Confirmation, Chrismation確認Chrismation

General Information 一般信息

A Christian rite that follows Baptism, confirmation is considered the second Sacrament of initiation by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican churches. In the Roman Catholic church it is normally conferred by a bishop by anointing with holy oil (chrism) on the forehead. 基督教的儀式洗禮之後,確認被認為是第二個聖開始由羅馬天主教,東正教和英國聖公會教堂。在羅馬天主教通常是授予主教的anointing與神聖的油( chrism )的額頭。 In the Orthodox church, the rite is called chrismation and is adminstered by a priest at the time of baptism.在東正教教堂的儀式被稱為chrismation和adminstered在一名神父的時候洗禮。

Episcopalians describe confirmation as a sacramental rite and consider it a time for mature, public affirmation of baptismal vows, accompanied by the laying on of hands by the bishop.聖公會描述確認作為一個聖禮儀式,並認為這是一種成熟的時候,公眾肯定洗禮誓言的陪同下,埋設在手的主教。 For Lutherans, confirmation is not a sacrament but a public profession of faith that helps the baptized identify more deeply with the Christian community and participate in its mission.對於路德會,確認不是聖禮,但公共職業的信念,幫助受洗更深刻地確定與基督教社會和參與它的使命。 Similar rites are held in other Protestant churches; they are frequently associated with accepting baptized candidates into full church membership.類似的儀式舉行的其他新教教會,他們往往與接受洗禮的候選人充分教會成員。

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Confirmation, Chrismation確認Chrismation

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Confirmation is one of the seven sacraments of both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox church.確認是七都聖禮,羅馬天主教和東正教教堂。 The Roman Church teaches that it was instituted by Christ, through his disciples, for the church.羅馬教會的教導,這是由基督建立,通過他的弟子,在教堂。 Its early history is somewhat uncertain, and only gradually did it receive recognition as a sacrament.其早期的歷史,是有點不明朗,只有逐步沒有收到確認為聖禮。 It was given a sacramental status by Peter Lombard in the twelfth century and by Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century, and finally by the Council of Trent in the sixteenth century.這是一個聖彼得地位隆巴德在12世紀和托馬斯阿奎那在13世紀,並最終由理事會遄在十六世紀。 One of the two sacraments administered by a bishop in the Roman Catholic Church, its purpose is to make those who have been baptized in the faith strong soldiers of Jesus Christ.其中兩項聖禮由主教在羅馬天主教會,其目的是使這些誰已經洗禮的信仰堅定的士兵耶穌基督。

It is administered to children before they receive their first Communion, generally at about the age of twelve. Concerning it Aquinas wrote: "Confirmation is to baptism what growth is to generation."這是兒童的管理之前,他們收到的首次交流,一般約為十二歲。阿奎那關於它寫道: “確認是什麼洗禮增長的一代。 ” It is administered according to this form: "I sign thee with the sign of the Cross and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation."這是經管根據這種形式: “我與你簽訂的符號交叉,並確認你的chrism救恩。 ” Since it confers an indelible character upon the recipient, it is administered but once.因為它賦予了不可磨滅的性質的受援國,這是管理,但一旦。 According to Roman Catholic theology, sanctifying grace is increased in the soul, and a special sacramental grace consisting of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit is conferred upon the recipient.根據羅馬天主教神學,寬限期sanctifying增加的靈魂,一個特殊組成聖禮寬限期的七個禮物聖靈賦予收件人。 This has recently been reaffirmed by Pope Paul VI in the Apostolic Constitution on the Sacrament of Confirmation (1971), where he says, "Through the sacrament of confirmation, those who have been born anew in baptism receive the inexpressible Gift, the Holy Spirit himself, by which they are endowed ... with special strength."這最近已重申了教皇保羅六世在使徒憲法的聖確認( 1971年) ,在那裡他說, “通過聖禮的確認,這些誰已經出生的洗禮中重新獲得難以形容的禮品,聖靈自己其中,他們被賦予...特別的力量。 “

