all, he was but honoring his supreme god.在崇拜任何或全部,他只是履行他的最高神。 Each deity was credited with a special heaven, where his devotees would find after death an unending life of conscious happiness.每個神記特別天堂,因為他的信徒後,會發現一個永無休止的死亡意識生活幸福。 The rapid rise in popular esteem of these cults, tending more and more to thrust Brahminism proper in to the background, was viewed by the priestly caste with no little concern.迅速崛起在大眾的自尊,這些邪教,趨向越來越主旨Brahminism在適當的背景下,被認為由祭司種姓沒有什麼關注的問題。 To quench these cults was out of the question; and so, in order to hold them iN at least nominal allegiance to Brahminism, the supreme god Brahmá was associated with Vishnu and Siva as a triad of equal and more or less interchangeable deities in which Brahmá held the office of creator, or rather evolver, Vishnu of preserver, and Siva of dissolver.為了滿足這些邪教是不可能的問題,等等,以便讓他們至少在名義上效忠Brahminism最高神梵天是與毗濕奴和濕婆作為一個黑社會的平等和或多或少可互換的神明,其中布拉馬辦公室舉行的創作者,或者evolver ,毗濕奴的保護者,並濕婆的溶解。 This is the so-called Tri-murti (tri-form), or trinity, altogether different from the Christian concept of three eternally distinct persons in one Godhead, and hence offering no legitimate ground for suggesting a Hindu origin for the Christian doctrine.這就是所謂的三摩提(三形式) ,或三位一體,完全不同的概念,基督教三個不同的人永遠在一個神體,從而提供任何合法的理由提出了印度教的原產地為基督教教義。

