Fasting空腹

General Information 一般信息

Fasting is the practice of abstaining from food, either completely or partially, for a specified period.禁食的做法是從食物中投棄權票,或者完全或部分在規定的期間。 It is an ancient practice found in most religions of the world. Recent scientific research suggests that fasting may be healthful and, when engaged in carefully, may bring about heightened states of consciousness and sensibility. Traditionally, fasting has been a widely used form of Asceticism and a penitential practice observed for the purpose of purifying the person or of atoning for sins and wrongdoing.這是一個古老的實踐中發現大多數宗教的世界。最近的科學研究表明,空腹可能是健康的,並在認真從事,可能會帶來更加州的意識和情感。 傳統,空腹已成為廣泛使用的形式,禁慾主義和悔罪的實踐觀察,目的是淨化人或彌補的罪過和錯誤。

Most religions designate certain days or seasons as times of fasting for their adherents, such as Lent, Yom Kippur and Ramadan.大多數宗教都指定某些日子或季節隨著時代的禁食的追隨者,如封齋期,贖罪日和齋月。 Certain events in the lives of individual persons have been considered appropriate times for fasting, such as the day or night before a major personal commitment.某些事件的生活中個別人認為適當的時間禁食,如白天或晚上收到一個重大的個人承諾。 The vigil of knighthood is a historical instance of this practice.在晚會的騎士是一個歷史實例的這一做法。 Prayer is supposed to accompany fasting. Fasting should be distinguished from abstinence, the religious practice of not eating meat on a specified day or at a designated meal.祈禱是伴隨空腹。 空腹應有別於禁慾的宗教習俗,不吃肉就某一特定日期或在指定的餐。

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Fast, Fasting快速,空腹

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Fasting is the act of total or partial abstinence from food for a limited period of time, usually undertaken for moral or religious reasons.禁食是行為的全部或部分禁慾從食物在有限的時間內,通常是進行道德或宗教原因。 Religious dicta concerning fasting range from Zoroastrianism, which forbade it, to Jainism, which teaches that the believer's goal is a life of passionless detachment culminating ideally in death by voluntary starvation.宗教論述關於禁食範圍從拜火教,其中禁止它,耆那教,該教的信徒的目標是生活的熱情最終脫離死亡的理想由自願挨餓。

Nearly all religions promote or sanction fasting in some form or another.幾乎所有宗教的促進或制裁空腹以某種形式。 In primal religions it is often a means to control or appease the gods, a way to produce virility, or preparation for a ceremonial observance, such as initiation or mourning.在原始宗教往往是一種手段,控制或安撫神靈,一種生產壯陽,或準備一個象徵性的紀念活動,如發起或哀悼。 The fast was used by the ancient Greeks when consulting oracles, by the American Indians to acquire their private totem, and by African shamans to make contact with spirits.快速使用的是古希臘人諮詢神諭時,由美洲印第安人獲得其私人圖騰,和非洲巫醫進行接觸與精神。 Many Eastern religions use it to gain clarity of vision and mystical insight.許多東方宗教用它來獲得清晰的遠見和神秘的洞察力。 Judaism, several branches of Christianity, and Islam all have fixed fast days, and usually associate fasting with the discipline of the flesh or with repentance for sin.猶太教,幾個部門的基督教和伊斯蘭教都有固定的快速天,通常準空腹與紀律的肉或與懺悔的罪孽。 Islam undertakes the annual fast of Ramadan, an entire month when Muslims are obliged to abstain from all food and water from sunrise to sunset.伊斯蘭教進行年度快速的齋月,整個月份的穆斯林不得不投棄權票的所有食物和水從日出到日落。

In Judaism the day of atonement is the only public fast day prescribed by the law (Lev. 16:29, 31; 23:26-32; Num. 29:7-11).在猶太教贖罪日是唯一的公共快一天所訂明的法律(利未記16:29 , 31 ; 23:26-32 ;數。 29:7-11 ) 。 However, the OT also refers to many special public and private fasts, usually coupled with prayer, to signify mourning (1 Sam. 31:13; 11 Sam. 1:12), to show repentance and remorse (11 Sam. 12:15-23; 1 Kings 21:27-29; Neh. 9:1-2; Joel 2:12-13), or to demonstrate serious concern before God (11 Chr. 20:1-4; Pss. 35:13; 69:10; 109:24; Dan. 9:3).然而,催產素還提到了許多特殊的公共和私人齋戒,通常加上祈禱,以示哀悼( 1薩姆。 31:13 ; 11日山姆。 1:12 ) ,以顯示懺悔和反省( 11山姆。 12:15 -23 ;列王紀上21:27-29 ;全國人文捐贈基金。 9:1-2 ;喬爾2:12-13 ) ,或表現出嚴重關切上帝面前( 11個染色體。 20:1-4 ;症狀評分。 35:13 ; 69:10 ; 109:24 ;丹。 9時03分) 。 However, fasting that was not accompanied by genuine repentance and righteous deeds was denounced as an empty legal observance by the prophets (Isa. 58; Jer. 14:11-12).然而,空腹這不是真正的陪同下懺悔和正義的事蹟被譴責為一個空的法律遵守先知(以賽亞書58 ;哲。 14:11-12 ) 。