In the Lutheran Church confirmation is a rite rather than a sacrament and the recipient offers it as a confirmation in his own heart of those baptismal vows which his parents assumed on his behalf.在路德教會確認是一種禮儀,而不是聖禮和受援國提供它作為確認自己的心洗禮的誓言,他的父母承擔代表他。 It is administered but once at about thirteen or fourteen years of age and admits the recipient to the Communion.這是一次管理,但在13或14歲的年齡和承認受援國的共融。 In the Episcopal Church it is a sacramental rite completing baptism.在聖公會它是一個聖禮儀式完成的洗禮。

CG Singer協商小組歌手
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
HJD Denzinger, Sources of Catholic Dogma; GW Bromiley, Sacramental Teaching and Practice in the Reformation Churches; GC Richards, Baptism and Confirmation; G. Dix, The Theology of Confirmation in Relation to Baptism; GWH Lampe, The Seal of the Spirit; LS Thornton, Confirmation. HJD Denzinger ,來源天主教教條;毛重Bromiley ,聖禮教學與實踐的改革教會;氣相色譜理查茲,洗禮和確認;灣迪克斯,神學確認的關係洗禮; 429瓦,印章的精神;最小二乘桑頓,確認。


Confirmation確認

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A sacrament in which the Holy Ghost is given to those already baptized in order to make them strong and perfect Christians and soldiers of Jesus Christ. It has been variously designated: bebaiosis or confirmatio, a making fast or sure; teleiosis or consummatio, a perfecting or completing, as expressing its relation to baptism.阿聖在其中聖靈給那些已經受洗,以便使他們強大和完美的基督徒和士兵的耶穌基督。已指定不同: bebaiosis或confirmatio ,一個決策快,或者確定; teleiosis或consummatio ,一個完善或完成,作為表達關係的洗禮。 With reference to its effect it is the "Sacrament of the Holy Ghost", the "Sacrament of the Seal" (signaculum, sigillum, sphragis).依據其作用是“聖餐的聖靈” ,在“聖密封” ( signaculum , sigillum , sphragis ) 。 From the external rite it is known as the "imposition of hands" (epithesis cheiron), or as "anointing with chrism" (unctio, chrismatio, chrisma, myron).從外部成年禮它被稱為“強加的手” ( epithesis cheiron ) ,或“ anointing與chrism ” ( unctio , chrismatio , chrisma ,邁倫) 。 The names at present in use are, for the Western Church, confirmatio, and for the Greek, to myron.姓名,目前使用的,西方教會, confirmatio ,並為希臘,為邁倫。

I. PRESENT PRACTICE AND DOCTRINE一本實踐和理論

Rite

In the Western Church the sacrament is usually administered by the bishop.在西方教會的聖禮通常是由主教。 At the beginning of the ceremony there is a general imposition of hands, the bishop meantime praying that the Holy Ghost may come down upon those who have already been regenerated: "send forth upon them thy sevenfold Spirit the Holy Paraclete."在開始儀式人們普遍實行手中,同時祈禱的主教說,聖靈可能會看不起那些誰已經再生: “發送給他們提出你的七倍精神聖地聖靈。 ” He then anoints the forehead of each with chrism saying: "I sign thee with the sign of the cross and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."然後,他的額頭anoints的每個chrism說: “我與你簽訂的跡象,兩岸並確認你的chrism拯救的名義,父和子和聖靈。 ” Finally, he gives each a slight blow on the cheek saying: "peace be with thee".最後,他讓每一個輕微的打擊的臉頰說: “和平與你” 。 A prayer is added that the Holy Spirit may dwell in the hearts of those who have been confirmed, and the rite closes with the bishop's blessing.禱告是說,聖靈可能會住在心中的那些誰已被確認,並關閉儀式的主教的祝福。

