Hasidism or Ḥasidism Hasidism或Ḥasidism

General Information 一般信息

Hasidism is a pietistic movement within Judaism that was founded by the Baal Shem Tov in the 18th century. Hasidism是一個pietistic遷徙的猶太教,成立由巴爾閃Tov在18世紀。 It began in the Carpathian border provinces of Walachia, Podolia, and Volhynia, among persecuted lower class Jews who resented the domination of Jewish community life by an elite of the wealthy and the learned and were disappointed following the collapse of the hopes raised by Sabbatian messianism, a movement founded by Sabbatai Zevi.它開始在喀爾巴阡山邊境省份瓦拉齊亞, Podolia ,並沃里尼亞,除受迫害的猶太人下層怨恨誰的統治猶太社區生活的一個精英的富裕和教訓,並感到失望崩潰後所帶來的希望Sabbatian彌賽亞,運動創辦的Sabbatai賽維。 Inspired in part by comparable pietistic movements in both Eastern and Western European Christianity, Hasidism stressed the superiority of religious enthusiasm and devotion over study and intellectualism.靈感部分pietistic比較運動在東歐和西歐基督教, Hasidism強調,優越的宗教熱情和獻身精神的學習和理智。 The Jewish masses found this message heartening, and the movement quickly spread through the depressed rural areas.猶太人的群眾發現此消息令人振奮,並迅速蔓延運動通過壓低農村地區。

The Baal Shem Tov taught largely through parables that stressed humility and purity of heart.在巴爾閃Tov教主要是通過寓言,強調謙卑和純潔性的心。 His immediate successor, Dov Baer of Mezhirich, began systematizing the doctrinal implications of these parables in light of the kabbalistic doctrines of Isaac Luria. Later, divisions appeared in the movement, and leadership became vested in dynastic families, the heads of which were known as tzaddikim ("righteous ones").立即將他的繼任者,多弗的Mezhirich貝爾,開始系統化的理論影響,這些寓言鑑於kabbalistic學說的艾薩克盧里亞。後來,司中出現的運動,成為既得利益的領導在王朝家庭,其中元首被稱為tzaddikim ( “正義的” ) 。 These groups, which still persist, differ in the degree to which they combine an intellectual emphasis with their emotional pietism; they agree, however, in their opposition to the forces of reform and secularization in Jewish life.這些群體,這依然存在,不同程度結合起來,他們重視知識與虔誠主義的情緒,他們同意,但是,他們反對勢力的改革和世俗化的猶太人的生活。 Most Hasidic groups today live in Israel and the United States大多數哈西德派團體今天生活在以色列和美國

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Joseph L Blau約瑟夫L布勞

Bibliography: 參考書目:
M Buber, Hasidism (1948); AL Lowenkopf, The Hasidim (1973); HM Rabinowicz, The World of Hasidism (1970); B Safran, ed., Hasidism (1985); IB Singer, Hasidism (1973); E Wiesel, Souls on Fire (1972). M布伯, Hasidism ( 1948年) ;美聯Lowenkopf ,該Hasidim ( 1973年) ;陛下Rabinowicz ,世界Hasidism ( 1970年) ;乙薩弗朗,編輯。 , Hasidism ( 1985年) ;興業歌手, Hasidism ( 1973 ) ;電子郵件威塞爾,靈魂火災( 1972年) 。


Ḥasidism, Ḥasidim Ḥasidism , Ḥasidim

Jewish Viewpoint Information猶太觀資料

Ḥasidism is a religious movement which arose among the Polish Jews in the eighteenth century, and which won over nearly half of the Jewish masses. Ḥasidism是一個宗教運動中所產生的波蘭猶太人在18世紀,並獲得了近一半的猶太群眾。 In its literal meaning the word "Ḥasidism" is identical with "pietism" ("Ḥasid" = "the pious"), and the Ḥasidic teachings resemble the synonymous Protestant teachings in so far as they both assign the first place in religion not to religious dogma and ritual, but to the sentiment and the emotion of faith.在其字面意義改為“ Ḥasidism ”是相同的“虔誠主義” ( “ Ḥasid ” = “的虔誠” ) ,並哈西德派教義類似於新教教義的代名詞,只要他們都指派第一名宗教不是宗教教條和禮儀,而且對情緒和情感的信念。

Presenting in its inner motives one of the most peculiar phenomena of religious psychology in general, Ḥasidismshould in Jewish history be classed among the most momentous spiritual revolutions that have influenced the social life of the Jews, particularly those of eastern Europe.提出在其內在動機的一個最奇特現象的宗教心理學的一般Ḥasidismshould在猶太人的歷史被列為最重要的革命精神,影響社會生活的猶太人,特別是東歐。

There has been apparent from time immemorial a struggle for supremacy between two principles in Judaism: the formalism of dogmatic ritual and the direct religious sentiment.已有明顯的從遠古時代的鬥爭霸權兩個原則之間的猶太教:形式主義的教條式的儀式和直接宗教感情。 The discipline of the Law was in continual conflict with mystical meditation, which gave considerable latitude to individual inclinations in the domain of religion.的紀律,法律是在不斷的衝突與神秘的冥想,這使得相當多經緯度個人傾向領域的宗教。 Such was the nature of the struggle between Pharisaism and Essenism in ancient times, between Talmudism and the Cabala in the Middle Ages, and between rabbinism and the mystic-Messianic movements from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century.就是這樣的性質之間的鬥爭Pharisaism和Essenism在古代, Talmudism之間和Cabala在中世紀之間,以及rabbinism和神秘,彌賽亞運動從第十六至十八世紀。