Jesus himself apparently fasted during his so, called wilderness experience as a part of the preparation for his formal ministry (Matt. 4:1-2; Luke 4:1-2).他顯然是耶穌禁食期間,因此,所謂的野外經驗,籌備工作的一部分正式部(瑪特泰4:1-2 ;盧克4:1-2 ) 。 However, the Gospels report that he spoke only twice about fasting, once to warn his disciples that it was to be a private act of simple devotion to God and once to indicate that it would be appropriate for his followers to fast after he left them (Matt. 6:16-18; 9:14-15; cf. Mark 2:18-20; Luke 5:33-35).然而,福音報告,他以大約只有兩次空腹,一旦警告他的弟子,它是一個私人行為簡單的奉獻上帝並再次表明,這將是合適的他的追隨者快速離開他們(馬特。 6:16-18 ; 9:14-15 ;比照。馬克2:18-20 ;盧克5:33-35 ) 。 It is clear that he did not stress fasting, nor did he lay down any rules concerning its observance as had John the Baptist and the Pharisees for their disciples.很顯然,他沒有強調空腹,也沒有放下任何規則,遵守如施洗約翰和法利賽人的弟子。

The early Christian community did not emphasize fasting but observed it in connection with certain occasions of solemn commitment (Acts 13:2-3; 14:23).在早期基督教社會不強調禁食,但看到它與某些場合的莊嚴承諾(使徒13:2-3 ; 14:23 ) 。 Moreover, Jewish Christians apparently followed the Jewish custom of fasting and prayer on Mondays and Thursdays until around the end of the first century when Wednesdays and Fridays were observed, probably in reaction against the Judaizers.此外,猶太基督徒顯然遵循了猶太習俗,禁食和祈禱在星期一和星期四,直到月底左右一世紀時,三,五觀察,很可能在反應Judaizers反對。 However, such fasts were usually concluded by midafternoon and were not universally enforced.然而,這種齋戒通常是由下午結束,並沒有得到普遍實施。 Also, from the second century on, two intensive fast days were observed in preparation for Easter.另外,從第二世紀,兩個密集的快速觀察幾天在準備復活節。

In the fourth century, when Christianity finally became the only recognized faith of the Roman Empire, the consequent institutionalization of the church led to a much greater stress on form, ritual, and liturgy.在四世紀時,基督教終於成為公認的唯一信仰羅馬帝國,由此制度化教堂造成了更大的壓力形式,儀式,和禮儀。 Fasting thus became increasingly linked with a legalistic theology and the concept of meritorious works.空腹從而成為越來越多的聯繫與神學和法律概念的有功工程。 For example, the early church's two-day fast before Easter came, in the fourth century, to be a Lenten observance of forty fast days, which by the tenth century was obligatory upon the entire Western church.例如,早期教會為期兩天的快速來到復活節前,在第四世紀,是一個四旬期遵守第四十三快速天,由10世紀是強制性的整個西方教會。 In addition, fasting was a common element of discipline in the early monastic communities from the second century onward.此外,空腹是一個共同的因素紀律的早期寺院社區從第二世紀前進。 When the monastic way replaced martyrdom as the highest act of devotion of the Christian life in the fourth century, monastic practices such as fasting were also elevated in the eyes of the faithful.當寺院的方式改為殉難作為最高的行為奉獻的基督徒生活在四世紀,寺院的做法,如禁食也升高眼中的忠誠。

The church of Rome added a number of fast days to the calendar of the Christian year during the Middle Ages.教會羅馬增加了若干天內快速的日曆基督教一年在中世紀。 It adopted the days of the chief agricultural operations in Italy as obligatory fasts called ember days: the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday following the first Sunday in Lent; Pentecost; and September 14.它通過幾天的首席農業活動在意大利作為強制性的齋戒要求餘燼時間:週三,週五,週六的第一個星期天在四旬期;聖靈降臨節和9月14日。 A fourth season of fasting from December 13 to Christmas was added later.第四個賽季空腹12月13日至聖誕節後加入。 Also during the Middle Ages the Eastern Orthodox Church added obligatory fast days beginning November 15 during Advent, from Trinity Sunday until June 29, and the two weeks prior to August 15.另外,在中世紀東正教快速增加強制性天11月15日開始降臨節期間,來自三一星期日,直到6月29日,與兩個星期前8月15日。

The Protestant Reformers of the sixteenth century, with the exception of the Anglicans, rejected obligatory fast days along with much of the other prescribed ritual and formal religious acts of the Roman Church. The Anabaptists, more than any other reform group of the period, relegated fasting once more to the private sphere, leaving it up to the individual believer to determine its appropriateness for enhancing self-discipline and prayer.新教改革者的16世紀,唯一的例外是英國聖公會教徒,反對強制性的快速幾天連同許多其他訂明的儀式和正式的宗教行為的羅馬教會。 Anabaptists的,超過了其它任何改革小組的時期,降級空腹再次向私人領域,讓個別的信徒,以確定其是否適宜加強自律和祈禱。

The Roman Catholic Church maintained its church calendar of fast days until the twentieth century, when it was modified by several acts related to Vatican Council II.羅馬天主教教會保持快速日曆天,直到20世紀,當時修改了一些相關的行為梵蒂岡理事會二。 Moreover, the modern Catholic approach has been to link fasting to the call to love one's neighbor and to see it as a symbol of the Christian's identification with the poor and hungry of the world.此外,現代天主教辦法已鏈接空腹呼籲愛一個人的鄰居,並把它看作是一個象徵基督教的身份與貧窮和飢餓的世界。 In some Christian circles, Catholic and non-Catholic, evangelical and nonevangelical, there is the growing custom of meeting for a simple repast and giving the cost of the normal meal to relieve world hunger as a kind of modern-day version of fasting.在一些基督教界,天主教和非天主教,基督教和nonevangelical ,有日益增長的習俗,舉行一個簡單的餐飲,並給予費用的正常膳食,以減輕世界飢餓作為一種現代版的禁食。 Twentieth century Pentecostal charismatics have written extensively about the benefits of the fast, nearly always linking it with prayer, as a means to deepen spiritual life and/or to obtain God's favor.二十世紀五旬charismatics書面廣泛的益處的速度快,幾乎總是把它與祈禱,作為一種手段,深化精神生活和/或獲得上帝的青睞。 Some charismatic leaders even claim that the course of history can be shaped by prayer and fasting.有些魅力的領導人甚至宣稱,歷史過程中可形成的祈禱和禁食。