The Eastern Church omits the imposition of hands and the prayer at the beginning, and accompanies the anointing with the words: "the sign [or seal] of the gift of the Holy Ghost."東部教會忽略了實行手中,祈禱開始,並伴隨anointing的話: “標誌[或蓋章]禮品的聖靈。 ” These several actions symbolize the nature and purpose of the sacrament: the anointing signifies the strength given for the spiritual conflict; the balsam contained in the chrism, the fragrance of virtue and the good odor of Christ; the sign of the cross on the forehead, the courage to confess Christ, before all men; the imposition of hands and the blow on the cheek, enrollment in the service of Christ which brings true peace to the soul. (Cf. St. Thomas, III:72:4).這些象徵著若干行動的性質和宗旨的聖禮: anointing標誌的強度給予精神的衝突;的苦瓜中所載chrism ,這種香水的美德和良好的氣味基督;的跡象,兩岸的額頭,有勇氣承認基督之前,所有的人;實行的手和打擊的臉頰,招生服務的基督帶來真正的和平的靈魂。 (參見聖托馬斯,三: 72:4 ) 。

Minister部長

The bishop alone is the ordinary minister of confirmation.主教僅是普通的部長確認。 This is expressly declared by the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, De Conf., C. iii).這是明確宣布理事會的遄達( Sess.七,德設置。角三) 。 A bishop confirms validly even those who are not his own subjects; but to confirm licitly in another diocese he must secure the permission of the bishop of that diocese. Simple priests may be the extraordinary ministers of the sacrament under certain conditions.一位主教證實有效即使是那些沒有誰是自己的主題,但以確認合法的另一個教區,他必須確保許可主教的教區。簡單的神父可能是非凡的部長聖禮在一定條件下。 In such cases, however, the priest cannot wear pontifical vestments, and he is obliged to use chrism blessed by a Catholic bishop.在這種情況下,但是,神父不能穿主教祭衣,他不得不使用chrism得天獨厚的天主教主教。 In the Greek Church, confirmation is given by simple priests without special delegation, and their ministration is accepted by the Western Church as valid.在希臘教會,確認是由簡單的神父沒有特殊的代表團,他們的服侍是接受了西方教會視為有效。 They must, however, use chrism blessed by a patriarch.他們必須然而,使用chrism得天獨厚的家長。

Matter and Form物質與形式

There has been much discussion among theologians as to what constitutes the essential matter of this sacrament.有很多神學家之間的討論對於什麼構成的基本問題,這聖禮。 Some, eg Aureolus and Petavius, held that it consists in the imposition of hands.有些人,例如Aureolus和Petavius舉行,它包括在實行手中。 Others, with St. Thomas, Bellarmine, and Maldonatus, maintain that it is the anointing with chrism.其他人,與聖托馬斯,貝拉明,並Maldonatus ,維護,這是anointing與chrism 。 According to a third opinion (Morinus, Tapper) either anointing or imposition of hands suffices. Finally, the most generally accepted view is that the anointing and the imposition of hands conjointly are the matter.根據第三個意見( Morinus ,塔珀)要么anointing或強加的手就夠了。最後,最普遍接受的觀點是, anointing和實行手中conjointly的問題。 The "imposition", however, is not that with which the rite begins but the laying on of hands which takes place in the act of anointing.該“實施” ,然而,是不是與該儀式開始鋪設,但對其中的手中發生在行為anointing 。 As Peter the Lombard declares: Pontifex per impositionem manus confirmandos ungit in fronte (IV Sent., dist. xxxiii, n. 1; cf. De Augustinis, "De re sacramentaria", 2d ed., Rome, 1889, I).正如彼得隆巴德宣布: Pontifex每impositionem癬confirmandos ungit在fronte (四寄件。區。三十三,注1 ;比照。 Augustinis德, “德重新sacramentaria ” , 2版。 ,羅馬, 1889年,我) 。 The chrism employed must be a mixture of olive oil and balsam consecrated by a bishop.受僱的chrism必須混合橄欖油和苦瓜神聖的主教。 (For the manner of this consecration and for other details, historical and liturgical, see CHRISM.) The difference regarding the form of the sacrament, ie the words essential for confirmation, has been indicated above in the description of the rite. (對於這種方式的奉獻和其他細節,歷史和禮儀,見CHRISM 。 )方面的差異形式的聖禮,即必要的話進行確認,已在上述說明的儀式。 The validity of both the Latin and the Greek form is unquestionable.的有效性,同時拉丁文和希臘的形式是不容置疑的。

