Confucianism, Confucius儒家,孔子

General Information 一般信息

Confucianism, the philosophical system founded on the teaching of Confucius (551 - 479 BC), dominated Chinese sociopolitical life for most of Chinese history and largely influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Indochina.儒家哲學體系的基礎上教學的孔子( 551 -4 79年) ,統治中國社會政治生活的大部分中國的歷史和主要影響了文化的韓國,日本和印度支那。 The Confucian school functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics.儒家充當招募為政府的立場,這是填補那些得分最高的考試中的儒家經典。 It also blended with popular and imported religions and became the vehicle for articulating Chinese mores to the peasants.它還混合流行的和進口的宗教,並成為該車輛闡明中國習俗給農民。 The school's doctrines supported political authority using the theory of the mandate of heaven.學校的理論支持用政治權威理論的天命。 It sought to help the rulers maintain domestic order, preserve tradition, and maintain a constant standard of living for the taxpaying peasants.它尋求幫助統治者維持國內秩序,維護傳統,保持恆定的生活標準,納稅人的農民。 It trained its adherents in benevolence, traditional rituals, filial piety, loyalty, respect for superiors and for the aged, and principled flexibility in advising rulers.它訓練其信徒的善,傳統禮儀,孝道,忠誠,尊重上級和為老年人,和有原則的靈活性,提供諮詢意見的統治者。

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Confucianism - Confucius (551 - 478 BC)儒學-孔子( 5 51- 47 8年)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Confucius was born of a poor family, but secured an education. His Chinese name was K'ung Fu - tze. He acquired such a reputation as a teacher that he was appointed to a position in the government, and eventually became Minister of the State of Lu.孔子出生在一個貧窮的家庭,但擔保的教育。他的中國名字是K'ung富-志。他獲得這樣的聲譽作為一個教師,他被任命為立場的政府,並最終成為部長的國家陸。 Some years later, after becoming disgusted with his ruler and the government, he resigned and spent the rest of his life studying and teaching.一些年後成為他的厭惡統治者和政府,他辭職,並度過了餘下的生命裡學習和教學。

Confucianism became the basis of the Chinese State during the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD).儒學成為基礎的國家在中國漢代(公元前206 -公元2 20) 。 Chinese society recognized a relatively classless society, only recognizing two: the educated and theuneducated.中國社會公認的一個相對階級社會,只承認兩個:受過教育和theuneducated 。 Scholarship was revered.獎學金是崇敬。

Confucius was not a religious thinker like Buddha, Christ or Mohammed, but a social reformer.孔子是不是一個宗教思想家像佛陀,基督或穆罕默德,而是一個社會改革者。 "I am not an originator but a transmitter." “我不是一個發端,但發射。 ” He edited, compiled or wrote the 'Five Canons' and the 'Four Books' which contain the morals and philosophy that the Chinese people have followed consistently for the past 2500 years.他編輯,編輯或寫了'五規'和'四書' ,其中載道德和哲學的中國人民始終遵循在過去的二千五百年。

The Five Canons (or Five Classics) are:五年規(或五經)是:

Priorities are: First - family (or family clan); Second - community. 優先次序是:第一-家庭(或家族) ;第二-社區。 The individual is unimportant. Ancestors are worshipped as part of the religion. 個人是不重要的。祖先崇拜的一部分,宗教。

Importance is placed on adherence to the traditional ways of doing things.重要的是放置在堅持傳統的方式做事。 He discussed at length the five important relationships:他詳細討論了五個重要關係:

A modern Chinese scholar suggested that the core of Confucian philosophy is contained in these words:現代中國學者建議的核心是儒家哲學中所載的這些話:

The men of old, when they wished their virtues to shine throughout the land, first had to govern their states well.該男子歲,當他們希望自己的美德,以服務全國的土地,首先要治理他們的國家以及。 To govern their states well, they first had to establish harmony in their families. To establish harmony in their families, they first had to discipline themselves.執政的狀態很好,他們首先必須建立和諧的家庭。要建立和諧的家庭中,他們首先要自律。 To discipline themselves, they first had to set their minds in order.要自律,他們首先確定了他們的頭腦中秩序。 To set their minds in order, they first had to make their purpose sincere.要設置頭腦,以便他們首先必須使他們的宗旨真誠的。 To make their purpose sincere, they first had to extend their knowledge to the utmost.為了使他們的目的真誠的,他們首先不得不延長他們的知識,以最大的。 Such knowledge is acquired through a careful investigation of things.這種知識是通過認真調查的事情。 For with things investigated knowledge becomes complete.為了調查事情的知識變得完整。 With knowledge complete the purpose becomes sincere.隨著知識的目的完全成為真誠的。 With the purpose sincere the mind is set in order.其宗旨真誠的心靈中設置秩序。 With the mind set in order there is real self discipline.隨著心態,以便有真正的自律。 With real self discipline the family achieves harmony. With harmony in the family the state becomes well governed.真正自律的家庭達到和諧。有了和諧的家庭狀況以及成為制約。 With the state well governed there is peace throughout the land.隨著國家治理以及有各地的和平土地。


Confucius孔子

General Information 一般信息

Confucius, (551 - 479 BC), was the Chinese sage who founded Confucianism.孔子( 551 -4 79年) ,是中國先哲孔子創立誰。 Born of a poor but aristocratic family in the state of Lu (now Shantung province), he was orphaned at an early age.出生於一個貧窮的貴族家庭,但在該州的路(現在山東省) ,他是孤兒在幼年。 As a young man, he held several minor government posts; in later years, he advanced to become minister of justice in his home state.作為一個年輕的男子,他召開了幾次小的政府職位,在隨後幾年中,他成為先進的司法部長在他的家鄉狀態。 But he held these positions only intermittently and for short periods because of conflicts with his superiors.但是,他在這些職位只是間歇和短時間的衝突,因為他的上司。 Throughout his life, he was best known as a teacher. When he died at the age of 72, he had taught a total of 3,000 disciples who carried on his teaching.在他的生命,他是最有名的老師。當他去世時72歲,他曾教共3000弟子誰對他進行教學。

Three doctrines of Confucius are particularly important.三孔子的學說尤其重要。 The first is benevolence (jen). Confucius considered benevolence as something people cultivate within themselves before it can affect their relations with others.首先是善(仁) 。孔子認為善的東西的人在培養自己的才能影響他們與他人的關係。 The best way to approach benevolence is in terms of enlightened self interest, that is, putting the self in the position of the other and then treating the other accordingly.的最佳途徑是善方面的開明的自我利益,也就是把自我的位置,然後其他治療其他相應。 Two sayings of Confucius best express this idea: "Do not do to others what you would not like yourself"; and "Do unto others what you wish to do unto yourself." Benevolence means the practice of these two sayings.兩個孔子的名言最好的表達這一想法不要給別人你不會像你”和“不要告訴別人你想,勿施於自己。 ”仁手段的做法,這兩個說法。 The second doctrine concerns the superior man (chun - tzu).第二個原則涉及到上級男子(春-子) 。 The superior man is one who practices benevolence regardless of family background. 該上級男子是誰,不論做法仁的家庭背景。 Ritual propriety is the third doctrine. 禮儀禮節是第三個原則。 Confucius emphasized right behavior in one's relations; man should act in accordance with propriety.孔子強調權利的行為之一的關係;人應當按照正當性。 Thus one behaves ritualistically with the other.因此,一個行為ritualistically與其他。 Such behavior is called li; it refers to social and aesthetic norms that guide people in their social relations.這種行為被稱為莉;它指的的社會和審美規範,引導人們在社會關係。

The sayings of Confucius were later incorporated into the book called the Analects.在孔子的名言,後來納入本名為論。 Confucius is also considered the author of the Book of Rites and the Spring and Autumn Annals, a history of the state of Lu from 771 to 579 BC.孔子也被認為是作者的禮記和春秋,歷史狀況的路從771到579年。

David C Yu俞大衛ç

Bibliography: 參考書目:
HG Creel, Confucius and the Chinese Way (1960); WC Liu, Confucius, His Life and Time (1955); A Waley, The Analects of Confucius, (1938).氫化物雅,孔子與中國之路( 1960年) ;廁所劉,孔子,他的生活和時代( 1955年) ;阿理,論語, ( 1938年) 。


Confucius孔子

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Westerners use Confucius as the spelling for K'ung Fu - tzu - Master K'ung - China's first and most famous philosopher. Confucius had a traditional personal name (Ch'iu) and a formal name (Chung - ni).西方人用孔子作為拼寫為K'ung富-子-碩士K' ung-中國的第一和最有名的哲學家。孔子了傳統的個人名稱(邱)和一個正式的名稱(葵涌-妮) 。 Confucius' father died shortly after Confucius' birth.孔子的父親去世後不久,孔子的出生地。 His family fell into relative poverty, and Confucius joined a growing class of impoverished descendants of aristocrats who made their careers by acquiring knowledge of feudal ritual and taking positions of influence serving the rulers of the fragmented states of ancient China.他的家人陷入相對貧困,和孔子加入了越來越多的貧困階層的貴族的後裔誰取得其職業生涯的獲取知識的封建禮儀,並考慮職位的影響力服務於統治者的支離破碎的國家古老的中國。 Confucius devoted himself to learning.孔子投身於學習。 At age 30, however, when his short lived official career floundered, he turned to teaching others.在30歲,然而,當他短命的仕途掙扎,他把臉轉向教學等。 Confucius himself never wrote down his own philosophy, although tradition credits him with editing some of the historical classics that were used as texts in his school.孔子自己從來沒有寫下他自己的哲學,但傳統的信用他編輯的一些經典的歷史被用作文本在他的學校。 He apparently made an enormous impact on the lives and attitudes of his disciples, however.他顯然做出了巨大影響生活和態度,他的弟子,但是。