As with any religious practice, there are dangers in fasting, especially when emphasized at the expense of other biblical teachings or misused for selfish ends.正如任何宗教習俗,有危險,空腹,尤其是在強調以犧牲其他聖經教義或濫用的自私的目的。 The Bible notes such abuses as fasting as a means of getting things from God, as a substitute for genuine repentance, as a mere convention and therefore an end in itself, and as an occasion for outward religiosity (Isa. 58; Zech. 7:5; Matt. 6:16). Moreover, there is psychological evidence that fasting lends itself to self-induced visions which sometimes prove harmful.聖經指出這種行為是空腹作為一種手段獲得的東西上帝,以取代真正的懺悔,僅僅是一個公約,因此,本身就是一個目標,並作為一個機會向外宗教(以賽亞書58 ;撒加利亞。 7 : 5 ;馬特。 6:16 ) 。此外,還有心理上的證據表明,空腹本身自我誘導的看法,有時證明是有害的。 On the other hand, there is biblical evidence that fasting and prayer practiced together can be a useful part of individual and congregational life, though the practice should never be allowed to degenerate into an empty formal observance or a device for attempting to manipulate God.另一方面,有證據表明,聖經的禁食和祈禱一起練可以成為一個有用的一部分,個人和公理的生活,但這種做法絕不應允許墮落成一個空的正式紀念或裝置,企圖操縱上帝。

RD Linder路林德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
H. Franke, Lent and Easter; A. Wallis, God's Chosen Fast; JL Beall, The Adventure of Fasting; D. Prince, Shaping History Through Prayer and Fasting; EN Rogers, Fasting: The Phenomenon of Self-Denial; A. Cott et al., Fasting: A Way of Life; AM Fulton, ed., The Fasting Primer; D. Dewelt, What the Bible Says about Prayer and Fasting.閣下弗蘭克,四旬期和復活的A.瓦利斯,上帝的選擇快速;巨浪北,歷險禁食; D.王子,塑造歷史通過祈禱和禁食;英文羅傑斯,空腹:現象的自我否定的A.科特等人。 ,空腹:一種生活方式;上午富爾頓,編輯。 ,空腹底漆; D. Dewelt ,什麼聖經上說的祈禱和禁食。


Fast快速的

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The sole fast required by the law of Moses was that of the great Day of Atonement (qv), Lev.唯一的速度所需要的摩西律法是偉大的贖罪日( qv ) ,列弗。 23:26-32. 23:26-32 。 It is called "the fast" (Acts 27:9).這是所謂的“快速” (使徒27:9 ) 。 The only other mention of a periodical fast in the Old Testament is in Zech.唯一提到的其他期刊快速舊約是撒加利亞。 7:1-7; 8:19, from which it appears that during their captivity the Jews observed four annual fasts. 7:1-7 ; 8點19分,從它似乎在其關押的猶太人觀察四個年度齋戒。 (1.) The fast of the fourth month, kept on the seventeenth day of Tammuz, the anniversary of the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans; to commemorate also the incident recorded Ex. ( 1 ) 。快了4個月,保存在17天的齋戒日,週年紀念捕捉耶路撒冷的迦勒; ,以紀念這一事件也記錄前。 32:19. 32:19 。 (Comp. Jer. 52:6, 7.) (2.) The fast of the fifth month, kept on the ninth of Ab (comp. Num. 14:27), to commemorate the burning of the city and temple (Jer. 52:12, 13). ( Comp.哲。 52:6 , 7 。 ) ( 2 ) 。快速的第五個月,保存在第九屆的抗體( comp.數。 14:27 ) ,以紀念燃燒的城市和寺廟(張哲。 52:12 , 13 ) 。 (3.) The fast of the seventh month, kept on the third of Tisri (comp. 2 Kings 25), the anniversary of the murder of Gedaliah (Jer. 41:1, 2). ( 3 。 )快速的7個月保持在三分之一的Tisri ( comp.列王紀下25日) ,紀念謀殺Gedaliah ( Jer. 41:1 , 2 ) 。 (4.) The fast of the tenth month (comp. Jer. 52:4; Ezek. 33:21; 2 Kings 25:1), to commemorate the beginning of the siege of the holy city by Nebuchadnezzar. ( 4 ) 。快十一個月( comp.哲。 52:4 ; Ezek 。 33:21 ;列王紀下為25:1 ) ,以紀念開始圍攻聖城的尼布甲尼撒。 There was in addition to these the fast appointed by Esther (4:16).人們除了這些快速任命的埃斯特( 4點16分) 。