Additional details are given below in the historical outline.更多詳情如下的歷史輪廓。

Recipient受贈人

Confirmation can be conferred only on those who have already been baptized and have not yet been confirmed.確認可以只授予那些誰已經領洗,但尚未得到證實。 As St. Thomas says:正如聖托馬斯說:

Confirmation is to baptism what growth is to generation.確認是什麼洗禮增長的一代。 Now it is clear that a man cannot advance to a perfect age unless he has first been born; in like manner, unless he has first been baptized he cannot receive the Sacrament of Confirmation (ST III:72:6).現在很清楚,一個人不能提前一個完美的年齡,除非他先出生的,在同樣的方式,除非他先被洗禮,他不能接受聖餐的確認(聖三: 72:6 ) 。

They should also be in the state of grace; for the Holy Ghost is not given for the purpose of taking away sin but of conferring additional grace.他們也應在該州的寬限期;的聖靈沒有得到,目的是拿走罪孽,而是賦予額外寬限期。 This condition, however, refers only to lawful reception; the sacrament is validly received even by those in mortal sin.這種狀況,但只提到合法的接待;聖禮收到有效甚至是彌天大罪。 In the early ages of the Church, confirmation was part of the rite of initiation, and consequently was administered immediately after baptism.在早期的教會,確認部分的啟動儀式,並因此管理後立即洗禮。 When, however, baptism came to be conferred by simple priests, the two ceremonies were separated in the Western Church.當然而,洗禮後來被賦予簡單的神父,這兩個儀式分別在西方教會。 Further, when infant baptism became customary, confirmation was not administered until the child had attained the use of reason.此外,當嬰兒的洗禮成為習慣,確認沒有管理,直到孩子已達到使用的原因。 This is the present practice, though there is considerable latitude as to the precise age.這是目前的做法,但有相當緯度的確切年齡。 The Catechism of the Council of Trent says that the sacrament can be administered to all persons after baptism, but that this is not expedient before the use of reason; and adds that it is most fitting that the sacrament be deferred until the child is seven years old, "for Confirmation has not been instituted as necessary for salvation, but that by virtue thereof we might be found well armed and prepared when called upon to fight for the faith of Christ, and for this kind of conflict no one will consider children, who are still without the use of reason, to be qualified."在問答理事會的遄達說,聖禮可以管理所有的人洗禮後,但是,這不是權宜之計之前使用的原因,並補充說,這是最恰當的聖禮推遲到孩子的七年歲, “確認尚未建立必要的救助,但憑藉我們可能會發現裝備精良,並準備時,呼籲爭取信仰基督,並為這種衝突的任何人都不會考慮兒童,誰仍然不使用的原因,是合格的。 “ (Pt. II, ch. iii, 18.) ( Pt.二,膽固醇。三, 18 。 )

Such, in fact, is the general usage in the Western Church.這樣,實際上是一般使用在西方教會。 Under certain circumstances, however, as, for instance, danger of death, or when the opportunity of receiving the sacrament is but rarely offered, even younger children may be confirmed.在某些情況下,然而,舉例來說,死亡的危險時,或有機會接受聖禮是,但很少提供,甚至年幼的兒童可以得到證實。 In the Greek Church and in Spain, infants are now, as in earlier times, confirmed immediately after baptism.在教會和希臘,西班牙,嬰兒現在,因為在以前的時代,確認後立即洗禮。 Leo XIII, writing 22 June, 1897, to the Bishop of Marseilles, commends most heartily the practice of confirming children before their first communion as being more in accord with the ancient usage of the Church.利奧十三世,寫作1897年6月22號,對馬賽的主教,讚揚最衷心的實踐證實之前,他們的孩子第一次被共融更符合使用的古老教堂。

Effects影響

Confirmation imparts確認imparts

an increase of sanctifying grace which makes the recipient a "perfect Christian";增加了sanctifying寬限期使受援國“完美的基督徒” ;

a special sacramental grace consisting in the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost and notably in the strength and courage to confess boldly the name of Christ; an indelible character by reason of which the sacrament cannot be received again by the same person.特別聖禮寬限期組成七個禮品的聖靈,特別是在力量和勇氣大膽坦白的名字基督;了不可磨滅的性質因該聖禮不能再次收到由同一人。