Origin in the Ukraine.起源於烏克蘭。

In Poland, where since the sixteenth century the great bulk of the Jewry had firmly established itself, the struggle between rabbinism and mysticism became particularly acute after the Messianic movement called into being by Shabbethai Ẓebi.在波蘭,在那裡自16世紀偉大的大部分猶太人牢固地確立了自己之間的鬥爭rabbinism和神秘主義成為特別嚴重後,所謂的救世主運動正在進入由Shabbethai Ẓebi 。 Leanings toward mystical doctrines and sectarianism showed themselves prominently among the Jews of the southwestern or Ukraine provinces of Poland (Volhynia, Podolia, and Galicia); while in the north-western provinces, in Lithuania, and in White Russia, rabbinical Orthodoxy held undisputed sway.對神秘的傾向理論和宗派主義突出表明自己的猶太人之間的西南部省份或烏克蘭,波蘭(沃里尼亞, Podolia和加利西亞) ;而在西北部省份,在立陶宛,並在白宮俄羅斯,猶太教正統無可爭議的影響力舉行。 This was due to the pronounced social difference between the northern or Lithuanian Jews and the southern Jews of the Ukraine.這是由於顯著的社會之間的差額或立陶宛北部的猶太人和南部猶太人的烏克蘭。 In Lithuania the Jewish masses were mainly gathered in densely populated towns where rabbinical academic culture (in the yeshibot) was in a flourishing state; while in the Ukraine the Jews were more scattered in villages far removed from intellectual centers, and were frequently steeped in ignorance.在立陶宛的猶太人,主要是群眾聚集在人口密集的城鎮猶太教的學術文化(在yeshibot )是在一個繁榮的國家,而在烏克蘭的猶太人被較為分散的村莊遠離智力中心,並常常沉浸在無知。

The social decay in the south became more intense after the Cossacks' Uprising under Chmielnicki and the turbulent times in Poland (1648-60), which completely ruined the Jewry of the Ukraine, but left comparatively untouched that of Lithuania.社會衰變在南方將更加激烈後,哥薩克人'起義下Chmielnicki和動盪的時代,波蘭( 1648年至1660年) ,這完全破壞了猶太人的烏克蘭,但相對未離開的立陶宛。 The economic and spiritual decline of the South-Russian Jews created a favorable field for mystical movements and religious sectarianism, which spread there from the middle of the seventeenth to the middle of the eighteenth century, and brought about, among other things, the appearance of the Christianizing sect of the Frankists.在經濟和精神上的下降,南俄羅斯猶太人創造了有利的領域,神秘的宗教運動和宗派主義,蔓延,從中間的第十七至中期的18世紀,並帶來了除其他事項外,外觀的在Christianizing節的Frankists 。 (See Frank, Jacob.) (見弗蘭克,雅各布。 )

Besides these external influences there were deeply seated causes that produced among the greater portion of the Jewish people a discontent with rabbinism and a gravitation toward mysticism. Rabbinism, which in Poland had become transformed into a system of book-lore and dry religious formalism, satisfied neither the unlearned common people nor the learned men who sought in religion an agreeable source of consolation and of forgetfulness of worldly cares.除了這些外部的影響有深層次原因,生產的大部分猶太人民的不滿rabbinism和引力的神秘主義。 Rabbinism ,在波蘭已成為轉變成一個系統的書本知識和乾燥的宗教形式主義,滿意無論是胸無點墨普通老百姓也不是誰的教訓男子試圖在宗教人士的同意安慰和遺忘的世俗關懷。 Although rabbinism itself had adopted some features of the Cabala, it had adapted them to fit into its own religious system: it added to the stern discipline of ritualism the gloomy asceticism of the "practical cabalists" of the East, who saw the essence of earthly existence only in fasting, in penance, in self-torture, and in spiritual sadness.雖然rabbinism本身已經採取了一些功能Cabala ,它已適應他們融入自己的宗教制度:它增加了嚴厲的紀律ritualism的暗淡禁慾主義的“實際cabalists ”的東,誰看到的本質人間存在只有在空腹,在懺悔,自我折磨,在精神上悲哀。 Such a combination of religious practises, suitable for individuals and hermits, was not suitable to the bulk of the Jews.這種組合的宗教習俗,適合個人和隱士,是不適合的大部分猶太人。 Ḥasidism gave a ready response to the burning desire of the common people in its simple, stimulating, and comforting faith. In contradistinction to other sectarian teaching, Ḥasidism aimed not at dogmatic or ritual reform, but at a deeper psychological one. Ḥasidism了應對準備焚燒的願望,共同的人民在其簡單,刺激,並安慰的信仰。對比其他教派的教學, Ḥasidism目的不是教條或儀式改革,但在更深的心理之一。 Its aim was to change not the belief, but the believer.其目的是不會改變的信仰,但信仰。 By means of psychological suggestion it created a new type of religious man, a type that placed emotion above reason and rites, and religious exaltation above knowledge.通過心理建議它創造了一種新類型的宗教的人,這種情感放在上述原因和宗教儀式和宗教提升上述知識。

The Ba'al Shem.該Ba'al閃。

The founder of Ḥasidism was a man of the obscure Podolian Jewry, Israel b.的創始人Ḥasidism是一個男人的模糊Podolian猶太人,以色列灣 Eliezer Ba'al Shem-Ṭob (BeShT).埃利澤Ba'al閃,尖( BeShT ) 。 His personal fame as a healer spread not only among the Jews, but also among the non-Jewish peasants and the Polish nobles.他個人的名利作為一個醫生蔓延不僅是猶太人,但也有非猶太人農民和波蘭貴族。 He often cured the Jews by fervent prayer, profound ecstasies, and gesticulations.他常常治愈猶太人的熱切地祈禱,深刻ecstasies和手勢。 He also at times successfully prognosticated the future, and revealed secrets.他還成功地在時代prognosticated未來,揭示秘密。 Soon acquiring among the masses the reputation of a miracle-worker, he came to be known as "the kind Ba'al Shem" ("Ba'al Shem-Ṭob"). Besht was the idol of the common people.一旦獲得在群眾中的聲譽的一個奇蹟工人,他來到被稱為“那種Ba'al閃” ( “ Ba'al閃,尖” ) 。 Besht是偶像的普通百姓。 Characterized by an extraordinary sincerity and simplicity, he knew how to gain an insight into the spiritual needs of the masses.特點是非常真誠和簡單,他知道如何深入了解的精神需要的群眾。 He taught them that true religion was not Talmudic scholarship, but a sincere love of God combined with warm faith and belief in the efficacy of prayer; that a plain man filled with a sincere belief in God, and whose prayers come from the heart, is more acceptable to God than the rabbi versed in the Law, and who throughout his life is absorbed in the study of the Talmud and in the observance of petty ceremonials. This democratization of Judaism attracted to the teachings of Besht not only the common people, but also the scholars whom the rabbinical scholasticism and ascetic Cabala failed to satisfy.他教他們,真正的宗教是沒有塔木德獎學金,但真誠的上帝的愛與溫暖的結合信仰和信念的效力祈禱; ,一個普通的人充滿了真誠地相信上帝,和他的祈禱來自心臟,是更容易接受上帝比拉比精通法律,誰一生中吸收的研究塔木德和遵守零用ceremonials 。民主化,這吸引了猶太教的教義Besht不僅普通百姓,但學者們也被猶太教院和禁慾Cabala未能滿足。