More remarkable was the intimate association of other new deities--the creations of the religious fancies of the common people--with the gods Siva and Vishnu. With Siva two popular gods came to be associated as sons.更了不起的是密切關聯的其他新的神明-創作的宗教幻想的普通百姓-與神濕婆和毗濕奴。隨著兩個流行的濕婆神來到相關的兒子。 One was Ganesha, lord of troops and mischievous imps, who has remained ever since a favorite object of worship and is invoked at the beginning of every undertaking to ensure success. The other was Scanda, who seems in great measure to have replaced Indra as the god of battle.其中之一是俄尼沙,領主的部隊和淘氣的放大器,誰一直以來最喜歡的崇拜對象,並援引開始時每一個承諾,確保成功。另Scanda ,誰似乎在很大程度上已經取代英作為神的戰鬥。 Beyond the doubtful derivation of the name Scanda from Alexander, there is nothing to indicate that either of these reputed sons of Siva had ever lived the lives of men.除了懷疑推導的名稱Scanda從亞歷山大,有任何跡象表明這兩個著名的濕婆的兒子曾經居住生活的男子。 NoT so the gods that enlarged the sphere of Vishnu's influence.沒有那麼神的擴大範圍的毗濕奴的影響。 In keeping with Vishnu's position as god of the people, two of the legendary heroes of the remote past, Rama and Krishna, whom popular enthusiasm had raised to the rank of gods, came to be associated with him not as sons, but as his very incarnations.按照毗濕奴的地位,神的人,有兩個傳奇英雄的偏遠過去,拉瑪和Krishna ,誰受歡迎的熱情提出了以職級的神,後來被與他有聯繫而不是兒子,但他非常化身。 The incarnation of a god descending from heaven to assume a human of animal form as a sort of savior, and to achieve some signal benefit for mankind, is known as an avatar.的化身神從天上降承擔人類的動物形式作為一種救世主,並取得了一些信號為人類造福,被稱為一個化身。 The idea antedates Buddhism and, while applied to Siva and other gods, became above all a characteristic of Vishnu.這個想法antedates佛教,同時適用於濕婆和其他神,成為最重要的一個特點毗濕奴。 Popular fancy loved to dwell on his avatar as a fish to save Manu from the devastating flood, as a tortoise to recover from the depths of the sea precious possessions for gods and men, as a boar to raise the submerged earth above the surface of the waters, but most of all as the god-men Rama and Krishna, each of whom delivered the people from the yoke of a tyrant.大眾喜歡喜歡談他化身為魚保存馬努從破壞性洪水,作為一個烏龜來自追回深處的海洋珍貴的財產為神和人,作為一個野豬,提高上述淹沒地球表面的水域,但最重要的是作為上帝的男子拉瑪和Krishna ,每個人提供了人民的枷鎖一個暴君。 So popular became the cults of Rama and Krishna that Vishnu himself was largely lost sight of.如此受歡迎,成為邪教的拉瑪和Krishna這毗濕奴本人主要是忽略了。 In time the Vishnuites became divided into two rival schisms:the Ramaites, who worshipped Rama as supreme deity, and the Krishnaites, who gave this honor rather to Krishna, a division that has persisted down to the present day. The evidence of the early existence of these innovations on Brahmin belief is to be found in the two great epics known as the "Ramayana" and the "Mahabharata." Both are revered by Brahmins, Sivaites and Vishnuites alike, particularly the latter poem, which is held to be directly revealed.在當時成為Vishnuites分為兩個對立的分裂:在Ramaites ,誰崇拜拉瑪作為最高神,並Krishnaites ,誰給了這一榮譽,而到克里希納,一個部門,一直堅持到今天。證據的早期存在這些創新的婆羅門的信念是可以找到的兩個偉大的史詩被稱為“羅摩衍那”和“摩訶婆羅多” 。都是由婆羅門崇敬, Sivaites和Vishnuites一樣,特別是後者詩,這是舉行直接顯示。 In the "Ramayana," which belongs to the period 400-300 BC, the legendary tales of the trials and the triumphs of the hero Rama and his faithful wife Sita were worked into a highly artificial romanbtic poem, largely in the interests of Vishnu worship.在“羅摩衍那” ,屬於公元前400-300時期的傳奇故事的審判和勝利的英雄拉瑪和他忠實的妻子悉他的工作進入了一個高度人工romanbtic詩,主要是在利益的毗濕奴崇拜。 The "Mahabharata," the work of many hands, was begun about the fifth century BC under Brahmin influence, and in the folowing centuries received additions and modifications, in the interests now of Vishnuism now of Sivaism, till it assumed its final shape in the sixth century of the Christian Era.在“摩訶婆羅多”的工作,許多雙手,開始約公元前5世紀婆羅門的影響下,並在數百年folowing收到補充和修訂的利益,現在Vishnuism的Sivaism現在,直到它承擔其最後形成六世紀的基督教時代。 It is a huge conglomeration of stirring adventure, popular legend, myth, and religious speculation.這是一個巨大的聚集攪拌冒險,民間傳說,神話和宗教的猜測。 The myth centers chiefly around the many-sided struggle for supremacy between the evil tyrants of the land and the hero Arjuna, aided by his four brothers.中心的神話,主要圍繞許多片面的鬥爭至上邪惡之間的暴君的土地和英雄阿朱那的幫助下,他的四個兄弟。 The role that Krishna plays is not an integral part of the story and seems to have been interpolated after the substance of the epic had been written.的作用,克里希納發揮不是不可分割的一部分故事,似乎已插後的實質史詩已書面。 He is the charioteer of Arjuna and at the same time acts as his religious advisor.他是charioteer的阿朱那,並在同一時間作為他的宗教顧問。 Of his numerous religious instructions, the most important is his metrical treatise known as the "Bhagavad-gita," the Song of the Blessed One, a writing that has exercised a profound influence on religious thought in India. It dates from the second or third century of the Christian era, being a poetic version of a late Upanishad, with its pantheistic doctrine so modified as to pass for a personal revelation of Krishna.他的許多宗教的指示,最重要的是他的韻律論文被稱為“薄伽梵歌” ,宋代的一個祝福,一個書面行使了深刻的影響宗教思想在印度。日期從它的第二或第三世紀的基督教時代,是一個詩意版的後期奧義書,其pantheistic學說,以便修改通過的個人啟示克里希納。 While embodying the noblest features of Brahmin ethics, and insisting on the faithful performance of caste-duties, it proclaims Krishna to be the superior personal all-god who, by the bestowal of special grace helps on his votaries to the attainment of eternal bliss.雖然體現了崇高的特點,婆羅門道德,堅持忠實履行種姓的職責,它宣布克里希納是卓越的個人所有的神誰,所賦予的特殊恩典幫助他votaries實現永恆的幸福。 As an important means to this end, it inculcates the virtue of Bhakti, that is a loving devotion to the deity, analogous to the Christian virtue of charity. Unhappily for the later development of Vishnuism, the Krishna of the "Bhagavad-gita" was not the popular conception.作為一個重要手段,為此,它灌輸的美德巴克蒂,這是一個充滿愛的奉獻神,類似於基督教憑藉慈善機構。遺憾為後來的發展Vishnuism的克里希納的“薄伽梵歌”是沒有流行的概念。 Like most legendary heroes of folk-lore, his character was in keeping with the crude morals of the primitive age that first sounded his praises.最喜歡的英雄傳奇民間傳說,他的性格是符合道德的原油的原始時代,首先聽起來讚揚他。 The narrative portions of the epic show him to have been sly and unscrupulous, guilty in word and deed of acts which the higher Brahmin conscience would reprove.說明部分的史詩表明他已狡猾和不擇手段,犯言行的行為更高的婆羅門將斥良知。 But it is in the fuller legendary story of his life as given in the so-called "Hari-vansa," a later supplement to the epic, and also in some of the Puranas of the ninth and tenth centuries of our era, that the character of the popular Krishna appears in its true light.但是,在充分傳奇故事,他一生中所謂的“開齋節- vansa ” ,後來補充史詩,而且在一些Puranas的第九和第十世紀的我們這個時代,即性質流行的克里希納出現在其真正的光。 Here we learn that Krishna was one of eight sons of noble birth, whom a Herod-like tyrant was bent on destroying.在這裡,我們了解到,克里希納是8崇高的兒子出生,其中希律王樣的暴君是執意破壞。 The infant god was saved from the wicked designs of the king by being secretly substituted for a herdsman's babe.嬰兒得救神的邪惡的設計國王被秘密取代牧民的寶貝。 Krishna grew up among the simple country-people, performing prodigies of valor, and engaging in many amorous adventures with the Gopis, the wives and daughters of the herdsmen. Eight of these were his favorites, but one he loved best of all, Radha.克里希納長大之間的簡單的國家人民,表演天才的勇氣,並參與許多戀愛冒險與Gopis的妻子和女兒的農牧民。其中8個是他的最愛,但他愛最重要的是,拉達。 Krishna finally succeeded in killing the king, and brought peace to the kingdom.克里希納終於成功地殺死了國王,並帶來了和平的王國。