A further consequence is the spiritual relationship which the person confirming and the sponsor contract with the recipient and with the recipient's parents. This relationship constitutes a diriment impediment (see IMPEDIMENTS) to marriage.另一種後果是精神關係的人確認和贊助合同,收件人和收件人的父母。這種關係構成了diriment障礙(見IMPEDIMENTS )結婚。 It does not arise between the minister of the sacrament and the sponsor nor between the sponsors themselves.它並不之間產生部長聖禮和贊助商之間,也沒有自己的提案國。

Necessity必要性

Regarding the obligation of receiving the sacrament, it is admitted that confirmation is not necessary as an indispensable means of salvation (necessitate medii).關於義務接受聖禮,這是承認,確認沒有必要作為一個必不可少的手段拯救(需要medii ) 。

On the other hand, its reception is obligatory (necessitate præcepti) "for all those who are able to understand and fulfill the Commandments of God and of the Church. This is especially true of those who suffer persecution on account of their religion or are exposed to grievous temptations against faith or are in danger of death. The more serious the danger so much greater is the need of protecting oneself".另一方面,它的接待是強制性的(需要præcepti ) “所有這些誰能夠理解和滿足十誡上帝和教會。尤其是那些誰遭受迫害到他們的宗教或暴露對嚴重的誘惑,對信仰或有危險的死亡。較為嚴重的危險,以便更是需要保護自己“ 。 (Conc. Plen. Balt. II, n. 250.) As to the gravity of the obligation, opinions differ, some theologians holding that an unconfirmed person would commit mortal sin if he refused the sacrament, others that the sin would be at most venial unless the refusal implied contempt for the sacrament. ( Conc. Plen 。橡樹。二,注250 。 )作為的嚴重性義務,見仁見智,有些神學家認為一個未經證實的人會犯下彌天大罪,如果他拒絕了聖禮,其他的罪惡將在最venial除非拒絕隱含蔑視聖禮。 Apart, however, from such controversies the importance of confirmation as a means of grace is so obvious that no earnest Christian will neglect it, and in particular that Christian parents will not fail to see that their children are confirmed.除了然而,從這種爭論的重要性,確認作為一種手段的寬限期很顯然,沒有認真基督教會忽視它,特別是基督教的父母不會不明白,他們的子女得到證實。

Sponsors贊助商

The Church prescribes under pain of grievous sin that a sponsor, or godparent, shall stand for the person confirmed.教會規定,根據疼痛的嚴重罪過,一個贊助商,或godparent ,應立場的人證實。 The sponsor should be at least fourteen years of age, of the same sex as the candidate, should have already received the Sacrament of Confirmation, and be well instructed in the Catholic Faith.提案國至少應14歲的年齡,同性別的候選人,應該已經收到了聖認可,並指示,以及在信仰天主教。 From this office are excluded the father and mother of the candidate, members of a religious order (unless the candidate be a religious), public sinners, and those who are under public ban of interdict or excommunication.從這個辦公室被排除在外的父親和母親的候選人,成員的宗教秩序(除非候選人是一個宗教領袖) ,公共罪人,而這些誰正在公共禁止攔截或罰。 Except in case of necessity the baptismal godparent cannot serve as sponsor for the same person in confirmation.除在必要情況下的洗禮godparent不能作為贊助商為同一人的確認。 Where the opposite practice obtains, it should, according to a decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Council, 16 Feb., 1884, be gradually done away with.凡獲得相反的做法,應該根據一項法令,聖教會理事會, 1884年2月16日,將逐步取消。 The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1866) declared that each candidate should have a sponsor, or that at least two godfathers should stand for the boys and two godmothers for the girls (n. 253).該理事會第二次全體會議巴爾的摩( 1866年)宣布,每個候選人應該有一個贊助商,或者說至少有兩個教父應該為男孩和兩個godmothers的女孩(注253 ) 。 See also prescriptions of the First Council of Westminster.又見處方第一安理會威斯敏斯特。 Formerly it was customary for the sponsor to place his or her right foot upon the foot of the candidate during the administration of the sacrament; the present usage is that the sponsor's right hand should be placed upon the right shoulder of the candidate.原來這是習慣的贊助商將他或她的右腳腳後的候選人在管理聖禮;目前使用的是,贊助商的右手應該放在右肩的候選人。 The Holy Office decreed, 16 June, 1884, that no sponsor could stand for more than two candidates except in case of necessity.羅馬廳頒布, 1884年6月16號,沒有贊助商可以站在兩個以上的候選人,除非情況危急。 The custom of giving a new name to the candidate is not obligatory; but it has the sanction of several synodal decrees during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.自定義給一個新名稱的候選人是不是強制性的,但它有幾種制裁法令主教會議期間,第十五屆和第十六世紀。 The Fifth Council of Milan, under St.第五理事會米蘭,下街 Charles Borromeo, insisted that a candidate whose name was "vile, ridiculous, or quite unbecoming for a Christian" should receive another at Confirmation" (cf. Martène).查爾斯鮑羅麥歐,堅持認為,候選人的名字是“可恥,可笑,或很不得體的一個基督教”應該得到另一確認“ (見Martène ) 。