About 1740 Besht established himself in the Podolian town of Miedzyboz.關於1740 Besht確立了自己在Podolian鎮Miedzyboz 。 He gathered about him numerous disciples and followers, whom he initiated into the secrets of his teachings not by systematic exposition, but by means of sayings and parables.他收集了許多有關他的弟子和追隨者,他發起的秘密他的教導而不是系統地闡述,而是手段,諺語和寓言。 These sayings were transmitted orally, and were later written down by his disciples, who developed the disjointed thoughts of their master into a system.這些諺語轉交了口頭和書面後來由他的弟子,誰開發脫節的想法他們的主人成為一個制度。 Besht himself did not write anything. Besht自己沒有寫任何東西。 Being a mystic by nature, he regarded his teachings as a prophetic revelation. Toward the end of his life he witnessed the spread in Podolia of the teachings of the Frankists, which, like Ḥasidism, were the outcome of popular dissatisfaction with the existing order of religious matters, but led to negative results.作為一個神秘的性質,他認為他的教誨作為一個先知的啟示。走向結束他的生命,他目睹了傳播Podolia的教義的Frankists ,其中,像Ḥasidism ,是受歡迎的結果不滿意現有的秩序宗教問題,但導致了消極的結果。

Fundamental Conceptions.基本概念。

The teachings of Ḥasidism, as laid down in the sayings of Besht and his first disciples, are founded on two theoretical conceptions: (1) religious pantheism, or the omnipresence of God, and (2) the idea of communion between God and man.教義Ḥasidism ,中所規定的格言Besht和他的第一個弟子,是建立在兩個理論概念: ( 1 )宗教泛神論,或無所不在的上帝, ( 2 )的想法之間的共融上帝和人類。 "Man," says Besht, "must always bear in mind that God is omnipresent and is always with him; that He is, so to speak, the most subtle matter everywhere diffused. . . . Let man realize that when he is looking at material things he is in reality gazing at the image of the Deity which ispresent in all things. With this in mind man will always serve God even in small matters." “人說, ” Besht “ ,必須始終牢記,上帝是無處不在,並且總是與他說他是,這麼說吧,最微妙的問題到處瀰漫。 。 。 。讓他認識到,當他正在考慮物質的東西,他實際上是在凝視的形象,這ispresent神在所有的事情。考慮到這一點的人將永遠服務上帝即使在小問題。 “

The second of the above-named conceptions, one which was adopted from the Cabala, consists in the belief that between the world of the Deity and the world of humanity there is an unbroken intercourse.第二次的上述觀念,這是一個通過從Cabala組成,相信世界之間的神和世界的人類有一個完整性交。 It is true not only that the Deity influences the acts of man, but also that man exerts an influence on the will and mood of the Deity.這是真正的不僅是神的行為影響人,而且人施加影響的意願和情緒的神。 Every act and word of man produces a corresponding vibration in the upper spheres.每一個字的行為和人產生相應的振動上游領域。 From this conception is derived the chief practical principle of Ḥasidism-communion with God for the purpose of uniting with the source of life and of influencing it. This communion is achieved through the concentration of all thoughts on God, and consulting Him in all the affairs of life.從這個概念是根據實際的首席原則Ḥasidism共融與上帝的目的是團結的生命之源和它的影響。這共融是通過集中的所有思考的上帝,和諮詢他的所有事務的生活。 The righteous man is in constant communion with God, even in his worldly affairs, since here also he feels His presence.正義的人是在不斷與上帝,即使是在他的世俗事務,因為在這裡還他覺得他的存在。 An especial form of communion with God is prayer.一種特殊形式的交流與上帝祈禱。 In order to render this communion complete the prayer must be full of fervor, ecstatic; and the soul of him who prays must during his devotions detach itself, so to speak, from its material dwelling.為了使這一完整的共融祈禱必須充分的熱情,欣喜若狂;和靈魂祈禱他誰必須在devotions分離本身,這麼說吧,從材料的住宅。 For the attainment of ecstasy recourse may be had to mechanical means, to violent bodily motions, to shouting and singing.為實現搖頭丸可能會訴諸了機械手段,以暴力身體動議,以呼喊和歌唱。 According to Besht, the essence of religion is in sentiment and not in reason.據Besht ,本質的宗教情感,而不是原因。 Theological learning and halakic lore are of secondary importance, and are useful only when they serve as a means of producing an exalted religious mood.神的學習和halakic傳說是次要的,而且是有用的只有當他們服務的一種手段產生一種崇高的宗教情緒。 It is better to read books of moral instruction than to engage in the study of the casuistic Talmud and the rabbinical literature.這是更好地閱讀書籍的道德教育,而不是從事研究的詭辯塔木德和猶太文獻。 In the performance of rites the mood of the believer is of more importance than the externals; for this reason formalism and superfluous ceremonial details are injurious.在執行儀式的情緒,相信是更重要的不是外部;為此形式主義和多餘的禮儀細節都有害。

Communion the Essence.聖餐的本質。

It is necessary to live and to serve God in a cheerful and happy frame of mind: sadness and sorrow darken the soul and interfere with communion; hence the injuriousness of asceticism.這是必要的生活和服務上帝的愉快和高興的心情:痛心和悲哀變暗的靈魂和干擾共融,因此injuriousness的禁慾主義。 By means of constant spiritual communion with God it is possible to secure clear mental vision, the gift of prophecy, and to work miracles.通過不斷的精神與上帝有可能,以確保明確的精神視野,禮品的預言,並努力創造奇蹟。 The righteous man, or "ẓaddiḳ," is one who has reached the ideal of communion in the highest degree, and therefore appears before God as "one of His own."正義的人,或“ ẓaddiḳ , ”是誰已經達到了理想的共融中的最高程度,因此,似乎上帝面前“一個他自己的。 ” The rôle of the ẓaddiḳ is that of mediator between God and ordinary people.所起的作用ẓaddiḳ是上帝之間的調解人和普通百姓。 Through the ẓaddiḳ salvation of the soul is achieved, and earthly blessings are obtained: it is merely necessary to believe in the power of this mediator and favorite of God, who has more or less influence in the "higher spheres."通過ẓaddiḳ拯救靈魂的成果,並塵世獲得祝福:它只是認為必要的力量,這調解人和喜愛的上帝,誰也或多或少影響了“更高的領域。 ”