Between this deified Hindu Hercules and Our Divine Lord, there is no ground for comparison, one only for contrast.從這個神化印度教大力士和我們神聖的上帝,沒有理由進行比較,一個只為對照。 That the idea of incarnate deity should be found in pre-Christian Hindu thought is not so remarkable when we consider that it answers to the yearning of the human heart for union with God.這一想法的體現神應在會前基督教印度教認為並非如此出色時,我們認為它的答案的渴望的人類心臟工會與上帝。 But what is at first sight astonishing is to find in the religious writings subsequent to the "Mahabharata" legendary tales of Krishna that are almost identical with the stories of Christ in the canonical and apocryphal Gospels.但什麼是一見鍾情令人驚訝的是找到在隨後的宗教著作的“摩訶婆羅多”傳奇故事裡的幾乎一模一樣的故事基督規範和未經福音。 From the birth of Krishna in a stable, and his adoration by shepherds and magi, the leader is led on through a series of events the exact counterparts of those related of Our Divine Lord.從誕生的克里希納在一個穩定的,和他崇拜的牧羊人和賢士領導人關於領導通過一系列活動的確切對應的是有關我國神聖的上帝。 Writers hostile to Christianity seized on this chain or resemblances, too close to be mere coincidence, in order to convict the Gospel writers of plagiarism from Hindu originals.作家敵視基督教抓住這個鏈條或相似之處,太接近是巧合,以判定福音作家剽竊來自印度教正本。 But the very opposite resulted.但相反的結果非常。 All Indianists of authority are agreed that these Krishna legends are not earlier than the seventh century of the Christian Era, and must have been borrowed from Christian sources.所有Indianists的權力都同意,這些克里希納傳說不早於7世紀的基督教時代,而且必須一直借用基督教來源。

VI.六。 LATER, OR SECTARIAN HINDUISM稍後,或印度教教派

The steady weakening of Brahmin influence, in consequence of the successive waves of foreign conquest, made it possible for the religious preferences of the huge, heterogeneous population of India to assert themselves more strongly.不斷削弱婆羅門影響,後果是連續不斷的外國征服,使宗教偏好的巨大,異質人口的印度聲稱自己更強烈。 Both Sivaism and Vishnuism departed more and more strongly from traditional Brahminism, and assumed a decidedly sectarian character towards the older religion and also towards each other.這Sivaism和Vishnuism離開越來越多的從傳統的強烈Brahminism ,並承擔起了決定性的宗派性質對宗教和老年人也相待。 With this weakening of Brahmin influence they absorbed the grosser elements of low-grade popular worship, and became abused by the accretion of immoral rites and groveling superstitions.這削弱了婆羅門的影響,他們吸收了大要素的低度流行的崇拜,成為濫用增生不道德的儀式和groveling迷信。 While, on the one hand, the practice of asceticism was pushed to its utmost extremes of fanaticism, on the other the doctrine of bhakti was perverted into a system of gross sexual indulgence, for which the amours of Krishna and the Gopis served as the model and sanction.雖然,一方面,實行禁慾主義被推到其最大極端的狂熱,對其他的理論,是扭曲的巴克提成一個系統的嚴重的性放縱,而Amours說的克里希納和Gopis擔任模型和制裁。 The Brahmin-caste distinctions were broken down, and an equality of all men and women was asserted, at least during the ceremonies of public worship.在婆羅門種姓的區別被打破,一個人人平等的男人和女人有人斷言,至少在儀式的公共崇拜。 The Brahmin rites were in great measure replaced by others particular to each cult and held to be all-sufficient for salvation.在婆羅門儀式是在很大程度上取代其他國家尤其是向每個邪教,將舉行全足夠的拯救。 Everywhere splendid temples arose to Siva, Vishnu, and his two human avatars; idols and phallic symbols innumerable filled the land; and each rival cult lauded its own special deity as supreme, subordinating all others to it, and looking down with more or less contempt on forms of worship other than its own.各地出現燦爛的寺廟,以濕婆,毗濕奴,和他的兩個人的頭像;偶像和陽具象徵充滿了無數的土地;和每個對手邪教稱讚其特殊的神作為最高權力機構,所有其他人服從它,並期待下或多或少的蔑視在形式的崇拜它自己以外。 One factor which contributed strongly to the degradation of these sectarian forms of religion was the veneration of the Sakti, or female side, of these deities.其中一個因素促成強烈的退化這些教派形式的宗教是崇拜的薩克蒂,或女性方面,這些神靈。 Popular theology would not rest until each deity was supplemented with a wife, in whom the active nature of the god was personified.大眾神學不會罷休每個神補充了一個妻子,在他們的積極性神是人格化。 With Brahmá was associated an ancient river-goddess, Sarasvati, honored as the patroness of letters.與布拉馬相關的古老河流女神,辯才,榮幸作為施主的信件。 Vishnu's Sakti was Sri, or Lakshmi, patroness of good fortune.毗濕奴的薩克蒂是斯里蘭卡,或拉克什米,施主的福氣。 With Siva the destroyer there was associated the terrible, blood-thirsty, magical goddess Durga, or Kali, formerly delighting in human victims, now appeased with sacrifices of goats and buffaloes.隨著濕婆驅逐艦有相關的可怕,血壓渴了,神奇的媽祖女神,或卡里,前delighting在人類的受害者,現在姑息與犧牲,山羊和水牛。 Rama had his consort, Sita, and Krishna his favorite Gopi, Radha.拉瑪他的配偶,悉他,和Krishna他最喜愛的戈皮,拉達。 The worship of these Saktis, particularly Siva's consort Durga-Kali, degenerated into shocking orgies of drunkenness and sexual immorality, which even today are the crying scandal of Hinduism.崇拜這些Saktis ,特別是濕婆的配偶杜爾加,卡利,淪落為令人震驚的酗酒orgies和性道德,這即使在今天的哭醜聞印度教。

Such were the sectarian developments of post-epic times.這樣的教派發展後史詩倍。 They found expression in the inferior, quasi-historic Puranas, of the seventh and following centuries, and in the Tantras, which are more modern still, and teach the symbolic magic of Sakti-worship.他們發現表達的劣勢,準歷史性Puranas ,第七和下面的幾個世紀,並在Tantras ,這是更現代的是,和教授的象徵魔力薩克蒂崇拜。 Neither of these classes of writings is regarded by orthodox Brahmin as canonical.無論這些類別的著作看作是正統的婆羅門作為典型。