Public national fasts on account of sin or to supplicate divine favour were sometimes held.國家齋戒公眾對帳戶的罪孽,或祈求神聖的贊成票,有時舉行。 (1.) 1 Sam. ( 1 。 ) 1薩姆。 7:6; (2.) 2 Chr. 7時零六( 2 。 ) 2染色體。 20:3; (3.) Jer. 20點03分; ( 3 。 )哲。 36:6-10; (4.) Neh. 36:6-10 ; ( 4 。 )全國人文捐贈基金。 9:1. 9:1 。 There were also local fasts.也有當地的齋戒。 (1.) Judg. ( 1 ) 。 Judg 。 20:26; (2.) 2 Sam. 20:26 ; ( 2 。 ) 2薩姆。 1:12; (3.) 1 Sam. 1:12 ; ( 3 。 ) 1薩姆。 31:13; (4.) 1 Kings 21:9-12; (5.) Ezra 8:21-23: (6.) Jonah 3:5-9. 31:13 ; ( 4 ) 。列王紀上21:9-12 ; ( 5 。 )以斯拉8:21-23 : ( 6 ) 。喬納3:5-9 。 There are many instances of private occasional fasting (1 Sam. 1:7: 20:34; 2 Sam. 3:35; 12:16; 1 Kings 21:27; Ezra 10:6; Neh. 1:4; Dan. 10:2,3).有許多事例私人偶爾空腹( 1薩姆。 1時07 : 20:34 2薩姆。 3點35分; 12:16 ;列王紀上21:27 ;以斯拉10點06 ;全國人文捐贈基金。 1:4 ;丹。 10:2,3 ) 。 Moses fasted forty days (Ex. 24:18; 34:28), and so also did Elijah (1 Kings 19:8).摩西禁食四十天(出24:18 ; 34:28 ) ,所以也沒有以利亞(列王紀上19時08分) 。 Our Lord fasted forty days in the wilderness (Matt. 4:2).我們的主禁食四十天在曠野(瑪特泰4:2 ) 。 In the lapse of time the practice of fasting was lamentably abused (Isa. 58:4; Jer. 14:12; Zech. 7:5).在時間的推移的做法是可悲的空腹濫用(以賽亞書58:4 ;哲。 14:12 ;撒加利亞。 7點05分) 。 Our Lord rebuked the Pharisees for their hypocritical pretences in fasting (Matt. 6:16).我們的主指責法利他們虛偽的藉口禁食(瑪特泰6:16 ) 。 He himself appointed no fast.他本人沒有任命快。 The early Christians, however, observed the ordinary fasts according to the law of their fathers (Acts 13:3; 14:23; 2 Cor. 6:5).早期的基督徒,然而,觀察普通齋戒根據法律,他們父輩(使徒13時03 ; 14時23分, 2肺心病。 6時零五) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Fasting空腹

Orthodox Church Information東正教教堂的信息

Just as there are times for feasting in the Church, there are also times for fasting.正如有時間,節日在教會,也有禁食的時間。 Jesus Christ Himself often fasted and insisted that the people fast as well (See Matt. 4:2, Matt. 6:16-18, Mk. 9:14-29, Acts 14:23).耶穌基督自己常常禁食,並堅持認為,人快以及(見馬特。四點02分,馬特。 6:16-18 ,馬可福音。 9:14-29 ,行為14:23 ) 。

The Orthodox Church, regarding man as a unity of soul and body, has always insisted that the body must be trained and disciplined as well as the soul.東正教會,就人作為一個統一的靈魂和身體,一直堅持,該機構必須在訓練和紀律,以及靈魂。 "Fasting and self-control are the first virtue, the mother, the root, source, and foundation of all good." “禁食和自我控制是第一美德,母親的根源,來源和基礎都很好。 ”

Fasting is not a set of dietary laws or legalistic requirements.空腹不是一套膳食法律或法律的要求。 Rather, fasting accompanied by prayer, is a spiritual aid which disciplines the body and soul and enables them to strive together to bring the whole person closer to God, especially during the preparation periods of the great feast days of the Church.相反,禁食祈禱的陪同下,是一種精神上的援助學科的身體和靈魂,使他們能夠一起努力,使整個人更接近上帝,尤其是在準備期的偉大節日的教會。

The following are fast days and seasons:以下是快速天,季節:

The following are fast days on which fish is allowed:以下是快速天,其中魚是允許:

The following days are completely fast-free:以後的幾天裡完全是快速免費:


Fast快速的

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

In general abstinence from food or drink, a term common to the various Teutonic tongues.在一般禁慾從食物或飲料,一個長期共同的各種日爾曼舌頭。 Some derive the word from a root whose primary signification means to hold, to keep, to observe or to restrain one's self.一些獲得這個詞從一個根,其主要含義是指持有,保持,觀察或限制一個人的自我。 The Latin term jejunium denotes an animal intestine which is always empty.拉丁美洲長期jejunium是指動物的腸道始終是空的。 Such abstinence varies according to the measure of restriction circumscribing the use of food and drink.這種禁慾根據不同的衡量標準限定限制使用的食品和飲料。 Hence it may denote abstinence from all kinds of food and drink for a given period.因此,它可能意味著禁慾從各種食品和飲料的某一時期。 Such is the nature of the fast prescribed by the Church before Holy Communion (natural fast).就是這樣的性質,快速明教會在聖餐(自然快) 。 It may also mean such abstinence from food and drink as is dictated by the bodily or mental dispositions peculiar to each individual, and is then known as moral or philosophical fast.它也可能意味著這種禁慾的食品和飲料的是取決於身體或精神處分權特有的每一個人,是當時稱為道德或哲學快。 In like manner the term comprehends penitential practices common to various religious communities in the Church.同樣的方式理解悔罪的長期共同的做法不同宗教社區的教會。 Finally, in the strict acceptation of the term, fasting denotes abstinence from food, and as such is an act of temperance finding its raison d'être in the dictates of natural law and its full perfection in the requirements of positive ecclesiastical legislation.最後,在嚴格驗收的任期,空腹是指禁慾的食物,因為這種行為是對禁酒找到其存在的理由要求在自然法和全面完善的要求,積極教會的立法。