Ẓaddiḳism, which in time became a complete system, had a far-reaching influence on the later destiny of Ḥasidism. Ẓaddiḳism ,這在當時成為一個完整的系統,有深遠影響以後的命運Ḥasidism 。 From among the numerous disciples of Besht, two-the preachers Baer of Meseritz and Jacob Joseph Cohen of Polonnoye-more than any others contributed to the spread of his teachings.從眾多弟子Besht ,兩貝爾的傳教士的Meseritz和Jacob約瑟夫科恩Polonnoye ,超過任何其他國家作出貢獻的傳播他的教義。 In Meseritz (Mezhirechye) and Rovno the future great leaders of Ḥasidism were trained.在Meseritz ( Mezhirechye )和Rovno未來的偉大領導人的Ḥasidism接受了培訓。 Here also originated what may be termed the ẓaddiḳ dynasties of Poland and Russia.在這裡還源於什麼可稱為ẓaddiḳ朝代的波蘭和俄羅斯。 Jacob Joseph Cohen, on his part, spread the Ḥasidic teachings by sermons and books.雅各布約瑟夫科恩,他的一部分,傳播哈西德派教義的說教和書籍。 He laid the foundations of Ḥasidic literature, which in the last three decades of the eighteenth century spread with extraordinary rapidity among the Jewish masses in Poland and Russia.他奠定了基礎哈西德派文學,這在過去三十年的十八世紀的傳播非常迅速與猶太人之間的群眾在波蘭和俄羅斯。

The Ẓaddiḳim.該Ẓaddiḳim 。

This development was favored by the decline in the economic condition of the Jews and by the political disturbances of the period owing to the partition of Poland.這種發展是青睞的下降,經濟狀況的猶太人和政治動亂的時期,由於分割波蘭。 The renewed Haidamack movement in the Ukraine, which reached its height in 1768, reminded the Jews of the bloody epoch of Chmielnicki; and the disruption of Poland, which soon followed (1772-95), brought about the division of the entire Polish Jewry among three foreign governments, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, which paid little heed to the old patriarchal organization and communal autonomy of the Polish Jews.重新Haidamack運動在烏克蘭,達到其高度在1768年,提醒猶太人的血腥時代Chmielnicki ;和中斷,波蘭緊隨其後( 1772年至1795年) ,帶來了分工的整個波蘭猶太人之間三個外國政府,俄羅斯,奧地利,普魯士,其中很少聽從舊宗法組織和社區的自治波蘭猶太人。 During this turbulent time the Jews listened eagerly to teachings which distracted their attention from the existing disturbances, and which lured them into the region of the mysterious and the supernatural. In Podolia, Volhynia, and in a portion of Galicia, Ḥasidism attracted entire communities.在這一動盪時期的猶太人聽取了殷切教誨其中分散他們的注意力從現有的騷亂,並誘使他們進入該地區的神秘和超自然的。在Podolia ,沃里尼亞,並在部分加利西亞Ḥasidism吸引了整個社區。 There arose everywhere Ḥasidic prayer-houses where service was held according to the system of Besht, with its ecstasies of prayer, its shoutings, and its bodily motions.目前各地出現哈西德派祈禱房屋服務於根據系統的Besht ,其ecstasies的祈禱,其shoutings ,其身體的動議。 The Ḥasidim introduced the prayer-book of the Palestinian cabalists ("Nusaḥ Ari"), which differed from the commonly accepted forms by various modifications in the text and in the arrangement of the prayers.該Ḥasidim介紹了祈禱書巴勒斯坦cabalists ( “ Nusaḥ阿里” ) ,這不同於普遍接受各種形式的修改案文,並在安排祈禱。 They did not observe the hours for morning prayer, but held their service at a late hour; they made some changes in the mode of killing cattle; and dressed on Sabbath in white as symbolic of the purification of the soul.他們不遵守時間為上午的祈禱,但他們的服務舉行的時間晚了,他們提出了一些變化模式造成牛;和穿著上白安息日作為象徵性的淨化靈魂。 The Ḥasidim were, however, particularly noted for the exalted worship of their "holy" ẓaddiḳim. The logical result of Ḥasidism, Ẓaddiḳism in many places actually prepared the soil for it.該Ḥasidim然而,特別指出的崇高信仰他們的“聖地” ẓaddiḳim 。合乎邏輯的結果Ḥasidism , Ẓaddiḳism在許多地方實際編寫了土壤的。 The appearance of some miracle-working ẓaddiḳ very often led to the general conversion of the local inhabitants to Ḥasidism.出現的一些奇蹟工作ẓaddiḳ往往導致一般轉換的當地居民Ḥasidism 。 Crowds of credulous men and women gathered around the ẓaddiḳ with requests for the healing of bodily ills, for blessings, for prognostications, or for advice in worldly matters. When the ẓaddiḳ succeeded in affording relief in one of the many cases, or gave fortunate advice, his fame as a miracle-worker was established, and the population of the district remained faithful to the cause of Ḥasidism.人群輕信男人和女人聚集在一起的ẓaddiḳ的要求癒合的身體弊病,為祝福,為預言,或在世俗的諮詢事項。 ẓaddiḳ當成功地提供救濟之一的許多情況下,或給幸運的意見,他的名氣作為一個奇蹟工人成立,人口的地區始終忠於事業的Ḥasidism 。

Such were the conditions in South Russia.這樣的條件是在南俄羅斯。 In the north, however, in Lithuania and in White Russia, Ḥasidism did not sweep entire communities one after another, but spread sporadically; and its adherents remained long in the condition of exclusive sectarians. Fearing the persecution of the powerful rabbis, the Lithuanian Ḥasidim often organized secret meetings where they prayed in their own way, held conversations, and read of the truth of Besht's teachings.在北部地區,然而,在立陶宛和俄羅斯在白宮, Ḥasidism沒有橫掃整個社區的一個又一個,但零星散佈;和其信徒仍長期在條件獨家sectarians 。由於擔心受到迫害的強大的拉比,立陶宛Ḥasidim經常組織秘密會晤時,他們祈禱自己的方式,舉行了交談,並宣讀了真相Besht的教誨。 Here the fundamental principles of Ḥasidism were acquired in a more conscious way, and less significance was attached to the cult of the Ẓaddiḳim.這裡的基本原則Ḥasidism被收購中更加自覺方式,以及同樣重要的是重視邪教的Ẓaddiḳim 。