Of the two hundred million adherents of Hinduism today, only a few hundred thousand can be called orthodox Brahmin worshipers.的2.00億印度教信徒今天,只有幾十萬可稱為正統的婆羅門禮拜。 Sivaism and Vishnuism have overshadowed the older religion like a rank growth of poisonous weeds. Sivaism和Vishnuism已經蓋過舊宗教一樣排名增長毒草。 In their main outlines, these two great sects have retained the characteristics of the Purana period, but differences of view on minor points have lead to a multiplication of schismatic divisions, especially among Vishnu-worshipers.在他們的主要輪廓,這兩個偉大的教派保留的特點Purana時期,但意見分歧小點導致的分裂增殖分裂,尤其是毗濕奴,朝拜。 Both sects, which today are fairly tolerant of each other, have a number of devotional and liturgical practices that are alike in kind, though marked by differences in sectarian belief.這兩個教派,今天是相當互相容忍,有許多虔誠的禮儀和做法,都是一樣的實物,但特點不同教派的信仰。 Both Sivaite and Vishnuite lay great stress on the frequent recital of the numerous names of their respective supreme gods, and to facilitate this piety, each carries with him, often about his neck, a rosary, varying in material and the number of beads according as it is dedicated to Siva or Vishnu.這Sivaite和Vishnuite奠定巨大的壓力經常演奏的眾多名字各自的最高神,並促進這個虔誠,每個帶有他,常常對他的脖子,一個玫瑰園,不同的物質和數量的珠子根據它是專門用於濕婆或毗濕奴。 Each sect has an initiation rites, which is conferred upon the young at the age of reason and in which the officiating guru puts a rosary around the neck of the applicant and whispers into his ear the mantra, or sacred motto, the recital of which serves as a profession of faith and is of daily obligation. Another rite common to both is that in which the presiding officer brands on the body of the worshiper with hot metal stamps the sacred symbols of his sect, the trident and the linga of Siva, or the discus and conch-shell (or lotus) of Vishnu.每一節有一個啟動儀式,這是賦予青年的年齡為理由,並在其中擔任導師提出念珠在脖子上的申請人,並悄悄把他的耳朵的咒語,或神聖的座右銘,演奏的服務作為一種職業的信念,並每日義務。另一個成年禮共同的是,在該品牌的主持官員對人體的崇拜者與鐵水郵票的神聖象徵,他的教派,三叉戟和林加的濕婆,或鐵餅和海螺,貝殼(或蓮子)的毗濕奴。

But in their highest act of ceremonial worship the two sects differ radically. The Sivaite takes his white stone pebble, the conventional phallic emblem which he always carries with him, and while muttering his mantra, sprinkles it with water and applies to it cooling Bilva leaves.但是,在他們的行為的最高禮儀崇拜的兩個不同教派的根本。 Sivaite需要的他的白色石頭鵝卵石,傳統的陽具徽章,他總是帶著他,而他的口頭禪嘀咕, sprinkles它與水,適用於它的冷卻葉片Bilva 。 Owing to its simplicity and cheapness, this rite is much in vogue with the ignorant lower classes.由於其簡單和廉價,這一儀式是很多流行的無知下層。 The Vishnu rite is less degrading but more childish.在毗濕奴的儀式是有辱少,但更多的幼稚。 It consists of an elaborate and costly worship of the temple image of Vishnu, or more often of Rama, or Krishna. The image is daily awakened, undressed, bathed, decked with rich robes and adorned with necklaces, bracelets, crowns of gold and precious stones, fed with choice kinds of food, honored with flowers, lights, an incense, and then entertained with vocal and instrumental music, and with dancing by the temple girls of doubtful virtue, consecrated to this service.它由一個複雜和昂貴的崇拜廟宇的形象毗濕奴,或更經常的拉瑪,或克里希納。該圖像是每天醒來,脫光衣服,洗澡,打扮具有豐富的長袍和飾有項鍊,手鐲,冠黃金和貴金屬石頭,餵選擇種食物,榮譽鮮花,燈光,一個香爐,然後受理與聲樂與器樂,舞蹈和寺廟的女孩懷疑美德,奉獻給這項服務。 As Krishna is generally worshipped in the form of a child-image, his diversion consists largely in the swinging of his image, the spinning of tops, and other games dear to the heart of the child.正如克里希納通常是崇拜形式的兒童形象,其主要構成挪用的擺動他的形象,紡上衣,和其他遊戲親愛的心的兒童。

Siva, too, has his temples, vying in magnificence with those of Vishnu, but in all these, the holy place is the linga-shrine, and the temple worship consists in the application of water and Bilva leaves to the stone symbol.濕婆,也有他的廟宇,爭取在這些華麗的毗濕奴,但在所有這些,在神聖的地方是林加-參拜靖國神社,和寺院組成禮拜中的應用水和Bilva葉石的象徵。 The interior walls of these, and of Vishnu temples as well, are covered with shocking representations of sexual passion.內牆這些,和毗濕奴的寺廟也都覆蓋著令人震驚的陳述性激情。 and yet, strange to say, these forms of religion, while giving a sanction to the indulgence of the lowest passions, at the same time inspire other devotees to the practice of the severest asceticism. They wander about in lonely silence, naked and filthy, their hair matted from long neglect, their bodies reduced to mere skin and bones by dint of incredible fasts.然而,奇怪的是,這些形式的宗教,同時給予制裁的放縱最低的激情,同時鼓勵其他信徒的做法,最嚴厲的禁慾主義。他們跑江湖的孤獨沉默,赤裸裸的骯髒,他們的頭髮鋪席子從長期被忽視,他們的屍體減少到僅僅是皮膚和骨骼憑藉難以置信的齋戒。 They will stand motionless for hours under the blazing son, with their emaciated arms uplifted toward heaven.他們將站在一動不動幾個小時的燃燒的兒子,其瘦弱隆起武器走向天堂。 Some go about with face ever turned upwards.一些去面對與以往任何時候都變成向上。 Some are known to have kept their fists tightly clenched until their growing nails protruded through the backs of their hands.有些是已知的,讓他們緊緊握緊拳頭,直到它們日益突出釘子通過支持他們的手中。