In Christian antiquity the Eustathians (Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. II, 33) denied the obligation, for the more perfect Christians, of the Church fasts; they were condemned (380) by the Synod of Gangra (can. xiv) which also asserted incidentally the traditional antiquity of the ecclesiastical fasts (Hefele-Leclercq, Hist. des Conciles. French tr. Paris, 1908, 1, p. 1041). Contrary to the groundless assertions of these sectaries, moralists are one in maintaining that a natural law inculcates the necessity of fasting because every rational creature is bound to labour intelligently for the subjugation of concupiscence.在古代基督教的Eustathians ( Sozomen ,組織胺。傳道書。二, 33歲)否認了義務,更完美的基督徒,教會齋戒;他們譴責( 380 )由主教會議Gangra ( can.十四) ,其中還斷言順便提一句古老的傳統的宗教齋戒( Hefele ,勒克萊爾,組織胺。沙漠Conciles 。法語文。巴黎, 1908年, 1頁1041 ) 。相反,無根據的斷言這些sectaries ,道德是一個在保持一個自然法則灌輸的必要性空腹合理的,因為每個動物的約束勞動智慧的征服concupiscence 。 As a consequence, rational creatures are logically obliged to adopt means commensurate with the attainment of this end (see MORTIFICATION). Amongst the means naturally subserving this purpose fasting lays claim to a place of primary importance.因此,合理的生物邏輯有義務採取相稱的手段實現這一目的(見屈辱) 。當中自然的手段subserving為此禁食規定要求的地方,是至關重要的。 The function of positive law is to intervene in designating days whereon this obligation must be observed, as well as the manner in which the same obligation is to be discharged on days authoritatively appointed.該功能的積極的法律干預是在指定天上面這一義務,必須遵守,以及以何種方式同樣的義務要出院的日子權威性任命。

What pertains to the origin as well as to the historical development of this obligation in the Church may be gleaned easily from the articles on ABSTINENCE and BLACK FAST.什麼涉及到的原產地,以及歷史發展的這一義務在教會可能會很容易從收集的條款禁慾和黑快速。 The law of fasting, ecclesiastical in its genius, is unwritten in its origin, and consequently must be understood and applied with due regard for the customs of various times and places.該法的齋戒,教會在其天才,是不成文的在其原產地,因此,必須理解和應用適當考慮各海關的時間和地點。 See the corresponding historico-archaeological articles in the various modern dictionaries and encyclopedias of Christian Archaeology, eg Martigny, Kraus, Smith and Cheetham, Cabrol and Leclercq.見相應的歷史,考古的文章在各種現代字典和百科全書的基督教考古學,如馬蒂尼,克勞斯,史密斯和Cheetham , Cabrol和勒克萊爾。 Details will be found under ADVENT; LENT; VIGIL; EMBER DAYS.詳情將根據發現的到來;四旬期;守夜;餘燼天。

In the United States of America all the days of Lent; the Fridays of Advent (generally); the Ember Days; the vigils of Christmas and Pentecost, as well as those (14 Aug.) of the Assumption; (31 Oct.) of All Saints, are now fasting days.在美利堅合眾國的所有天的大齋期;的星期五降臨(一般) ;的餘燼天;的守夜的聖誕節和聖靈降臨節,以及那些( 8月14日)的假設; ( 10月31日)的諸聖,現在空腹天。 In Great Britain, Ireland, Australia and Canada, the days just indicated, together with the Wednesdays of Advent and (28 June) the vigil of Saints Peter and Paul, are fasting days.在英國,愛爾蘭,澳大利亞和加拿大的日子剛剛表示,連同星期三降臨和( 6月28日)的晚會的聖徒彼得和保羅,是空腹天。 Fasting essentially consists in eating but one full meal in twenty-four hours and that about midday.基本上是由空腹吃,但在一個充分餐二四小時,大約中午時分。 It also implies the obligation of abstaining from flesh meat during the same period, unless legitimate authority grants permission to eat meat.這也意味著義務棄權的肉肉類在同一期間內,除非合法權力授予的權限吃肉。 The quantity of food allowed at this meal has never been made the subject of positive legislation.食物數量允許在此吃飯從來沒有提出問題的積極的立法。 Whosoever therefore eats a hearty or sumptuous meal in order to bear the burden of fasting satisfies the obligation of fasting.因此,任何人吃衷心或豐盛的晚餐,以承擔空腹滿足空腹的義務。 Any excess during the meal mitigates against the virtue of temperance, without jeopardizing the obligation of fasting.任何多餘的餐減輕對憑藉戒酒,同時又不損害的義務空腹。