The book known as the Analects, which records all the "Confucius said. . . " aphorisms, was compiled by his students after his death.這本書被稱為論,它記錄了所有的“孔子說。 。 。 ”警句,是由他的學生在他死後。 Because the Analects was not written as a systematic philosophy, it contains frequent contradictions and many of the philosophical doctrines are ambiguous.因為論沒有書面作為一個系統的哲學,它包含頻繁的矛盾和許多哲學理論是含糊不清。 The Analects became the basis of the Chinese social lifestyle and the fundamental religious and philosophical point of view of most traditionalist Chinese intellectuals throughout history.論語是根據中國社會的生活方式和基本的宗教和哲學的角度看,最傳統中國知識分子的整個歷史過程。 The collection reveals Confucius as a person dedicated to the preservation of traditional ritual practices with an almost spiritual delight in performing ritual for its own sake.收集揭示孔子作為一個人致力於保存傳統儀式的做法幾乎是在精神愉快儀式表演為自己的利益。

Doctrine中庸

Confucianism combines a political theory and a theory of human nature to yield a tao - a prescriptive doctrine or way.儒學結合了政治理論和人性論,以產生濤-一個規範性理論或方法。 The political theory starts with a doctrine of political authority based on the mandate of heaven.政治理論開始與學說的政治權威的基礎上天命。 The legitimate ruler derives authority from heaven's command.合法的統治者的權力來自天堂的命令。 The ruler bears responsibility for the well being of the people and therefore for peace and order in the empire.統治者承擔責任的福祉的人,因此,和平與秩序的帝國。

Confucian philosophy presupposes a view of human nature in which humans are essentially social animals whose mode of social interaction is shaped by li (convention or ritual), which establishes value distinctions and prescribes activities in response to those distinctions.儒家哲學的先決條件,以期對人性的人類基本上是社會動物,其模式的社會互動是由利(公約或宗教儀式) ,其中規定值的區別,並規定了活動針對這些區別。 Education in li, or social rituals, is based on the natural behavioral propensity to imitate models.教育力,社會禮儀,是基於自然行為傾向模仿模式。 Sages, or superior people - those who have mastered the li - are the models of behavior from which the mass of people learn.先哲,或上級人民-那些誰掌握了麗-是模型的行為而群眾學習。 Ideally, the ruler should himself be such a model and should appoint only those who are models of te (virtue) to positions of prominence.最理想的是,自己的統治者應是這樣一個模式,應該只任命誰是這些型號的德(德) ,以突出的位置。 People are naturally inclined to emulate virtuous models; hence a hierarchy of merit results in widespread natural moral education.人們自然傾向於效仿的良性模式;因此等級擇優的結果自然在廣泛的道德教育。

Then, with practice, all people can in principle be like the sages, by acting in accordance with li without conscious effort. At that point they have acquired jen (humanity), the highest level of moral development; their natural inclinations are all in harmony with tao (way).然後,聯繫實際,所有的人可以在原則上是一樣的聖賢,由依照麗而不自覺的努力。此時他們已獲得仁(人類) ,最高水平的道德發展;他們的自然傾向都是在和諧與濤(單程) 。 The world is at peace, order abounds, and the harmony between the natural and the social sphere results in material well being for everyone.世界正處於和平,秩序比比皆是,以及和諧的自然和社會領域的成果材料福祉為每個人。 This is Confucius' utopian vision, which he regards as modeled on the practice of the ancient sage kings.這是孔子的烏托邦式的設想,他認為,這是模仿的做法先賢的國王。

Historical Development歷史發展

Confucianism emerged as a more coherent philosophy when faced with intellectual competition from other schools that were growing in the fertile social upheavals of preimperial China (c. 400 - c. 200 BC).儒學成為一個更加協調一致的哲學時,面臨著知識的競爭從其他學校,被越來越多的肥沃的社會動盪的preimperial中國(角400 -公元前2 00角) 。 Taoism, Mohism, and Legalism all attacked Confucianism.道家,墨家,法家和儒家的所有攻擊。 A common theme of these attacks was that Confucianism assumed that tradition or convention (li) was correct.一個共同的主題,這些襲擊是儒家認為,傳統或公約(利)是正確的。 Mencius (c. 372 - c. 289 BC) developed a more idealistic version of Confucianism stressing jen as an innate inclination to good behavior that does not require education.孟子(角372 -公元前2 89角)開發出一種更理想的版本儒家強調仁作為一個天生的傾向表現良好,不需要教育。 Hsun Tzu (c. 313 - c. 238 BC), on the contrary, argued that all inclinations are shaped by acquired language and other social forms.荀子(角313 -角2 38年) ,相反,認為所有的傾向是後天形成的語言和其他社會形態。

Confucianism rose to the position of an official orthodoxy during the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD).儒學上升的立場,正式正統在漢代(公元前206 -公元2 20) 。 It absorbed the metaphysical doctrines of Yin (the female principle) and Yang (the male principle) found in the I Ching (Book of Changes) and other speculative metaphysical notions.它吸收了形而上學的理論銀(女原則) ,楊(男原則)中發現易經(易經)和其他投機性形而上學的概念。 With the fall of the Han, the dynastic model, Confucianism fell into severe decline.隨著秋季的漢人的王朝模式,儒家陷入嚴重衰退。 Except for the residual effects of its official status, Confucianism lay philosophically dormant for about 600 years.除殘餘影響,其官方地位,奠定儒家哲學休眠約600年。

With the reestablishment of Chinese dynastic power in the T'Ang dynasty (618 - 906) and the introduction of the Ch'an (Zen Buddhist) premise that "there is nothing much to Buddhist teaching," Confucianism began to revive.隨著重建中國王朝權力的唐朝( 618 -9 06) ,並採用了禪(禪宗佛教)前提是, “沒有什麼很大法” ,儒學開始恢復。 The Sung dynasty (960 - 1279) produced Neo Confucianism - an interpretation of classical Confucian doctrine (principally that of Mencius) that addressed Buddhist and Taoist issues.宋朝( 960 -1 279)生產的新儒學-一種解釋儒家經典理論(主要是孟子),討論佛教和道教的問題。 The development of this philosophy was due mainly to Cheng - hao (1032 - 85) and Cheng - i (1033 - 1107), but for the orthodox statement of Neo Confucianism, one turns to Chu Hsi (1130 - 1200).發展這一理念,主要是由於成-浩( 1 032至1 085年)和程-我( 1 0 33年至1 1 07年) ,但聲明的正統儒家思想的新一輪流朱熹(1 1 30年至一二零零年)。 His commentaries on the four scriptures of Confucianism were required study for the imperial civil service examinations.他評注的四個儒家經典,需要研究的科舉公務員考試。

Neo Confucianism focuses on the term li, which here means "lane" or "pattern."新儒學的重點是長期利,這在這裡的意思是“線”或“的模式。 ” Correct behavior is held to follow a natural pattern (li) that is apprehended by hsin (heart - mind).正確的行為是在遵循一種自然模式(麗)這是逮捕的心(心臟-銘記) 。 Mencius' theory of the innate goodness of man is a theory of the innate ability of this heart - mind to apprehend li in situations and to follow it.孟子理論的先天善良的人是一個理論的固有能力,這種心臟-銘記逮捕利的情況,並按照它。 To become a sage, one must study li and develop the ability to "see" it by a kind of intuition.要成為聖人,必須研究和發展力的能力, “看”它是一種直覺。 Later, in the Ming dynasty (1368 - 1644), Wang Yang - Ming claimed that the heart projects li on things rather than just noticing external li. To become a sage, one cannot just study situations, one must act before li becomes manifest.後來,在明朝( 1368 -1 644) ,汪洋-明稱,項目立心的事情,而不是僅僅注意外部利。要成為聖人,不能只研究情況,我們必須採取行動之前,成為表現力。 Thus the heart - mind, which guides the action, is the source of li (moral patterns).因此,心臟-記住,它的行動指南,是麗源(道德模式) 。