VII.七。 REFORM MOVEMENTS改革運動

Enlightened Hindus of modern times have made attempts to institute a reform in Hinduism by rejecting all idolatrous and immoral rites, and by setting up a purely monotheistic form of worship.開明的印度教徒的現代時代已經試圖建立一個印度教改革拒絕一切盲目崇拜和不道德的儀式,並設立了一個純粹的一神教形式的崇拜。 Of these, the earliest and most noted was the so-called Brahmá Samaj (Congregation of Brahmá), founded in Calcutta in 1828, by the learned Rammohun Roy.其中,最早的和最引人注目的是所謂的布拉馬社會報(教會的布拉馬) ,成立於1828年在加爾各答,由經驗教訓Rammohun羅伊。 He tried to combine a Unitarian form of Christianity with the Brahmin conception of the supreme personal God.他試圖結合起來,統一基督教形式與婆羅門概念的最高個人的上帝。 After his death in 1833, differences of view as to the nature of God, the authority of the Vedas, and the obligation of caste-customs caused the society to split up into a number of small congregations.他去世後,在1833年,意見分歧的性質上帝的權威,吠陀,並有義務種姓海關造成了社會分成了若干小眾。 At present there are more than a hundred independent theistic congregations in India.目前有100多個獨立的有神論在印度教徒。 Some, like the Arya Samaj, rest on the sole authority of the Vedas.有些人,像聖社會報,其餘的唯一權威的吠陀。 Others are eclectic, even to the extent of choosing for devotional reading in their public services passages from the Avesta, Koran, and Bible.另一些折衷,甚至選擇範圍為虔誠的讀他們的公共服務通道從阿維斯塔,可蘭經,和聖經。 Few of them are altogether free from the taint of pantheism, and, being more like clubs for intellectual and moral improvement than for ritualistic forms of worship, they make but little progress in the way of conversion.很少人是完全不受污染的泛神論,並正在更像是俱樂部的知識和道德的改善比走過場形式的崇拜,他們沒有什麼進展,但在這樣的轉換。

In short, Brahminism cannot succeed in reforming itself.總之, Brahminism不能成功,改革本身。 Its earlier sacred books are steeped in the polytheism out of which it grew, and the pantheistic view of the world, to which it was afterwards committed, has been like a dead weight dragging it hopelessly into the stagnant pool of superstition, pessimism, and immorality.其早先的神聖書籍沉浸在多神教了它的增長,以及pantheistic對世界的看法,它是事後承諾,已像一個自重拖放到無可救藥的停滯池迷信,悲觀情緒,和不道德。 In virtue of its pantheistic attitude, there is no form of religion, high or low, that cannot be tolerated and incorporated into its capacious system.在憑藉其pantheistic的態度,沒有任何形式的宗教,高或低,這是不能容忍的,並納入其容量系統。 The indifference of Brahminism to the gross buses of Hinduism is, after all, but a reflex of the indifference of its supreme god.冷漠Brahminism毛額巴士印度教畢竟,但反射的冷漠其最高神。 Sin loses most of its hideousness when it can be traced ultimately to the great impersonal Brahmâ.黃大仙失去其大部分hideousness時,可以追溯到最終的偉大人格浪。 There is but one form of religion that has any prospect of reforming the religious life of India, and that is the Roman Catholic.但有一種形式的宗教,沒有任何前景的改革宗教生活的印度,這是羅馬天主教。 For the shadow, pantheistic deity it can set form the One, Eternal, Personal Spirit and creator; for the crude Tri-murti, the sublime Trinity; and for the coarse and degrading avatars of Vishnu, the incarnation of the Son of God.對於影子, pantheistic神它可以設置形式之一,永恆的,個人精神和創造;的原油三摩提,神聖的三位一體;和粗糧和有辱人格的化身的毗濕奴的化身上帝的兒子。 It can replace the idolatrous and immoral Hindu rites with its own imposing liturgy, and substitute the Cross for the abominable linga.它可以取代盲目崇拜和不道德的印度教禮儀與自己強加禮儀,並替代橫的可惡的林加。

Brahminism, being a natural religion and a privilege of Hindu birth, has never made any concerted attempt at proselytizing in foreign lands. Brahminism ,是一個自然的宗教和一種特權印度教出生,從來沒有作出任何協調一致的嘗試,宗教信仰在外國的土地上。 But some years ago steps were taken by a few individuals of England to foist upon English-speaking people a new religious system embodying the pantheistic belief and magical superstition of the Vedanta school of Brahminism.但是,一些幾年前採取了步驟,由少數個人的英格蘭體內偷偷注射後英語為母語的人士一個新的宗教制度體現了pantheistic神奇的信仰和迷信的韋丹塔學校Brahminism 。 This new system, known as Theosophy, was to embrace within its fold members of every form of religion, reconciling all differences of creed in the pantheistic view that all deities, high and low, are but transitory emanations of the supreme, incomprehensible Reality, devotion to which was the highest religion.這個新系統,稱為神智學,是在其懷抱中成員的各種形式的宗教,調和所有分歧的信條在pantheistic認為,所有的神,高,低,只不過是短暫的emanations最高,難以理解的現實,奉獻精神這是最高的宗教。 This quasi-cult, which also made pretensions to the exercise of magical powers, soon met the ridicule and obloquy it deserved.這準邪教,也作了偽裝行使神通,很快見了嘲笑和漫罵,它值得。 It is practically obsolete at the present day.它實際上是過時的今天。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯鄧巴艾肯。 Transcribed by M. Donahue. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.轉錄由M.休。天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