According to general usage, noon is the proper time for this meal.根據一般使用情況,中午是適當的時候為這一頓。 For good reasons this hour may be legitimately anticipated.良好的原因,這可能是小時的合法預期。 Grievous sin is not committed even though this meal is taken a full hour before noon without sufficient reason, because the substance of fasting, which consists in taking but one full meal a day, is not imperiled.嚴重的罪過不承諾即使這餐是採取了整整一個小時中午前沒有足夠的理由,因為空腹物質,其中包括在考慮,但一個完整一天只吃一頓飯,是不是危害。 In like manner, the hour for the midday meal and the collation, may for good reasons be conscientiously inverted.同樣,小時的午飯和整理,可為好的理由是認真倒置。 In many of our larger cities this practice now prevails.在我國許多大城市,這種做法目前普遍存在。 According to D'Annibale (Summa Theologiae Moralis, 4 ed. III, 134) and Noldin (Summa Theologiae Moralis, n. 674) good reasons justify one in taking a collation in the morning, dinner at noon, and the morning allowance in the evening, because the substance of fasting still remains intact.據德安尼巴萊(神學神學道德,第4版。三, 134 )和諾爾丁(神學神學道德,注674 )很好的理由證明在採取了整理上午,中午吃飯時,和今天上午津貼晚上,因為空腹實質仍然完好無損。 Nothing like a noteworthy interruption should he admitted during the course of the midday meal, because such a break virtually forms two meals instead of one.一點也不像一個值得注意的中斷,應該承認過程中午飯,因為這種形式打破幾乎兩餐而不是一個。 Common sense, taking into consideration individual intention and the duration of the interruption, must finally determine whether a given interruption is noteworthy or not.常識,同時考慮到個人的意圖和期限中斷,必須最終確定是否給予中斷值得注意的是與否。 Ordinarily an interruption of one half hour is considered slight.通常中斷了一個半小時,被認為是輕微。 Nevertheless, an individual, after having commenced the midday meal and meeting with a bonafide interruption lasting for an hour or more is fully justified in resuming and finishing the meal after the termination of an interruption.然而,個別之後,開始了午飯,並會見了真正的持久中斷了一個小時或以上是完全有道理的恢復和整理用餐結束後中斷。 Finally, unless special reasons suggest the contrary, it is not allowed to give immoderate length to the time of this meal.最後,除非特殊原因建議相反,它是不允許給予過高的長度,本次餐。 Ordinarily, a duration of more than two hours is considered immoderate in this matter.一般來說,為期兩個多小時,被認為是贅在這個問題上。

Besides a complete meal, the Church now permits a collation usually taken in the evening.除了一個完整的餐,教會現在允許整理通常在晚上。 In considering this point proper allowance must be made for what custom has introduced regarding both the quantity and the quality of viands allowed at this repast.在考慮這一點適當的津貼必須作出什麼習俗推出了有關的數量和質量viands允許在此就餐。 In the first place, about eight ounces of food are permitted at the collation even though this amount of food would fully satisfy the appetites of some persons.擺在首位,約8盎司的食物被允許在整理,即使這一數額的糧食將完全滿足食慾的一些人。 Moreover, the attention must be paid to each person's temperament, duties, length of fast, etc. Hence, much more food is allowed in cold than in warm climates, more to those working during the day than to those at ease, more to the weak and hungry than to the strong and well fed.此外,必須注意每個人的氣質,職責,時間快,等等因此,更多的食品是在寒冷的允許比在溫暖的氣候,更向那些工作在白天,而不是那些在輕鬆,更多的弱者和飢餓,而不是強勁以及餵食。 As a general rule whatever is deemed necessary in order to enable people to give proper attention to their duties may be taken at the collation.作為一般規則無論是必要的以便使人民能適當注意其職責時可採取的整理。 Moreover, since custom first introduced the collation, the usage of each country must be considered in determining the quality of viands permitted thereat.此外,由於首次引入自定義的整理,使用的每個國家都必須被視為在確定的質量viands允許該處。 In some places eggs, milk, butter, cheese and fish are prohibited, while bread, cake, fruit, herbs and vegetables are allowed.在一些地方,蛋,奶,黃油,奶酪和魚被禁止,而麵包,蛋糕,水果,藥材和蔬菜是不允許的。 In other places, milk, eggs, cheese, butter and fish are permitted, owing either to custom or to Indult.在其他地方,牛奶,雞蛋,奶酪,黃油和魚類的許可,原因是自訂或Indult 。 This is the case in the United States.這種情況在美國。 However, in order to form judgments perfectly safe concerning this point, the Lenten regulations of each diocese should be carefully read.然而,為了形成絕對安全的判決關於這一點,四旬期條例各教區應仔細閱讀。 Finally, a little tea, coffee, chocolate or such like beverage together with a morsel of bread or a cracker is now allowed in the morning.最後,小茶,咖啡,巧克力或飲料,例如像一道一口麵包或餅乾現在是允許在上午。 Strictly speaking, whatever may be classified under the head of liquids may be taken as drink or medicine at any time of the day or night on fasting days.嚴格地說,任何可歸入頭部的液體可以作為飲料或藥品在任何時間的白天或晚上就禁食天。 Hence, water, lemonade, soda, water, ginger ale, wine, beer and similar drinks may be taken on fasting days outside meal time even though such beverages may, to some extent, prove nutritious.因此,水,檸檬汁,蘇打水,薑汁啤酒,葡萄酒,啤酒和飲料也可採取空腹天吃飯的時間外,即使這種飲料,可在一定程度上證明有營養。 Coffee, tea, diluted chocolate, electuaries made of sugar, juniper berries, and citron may be taken on fasting days, outside meal time, as medicine by those who find them conducive to health.咖啡,茶,稀釋巧克力, electuaries了糖,杜松漿果和柚子可採取空腹天,外面吃飯的時間,因為這些藥誰找到這些有利於健康。 Honey, milk, soup, broth, oil or anything else having the nature of food, is not allowed under either of the two categories already specified.蜂蜜,牛奶,湯,肉湯,石油或其他任何具有性質的食物,是不允許任何根據兩類已經指明。 It is impossible to decide mathematically how much food is necessary to involve a serious violation of this law.這是不可能的決定數學多少糧食是必要的,讓嚴重違反了這一法律。 Moralists as well as canonists concur in holding that an excess of four ounces would seriously militate against the obligation of fasting, whether that much food was consumed at once or at various intervals during the day because Alexander VII (18 March, 1666) condemned the teaching of those who claimed that food so taken was not to be regarded as equalling or exceeding the amount allowed (Denzinger, Enchiridion Symbolorum et Definitionum, tenth ed. Freiburg im Br., 1908, No. 1129).道德以及canonists同意認為過多的四盎司將嚴重妨礙的義務空腹,無論是許多食品消費一次或在不同的間隔期間的一天,因為亞歷山大第七章( 1666年3月18號)譴責教學這些誰聲稱,糧食,以便採取的是不被視為等於或超過允許的金額( Denzinger ,便覽Symbolorum等Definitionum ,第十版。弗賴堡一二。 , 1908年,第1129號) 。