The Two Schools.這兩個學校。

In this way Ḥasidism gradually branched out into two main divisions: (1) in the Ukraine and in Galicia and (2) in Lithuania.通過這種方式逐步支Ḥasidism到兩個主要部門: ( 1 )在烏克蘭和加利西亞和( 2 )在立陶宛。 The first of these divisions was directed by three disciples of Bär of Meseritz,Elimelech of Lizianka, Levi Isaac of Berdychev, and Nahum of Chernobyl, besides the grandson of Besnt, Baruch of Tulchin. Elimelech of Lizianka affirmed that belief in Ẓaddiḳism is a fundamental doctrine of Ḥasidism.其中第一個部門是針對由三個弟子Meseritz律師,以利米勒的Lizianka ,列維艾薩克的Berdychev ,和那鴻切爾諾貝利,除了孫子Besnt ,巴魯克的Tulchin 。利米勒的Lizianka肯定,相信Ẓaddiḳism是一項基本理論Ḥasidism 。 In his book "No'am Elimelek" he conveys the idea that the ẓaddiḳ is the mediator between God and the common people, and that through him God sends to the faithful three earthly blessings, life, a livelihood, and children, on the condition, however, that the Ḥasidim support the ẓaddiḳ by pecuniary contributions ("pidyonim"), in order to enable the holy man to become completely absorbed in the contemplation of God. Practically this teaching led to the contribution by the people of their last pennies toward the support of the ẓaddiḳ ("rebbe"), and the ẓaddiḳ untiringly "poured forth blessings on the earth, healed the sick, cured women of sterility," etc. The profitable vocation of ẓaddiḳ was made hereditary.在他的著作“ No'am Elimelek ”他傳達了這樣的設想,即ẓaddiḳ是上帝之間的調解人和普通百姓,並通過他向上帝的信徒三人間的祝福,生活,生計,兒童,條件然而, Ḥasidim支持ẓaddiḳ的金錢捐款( “ pidyonim ” ) ,以使神聖的人,成為完全吸收在沉思的上帝。實際上這導致教學所作出的貢獻人民的最後便士走向支持的ẓaddiḳ ( “ rebbe ” ) ,並ẓaddiḳ不懈“噴湧而出,祝福地球上,治愈病人,治愈不育的婦女”等有利可圖的使命ẓaddiḳ是遺傳。 There was a multiplication of ẓaddiḳ dynasties contesting for supremacy.有一個乘法的ẓaddiḳ朝代爭奪霸權。 The "cult of the righteous" as defined by Besht degenerated into a system of exploitation of the credulous.該“邪教的正義”所界定的Besht淪為剝削制度的輕信。 Baruch, the grandson of Besht, deriving an immense income from his adherents, led the life of a Polish lord.巴魯克的孫子Besht ,產生了巨大的收入從他的追隨者,導致生活的波蘭語領主。 He had his own court and a numerous suite, including a court jester.他有自己的法院和許多套件,包括法院滑稽演員。

Ḥabad, or Rational Ḥasidism. Ḥabad ,或理性Ḥasidism 。

The Ḥasidic organization in Lithuania and in White Russia shaped itself along different lines.該哈西德派組織在立陶宛和俄羅斯在白宮本身形狀沿不同的線路。 The teachings of Besht, brought thither from the south, adopted many features of the prevailing tendencies in contemporary rabbinism.教義Besht ,使那兒的南部,通過了許多具有普遍的傾向在當代rabbinism 。 The leading apostle of the northern Ḥasidim, Rabbi Zalman of Liozna (1747-1812), created the remarkable system of the so-called Rational Ḥasidism, or "Ḥabad" (the word "ḤaBaD" being formed of the first letters of the words "Ḥokmah," "Binah," "De'ah" = "wisdom," "understanding," "knowledge").主要倡導者北部Ḥasidim ,拉比沙曼的Liozna ( 1747年至1812年) ,創造了顯著的制度,所謂的理性Ḥasidism ,或“ Ḥabad ” (改為“ ḤaBaD ”正在形成的第一個字母改為“ Ḥokmah “ , ” Binah “ , ” De'ah “ = ”智慧“ , ”理解“ , ”知識“ ) 。 In his "Tanya" (Slavuta, 1796) and in his sermons he advocates an intelligent and not a blind faith, requiring from the Ḥasidim a certain mental preparation, and he assigns the cult of the Ẓaddiḳim a very modest place.他在“塔尼婭” ( Slavuta , 1796年) ,並在他的說教,他主張一個智能,而不是盲目的信仰,需要從Ḥasidim一定心理準備,他指派了邪教的Ẓaddiḳim一個非常溫和的地方。 In the system of Ḥabad the ẓaddiḳ appears more as a teacher than a miracle-worker.在該系統中的Ḥabad的ẓaddiḳ看起來更象是一個教師不是一個奇蹟工作者。 The teachings of Zalman were adapted to the comparatively advanced mental level of the Jewish masses of the northwestern region; and the inevitable process of degeneration which mystical doctrines ultimately underwent apappeared here less prominently than in the south.教義思適應的比較先進的智力水平的猶太群眾的西北地區,以及不可避免的過程中豆狀核變性而神秘的學說最終在這裡接受apappeared少相比,在南部地區。