Texts.-- Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, 5 vols.文.--繆爾,梵文文本原件, 5卷。 (London, 1868-70); Mueller, Vedic Hymns in Sacred Books of the East, XXXII; Oldenberg, Vedic Hymns, op. (倫敦, 1868至1870年) ;穆勒,吠陀讚美詩在聖書東,三十二;奧爾登貝格,吠陀讚美詩,同前。 cit. XLVI; Bloomfield, The Atharva Veda, op.前。四十六;布盧姆菲爾德,在阿闥婆吠陀,同前。 cit., XLII; Eggeling, The Satapatha Brahmana.前。 ,四十二;伊果林,該Satapatha梵書。 op.同前。 cit., XII, XXVI, XLI; Mueller, The Upanishads, op.前。 ,十二,二十六,四十一;穆勒的Upanishads ,同前。 cit., XV; Oldenberg and Mueller, The Grihya-Sutras, op.前。 ,十五;奧爾登貝格和穆勒的Grihya ,經,同前。 cit., XXIX, XXX; Buehler, The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, op.前。 ,二十九,三十;低速,神聖的法律Aryas ,同前。 cit., II, XIV; idem, The Laws of Manu, op.前。 ,二,十四;同上,法律的馬努,同前。 cit., XXV; Thibaut, The Vedanta-Sutra, op.前。 ,二十五;蒂鮑特,該韋丹塔,佛經,同前。 cit.前。 XXXIV, XXXVIII; Telang, The Bhagavad-Gita, op.三十四,三十八; Telang ,在薄伽梵歌,同前。 cit VIII; Bournouf-Roussel, Le Bhagavata Purana, 5 vols. (Paris, 1898).前八; Bournouf ,羅樂Bhagavata Purana , 5卷。 (巴黎, 1898年) 。

General Treatises.--Barth, The religions of India (London, 1882); Monier-Williams, Brahminism and Hinduism, or Religious Thought and Life in India (London, 1891); Idem, Hinduism (London, 1897); Idem, Indian Wisdom (London, 1876); Hopkins, The Religions of India (Boston, 1895); Dubois, Hindu Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies (Oxford, 1897); Gough, The Philosophy of the Upanishads and Ancient Indian Metaphysics (London, 1882); Deussen, Das System des Vedanta (Leipzig, 1883); Idem, Der Philosophie der Upanishads (Leipzig, 1899); Kaegi, The Rig-Veda (Boston, 1886); Oldenberg, Die religion des Veda (Berlin, 1894); Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, 2 vols.一般論文.--巴特,宗教的印度(倫敦, 1882年) ;莫尼爾威廉姆斯, Brahminism和印度教,或宗教思想和生活在印度(倫敦, 1891年) ;同上,印度教(倫敦, 1897年) ;同上,印度智慧(倫敦, 1876年) ;霍普金斯的宗教印度(波士頓, 1895年) ;杜波依斯,印度教禮儀,海關和儀式(牛津, 1897年) ;高夫,哲學的Upanishads和印度古代的形而上學(倫敦, 1882年) ;朋友杜森,達斯系統公司韋丹塔(萊比錫, 1883年) ;同上,明鏡哲學Upanishads (萊比錫, 1899年) ; Kaegi ,該鑽機,吠陀(波士頓, 1886年) ;奧爾登貝格,模具宗教之吠陀(柏林, 1894年) ; Colebrooke ,雜文集,第2卷。 (London, 1873); Weber, The History of Indian Literature (London, 1892); Dahlman, das Mahabharata (Berlin, 1895); Shoebel, Las Ramayana in Annales du musee Guimet (Paris, 1888), XIII; de la Saussaye, Lehb. (倫敦, 1873年) ;韋伯,史,印度文學(倫敦, 1892年) ;達爾曼,存在摩訶婆羅多(柏林, 1895年) ; Shoebel ,在拉斯維加斯羅摩衍那杜年鑑吉梅博物館(巴黎, 1888年) ,十三;德拉魯阿Saussaye , Lehb 。 der Religionsgesch.德國Religionsgesch 。 (Freiburg, 1905), II. (弗賴堡, 1905年) ,二。