Though Benedict XIV (Constitutions, Non Ambiginius, 31 May, 1741; in superna, 22 Aug. 1741) granted permission to eat meat on fasting days, he distinctly prohibited the use of fish and flesh at the same meal on all fasting days during the year as well as on Sundays during Lent.雖然本篤十四(憲法,非Ambiginius , 1741年5月31號;在superna , 1741年8月22號)准許吃肉的禁食兩天,他明顯的禁止使用的魚和肉,同時對所有餐空腹天期間,今年,以及在星期日四旬期期間。 (Letter to the Archbishop of Compostella, 10 June, 1745, in Bucceroni Enchiridion Morale No. 147). (信大主教Compostella , 1745年六月10號,在Bucceroni便覽士氣第147號) 。 This prohibition binds all exempted from fasting either because they are compelled to labour or because they are not twenty-one years old.這項禁令規定所有免於空腹要么因為他們是強迫勞動,或因為他們不二十一年歲。 Furthermore this prohibition extends to those allowed meat on fasting days either by dispensation or by Indult.此外這項禁令適用於那些允許肉空腹天通過特許或Indult 。 Sin is Committed each time the prohibited action takes place. The ecclesiatical law of fasting embodies a serious obligation on all baptized individuals capable of assuming obligations provided they have completed their twenty-first year and are not otherwise excused.黃大仙致力於每次行動禁止舉行。 ecclesiatical法律的空腹體現了一種嚴重的義務對所有受洗個人能夠承擔的義務提供他們已經完成了21個年頭,而不是其他原諒。 This doctrine is merely a practical application of a universally accepted principle of moralists and canonists whereby the character of obligation in human legislation is deemed serious or light in so far as the material element, involved in the law bears or does not bear a close and intimate relation to the attainment of a prescribed end.這一理論僅僅是一個實際應用的一個普遍接受的道德原則,並據此canonists性質的義務人的法律被認為是嚴重的或輕於迄今為止的物質元素,參與承擔的法律或不承擔接近和親密關於實現明年底。 Inasmuch as fasting considered as a function of the virtue of temperance bears such a relation to the promotion of man's spiritual well-being (see Lenten Preface in the Roman Missal), it certainly embodies an obligation generally serious.因為空腹視為一個功能憑藉禁酒承擔這樣一個關於促進人的精神福祉(見四旬期前言在羅馬Missal ) ,它體現了一定的義務普遍嚴重。 To this a priori reason may be added what Church history unfolds concerning the grave penalties attached to transgressions of this law.這一先天的原因可以說是教會歷史展開的嚴重懲罰越軌重視這項法律。 The sixty-ninth of the Apostolic Canons decrees the degradation of bishops, priests, deacons, lectors or chanters failing to fast during Lent, and the excommunication of laymen, who fail in this way.第六十九使徒規法令退化的主教,神父,執事,講師或chanters未能快速四旬期期間,以及罰的外行人,誰不這樣。 The fifty-sixth canon of the Trullan Synod (692) contains similar regulations.第五十六屆佳能的Trullan主教( 692 )載有類似的法規。 Finally Alexander VII (24 Sept., 1665) condemned a proposition formulated in the following terms: Whoso violates the ecclesiastical law of fasting to which he is bound does not sin mortally unless he acts through contempt or disobedience (Denzinger, op. cit., no. 1123).最後亞歷山大第七章( 1665年9月24日)譴責主張制定以下條款: Whoso違反教會法的空腹這是他的約束並不致命的罪惡行為,除非他通過蔑視或不服從( Denzinger ,同前。前。 ,沒有。 1123 ) 。 Though this obligation is generally serious, not every infraction of the law is mortally sinful.雖然這一義務通常是嚴重的,並非每一個違反法律是致命的罪過。 Whenever transgressions of the law fail to do substantial violence to the law, venial sins are committed.每當越軌的法律沒有這樣大量的暴力行為的法律, venial罪孽承諾。 Inability to keep the law of fasting and incompatibility of fasting with the duties of one's state in life suffice by their very nature, to extinguish the obligation because as often as the obligation of positive laws proves extremely burdensome or irksome the obligation is forthwith lifted.不能保持法律的空腹和空腹不相容的職責與一個人的生活狀態不夠就其性質而言,滅火的義務,因為往往是義務的積極的法律證明極其沉重的負擔,或令人厭煩的義務是立即取消。 Hence, the sick, the infirm, convalescents, delicate women, persons sixty years old and over, families whose members cannot have the necessaries for a full meal at the same time, or who have nothing but bread, vegetables or such like viands, those to whom fasting brings loss of sleep or severe headaches, wives whose fasting incurs their husband's indignation, children whose fasting arouses parent's wrath; in a word, all those who can not comply with the obligation of fasting without undergoing more than ordinary hardship are excused on account of their inability to fulfil the obligation.因此,病人,體弱者,療養,微妙的婦女,六十歲的人老了,家庭成員不能有必需品充分餐在同一時間,或誰沒有什麼,但麵包,蔬菜或像viands等,這些空腹的人帶來損失的睡眠或嚴重的頭痛,妻子的空腹應負其丈夫的憤慨,兒童的空腹引起家長的憤怒;總之,所有這些誰可以不遵守的義務,沒有禁食超過普通困難是原諒的考慮到他們無法履行義務。 In like manner unusual fatigue or bodily weakness experienced in discharging one duty and superinduced by fasting lifts the obligation of fasting.在同樣的方式不同尋常的疲勞或身體上的弱點在履行經歷了一個工作地點和superinduced的空腹升降機的義務空腹。 However, not every sort of labour, but only such as is hard and protracted excuses from the obligation of fasting.然而,並非每一個排序的勞動,但只有如是很難持久的藉口的義務空腹。 These two conditions are not confined to manual labour, but may be equally verified with regard to brain work.這兩個條件並不局限於體力勞動,但可能會同樣核實有關大腦的工作。 Hence bookkeepers, stenographers, telegraph operators, legal advisers and many others whose occupations are largely mental are entitled to exemption on this score, quite as well as day-labourers or tradesmen.因此,簿記,速記員,電訊運營商,法律顧問和其他許多人的職業主要是心理都有權豁免此成績,相當以及日常勞動者或商人。 When these causes begetting exemption by their very nature, do not exist, lawfully constituted superiors may dispense their subjects from the obligation of fasting.當這些原因begetting豁免就其性質而言,不存在,合法上級可免除其議題的義務空腹。