Opposition to Ḥasidism.反對Ḥasidism 。

The rapid spread of Ḥasidism in the second half of the eighteenth century greatly troubled the Orthodox rabbis.迅速蔓延的Ḥasidism下半年的18世紀極大地困擾東正教猶太教。 Rabbinism from the very beginning recognized in it a dangerous enemy. Rabbinism從一開始就認識到了危險的敵人。 The doctrine of Besht, claiming that man is saved through faith and not through mere religious knowledge, was strongly opposed to the principal dogma of rabbinism, which measures man's religious value by the extent of his Talmudic learning.理論Besht ,聲稱人是通過信仰保存,而不是通過單純的宗教知識,是堅決反對的主要教條的rabbinism ,該措施男子的宗教價值的程度,他的塔木德學習。 The ritual formalism of Orthodoxy could not reconcile itself to modifications in the customary arrangement of the prayers and in the performance of some of the rites.形式主義的儀式東正教無法調和本身修改的習慣安排的祈禱和在執行的一些儀式。 Moreover, the Ḥasidic dogma of the necessity of maintaining a cheerful disposition, and the peculiar manner of awakening religious exaltation at the meetings of the sectarians-as, for instance, by the excessive use of spirituous liquors-inspired the ascetic rabbis with the belief that the new teachings induced moral laxity or coarse epicureanism.此外,哈西德派的教條,必須保持一個開朗處置,以及特有的方式提升覺醒的宗教會議上的sectarians作為,例如,過度使用烈酒啟發猶太教的苦行的信念,即新的誘導道德教誨不嚴或粗享樂主義。 Still under the fear of the Shabbethaians and the Frankists, the rabbis suspected Ḥasidism of an intimate connection with these movements so dangerous to Judaism.仍在擔心的Shabbethaians和Frankists的拉比懷疑Ḥasidism的親密與這些危險的運動,以便為猶太教。 An important factor in connection with this was the professional antagonism of the rabbis: they saw in the ẓaddiḳ a threatening competitor, a new type of the popular priest, who was fed by the superstition of the masses, and who acquired his popularity quickly. In consequence of these facts a bitter struggle soon arose between rabbinical Orthodoxy and the Ḥasidim.一個重要的因素在這方面的專業對立的拉比:他們看到的ẓaddiḳ威脅的競爭對手,一種新型的流行牧師,誰是助長了迷信的群眾,誰獲得他的聲望迅速。在因此這些事實的痛苦鬥爭之間出現不久正統猶太教和Ḥasidim 。 At the head of the Orthodox party stood Elijah ben Solomon, the stern guardian of learned and ritualistic Judaism.在團長的東正教黨站在以利亞本所羅門群島,船尾監護人的教訓和猶太教儀式。 In 1772, when the first secret circles of Ḥasidim appeared in Lithuania, the rabbinic "ḳahal" (council) of Wilna, with the approval of Elijah, arrested the local leaders of the sect, and excommunicated its adherents.在1772年,當第一次秘密界Ḥasidim出現在立陶宛,拉比“ ḳahal ” (理事會)的Wilna批准,以利亞,逮捕了當地領導人的節,和其追隨者逐出教會。 Circulars were sent from Wilna to the rabbis of other communities calling upon them to make war upon the "godless sect."通告發出了從Wilna的拉比其他社區,呼籲他們進行戰爭的“ godless節。 ” In many places cruel persecutions were instituted against the Ḥasidim.在許多地方被殘酷迫害提起的Ḥasidim 。 The appearance in 1780 of the first works of Ḥasidic literature (eg, the above-named book of Jacob Joseph Cohen, which was filled with attacks on rabbinism) created alarm among the Orthodox.出現在1780年的第一次作品哈西德派文學(例如,上述雅各書約瑟夫科恩,這是充滿了攻擊rabbinism )之間建立報警東正教。 At the council of rabbis held in the village of Zelva, government of Grodno, in 1781, it was resolved to uproot the destructive teachings of Besht.在安理會舉行的拉比村的Zelva ,政府的格羅德諾,在1781年,有人決心根除破壞性的教誨Besht 。 In the circulars issued by the council the faithful were ordered to expel the Ḥasidim from every Jewish community, to regard them as members of another faith, to hold no intercourse with them, not to intermarry with them, and not to bury their dead.在發出的通知安理會忠實地被下令驅逐Ḥasidim從每個猶太人社區,把它們作為另一成員的信念,沒有舉行與他們交往,而不是與他們通婚,而不是埋葬死者。 The antagonists of Ḥasidism called themselves "Mitnaggedim" (Opponents); and to the present day this appellation still clings to those who have not joined the ranks of the Ḥasidim.該受體拮抗劑的Ḥasidism的人稱自己是“ Mitnaggedim ” (反對者) ;和當今這個稱謂仍然堅持這些誰沒有加入的行列Ḥasidim 。

The "Mitnaggedim."該“ Mitnaggedim 。 ”

Ḥasidism in the south had established itself so firmly in the various communities that it had no fear of persecution. Ḥasidism在南部建立了自己如此堅定地在各個社區,它沒有害怕受到迫害。 The main sufferers were the northern Ḥasidim.患者的主要是北部Ḥasidim 。 Their leader, Rabbi Zalman, attempted, but unsuccessfully, to allay the anger of the Mitnaggedim and of Elijah Gaon.他們的領袖,猶太教思,企圖,但沒有成功,以減輕憤怒的Mitnaggedim和以利亞Gaon 。 On the death of the latter in 1797 the exasperation of the Mitnaggedim became so great that they resolved to denounce the leaders of the Ḥasidim to the Russian government as dangerous agitators and teachers of heresy.關於死刑後者在1797年的惱怒的Mitnaggedim變得如此之大,他們決心退出的領導人Ḥasidim的俄羅斯政府是危險的煽動者和教師的異端。 In consequence twenty-two representatives of the sect were arrested in Wilna and other places.因此2002年代表節被逮捕Wilna和其他地方。 Zalman himself was arrested at his court in Liozna and brought to St. Petersburg (1798).沙曼自己被警方拘捕,他在法庭Liozna並提請聖彼得堡( 1798年) 。 There he was kept in the fortress and was examined by a secret commission, but he and the other leaders were soon released by order of Paul I. The Ḥasidim remained, however, under "strong suspicion."在那裡,他被關在堡壘和審查了一個秘密委員會,但他和其他領導人盡快釋放被命令保羅一Ḥasidim依然存在,但是,在“強烈懷疑” 。 Two years later Zalman was again transported to St. Petersburg, through the further denunciation of his antagonists, particularly of Abigdor, formerly rabbi of Pinsk. Immediately after the accession to the throne of Alexander I., however, the leader of the Ḥasidim wasreleased, and was given full liberty to proclaim his religious teachings, which from the standpoint of the government were found to be utterly harmless (1801).兩年後,思再次運到聖彼得堡,通過進一步譴責他的對手,尤其是Abigdor ,原拉比的平斯克。之後加入王位亞歷山大一世,但領導人的Ḥasidim wasreleased ,並給予充分的自由,宣布他的宗教教義,從政府的立場被認為是完全無害的( 1801年) 。 Thereafter Zalman openly led the White-Russian or Ḥabad Ḥasidim until his death, toward the end of 1812.此後沙曼公開領導白俄文或Ḥabad Ḥasidim直到去世,對1812年年底。 He had fled from the government of Moghilef to that of Poltava, in consequence of the French invasion.他逃離了政府的Moghilef到波爾塔瓦,因此法國的入侵。