After the disastrous conflicts with Western military technology at the dawn of the 20th century, Chinese intellectuals blamed Confucianism for the scientific and political backwardness of China.在災難性衝突與西方的軍事技術的初期階段, 20世紀,中國儒家知識分子指責為科學和政治落後的中國。 Chinese Marxism, nonetheless, differs from Western Marxism in ways that reveal the persistence of Confucian attitudes toward politics, metaphysics, and theories of human psychology.中國馬克思主義,然而,不同於西方馬克思主義的方式,揭示了持續的儒家態度,政治,形而上學,和理論的人類心理。 Anti Confucianism has been a theme in various political campaigns in modern China - most notably during and just after the Cultural Revolution.反儒學一直是主題的各種政治運動在現代中國-尤其是在和公正文革後。 Increased toleration for all religions since Mao Tse - tung's death may lead to a moderate revival of Confucianism, although the interest seems to be mostly in historical issues.增加對所有寬容的宗教,因為毛澤東-東的死亡可能導致中度復興儒學,儘管興趣似乎主要是在歷史問題。

In Taiwan, by contrast, Confucian orthodoxy has survived and serves to underpin an anti Marxist, traditional authoritarianism. Serious, ongoing Confucian philosophy, however, is found mainly in Hong Kong and among Chinese scholars working in the West.在台灣,相比之下,儒家的正統已存活和服務,以支持反馬克思主義,傳統的專制主義。嚴重,持續的儒家哲學,但主要是在香港和中國學者之間的工作在西部。

Chad Hansen乍得漢森

Bibliography: 參考書目:
W Chan, trans., A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (1963); HG Creel, Confucius, the Man and the Myth (1949); H Fingarette, Confucius: The Secular as Sacred (1972); Y Fung, A History of Chinese Philosophy (1952); DY Lee, An Outline of Confucianism (1987); DJ Munro, The Concept of Man in Ancient China (1972); BI Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China (1985). W陳式。 ,來源圖書在中國哲學( 1963年) ;氫化物雅,孔子,人與神話( 1949 ) ; H芬格萊特,孔子:世俗的神聖( 1972年) ; Y豐史中國哲學( 1952年) ;線圈李綱要儒學( 1987年) ;的DJ羅的概念,人在古代中國( 1972年) ;畢施瓦茨,世界的思想在古代中國( 1985年) 。


Confucianism儒學

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

By Confucianism is meant the complex system of moral, social, political, and religious teaching built up by Confucius on the ancient Chinese traditions, and perpetuated as the State religion down to the present day.儒家的目的是複雜的系統的道德,社會,政治和宗教教學建立了孔子對古代中國的傳統,並延續為國教下降到目前的一天。 Confucianism aims at making not simply the man of virtue, but the man of learning and of good manners.儒學的目的是使不只是人的美德,但該名男子的學習和良好的舉止。 The perfect man must combine the qualities of saint, scholar, and gentleman.完美的人必須把素質聖,學者,和紳士。 Confucianism is a religion without positive revelation, with a minimum of dogmatic teaching, whose popular worship is centered in offerings to the dead, in which the notion of duty is extended beyond the sphere of morals proper so as to embrace almost every detail of daily life.儒學是一種宗教而積極的啟示,用最少的教條式的教學,其受歡迎的禮拜是集中在產品的死亡,其中概念的職責是延長到道德領域的適當的,以擁抱幾乎每一個細節的日常生活。

I. THE TEACHER, CONFUCIUS一,教師,孔子

The chief exponent of this remarkable religion was K'ung-tze, or K'ung-fu-tze, latinized by the early Jesuit missionaries into Confucius.首席指數的這一顯著的宗教K'ung智,或K'ung富智, latinized早期耶穌會傳教士孔子。 Confucius was born in 551 BC, in what was then the feudal state of Lu, now included in the modern province of Shan-tung.孔子出生於公元前551 ,在當時的封建國家的路,現已被列入省現代撣東。 His parents, while not wealthy, belonged to the superior class.他的父母,而並不富裕,屬於優良級。 His father was a warrior, distinguished no less for his deeds of valour than for his noble ancestry.他的父親是一名戰士,傑出的不為他的英勇事蹟,比他的崇高的祖先。 Confucius was a mere boy when his father died.孔子是一個單純的男孩時,他父親去世。 From childhood he showed a great aptitude for study, and though, in order to support himself and his mother, he had to labour in his early years as a hired servant in a noble family, he managed to find time to pursue his favourite studies.從童年起,他表現出極大的學習能力,雖然,為了支持他和他母親,他不得不勞工早年作為聘用人員在貴族家庭,他設法爭取時間,他最喜歡的研究。 He made such progress that at the age of twenty-two years he opened a school to which many were attracted by the fame of his learning.他作出這樣的進展,在21歲以下的兩年他開了一家學校,其中許多人吸引了他的成名學習。 His ability and faithful service merited for him promotion to the office of minister of justice.他的能力和忠誠的服務值得推廣他的辦公室,司法部長。 Under his wise administration the State attained to a degree of prosperity and moral order that it had never seen before.在他的英明管理國家實現一定程度的繁榮和道德秩序,它以前從未見過。 But through the intrigues of rival states the Marquis of Lu was led to prefer ignoble pleasures to the preservation of good government.但通過陰謀的競爭對手國路侯爵率領喜歡卑鄙的樂趣,以維護良好的政府。 Confucius tried by sound advice to bring his liege lord back to the path of duty, but in vain.孔子受到中肯的意見,使他的諸侯領主回來的道路稅,但都是徒勞的。 He thereupon resigned his high position at the cost of personal ease and comfort, and left the state.他隨即辭職,他的崇高地位,但代價是個人安逸,離開了狀態。 For thirteen years, accompanied by faithful disciples, he went about from one state to another, seeking a ruler who would give heed to his counsels.對於13年的陪同下,忠實弟子,他對一國到另一國,尋求統治者誰將聽從他的律師。 Many were the privations he suffered.許多人的匱乏,他受到影響。 More than once he ran imminent risk of being waylaid and killed by his enemies, but his courage and confidence in the providential character of his mission never deserted him.不止一次,他跑迫在眉睫的風險正在waylaid並殺害了他的敵人,但他的勇氣和信心的天賜性質,他的任務從來沒有拋棄他。 At last he returned to Lu, where he spent the last five years of his long life encouraging others to the study and practice of virtue, and edifying all by his noble example.最後,他回到路,在那裡他度過了過去5年裡,他長壽命鼓勵他人的研究和實踐的美德,啟發所有的他的崇高榜樣。 He died in the year 478 BC, in the seventy-fourth year of his age.他死於公元前478年,在第七十四一年他的年齡。 His lifetime almost exactly coincided with that of Buddha, who died two years earlier at the age of eighty.他的一生幾乎完全符合的佛像,誰喪生兩年前在80歲以下。

That Confucius possessed a noble, commanding personality, there can be little doubt.孔子有一個崇高的,指揮的個性,就不可能有毫無疑問的。 It is shown by his recorded traits of character, by his lofty moral teachings, by the high-minded men that he trained to continue his life-work.這是他所表現出的記錄性狀的性格,他的崇高的道德說教,由高尚的男子,他訓練,繼續他的生命的工作。 In their enthusiastic love and admiration, they declared him the greatest of men, the sage without flaw, the perfect man.在他們熱情的熱愛和敬佩,他們宣布他最偉大的男子,聖人無安全漏洞,完善的男子。 That he himself did not make any pretension to possess virtue and wisdom in their fullness is shown by his own recorded sayings.他本人沒有作出任何企圖擁有美德和智慧,在其豐滿列由他自己記錄的諺語。 He was conscious of his shortcomings, and this consciousness he made no attempt to keep concealed.他意識到他的缺點,這個意識,他並沒有試圖保持隱蔽。 But of his love of virtue and wisdom there can be no question.但是,他的愛的美德和智慧,就不會有問題。 He is described in "Analects", VII, 18, as one "who in the eager pursuit of knowledge, forgot his food, and in the joy of attaining to it forgot his sorrow".他是在描述“論語” ,七, 18歲,作為一個“誰在渴望追求知識,忘記了他的食物,並在歡樂實現它忘記了他的悲痛。 ” Whatever in the traditional records of the past, whether history, lyric poems, or rites and ceremonies, was edifying and conducive to virtue, he sought out with untiring zeal and made known to his disciples.無論在傳統的記錄,過去,無論是歷史,抒情詩,或儀式和慶典,是有啟發性,有利於美德,他希望與不懈的熱情和知道他的弟子。 He was a man of affectionate nature, sympathetic, and most considerate towards others. He loved his worthy disciples dearly, and won in turn their undying devotion.他是一個人深情的性質,同情,和最周到的對待他人。他愛他的弟子值得珍惜,並贏得他們又不朽的奉獻精神。 He was modest and unaffected in his bearing, inclined to gravity, yet possessing a natural cheerfulness that rarely deserted him.他謙虛,在他的影響軸承,傾向於嚴重性,但擁有一個自然愉快很少拋棄了他。 Schooled to adversity from childhood, he learned to find contentment and serenity of mind even where ordinary comforts were lacking.逆境中學習到從童年起,他學會了如何找到滿足和平靜的心態,即使普通的缺乏舒適。 He was very fond of vocal and instrumental music, and often sang, accompanying his voice with the lute.他很喜歡聲樂和器樂,常常唱,陪同他的聲音與琵琶。 His sense of humour is revealed in a criticism he once made of some boisterous singing "Why use an ox-knife", he said, "to kill a fowl?"他的幽默感,揭示了他曾經批評了一些熱鬧的唱著“為什麼要使用牛刀” ,他說: “殺死雞? ”