It is clear from the diversity of practice at the present day, that there is much uncertainty as to the doctrine concerning confirmation.很顯然,多樣性的做法至今,有許多不確定性,有關的理論確認。 It is certain that the sacrament is validly and lawfully administered in the Church; but this does not solve the theological questions regarding its institution, matter, form, and minister.可以肯定的是,聖禮是合法有效管理和在教會;但是,這並不解決問題,神學就其機構,事項,形式和部長。

At the time of the Council of Trent the difficulty was felt to be so great that the assembled Fathers contented themselves with only a few canons on the subject.當時理事會的遄達的困難被認為是如此之大,在組裝自己的父親心滿意足只有少數炮這個問題。 They defined that confirmation was not "a vain ceremony but a true and proper sacrament"; and that it was not "in olden days nothing but a sort of catechism in which those who were entering upon youth gave an account of their faith in the face of the Church" (can. i).他們確定,確認是不是“徒勞的儀式,但真正的和適當的聖禮” ; ,它是不是“昔日只是一種理在這些誰後進入青年介紹了他們的信念,面對教會“ ( can.一) 。 They did not define anything specific about the institution by Christ; though in treating of the sacraments in general they had already defined that "all the sacraments of the New Law were instituted by Christ our Lord" (Sess. VII, can. i).他們沒有確定任何具體的有關機構的基督;儘管在治療的聖禮一般,他們已經確定, “所有的聖禮新的法律所設立了我們的主耶穌基督” ( Sess.七,可以。一) 。 Nothing whatever was said about the form of words to be used; and regarding the matter they merely condemned any one who should maintain "that they who ascribe any virtue to the sacred chrism of confirmation offer an outrage to the Holy Ghost" (can. ii).沒有什麼說的形式的話要使用;和有關事項,他們只是譴責任何一個誰應該保持“ ,他們誰賦予任何美德的神聖chrism的確認提供了一個憤怒的聖靈” ( can.二) 。 The third and last canon defined that the "ordinary" minister of the sacrament is a bishop only, and not any simple priest.第三個也是最後一個經典定義的“普通”部長聖主教是唯一,而不是簡單的牧師。

This guarded language, so different from the definite canons on some of the other sacraments, shows that the council had no intention of deciding the questions at issue among theologians regarding the time and manner of the institution by Christ (direct or indirect institution), the matter (imposition of hands or anointing, or both), the form ("I sign thee", etc., or "the seal", etc.), and the minister (bishop or priest).這種謹慎的語言,所以不同於明確的大砲的其他一些聖禮,表明安理會無意決定問題,問題的神學方面的時間和方式由該機構的基督(直接或間接的機構)中,事項(實行舉手或anointing ,或兩者) ,形式( “我簽署你”等,或“印章” ,等等) ,部長(主教或神父) 。