The Laws of Manu法律的馬努

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

"The Laws of Manu" is the English designation commonly applied to the "Manava Dharma-sastra", a metrical Sanskrit compendium of ancient sacred laws and customs held in the highest reverence by the orthodox adherents of Brahminism. The Brahmins themselves credit the work with a divine origin and a remote antiquity. “法律的馬努”是英文名稱通常適用於“摩納婆達摩論”的韻律梵文彙編古代神聖的法律和習俗舉行的最高崇敬的正統派信徒Brahminism 。婆羅門本身的信用與工作神聖的起源和遠古。 Its reputed author is Manu, the mythical survivor of the Flood and father of the human race, the primitive teacher of sacred rites and laws now enjoying in heaven the dignity of an omniscient deity.其著名作者是馬努,傳說中倖存的洪水和父親的人類原始的教師神聖的儀式和法律現在在天堂享受尊嚴的一個無所不知的神。 The opening verses of the work tell how Manu was reverently approached in ancient times by the ten great sages and asked to declare to them the sacred laws of the castes and how he graciously acceded to their request by having the learned sage Bhrigu, whom he had carefully taught the metrical institutes of the sacred law, deliver to them this precious instruction.開放的詩句的工作告訴馬努是如何恭敬地走近遠古時代的10個偉大的先賢,並要求宣布他們的神聖法律的種姓和他欣然加入了他們的要求,讓聖人Bhrigu的經驗教訓,他已仔細教韻律研究所的神聖法律,提供給他們這個寶貴的指示。 The work thus pretends to be the dictation of Manu through the agency of Bhrigu; and as Manu learned it himself from the self-existent Brahma, its authorship purport to be divine.因此,這項工作假裝是聽寫的馬努通過機構Bhrigu ;和製造它自己的經驗教訓的自我存在,梵,其作者自稱是神聖的。 This pious Brahmin belief regarding the divine origin of the "Laws of Manu" is naturally not shared by the Oriental scholars of the western world.這信仰虔誠的婆羅門關於神聖起源的“規律的馬努”自然是不同意的東方學者的西方世界。 Even the rather remote date assigned to the work by Sir William Jones, 1200-500 BC, has been very generally abandoned.即使偏遠的日期,而分配給工作的威廉爵士瓊斯,公元前1200-500 ,已非常普遍放棄了。 The weight of authority today is in favour of the view that the work in its present metrical form dates probably from the first or second century of the Christian era, though it may possibly be a century or two older. Most of its contents, however, may be safely given a much greater antiquity. Scholars are now pretty well agreed that the work is an amplified recast in verse of a "Dharma-sutra", no longer extant, that may have been in existence as early as 500 BC重量今天的權力是有利於認為,這項工作目前的格律形式的日期可能在第一或第二世紀的基督教時代,儘管它可能是一個世紀或兩個以上。大部分的內容,然而,可以安全地給予更大的古物。學者現在很好一致認為,工作是擴增改寫詩的“達摩經” ,不再現存的,這可能已經存在早在公元前500

The sutras were manuals composed by the teachers of the Vedic schools for the guidance of their pupils.該手冊經文組成了由教師吠陀學校指導學生。 They summed up in aphorisms, more or less methodically arranged, the enormously complicated mass of rules, laws customs, rites, that the Brahmin student had to know by heart.他們總結了警句,或多或少有條不紊地安排,複雜的巨大質量的規則,法律風俗,禮儀,即婆羅門學生已經知道了心。 Every Vedic school of importance had its appropriate sutras, among which were the "Grihya-sutras", dealing with domestic ceremonies, and the "Dharma-sutras", treating of the sacred customs and laws.學校每吠陀的重要性有其適當的經文,其中包括“ Grihya -念經” ,處理家庭儀式,和“佛法,佛經” ,治療的神聖習俗和法律。 A fair number of these have been preserved, and form part of the sacred Brahmin literature.一個公平的數目這些都得以保存,並組成部分的神聖婆羅門文獻。 In course of time, some of the more ancient and popular "Dharma-sutras" were enlarged in their scope and thrown into metrical form constituting the so-called "Dharma-sastras".在隨著時間的推移,一些更為古老和流行的“佛法,經典”的擴大,其範圍和扔進格律形式構成所謂的“護法, sastras ” 。 Of these the most ancient and most famous is the "Laws of Manu", the "Manava Dharma-sastra", so called as scholars think, because based on a "Dharma-sutra" of the ancient Manava school.這些最古老和最有名的是“法律製造”的“摩納婆達摩論” ,所謂的學者認為,因為基於“達摩經”古老的摩納婆上學。 The association of the original sutra with the name Manava seems to have suggested the myth that Manu was its author, and this myth, incorporated in the metrical "Dharma-sastra", probably availed to secure the new work universal acceptance as a divinely revealed book.該協會原來的佛經的名稱摩納婆似乎已經暗示神話,馬努是它的作者,這神話,納入格律“達摩論” ,很可能利用,以確保新的工作被普遍接受作為一個神聖發現書。

The "Laws of Manu" consists of 2684 verses, divided into twelve chapters.在“法奴”由2684年的詩句,分為12章。 In the first chapter is related the creation of the world by a series of emanations from the self-existent deity, the mythical origin of the book itself, and the great spiritual advantage to be gained by the devout study of its contents. Chapters two to six inclusive set forth the manner of life and regulation of conduct proper to the members of the three upper castes, who have been initiated into the Brahmin religion by the sin-removing ceremony known as the investiture with the sacred cord.在第一章是有關建立世界的一系列emanations從自我存在的神,傳說起源的書本身,和偉大的精神優勢,得到了虔誠的研究其內容。兩章6包容性規定的方式生活和監管進行適當的成員三個上等種姓,誰已經開始進入婆羅門宗教的罪過,消除儀式稱為investiture與神聖線。 First is described the period of studentship, a time of ascetic discipline devoted to the study of the Vedas under a Brahmin teacher. Then the chief duties of the householder are rehearsed, his choice of a wife, marriage, maintenance of the sacred hearth-fire, sacrifices to the gods, feasts to his departed relatives exercise of hospitality.首先是描述了一段獎學金,時間的禁慾紀律專門研究的吠陀根據婆羅門老師。然後首席職責的戶主是排練,他選擇了妻子,婚姻,維護神聖的壁爐,火災,犧牲的神,節日他離去的親屬行使款待。 The numerous restrictions also, regulating his daily conduct, are discussed in detail especially in regard to his dress, food, conjugal relations, and ceremonial cleanness.眾多的限制,同時,規範其日常行為,進行了詳細的討論尤其是在他的衣服,食品,婚姻關係,和禮儀清潔度。 After this comes the description of the kind of life exacted of those who choose to spend their declining years as hermits and ascetics.在此來說明什麼樣的生活造成這些誰選擇花費幾年的下降和隱士修行。 The seventh chapter sets forth the divine dignity and the manifold duties and responsibilities of kings, offering on the whole a high ideal of the kingly office.第七章闡述了神聖的尊嚴和多方面的責任和義務的國王,提供對整個高理想的王道辦公室。 The eighth chapter treats of procedure in civil and criminal lawsuits and of the proper punishments to be meted out to different classes of criminals.第八章處理程序在民事和刑事起訴和適當的懲罰是入獄了不同類別的罪犯。 The next two chapters make known the customs and laws governing divorce, inheritance, the rights of property, the occupations lawful for each caste.接下來的兩個章節使已知的習俗和法律,離婚,繼承的權利,財產,合法的職業為每個種姓。 Chapter eleven is chiefly occupied with the various kinds of penance to be undergone by those who would rid themselves of the evil consequences of their misdeeds. 11章主要是與被佔領的各種懺悔是經歷了那些誰將會擺脫了邪惡的後果,他們的不當行為。 The last chapter expounds the doctrine of karma, involving rebirths in the ascending or descending scale, according to the merits or demerits of the present life.最後一章論述的理論,因果報應,涉及rebirths在遞增或遞減規模,根據是非曲直目前的生活。 The closing verses are devoted to the pantheistic scheme of salvation leading to absorption into the all-embracing, impersonal deity.截止詩句是專門pantheistic拯救計劃導致吸收到包羅萬象,客觀神。