Confucius is often held up as the type of the virtuous man without religion.孔子往往是作為舉行的類型良性男子沒有宗教。 His teachings, it is alleged, were chiefly ethical, in which one looks in vain for retribution in the next life as a sanction of right conduct.他的教誨,據稱主要有道德,其中一個看起來徒勞的報應在未來的生活作為制裁的權利的行為。 Now an acquaintance with the ancient religion of China and with Confucian texts reveals the emptiness of the assertion that Confucius was devoid of religious thought and feeling.現在,一個熟人與古老的宗教與中國儒家文揭示了空虛的斷言,孔子是沒有宗教思想和感情。 He was religious after the manner of religious men of his age and land. In not appealing to rewards and punishments in the life to come, he was simply following the example of his illustrious Chinese predecessors, whose religious belief did not include this element of future retribution.他是宗教的方式後,宗教男子把他的年齡和土地。在沒有吸引力獎懲生活中來,他只是效仿他的前任傑出的中國,其宗教信仰並不包括這一內容的未來報應。 The Chinese classics that were ancient even in the time of Confucius have nothing to say of hell, but have much to say of the rewards and punishments meted out in the present life by the all-seeing Heaven.經典的中國古代有即使是在孔子的時候已經沒什麼可說的地獄,但有很多話要說的獎勵和懲罰在本生活的全部看到天堂。 There are numbers of texts that show plainly that he did not depart from the traditional belief in the supreme Heaven-god and subordinate spirits, in Divine providence and retribution, and in the conscious existence of souls after death.有數字的文本,顯示清楚,他沒有背離傳統信仰的最高天堂神和下屬的精神,在神的眷顧和報復,並在意識到存在的靈魂後死亡。 These religious convictions on his part found expression in many recorded acts of piety and worship.這些宗教信念對他的一部分體現在許多記錄行為的虔誠和崇拜。

II.二。 THE CONFUCIAN TEXTS儒家文本

As Confucianism in its broad sense embraces not only the immediate teaching of Confucius, but also the traditional records customs, and rites to which he gave the sanction of his approval, and which today rest largely upon his authority, there are reckoned among the Confucian texts several that even in his day were venerated as sacred heirlooms of the past.作為儒家思想在其廣泛的意義不僅包括直接教學的孔子,而且還記錄的傳統風俗,禮儀這是他給他的處罰批准,今天主要是休息時他的權威,有不可忽視的儒家文數,即使在他的崇敬一天是神聖的傳家寶過去。 The texts are divided into two categories, known as the "King" (Classics), and the "Shuh" (Books).全文分為兩大類,一類被稱為“國王” (經典)和“樹” (叢書) 。 The texts of the "King", which stand first in importance, are commonly reckoned as five, but sometimes as six.文本的“國王” ,其中第一站的重要性,普遍認為五年,但有時6 。

The first of these is the "Shao-king" (Book of History), a religious and moral work, tracing the hand of Providence in a series of great events of past history, and inculcating the lesson that the Heaven-god gives prosperity and length of days only to the virtuous ruler who has the true welfare of the people at heart.其中第一項就是“少王” (此書的歷史) ,一個宗教和道德的工作,追查的手在普羅維登斯一系列重大的事件過去的歷史,和灌輸的教訓的天堂,上帝給的繁榮和長度只有幾天的良性統治者誰的真正的人民福祉的心。 Its unity of composition may well bring its time of publication down to the sixth century BC, though the sources on which the earlier chapters are based may be almost contemporaneous with the events related.其組成團結很有可能將其發布之時至公元前6世紀,但來源的前面幾章的基礎可能是幾乎同時代的事件有關。

The second "King" is the so-called "She-king" (Book of Songs), often spoken of as the "Odes".第二個“國王”是所謂的“她國王” (詩經) ,常常談到的“詩經” 。 Of its 305 short lyric poems some belong to the time of the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC), the remaining, and perhaps larger, part to the first five centuries of the dynasty of Chow, that is, down to about 600 BC The third "King" is the so-called "Y-king" (Book of Changes), an enigmatic treatise on the art of divining with the stalks of a native plant, which after being thrown give different indications according as they conform to one or another of the sixty-four hexagrams made up of three broken and three unbroken lines.其305短一些抒情詩屬於當時的商朝(公元前1766年至1123年) ,剩下的,也許較大,部分頭5個世紀的週王朝,即下降到約公元前600年的第三個“國王”是所謂的“ Y型之王” (易經) ,一個謎一般的論文藝術的占卜與秸稈的本土植物,其中被拋出後,給予不同的跡象顯示它們符合一個或另一名64卦由三個打破,三個連續線。 The short explanations which accompany them, in large measure arbitrary and fantastic, are assigned to the time of Wan and his illustrious son Wu, founders of the Chow dynasty (1122 BC).簡短的解釋陪他們,在很大程度上任意太棒了,被分配到的時間灣和他的傑出的兒子吳,創始人週王朝(公元前1122年) 。 Since the time of Confucius, the work has been more than doubled by a series of appendixes, ten in number, of which eight are attributed to Confucius.由於時間的孔子,工作已經增加了一倍多了一系列的附件,在10個號碼,其中八個是由於孔子。 Only a small portion of these, however, are probably authentic.只有一小部分這些,但可能是真實的。

The fourth "King" is the "Li-ki" (Book of Rites).第四個“國王”是“立基” (禮記) 。 In its present form it dates from the second century of our era, being a compilation from a vast number of documents, most of which date from the earlier part of the Chow dynasty.以其目前的形式它的日期從第二世紀的時代,正在從彙編,數目龐大的文件,其中大部分日期從早先的一部分,週王朝。 It gives rules of conduct down to the minute details for religious acts of worship, court functions, social and family relations, dress--in short, for every sphere of human action.它的行為規則到細節的宗教崇拜的行為,法院的職能,社會和家庭關係,服裝-簡言之,為每一個領域的人的行動。 It remains today the authoritative guide of correct conduct for every cultivated Chinese.今天仍然是權威的指導正確的行為,每培育中國。 In the "Li-ki" are many of Confucius's reputed sayings and two long treatises composed by disciples, which may be said to reflect with substantial accuracy the sayings and teachings of the master.在“立基”是許多孔子的著名諺語和兩個長期論文組成的弟子,這可以說是反映了大量準確的說法和教義的主人。 One of these is the treatise known as the "Chung-yung" (Doctrine of the Mean).其中之一是論文被稱為“鐘庸” (中庸) 。 It forms Book XXVIII of the "Li-ki", and is one of its most valuable treatises.這形式二十八書的“立基” ,是其最有價值的論文。 It consists of a collection of sayings of Confucius characterizing the man of perfect virtue. The other treatise, forming Book XXXIX of the "Li-ki", is the so-called "Ta-hio" (Great Learning).它是一個收集的孔子名言特點完美的人的美德。其他論文,圖書形成三十九的“立基” ,是所謂的“大hio ” (大學習) 。 It purports to be descriptions of the virtuous ruler by the disciple Tsang-tze, based on the teachings of the master.它看來是說明良性統治者的弟子曾智的基礎上,教義的主人。 The fifth "King" is the short historical treatise known as the "Ch'un-ts'ew" (Spring and Autumn), said to have been written by the hand of Confucius himself.第五屆“國王”是短期的歷史論文被稱為“春- ts'ew ” (春秋) ,說已經書面的手孔子本人。 It consists of a connected series of bare annals of the state of Lu for the years 722-484 BC To these five "Kings" belongs a sixth, the so-called "Hiao-king" (Book of Filial Piety).它是一個連接一系列的裸史冊的狀態呂為公元前722-484年這五年要“國王”屬於第六,所謂的“ Hiao國王” (孝經) 。 The Chinese attribute its composition to Confucius, but in the opinion of critical scholars, it is the product of the school of his disciple, Tsang-tze.在中國的屬性及其組成,以孔子,但在輿論的重要學者,這是該產品的學校,他的弟子,曾智。

Mention has just been made of the two treatises, the "Doctrine of the Mean" and the "Great Learning", embodied in the "Li-ki".剛才提到了兩個論文中, “中庸”和“大學習” ,體現在“立基” 。 In the eleventh century of our era, these two works were united with other Confucian texts, constituting what is known as the "Sze-shuh" (Four Books).在11世紀的時代,這兩項工程是聯合國與其他儒家文本,構成所謂的“四樹” (四書) 。 First of these is the "Lun-yu" (Analects).首先是“倫玉” (論語) 。 It is a work in twenty short chapters, showing what manner of man Confucius was in his daily life, and recording many of his striking sayings on moral and historical topics.這是一個工作在短期第二十四章,以何種方式展示人的孔子在他的日常生活,並記錄了他的許多驚人的說法在道義上和歷史性課題。 It seems to embody the authentic testimony of his disciples written by one of the next generation.這似乎體現了真實的證言書面弟子之一的下一代。