The struggle of rabbinism with Ḥasidism in Lithuania and White Russia led only to the formation of the latter sect in those regions into separate religious organizations; these existing in many towns alongside of those of the Mitnaggedim.鬥爭的rabbinism與Ḥasidism在立陶宛和俄羅斯白宮只會導致形成的,後者節在這些區域劃分為獨立的宗教組織;這些現有的許多城鎮的人一起的Mitnaggedim 。 In the south-western region, on the other hand, the Ḥasidim almost completely crowded out the Mitnaggedim, and the Ẓaddiḳim possessed themselves of that spiritual power over the people which formerly belonged to the rabbis.在西南地區,另一方面,在幾乎完全Ḥasidim擁擠的Mitnaggedim ,並Ẓaddiḳim擁有自己的精神力量的人以前屬於猶太教。

Organization.組織。

In the first half of the nineteenth century Ḥasidism spread unmolested, and reached its maximum development.在上半年的19世紀unmolested蔓延Ḥasidism ,並達到最大的發展。 About half of the Jewish population of Russia, as well as of Poland, Galicia, Rumania, and Hungary, professes Ḥasidic teachings and acknowledges the power of the Ẓaddiḳim.大約有一半的猶太居民,俄羅斯以及波蘭,加利西亞,羅馬尼亞,匈牙利,自稱哈西德派教義和承認的力量Ẓaddiḳim 。 In Russia the existence of the Ḥasidim as a separate religious organization was legalized by the "Enactment Concerning the Jews" of 1804 (See Russia).在俄羅斯的存在Ḥasidim作為一個單獨的宗教組織合法化的“關於頒布猶太人”的1804年(見俄羅斯) 。

The Ḥasidim had no central spiritual government.該Ḥasidim沒有中央精神的政府。 With the multiplication of the ẓaddiḳim their dioceses constantly diminished. Some ẓaddiḳim, however, gained a wide reputation, and attracted people from distant places.隨著乘法的ẓaddiḳim其教區不斷減少。一些ẓaddiḳim然而,獲得了廣泛的聲譽,引起人們從遙遠的地方。 To the most important dynasties belonged that of Chernobyl (consisting of the descendants of Nahum of Chernobyl) in Little Russia; that of Ruzhin-Sadagura (including the descendants of Bär of Meseritz) in Podolia, Volhynia, and Galicia; that of Lyubavich (composed of the descendants of Zalman, bearing the family name Schneersohn") in White Russia; and that of Lublin and Kotzk in the kingdom of Poland. There were also individual ẓaddiḳim not associated with the dynasties. In the first half of the nineteenth century there were well known among them: Motel of Chernobyl, Nachman of Bratzlav, Jacob Isaac of Lublin, Mendel of Lyubavich, and Israel of Luzhin. The last-named had such unlimited power over the Ḥasidim of the southwestern region that the government found it necessary to send him out of Russia (1850). He established himself in the Galician village of Sadagura on the Austrian frontier, whither the Ḥasidim continued to make pilgrimages to him and his successors.最重要的朝代是屬於切爾諾貝利(包括子孫的那鴻切爾諾貝利)在小俄羅斯的Ruzhin - Sadagura (包括子孫的律師Meseritz )在Podolia ,沃里尼亞,和加利西亞;的Lyubavich (組成的後裔思,同時姓氏Schneersohn “ )在白宮,俄羅斯和盧布林和Kotzk在波蘭王國。也有個別ẓaddiḳim沒有相關的朝代。首先十九世紀下半葉有眾所周知其中包括:切爾諾貝利汽車旅館, Nachman的Bratzlav ,雅各布艾薩克的盧布林,孟德爾的Lyubavich ,以色列的Luzhin 。最後命名了這種無限的權力的Ḥasidim的西南地區,政府認為有必要派遣他從俄羅斯( 1850年) 。他確立了自己在加利西亞村Sadagura在奧地利邊境,何處的Ḥasidim繼續參拜他和他的繼任者。

Rabbinical Orthodoxy at this time had discontinued its struggle with Ḥasidism and had reconciled itself to the establishment of the latter as an accomplished fact.猶太教正統派在這個時候停止了掙扎Ḥasidism ,並核對自己設立了後者作為既成事實。 Gradually the Mitnaggedim and the Ḥasidim began to intermarry, which practise had formerly been strictly forbidden.逐步Mitnaggedim和Ḥasidim開始通婚,其中執業以前是嚴格禁止的。

Attacked by the Haskalah.攻擊的Haskalah 。

In the first quarter of the nineteenth century Ḥasidism met new opposition from the younger generation of intelligent Jews, who had received a modern education.今年第一季度的19世紀新的Ḥasidism會見了反對派的年輕一代的智能猶太人,誰收到了現代教育。 The crusade against Ḥasidism was started by the Mendelssohnian school in Austria.在討伐Ḥasidism開始的Mendelssohnian學校在奧地利。 The Galician writer Joseph Perl published in 1819 a bitter satire against the sect in the form of "Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum" ("Megalleh Temirin").在加里西亞的Perl作家約瑟夫在1819年出版的痛苦諷刺打擊邪教的形式“ Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum ” ( “ Megalleh Temirin ” ) 。 He was followed in Russia by Isaac Bär Levinsohn of Kremenetz with his "Dibre Ẓaddiḳim" (1830).他是在俄羅斯之後的伊薩克的律師彼得Kremenetz與他的“ Dibre Ẓaddiḳim ” ( 1830年) 。 At times the embittered foes of Ḥasidism went so far as to urge the government (in Austria and Russia) to adopt repressive measures against the Ẓaddiḳim and the Ḥasidic literature.有時心懷怨恨的敵人的Ḥasidism竟然敦促政府(在奧地利和俄羅斯)採取鎮壓措施的Ẓaddiḳim和哈西德派文學。 But at first none of these attacks could weaken the power of the Ḥasidim.但在第一次沒有這些攻擊可能會削弱權力Ḥasidim 。 They showed everywhere a more stubborn opposition to European culture than did rabbinical Orthodoxy; for they felt instinctively that free criticism was more dangerous to the mysticism of the Ẓaddiḳim than to Talmudic casuistry and ritualistic formalism.他們發現世界各地更多的頑固反對歐洲文化相比,猶太教正統;因為他們本能地認為,自由批評是更危險的神秘主義的Ẓaddiḳim比塔木德詭辯形式主義和走過場。