Accordingly the Sovereign Pontiff may always and everywhere grant valid dispensations from this obligation.因此,主權教宗總是可以和世界各地給予有效的特許從這一義務。 His dispensations will be licit when sufficient reasons underlie the grant.他的特許將合法足夠的理由時,依據的補助金。 In particular cases and for good reasons, bishops may grant dispensations in their respective dioceses.在某些情況下和良好的原因,主教可准予特許在各自的教區。 Unless empowered by Indult they are not at liberty to dispense all their subjects simultaneously. It is to be noted that usually bishops issue just before Lent circulars or pastorals, which are read to the faithful or otherwise made public, and in which they make known, on the authority of the Apostolic See, the actual status of obligahon, dispensations, etc. Priests charged with the care of souls may dispense individuals for good reason.除非授權Indult他們沒有自由免除其所有科目同時進行。要指出的是,通常主教問題之前四旬期通告或pastorals ,這是閱讀的忠實或以其他方式公開,並讓他們知道,對權威的使徒見,但實際地位obligahon ,特許等神父被控照顧靈魂可免除個人的很好的理由。 Superiors of religious communities may dispense individual members of their respective communities provided sufficient reasons exist.上級的宗教社區可免除個別成員各自的社區提供足夠的理由存在。 Confessors are not qualified to grant these dispensations unless they have been explicitly delegated thereunto. Confessors沒有資格給予這些特許,除非他們已經明確下放thereunto 。 They may, however, decide whether sufficient reason exists to lift the obligation.他們可能不過,決定是否存在足夠的理由取消義務。

Those who have permission from the Holy See to eat meat on prohibited days, may avail themselves of this concession at their full meal, not only on days of abstinence but also on fasting days.這些誰也許可從羅馬教廷吃肉違禁天,可利用這一特許權在充分膳食,不僅對天的禁慾,而且空腹天。 When age, infirmity or labour releases Christians from fasting, they are at liberty to to eat meat as often as they are justified in taking food, provided the use of meat is allowed by a general indult of their bishop (Sacred Penitentiaria, 16 Jan., 1834).當年齡,體弱多病或勞動新聞稿基督徒禁食,他們是在自由吃肉經常因為它們是合理的糧食,提供了使用的肉類是允許的一般indult他們的主教( Penitentiaria神聖, 1月16日, 1834年) 。 Finally, the Holy See has repeatedly declared that the use of lard allowed by Indult comprehends butter or the fat of any animal.最後,羅馬教廷一再宣稱,使用豬油允許Indult理解黃油或脂肪的任何動物。

No student of ecclesiatical discipline can fail to perceive that the obligation of fasting is rarely observed in its integrity nowadays.沒有學生可以ecclesiatical紀律不能覺察到的義務空腹很少看到它的完整性現在。 Conscious of the conditions of our age, the Church is ever shaping the requirements of this obligation to meet the best interests of her children.意識到條件的我們這個時代,教會是以往塑造的要求,履行這一義務,以滿足最佳利益的孩子。 At the same time no measure of leniency in this respect can eliminate the natural and divine positive law imposing mortification and penance on man on account of sin and its consequences.在同一時間沒有衡量從寬處理在這方面可以消除自然和神聖的法律實施積極的屈辱和懺悔的男子到罪惡及其後果。 (Council of Trent, Sess. VI. can. xx) (理事會的遄達, Sess 。六。可以。二十)

Publication information Written by JD O'Neill.出版信息撰稿第納爾奧尼爾。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,體積五, 1909年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 1909年5月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


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