The second place in the "Shuh" is given to the "Book of Mencius".第二次發生在“樹”是考慮到“圖書孟子” 。 Mencius (Meng-tze), was not an immediate disciple of the master.孟子(孟志) ,沒有立即弟子的主人。 He lived a century later.他住一個世紀之後。 He acquired great fame as an exponent of Confucian teaching.他獲得巨大的名氣指數作為儒家教學。 His sayings, chiefly on moral topics, were treasured up by disciples, and published in his name.他的說法,主要是道德議題,是珍惜了弟子,並發表在他的名字。 Third and fourth in order of the "Shuh" come the "Great Learning" and the "Doctrine of the Mean".第三次和第四次,以便在“樹”來“大學習”和“中庸” 。

For our earliest knowledge of the contents of these Confucian texts, we are indebted to the painstaking researches of the Jesuit missionaries in China during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, who, with an heroic zeal for the spread of Christ's kingdom united a diligence and proficiency in the study of Chinese customs, literature, and history that have laid succeeding scholars under lasting obligation.對於我們最早的知識的內容,這些儒家文本,我們非常感激的艱苦研究耶穌會傳教士在中國期間, 17和18世紀,誰,一個英雄的熱情,傳播基督的英國1的勤奮和精通研究中國的習俗,文學,歷史,奠定成功的學者根據持久的義務。 Among these we may mention Fathers Prémare, Régis, Lacharme, Gaubil, Noël, Ignacio da Costa, by whom most of the Confucian texts were translated and elucidated with great erudition.在這些我們可能會提到父親Prémare ,雷吉斯, Lacharme ,榮,諾埃爾,伊格納西奧達科斯塔,是誰最儒家的文本翻譯和解釋懷著極大的學問。 It was but natural that their pioneer studies in so difficult a field should be destined to give place to the more accurate and complete monuments of modern scholarship.這是自然的,但他們的先驅研究,在這樣困難的領域應該是注定要考慮地方的更準確和更完整的紀念碑現代獎學金。 But even here they have worthy representatives in such scholars as Father Zottoli and Henri Cordier, whose Chinese studies give evidence of vast erudition.不過,即使他們在這裡值得代表等學者之父Zottoli和亨利科迪爾,其中國的研究提供證據廣大博學。 The Confucian texts have been made available to English readers by Professor Legge.儒家文本已提供給英文讀者理教授。 Besides his monumental work in seven volumes, entitled "The Chinese Classics" and his version of the "Ch'un ts'ew", he has given the revised translations of the "Shuh", "She", "Ta-hio", "Y", and "Li-Ki" in Volumes III, XVI, XXVII, and XXVIII of "The Sacred Books of the East".除了他的巨著7卷,題為“中國經典”和他的版的“春ts'ew ” ,他給了修訂翻譯的“樹” , “她” , “大hio ” “ Y ”型和“立基”的第三卷,第十六,二十七和二十八的“聖書東” 。

III.三。 THE DOCTRINE中庸

A. Religious Groundwork A.宗教工作

The religion of ancient China, to which Confucius gave his reverent adhesion was a form of nature-worship very closely approaching to monotheism.宗教古代中國,而孔子給他的虔誠的粘附是一種形式的自然崇拜非常密切接近一神教。 While numerous spirits associated with natural phenomena were recognized--spirits of mountains and rivers, of land and grain, of the four quarters of the heavens, the sun, moon, and stars--they were all subordinated to the supreme Heaven-god, T'ien (Heaven) also called Ti (Lord), or Shang-ti (Supreme Lord).雖然許多精神與自然現象是公認的-精神山水相連,土地和糧食,四季度的天空,太陽,月亮和星星-他們都從屬於天堂的最高神,天子(天)也稱為鈦(主) ,或尚悌(最高法院勳爵) 。 All other spirits were but his ministers, acting in obedience to his will.所有其他的精神,但他的部長們採取行動,服從他的意志。 T'ien was the upholder of the moral law, exercising a benign providence over men.天子是維護者的道德法律,行使一種良性普羅維登斯超過男性。 Nothing done in secret could escape his all-seeing eye.沒有什麼秘密進行無法逃脫他的全盲。 His punishment for evil deeds took the form either of calamities and early death, or of misfortune laid up for the children of the evil-doer.他的懲罰惡行表現形式之一災害和早期死亡,或不幸奠定了兒童的邪惡的實干家。 In numerous passages of the "Shao-" and "She-king", we find this belief asserting itself as a motive to right conduct.在許多段落的“少”和“社王” ,我們發現這種信念聲稱自己作為一個動機,以正確的行為。 That it was not ignored by Confucius himself is shown by his recorded saying, that "he who offends against Heaven has no one to whom he can pray".這不是忽視了自己是孔子所表現出他的記錄說,這“誰冒犯了對天堂沒有一個人,他可以祈禱” 。 Another quasi-religious motive to the practice of virtue was the belief that the souls of the departed relatives were largely dependent for their happiness on the conduct of their living descendants.另一種準宗教動機的做法是憑藉認為,靈魂離開親人很大程度上取決於他們的幸福的行為其生活的後裔。 It was taught that children owed it as a duty to their dead parents to contribute to their glory and happiness by lives of virtue.這是教孩子欠它作為一個有責任的死亡父母有助於他們光榮和幸福的生活美德。 To judge from the sayings of Confucius that have been preserved, he did not disregard these motives to right conduct, but he laid chief stress on the love of virtue for its own sake.判斷從孔子的名言已保存,但他不能無視這些動機權的行為,但他奠定首席應激對愛美德本身。 The principles of morality and their concrete application to the varied relations of life were embodied in the sacred texts, which in turn represented the teachings of the great sages of the past raised up by Heaven to instruct mankind.道德原則和具體應用的各種關係的生活都體現在神聖的文本,這反過來又教義派的偉大先賢過去所提出的天堂,指示人類。 These teachings were not inspired, nor were they revealed, yet they were infallible.這些教義沒有靈感,也沒有透露,但他們是錯的。 The sages were born with wisdom meant by Heaven to enlighten the children of men.在聖人出生智慧的意思天堂啟發兒童的男子。 It was thus a wisdom that was providential, rather than supernatural.因此,人們智慧,是天賜,而不是超自然的。 The notion of Divine positive revelation is absent from the Chinese texts.的概念神聖積極的啟示是不在中國的案文。 To follow the path of duty as laid down in the authoritative rules of conduct was within the reach of all men, provided that their nature, good at birth, was not hopelessly spoiled by vicious influences. Confucius held the traditional view that all men are born good.要按照職責路徑中所規定的權威性的行為規則的範圍內達成的所有男女,只要其性質而言,良好的出生時,沒有絕望慣壞了惡性的影響。舉行孔子的傳統觀點,即人人生而良好的。 Of anything like original sin there is not a trace in his teaching.什麼樣的原罪不存在微量在他的教學。 He seems to have failed to recognize even the existence of vicious hereditary tendencies.他似乎沒有認識到甚至存在惡性遺傳傾向。 In his view, what spoiled men was bad environment, evil example, an inexcusable yielding to evil appetites that everyone by right use of his natural powers could and ought to control.在他看來,什麼寵壞男子惡劣的環境,邪惡例如,一個不可原諒的屈服邪惡的慾望,每個人有權使用其自然資源的權力可以而且應該控制。 Moral downfall caused by suggestions of evil spirits had no place in his system.道德衰敗所造成的建議辟邪沒有發生在他的系統。 Nor is there any notion of Divine grace to strengthen the will and enlighten the mind in the struggle with evil.也沒有任何概念的神聖的寬限期,以加強意志和啟迪心靈的鬥爭中與邪惡。 There are one or two allusions to prayer, but nothing to show that daily prayer was recommended to the aspirant after perfection.有一個或兩個典故,以祈禱,但沒有表明,每天都祈禱建議的野心後完善。