The "Laws of Manu" thus offers an interesting ideal picture of dornestic, social, and religious life in India under ancient Brahmin influence.在“法奴” ,從而提供了一個有趣的理想圖片dornestic ,社會和宗教生活在印度古代婆羅門的影響。 The picture has its shadows.圖片有陰影。 The dignity of the Brahmin caste was greatly exaggerated, while the Sudra caste was so far despised as to be excluded under pain of death from participation in the Brahmin religion.尊嚴的婆羅門種姓是大大誇大了,而桃一點種姓是迄今為止鄙視,以排除下痛苦的死亡參與婆羅門教。 Punishments for crimes and misdemeanours were lightest when applied to offenders of the Brahmin caste, and increased in severity for the guilty members of the warrior, farmer, and serf caste respectively.懲罰犯罪和過失時,是最輕的適用於罪犯的婆羅門種姓,並增加了嚴重的犯罪成員的戰士,農民和農奴主階級分別。 Most forms of industry and practice of medicine were held in contempt, and were forbidden to both Brahmins and warriors.大多數形式的工業和行醫被關押在蔑視,並禁止向這兩個婆羅門和戰士。 The mind of woman was held to br fickle, sensual, and incapable of proper self-direction.心靈的女子舉行溴變幻無常,感官,而且無法適當的自我的方向發展。 Hence it was laid down that women were to be held in strict subjection to the end of their lives.因此,這是規定,婦女被關押在嚴格服從結束他們的生命。 They were not allowed to learn any of the Vedic texts, and their participation in religious rites was limited to a few insignificant acts.他們不允許任何學習的吠陀文,他們參與宗教儀式僅限於少數幾個微不足道的行為。 Guilt involving penances was attributed to unintentional transgressions of law, and there was a hopeless confusion of duties of conscience with traditional customs and restrictions in large part superstitious and absurd.內疚涉及penances是因為無意越軌的法律,而且是一個不可救藥的混亂的職責與良知的傳統習俗和限制,這在很大程度上是迷信和荒謬的。 Yet, with all this, the ethical teachings of the "Laws of Manu" is very high, embracing almost every form of moral obligation recognized in the Christian religion.然而,隨著這一切,道德教誨的“規律的馬努”非常高,幾乎包容各種形式的道德義務承認基督教。

The "Laws of Manu" is accessible to modern readers in a number of good translations.在“法奴”是利用現代的讀者了許多很好的翻譯。 It was published in English dress finder the title, "The Institutes of Manu", by Sir William Jones in 1794, being the first Sanskrit work to be translated into a European tongue.有人以英文出版禮服查找的標題, “該研究所的馬努” ,由威廉爵士瓊斯在1794年,是第一個梵文工作,被翻譯成歐洲的舌頭。 This version is still recognized as a work of great merit.此版本仍然是公認的工作非常值得。 In 1884 a very excellent translation, begun by AC Burnell and completed by Professor EW Hopkins, was published in London with the title, "The Ordinances of Manu".在1884年一個非常出色的翻譯,開始由AC Burnell並完成了電子戰霍普金斯大學教授,是在倫敦出版的稱號, “該條例的馬努” 。 Two years later appeared Professor George Buhler's able version with a lengthy introduction, constituting volume xxv of the "Sacred Books of the East".兩年後,似乎教授喬治比勒的版本能夠與一個漫長的引進,構成卷二十五的“聖書東” 。 In 1893 Professor G. Strehly published in Paris a very elegant French translation, "Les Lois de Manou" forming one of the volumes of the "Annales du Musée Guimet".教授於1893年出版灣Strehly在巴黎一個非常優雅的法文譯本, “法國的馬努洛伊絲”形成一個卷的“世界年鑑吉梅博物館” 。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯鄧巴艾肯。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。 Dedicated to the memory of Mr. PR Kutty The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.為紀念公關先生,庫蒂的天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

MACDONELL, Sanskrit Literature (New York, 1900); FRAZER, A Literary History of India (New York, (1898); MONIER WILLIAMS, Indian Wisdom (4th ed. London, 1803); JOHANTGEN, Ueber das Gesetzbuch des Manu (Leipzig, 1863). MACDONELL ,梵文文學(紐約, 1900年) ;弗雷澤,文學史的印度(紐約, ( 1898年) ;莫尼爾威廉姆斯,印度的智慧(第四版。倫敦, 1803年) ; JOHANTGEN ,論之民法典之馬努(萊比錫, 1863年) 。


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