It was only in the second half of the nineteenth century, when the educational movement among the Russian Jews became stronger, that a period of stagnation and decline for Ḥasidism began.只有在第二十九世紀下半葉,當教育運動之間的俄羅斯猶太人變得更強,再進行一段時間的停滯和下降的Ḥasidism開始。 A considerable portion of the younger generation, under the influence of the new movement for enlightenment, repudiated Ḥasidism and began to struggle against the power of the Ẓaddiḳim.相當一部分年輕一代的影響下,新的啟蒙運動,批駁Ḥasidism ,並開始作鬥爭的力量Ẓaddiḳim 。 The enlightening literature of the Haskalah attacked Ḥasidism with bitter satire, and the periodicals exposed the adventures of the miracle-working Ẓaddiḳim.啟蒙文學Haskalah攻擊Ḥasidism與痛苦的諷刺和揭露期刊的冒險奇蹟工作Ẓaddiḳim 。 Moreover, early in the second half of the century the Russian government instituted a police super-vision over the numerous ẓaddiḳim within the Pale of Settlement, and limited their freedom of movement in order to counteract their propaganda.此外,早在下半年的世紀,俄羅斯政府設立了一個警察超視覺的許多ẓaddiḳim在帕萊的解決辦法,並限制他們的行動自由,以抵消他們的宣傳。 All of these blows, external and internal, together with the general decline of piety among certain classes of the Russian Jews, weakened the growth of Ḥasidism and Ẓaddiḳism.所有這些衝擊,外部和內部,加上普遍下降的虔誠之間的某些類別的俄羅斯猶太人,削弱了增長Ḥasidism和Ẓaddiḳism 。 The decay of ẓaddiḳ dynasties and the impoverishment of the Ḥasidic literature became apparent.衰減ẓaddiḳ朝代和貧困哈西德派文學變得明顯。

Decline of the Movement.下降的運動。

Nevertheless Ḥasidism is so deeply grounded in Russo-Polish Judaism that it has proved impossible to uproot it.然而Ḥasidism深深地植根於俄羅斯,波蘭猶太教,它已證明無法根除它。 It still has its hundreds of thousands of adherents; and, although its development has been temporarily arrested, its vitality can not be doubted. Started as a counterpoise to rabbinical and ritual formalism, it still satisfies the religious requirements of the uneducated masses. In the last two decades of the nineteenth century, owing to a general social reaction in the life of the Russian Jews, a measure of revival was noticed in Ḥasidic circles.它仍然有成千上萬的信徒; ,雖然其發展已被暫時逮捕,其生命力不能懷疑。開始作為一個平衡,以猶太教和禮儀形式主義,但仍滿足宗教界要求,沒有受過教育的群眾。在過去二十年來的十九世紀,由於社會的反應一般生活中的俄羅斯猶太人,一定程度的復甦是注意哈西德派人士。 In the past ten years the administrative surveillance of the Ẓaddiḳim and the limitation of their movements have been abolished.在過去的十幾年的行政監視Ẓaddiḳim和限制他們的行動已經被取消。 The result has been a reenforcement of Ẓaddiḳism in some places, where it had been almost superseded.其結果是reenforcement的Ẓaddiḳism在一些地方,在那裡已經幾乎取代。 Though not producing at present any prominent personalities in literature or in communal life, Ḥasidism nourishes itself by its stored-up reserves of spiritual power.雖然不生產,目前任何知名人士在文學或在社區生活,孕育本身Ḥasidism其存儲儲備強大的精神力量。 In the eighteenth century it was a great creative force which brought into stagnant rabbinical Judaism a fervent stream of religious enthusiasm.早在十八世紀是一個偉大的創造性的力量,使停滯不前的猶太教猶太教的狂熱流的宗教熱情。 Under the influence of Ḥasidism the Russo-Polish Jew became brighter at heart but darker in intellect.的影響下Ḥasidism俄波蘭猶太人成為光明的心,但黑暗中的智慧。 In the nineteenth century, in its contact with European culture, it was more reactionary than rabbinism.在十九世紀,在其與歐洲文化,但更多的反動比rabbinism 。 The period of stagnation which it has lately passed through must, however, result in its gradualdecay. After having been the object of apology or of vituperation in literature, Ḥasidism has become an object of scientific investigation.這一時期的停滯它最近通過然而,必須在其結果gradualdecay 。之後的對象道歉或謾罵文學, Ḥasidism已成為一個對象的科學調查。

Herman Rosenthal, SM Dubnow赫爾曼森塔爾主義Dubnow
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Orshanski, Mysli o Khasidizmye, in Yevreiskaya Biblioteka, i., St. Petersburg, 1871; S. Orshanski , Mysli ö Khasidizmye ,在Yevreiskaya Biblioteka島,聖彼得堡, 1871年;南 Dubnow, Vvedeniye v Istoriyu Khasidizma; idem, Vozniknoveniye Khasidizma; idem, Istoriya Khasidskavo Raskola; idem, Religioznaya Borba in Voskhod, 1888-93; J. Dubnow , Vvedeniye v Istoriyu Khasidizma ;同上, Vozniknoveniye Khasidizma ;同上, Istoriya Khasidskavo Raskola ;同上, Religioznaya博爾巴在沃斯霍德, 1888年至1893年;學者 Gessen, K Istorii Religioznoi Borby, etc., in Voskhod, 1902, Nos. 1-2; Jost, Gesch. Gessen ,鉀Istorii Religioznoi Borby等,在沃斯霍德, 1902年,第1-2 ;喬斯特, Gesch 。 des Judenthums und Seiner Sekten, iii.萬Judenthums與Seiner Sekten ,三。 184; Löw, Vergangenheit und Gegenwart der Chasidäer, 1859; Grätz, Gesch. 184 ;低, Vergangenheit之與當代Chasidäer , 1859年;格拉茨, Gesch 。 xi., ch.十一。 ,膽固醇。 iii.三。 and note 2; Schechter, Studies in Judaism, p.和說明2 ;謝克特,猶太教研究,第 1, Philadelphia, 1896; O. 1 ,費城, 1896年;著 Rabinovich, Sochineniya, iii.拉比諾維奇, Sochineniya ,三。 207; Ehrlich, Der Weg Meines Lebens, Vienna, 1874; Sternhartz, 'Alim li-Terufah, Berdychev, 1896; Gottlober, in Ha-Boḳer Or, passim; Entziklopedicheski Slovar, xxxvii., St. Petersburg, 1903.HRSMD 207 ;埃利希, Meines之路生命,維也納, 1874年; Sternhartz ,阿利姆立Terufah , Berdychev , 1896年; Gottlober ,在河Boḳer或者,各處; Entziklopedicheski Slovar ,三十七。 ,聖彼得堡, 1903.HRSMD


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