B. Helps to Virtue灣有助於美德

In Confucianism the helps to the cultivation of virtue are natural and providential, nothing more.在儒學的幫助培養美德的自然和天賜,僅此而已。 But in this development of moral perfection Confucius sought to enkindle in others the enthusiastic love of virtue that he felt himself.但是,在這一發展進程中的道德完善孔子試圖點燃在其他國家,熱心愛的美德,他認為自己。 To make oneself as good as possible, this was with him the main business of life.為了使自己的一樣好可能的,這是他的主要業務的生活方式。 Everything that was conducive to the practice of goodness was to be eagerly sought and made use of.一切有利於實踐善良要急切地尋求和利用。 To this end right knowledge was to be held indispensable.為此,正確的知識將舉行必不可少的。 Like Socrates, Confucius taught that vice sprang from ignorance and that knowledge led unfailingly to virtue.像蘇格拉底,孔子教導副源自無知和知識領導始終以美德。 The knowledge on which he insisted was not purely scientific learning, but an edifying acquaintance with the sacred texts and the rules of virtue and propriety.的知識,他堅持不單純是科學的學習,而是一種啟發結識的神聖文本和規則的美德和禮儀。 Another factor on which he laid great stress was the influence of good example.另一個因素對他非常重視的影響很好的例子。 He loved to hold up to the admiration of his disciples the heroes and sages of the past, an acquaintance with whose noble deeds and sayings he sought to promote by insisting on the study of the ancient classics.他喜歡容納欽佩他的弟子的英雄和聖人的過去,一個熟人其崇高的事蹟和格言,他謀求促進堅持研究古代經典之作。 Many of his recorded sayings are eulogies of these valiant men of virtue.他的許多名言錄是悼詞這些勇敢的人的美德。 Nor did he fail to recognize the value of good, high-minded companions.他也不承認失敗的價值良好,高尚的同伴。 His motto was, to associate with the truly great and to make friends of the most virtuous.他的座右銘是,聯同真正的偉大和廣交朋友的最良性。 Besides association with the good, Confucius urged on his disciples the importance of always welcoming the fraternal correction of one's faults.除了與善,孔子敦促他的弟子的重要性,始終歡迎兄弟改正自己的錯誤。 Then, too, the daily examination of conscience was inculcated.同樣,每天檢查的良心被灌輸。 As a further aid to the formation of a virtuous character, he valued highly a certain amount of self-discipline.作為進一步的援助,以形成一個良性性格,他高度評價了一定程度的自律。 He recognized the danger, especially in the young, of falling into habits of softness and love of ease.他承認的危險,尤其是年輕人,陷入習慣的柔軟性與愛的緩解。 Hence he insisted on a virile indifference to effeminate comforts.因此,他堅持剛健漠不關心人氣舒適。 In the art of music he also recognized a powerful aid to enkindle enthusiasm for the practice of virtue.在音樂藝術,他也認識到一個強大的援助,點燃熱情的做法美德。 He taught his pupils the "Odes" and other edifying songs, which they sang together to the accompaniment of lutes and harps.他教他的學生的“詩經”和其他有益的歌曲,他們一起演唱伴奏的lutes和豎琴。 This together with the magnetism of his personal influence lent a strong emotional quality to his teaching.這與磁性他個人的影響力伸出了牢固的情感質量,他的教學。

C. Fundamental Virtues角基本美德

As a foundation for the life of perfect goodness, Confucius insisted chiefly on the four virtues of sincerity, benevolence, filial piety, and propriety. Sincerity was with him a cardinal virtue.作為一個基礎的生活完美的善良,孔子堅持主要在四個美德的誠意,善,孝道,並適當。誠信是他的一項基本美德。 As used by him it meant more than a mere social relation.正如他所用它意味著不僅僅是一種社會關係。 To be truthful and straightforward in speech, faithful to one's promises, conscientious in the discharge of one's duties to others--this was included in sincerity and something more.為了真實和簡單的講話,忠實於自己的諾言,認真履行自己的職責,其他人-這是包括在誠意和更多的東西。 The sincere man in Confucius's eyes was the man whose conduct was always based on the love of virtue, and who in consequence sought to observe the rules of right conduct in his heart as well as in outward actions, when alone as well as in the presence of others. Benevolence, showing itself in a kindly regard for the welfare of others and in a readiness to help them in times of need, was also a fundamental element in Confucius's teaching.真誠的人在孔子的眼睛是人的行為總是基於愛的美德,以及誰因此設法遵守規則的行為的權利在他心中,以及對外行動,獨自一人時,以及存在他人。仁,顯示自己的善意方面的福利和其他願意幫助他們在需要時,這也是一個基本要素孔子的教學。 It was viewed as the characteristic trait of the good man. Mencius, the illustrious exponent of Confucianism, has the remarkable statement: "Benevolence is man" (VII, 16).它被視為性狀特徵的好人。孟子,傑出的儒學指數,具有顯著的聲明說: “仁是人” (第七章, 16條) 。 In the sayings of Confucius we find the Golden Rule in its negative form enunciated several times.在孔子的名言,我們找到黃金規則在其消極的形式闡明了好幾次。 In "Analects", XV, 13, we read that when a disciple asked him for a guiding principle for all conduct, the master answered: "Is not mutual goodwill such a principle? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others".在“論語” ,十五, 13日,我們讀到,當一個弟子問他的一個指導原則為所有的行為,主人回答說: “難道不是相互的善意這樣一個原則什麼你不想自己做,不這樣做給他人“ 。 This is strikingly like the form of the Golden Rule found in the first chapter of the "Teaching of the Apostles"--"All things soever that you would not have done to yourself, do not do to another"; also in Tobias, iv, 16, where it appears for the first time in Sacred Scripture. He did not approve the principle held by Lao-tze that injury should be repaid with kindness.這是驚人的類似形式的黃金規則中發現的第一章“教學中的使徒” -“所有的事情s oever,你不會自己做,不這樣做的另一個” ;還托拜厄斯,四16 ,在那裡出現的第一次聖經。他不贊成的原則舉行的老撾智的損傷應償還的好意。 His motto was "Requite injury with justice, and kindness with kindness" (Analects, XIV, 36).他的座右銘是“與報答損傷正義,善良與仁慈” (論語,第十四條, 36條) 。 He seems to have viewed the question from the practical and legal standpoint of social order.他似乎已經看問題從實際和法律的角度的社會秩序。 "To repay kindness with kindness", he says elsewhere, "acts as an encouragement to the people. To requite injury with injury acts as a warning" (Li-ki, XXIX, 11). “為了報答善良與善意” ,他說,其他地方, “作為一個鼓勵人。為了報答損傷的損傷作為一個警告” (李基,第29屆,第11段) 。 The third fundamental virtue in the Confucian system is filial piety.第三個基本美德在儒家系統是孝道。 In the "Hiao-king", Confucius is recorded as saying: "Filial piety is the root of all virtue."--"Of all the actions of man there are none greater than those of filial piety."在“ Hiao王” ,是記錄孔子的話說: “孝道的根源是所有美德."--"的所有行動的人有沒有大於孝道。 ” To the Chinese then as now, filial piety prompted the son to love and respect his parents, contribute to their comfort, bring happiness and honour to their name, by honourable success in life.如果中國再像現在,孝順的兒子提示,以愛和尊重他的父母,有助於其舒適性,帶來幸福和榮幸地以他們的名字,由議員在生活中獲得成功。 But at the same time it carried that devotion to a degree that was excessive and faulty.但與此同時,它進行的奉獻精神在一定程度上是過分的和錯誤的。 In consequence of the patriarchal system there prevailing, filial piety included the obligation of sons to live after marriage under the same roof with the father and to give him a childlike obedience as long as he lived.在後果,家長制有普遍的,包括孝順的義務,兒子結婚後住在同一屋簷下的父親,並給他一個孩子服從,只要他居住。 The will of the parents was declared to be supreme even to the extent that if the son's wife failed to please them he was obliged to divorce her, though it cut him to the heart.該會的家長被宣布為最高甚至程度,如果兒子的妻子沒有請他們,他不得不離婚,但打斷他的心。 If a dutiful son found himself compelled to admonish a wayward father he was taught to give the correction with the utmost meekness; though the parent might beat him till the blood flowed he was not to show any resentment.如果一個孝子發現自己不得不告誡1任性的父親,他教給更正極其溫順,儘管父母可能會打敗他,直到血液流到他沒有表現出任何不滿。 The father did not forfeit his right to filial respect, no matter how great his wickedness.父親並沒有放棄他的權利,孝敬,無論多麼偉大的邪惡。 Another virtue of primary importance in the Confucian system is "propriety".另一個優點是非常重要的儒家體系是“禮” 。 It embraces the whole sphere of human conduct, prompting the superior man always to do the right thing in the right place.它包含了整個領域的人類行為,促使優秀的人總是做正確的事在正確的位置。 It finds expression in the so-called rules of ceremony, which are not confined to religious rites and rules of moral conduct, but extend to the bewildering mass of conventional customs and usages by which Chinese etiquette is regulated.它表現在所謂的規則的儀式,這是不局限於宗教儀式和規則的道德行為,而是延伸到撲朔迷離大規模的常規習俗和慣例,其中中國禮儀規範。 They were distinguished even in Confucius's day by the three hundred greater, and the three thousand lesser, rules of ceremony, all of which had to be carefully learned as a guide to right conduct.他們尊敬甚至在孔子的一天的300更大,和3000較小,規則的儀式上,所有這些都必須認真吸取為指導,以正確的行為。 The conventional usages as well as the rules of moral conduct brought with them the sense of obligation resting primarily on the authority of the sage-kings and in the last analysis on the will of Heaven.傳統的慣例,以及規則的道德行為帶來了他們的義務感主要休息的權威,聖人,國王和在過去的分析將天堂。 To neglect or deviate from them was equivalent to an act of impiety.忽視或偏離他們相當於行為impiety 。

D. Rites D.禮

In the "Li-ki", the chief ceremonial observances are declared to be six: capping, marriage mourning rites, sacrifices, feasts, and interviews.在“立基” ,主要紀念儀式被宣布為六個,即:上限,婚姻悼念儀式,犧牲,節日和面試。 It will be enough to treat briefly of the first four.這將是足夠簡單的治療頭4 。 They have persisted with little change down to the present day.他們堅持變化不大下降到目前的一天。 Capping was a joyous ceremony, wherein the son was honoured on reaching his twentieth year.上限是一個愉快的儀式,其中的兒子很榮幸達到他的20歲。 In the presence of relatives and invited guests, the father conferred on his son a special name and a square cornered cap as distinguishing marks of his mature manhood.在場的親屬和特邀嘉賓,父親授予他的兒子一個特別的名字和一個廣場三角帽作為識別標誌的成熟的男子漢氣概。 It was accompanied with a feast.這是附有盛宴。 The marriage ceremony was of great importance.結婚儀式是非常重要的。 To marry with the view of having male children was a grave duty on the part of every son.如果要結婚的看法,有男性兒童是一個嚴重責任的一部分,每一個兒子。 This was necessary to keep up the patriarchal system and to provide for ancestral worship in after years.這是必須跟上的家長制,並規定祖先崇拜在經過多年。 The rule as laid down in the "Li-ki" was, that a young man should marry at the age of thirty and a young woman at twenty.該規則中所規定的“立基”是,一個年輕男子應該結婚的年齡在30和一名年輕女子在21 。 The proposal and acceptance pertained not to the young parties directly interested, but to their parents.這一建議,並接受有關不年輕的直接有關當事方,但他們的父母。 The preliminary arrangements were made by a go between after it was ascertained by divination that the signs of the proposed union were auspicious. The parties could not be of the same surname, nor related within the fifth degree of kindred.初步安排是由之間去後,確定占卜的跡象,建議工會吉祥。當事人不能在同一姓氏,也沒有相關的第五屆程度的骨肉。 On the day of the wedding the young groom in his best attire came to the house of the bride and led her out to his carriage, in which she rode to his father's home.當天婚禮的年輕新郎在他最好的服裝來到了房子的新娘和她領導的,以他的馬車,她騎著他父親的家中。 There he received her, surrounded by the joyous guests.在那裡,他收到了她,周圍的歡樂客人。 Cups improvised by cutting a melon in halves were filled with sweet spirits and handed to the bride and groom.世界杯簡易的切割甜瓜在半場充滿了甜蜜的精神和交給新郎和新娘。 By taking a sip from each, they signified that they were united in wedlock.通過採取從每個啜,它們象徵著他們團結在婚外。 The bride thus became a member of the family of her parents-in-law, subject, like her husband, to their authority. Monogamy was encouraged as the ideal condition, but the maintenance of secondary wives known as concubines was not forbidden.新娘從而成為家庭成員,她公婆,但像她的丈夫,他們的權威。一夫一妻制感到鼓舞的理想條件,但維持中學的妻子被稱為妾不是被禁止的。 It was recommended when the true wife failed to bear male children and was too much loved to be divorced.有人建議時,真正的妻子無法承受男性兒童和太愛離婚。 There were seven causes justifying the repudiation of a wife besides infidelity, and one of these was the absence of male offspring.有7個原因理由拒絕了妻子不忠之外,其中之一是缺乏雄性後代。 The mourning rites were likewise of supreme importance.悼念儀式也同樣最高的重要性。 Their exposition takes up the greater part of the "Li-ki".他們的論述佔據更大的一部分, “立基” 。 They were most elaborate, varying greatly in details and length of observance, according to the rank and relationship of the deceased.他們是最詳細,大大的不同細節和長度的遵守,根據級別和關係的死者。 The mourning rites for the father were the most impressive of all.悼念儀式的父親是最令人印象深刻的一切。 For the first three days, the son, clad in sackcloth of coarse white hemp, fasted, and leaped, and wailed. After the burial, for which there were minute prescriptions, the son had to wear the mourning sackcloth for twenty-seven months, emaciating his body with scanty food, and living in a rude hut erected for the purpose near the grave.第3天的兒子,穿著粗麻布白色大麻,禁食,並躍升,並哭泣。埋葬後,其中有方劑分鐘,兒子穿了哀悼麻布為二七個月, emaciating他的身體與稀少的食物,生活在一個粗魯的小屋豎立的目的附近的墓地。 In the "Analects", Confucius is said to have condemned with indignation the suggestion of a disciple that the period of the mourning rites might well be shortened to one year.在“論語” ,孔子說,譴責憤慨的建議弟子,報告期內的哀悼儀式很可能會縮短到一年。 Another class of rites of supreme importance were the sacrifices.另一個類別的最高禮儀重要的是犧牲。 They are repeatedly mentioned in the Confucian texts, where instructions are given for their proper celebration.他們一再提到的儒家文本,其中指示,給予適當的慶祝活動。 From the Chinese notion of sacrifice the idea of propitiation through blood is entirely absent.從中國概念的犧牲的想法和解通過血液是完全不存在。 It is nothing more than a food-offering expressing the reverent homage of the worshippers, a solemn feast to do honour to the spirit guests, who are invited and are thought to enjoy the entertainment.它只不過是一個糧食產品,表示虔誠參拜的信徒,一個莊嚴的節日做榮譽的精神客人,誰邀請,並認為享受娛樂。 Meat and drink of great variety are provided.肉類和飲料的各種規定。 There is also vocal and instrumental music, and pantomimic dancing.也有聲樂和器樂,舞蹈和pantomimic 。 The officiating ministers are not priests, but heads of families, the feudal lords, and above all, the king.主禮部長是不是神父,但戶主的封建領主,最重要的是,國王。

There is no priesthood in Confucianism.沒有鐸儒家。

The worship of the people at large is practically confined to the so-called ancestor-worship.崇拜的人逍遙法外實際上是僅限於所謂的祖先崇拜。 Some think it is hardly proper to call it worship, consisting as it does of feasts in honour of dead relatives.一些人認為這是很難妥善稱之為禮拜,包括因為它的節日紀念死者的親屬。 In the days of Confucius, as at present, there was in every family home, from the palace of the king himself down to the humble cabin of the peasant, a chamber or closet called the ancestral shrine, where wooden tablets were reverently kept, inscribed with the names of deceased parents, grandparents, and more remote ancestors.在兩天的孔子,截至目前,在每一個家庭,從皇宮國王親自到客艙謙虛的農民,一個室或壁櫥稱為神龕,其中木製片恭敬地保存,登記與死者的姓名,父母,祖父母,以及更加遙遠的祖先。 At stated intervals offerings of fruit, wine, and cooked meats were set before these tablets, which the ancestral spirits were fancied to make their temporary resting-place.在產品說明間隔的水果,葡萄酒,和熟肉之前確定這些藥片,其中祖靈的幻想,使他們的臨時休息地點。 There was, besides, a public honouring by each local clan of the common ancestors twice a year, in spring and autumn.是的,再說,公眾履行各自的地方氏族的共同祖先,每年兩次,在春季和秋季。 This was an elaborate banquet with music and solemn dances, to which the dead ancestors were summoned, and in which they were believed to participate along with the living members of the clan.這是一個詳細宴會與莊嚴的音樂和舞蹈,而死亡的祖先被傳喚,並在它們被認為參與一起生活成員的家族。 More elaborate and magnificent still were the great triennial and quinquennial feasts given by the king to his ghostly ancestors.更詳細和宏偉的仍然是偉大的三年期和五年期節日所給予他的國王幽靈的祖先。 This feasting of the dead by families and clans was restricted to such as were united with the living by ties of relationship.這個節日,死者的家屬和部族限制,如團結與生活的紐帶關係。 There were, however, a few public benefactors whose memory was revered by all the people and to whom offerings of food were made.但是,也有少數市民恩人的記憶尊敬所有的人民和他們提供的糧食發了言。 Confucius himself came be to honoured after death, being regarded as the greatest of public benefactors.孔子本人來是榮幸亡故後,被視為最大的公共恩人。 Even today in China this religious veneration of the master is faithfully maintained.即使是今天在中國這個宗教崇拜的主人是忠實地保持下去。 In the Imperial College in Peking there is a shrine where the tablets of Confucius and his principal disciples are preserved.在帝國學院在北京有一個參拜靖國神社的牌位孔子和他的主要弟子得以保存。 Twice a year, in spring and autumn, the emperor goes there in state and solemnly presents food-offerings with a prayerful address expressing his gratitude and devotion.每年兩次,在春季和秋季,皇帝不用在那裡狀態,並鄭重提出了糧食產品,以虔誠的處理表示感謝和奉獻精神。

In the fourth book of the "Li-ki" reference is made to the sacrifices which the people were accustomed to offer to the "spirits of the ground", that is to the spirits presiding over the local fields.在第四本書的“立基”提到了犧牲的人習慣於提供了“精神的地面” ,即是神主持當地的領域。 In the worship of spirits of higher rank, however, the people seem to have taken no active part.在精神崇拜的更高級別的,但人們似乎沒有採取任何積極作用。 This was the concern of their highest representatives, the feudal lords and the king.這是關心他們的最高代表,封建領主和國王。 Each feudal lord offered sacrifice for himself and his subjects to the subordinate spirits supposed to have especial care of his territory.每個領主提供的犧牲為他自己和科目下屬的精神應該有特殊的照顧他的領土。 It was the prerogative of the king alone to sacrifice to the spirits, both great and small, of the whole realm, particularly to Heaven and Earth.這是特權,國王僅犧牲的精神,都是偉大和小國,整個領域,特別是對天地。 Several sacrifices of this kind were offered every year.一些犧牲,這種提供了每年。 The most important were those at the winter and summer solstice in which Heaven and Earth were respectively worshipped.最重要的是那些在冬季和夏季在冬至這天與地分別崇拜。 To account for this anomaly we must bear in mind that sacrifice, as viewed by the Chinese, is a feast to the spirit guests, and that according to their notion of propriety the highest deities should be feted only by the highest representatives of the living.考慮到這種不正常現象,我們必須牢記,犧牲,看的中國,是一個節日的精神客人,並根據其概念的正當性的最高神應宴請只能由最高代表的生活水平。 They saw a fitness in the custom that only the king, the Son of Heaven, should, in his own behalf and in behalf of his people, make solemn offering to Heaven.他們看到一個健身的習慣,只有國王,天子,應在自己的名義和代表他的人民,提出嚴正提供天堂。 And so it is today.所以今天。 The sacrificial worship of Heaven and Earth is celebrated only by the emperor, with the assistance, indeed, of a small army of attendants, and with a magnificence of ceremonial that is astonishing to behold. To pray privately to Heaven and burn incense to him was a legitimate way for the individual to show his piety to the highest deity, and this is still practised, generally at the full moon.崇拜的祭祀天地慶祝只能由皇帝的協助下,事實上,一個小型的軍隊人員,並有華麗的儀式是驚人的外表。私人祈禱天堂和燒香,以他的一個合法的方式為個人表現出他的虔誠的最高神,這是仍然實行,一般在滿月。

E. Politics體育政治

Confucius knew but one form of government, the traditional monarchy of his native land.孔子知道,但一種形式的政府,傳統的君主,他的土地。 It was the extension of the patriarchal system to the entire nation.這是延長了家長制,以整個國家。 The king exercised an absolute authority over his subjects, as the father over his children.國王行使絕對的權力,他的臣民,作為父親的他的孩子們。 He ruled by right Divine.他統治的神聖權利。 He was providentially set up by Heaven to enlighten the people by wise laws and to lead them to goodness by his example and authority.他providentially成立了天堂啟發人民的智慧的法律,並引導他們善良的他的榜樣和權威。 Hence his title, the "Son of Heaven".因此,他的頭銜中, “天子” 。 To merit this title he should reflect the virtue of Heaven.值得他此標題應反映憑藉天堂。 It was only the high-minded king that won Heaven's favour and was rewarded with prosperity.這也是高尚的國王贏得上天的支持,也得到繁榮。 The unworthy king lost Divine assistance and came to naught.國王的不配失去了神聖的援助,並來到一事無成。 The Confucian texts abound in lessons and warnings on this subject of right government.儒家文本中很多的教訓和警告關於這一問題的政府的權利。 The value of good example in the ruler is emphasized most strongly.的價值很好的例子統治者強調最強烈。 The principle is asserted again and again, that the people cannot fail to practise virtue and to prosper when the ruler sets the high example of right conduct.原則是主張一次又一次,人民不能不執業美德和繁榮的統治者時,設置高的例子權利的行為。 On the other hand the implication is conveyed in more than one place that when crime and misery abound, the cause is to be sought in the unworthy king and his unprincipled ministers.另一方面的含義是傳達在多個地方,當犯罪和苦難比比皆是,原因是爭取在不配國王和他的無原則的部長。

IV.四。 HISTORY OF CONFUCIANISM歷史上的儒學

It is doubtless this uncompromising attitude of Confucianism towards vicious self-seeking rulers of the people that all but caused its extinction towards the end of the third century BC In the year 213 BC, the subverter of the Chow dynasty, Shi Hwang-ti, promulgated the decree that all Confucian books, excepting the "Y-king", should be destroyed.這是毫無疑問,這不妥協的態度對儒學的惡性自我尋求統治者的人所有,但造成其滅絕年底公元前3世紀在公元前213年,在subverter的週王朝,石黃體,頒布該法令,所有儒家的書籍,除的“ Y型之王” ,應予以銷毀。 The penalty of death was threatened against all scholars who should be found possessing the proscribed books or teaching them to others.該判處死刑的威脅對所有學者誰應該發現藏有被禁的書籍或教他們給他人。 Hundreds of Confucian scholars would not comply with the edict, and were buried alive.數百名儒生不符合該法令,並且被活埋。 When the repeal came under the Han dynasty, in 191 BC, the work of extermination was wellnigh complete.當廢除屬於漢代,在公元前191個,工作的滅絕是wellnigh完成。 Gradually, however, copies more or less damaged were brought to light, and the Confucian texts were restored to their place of honour.漸漸地,然而,副本或多或少地損壞了揭示,與儒家文本恢復他們的名譽。 Generations of scholars have devoted their best years to the elucidation of the "King" and "Shuh", with the result that an enormous literature has clustered around them.幾代學者都致力於最好的來闡明的“國王”和“樹” ,其結果是一個巨大的文學圍繞著他們。 As the State religion of China, Confucianism has exercised a profound influence on the life of the nation.為國教的中國,儒學已經行使了深刻的影響到國家的生命。 This influence has been little affected by the lower classes of Taoism and Buddhism, both of which, as popular cults, began to flourish in China towards the end of the first century of our era.這種影響一直不大受下層道教和佛教,這兩個,因為流行的邪教,開始在中國蓬勃發展快結束時的第一個世紀的時代。 In the gross idolatry of these cults the ignorant found a satisfaction for their religious cravings that was not afforded by the religion of the State.在毛崇拜這些邪教的無知找到了滿意的宗教渴望這不是所提供的國教。 But in thus embracing Taoism and Buddhism they did not cease to be Confucianists.但是,在這樣擁抱道教和佛教,他們並沒有因此而停止將儒家。 These cults were and are nothing more than accretions on the Confucian beliefs and customs of the lower classes, forms of popular devotion clinging like parasites to the ancestral religion.這些邪教的過去和現在都只不過accretions的儒家信仰和習俗的下層階級,形式的民眾奉獻抱住寄生蟲一樣的祖先的宗教。 The educated Chinese despises both Buddhist and Taoist superstitions.受過教育的同時鄙視中國佛教和道教迷信。 But while nominally professing Confucianism pure and simple, not a few hold rationalistic views regarding the spirit world.但是,雖然名義上信奉儒學純粹和簡單,而不是少數幾個擁有理性的意見精神的世界。 In number the Confucianists amount to about three hundred millions.在一些儒家金額約300百萬。

V. CONFUCIANISM VERSUS CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION五,儒學與基督教文明

In Confucianism there is much to admire.在儒家思想有許多敬佩。 It has taught a noble conception of the supreme Heaven-god.它給了一個崇高的概念,天堂的最高神。 It has inculcated a remarkably high standard of morality.它灌輸一個非常高標準的道德準則。 It has prompted, as far as it knew how, the refining influence of literary education and of polite conduct.它提示,就因為它知道,煉油影響的文學教育和禮貌的行為。 But it stands today encumbered with the serious defects that characterize the imperfect civilization of its early development. The association of T'ien with innumerable nature-spirits, spirits of sun, moon, and stars, of hills and fields and rivers, the superstitious use of divination by means of stalks and tortoise shells, and the crude notion that the higher spirits, together with the souls of the dead, are regaled by splendid banquets and food-offerings, cannot stand the test of intelligent modern criticism.但是,今天擔保的嚴重缺陷,不完美的特點是文明的早期發展。協會天子與無數的自然精神,精神的太陽,月亮和星星,丘陵和領域的河流,使用的迷信算命的方式秸稈和龜甲,而原油概念,即較高的精神,連同靈魂的死亡,是由燦爛regaled宴會和糧食產品,不能經得起考驗的智能現代批評。 Nor can a religion answer fully to the religious needs of the heart which withdraws from the active participation of the people the solemn worship of the deity, which has little use of prayer, which recognizes no such thing as grace, which has no definite teaching in regard to the future life.也不能回答的宗教完全的宗教需要的心臟退出的積極參與,人民的莊嚴崇拜的神,它沒有多大用處的祈禱,承認沒有這樣的事寬限期,它沒有明確的教學中關於今後的生活。 As a social system it has lifted the Chinese to an intermediate grade of culture, but has blocked for ages all further progress.作為一種社會制度已經取消了中國的中間年級的文化,但已阻止的年齡都取得進一步的進展。 In its rigid insistence on rites and customs that tend to perpetuate the patriarchal system with its attendant evils of polygamy and divorce, of excessive seclusion and repression of women, of an undue hampering of individual freedom, Confucianism stands in painful contrast with progressive Christian civilization.在堅持嚴格的禮儀和習俗,往往長期存在重男輕女的制度以及伴隨而來的邪惡的一夫多妻制和離婚,過度的隔離和壓迫的婦女,不應有的阻礙個人自由,儒家主張在痛苦與基督教文明的進步。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯鄧巴艾肯。 Transcribed by Rick McCarty. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.轉錄由里克麥卡蒂。天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


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