Elsewhere (Sess. VII, can. ix) the council defined that in confirmation a character is imprinted in the soul, that is, a certain spiritual and indelible sign on account of which the sacrament cannot be repeated; and again (Sess. XXIII) the council declared that "bishops are superior to priests; they administer the Sacrament of Confirmation; they ordain the ministers of the Church; and they can perform many other things over which functions others of an inferior rank have no power".在其他地方( Sess.七,可以。九)在安理會規定,在確認一個字符是烙印在靈魂,也就是說,有一定的精神和不可磨滅的簽署到該聖禮不能重複; ,並再次( Sess.二十三)安理會宣布, “主教均優於神職人員,他們管理的聖確認;他們任命的部長們的教會,他們可以執行許多其他事情了哪些職能他人的劣勢排名沒有權力” 。

Concerning the administration of the sacrament from the earliest times of the Church, the decree of the Inquisition (Lamentabili sane, 3 July, 1907) condemns the proposition (44): "There is no proof that the rite of the Sacrament of Confirmation was employed by the Apostles; the formal distinction, therefore, between the two sacraments, Baptism and Confirmation, does not belong to the history of Christianity".關於行政聖禮從最早的時間,教會的法令探討( Lamentabili健全, 1907年七月三號)譴責命題( 44歲) : “沒有證據表明,禮儀的聖確認受僱於由使徒;正式的區別,因此,兩國之間的聖禮,洗禮和確認,不屬於基督教的歷史“ 。 The institution of the sacrament has also been the subject of much discussion as will appear from the following account.該機構的聖禮也受到了廣泛的討論也將出現下列帳戶。

II.二。 HISTORY歷史

The Sacrament of Confirmation is a striking instance of the development of doctrine and ritual in the Church.在聖確認是一個突出的例子發展的理論和儀式的教堂。 We can, indeed, detect much more than the mere germs of it in Holy Scripture; but we must not expect to find there an exact description of the ceremony as at present performed, or a complete solution of the various theological questions which have since arisen.我們可以確實,發現遠不止僅僅是細菌中的聖經;但我們絕不能期望找到有確切的描述了儀式,目前完成的,或一個完整的解決方案的各種神學問題已經出現。 It is only from the Fathers and the Schoolmen that we can gather information on these heads.這是只從父親和Schoolmen ,我們可以收集資料,對這些元首。

(1) Confirmation in the Bible ( 1 )確認在聖經

We read in the Acts of the Apostles (8:14-17) that after the Samaritan converts had been baptized by Philip the deacon, the Apostles "sent unto them Peter and John, who, when they were come, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost; for he was not yet come upon any of them, but they were only baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus; then they laid their hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost".我們讀到的使徒行傳( 8:14-17 ) ,經過撒瑪利亞轉換已經由菲利普洗禮的執事,傳道者“發出你們其中彼得和約翰,誰,當他們來,為他們祈禱,這他們可能得到聖靈,因為他還沒有來的任何人,但他們只有受洗的名字耶穌基督;然後他們奠定他們的手給他們,他們收到了聖靈“ 。

Again (19:1-6): St. Paul "came to Ephesus, and found certain disciples; and he said to them: Have you received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? But they said to him: We have not so much as heard whether there be a Holy Ghost. And he said: In what then were you baptized? Who said: In John's baptism. Then Paul said: John baptized the people with the baptism of penance . . . Having heard these things, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul had imposed his hands on them, the Holy Ghost came upon them, and they spoke with tongues and prophesied".再次( 19:1-6 ) :聖保祿“來到以弗所,發現某些弟子,他對他們說:你收到了聖靈,因為你們相信?但他們對他說:我們沒有這麼多的聽到是否有一個聖靈。他說:那是你的洗禮?他說:在約翰的洗禮。然後保羅說:約翰洗禮的人與洗禮的懺悔。 。 。聽取了這些東西,他們的洗禮在名稱的主耶穌基督。而當保羅施加了他的手對他們來說,聖靈來到他們,他們以與舌頭並預言“ 。

From these two passages we learn that in the earliest ages of the Church there was a rite, distinct from baptism, in which the Holy Ghost was conferred by the imposition of hands (dia tes epitheseos ton cheiron ton Apostolon), and that the power to perform this ceremony was not implied in the power to baptize. No distinct mention is made as to the origin of this rite; but Christ promised the gift of the Holy Ghost and conferred it.從這兩個通道,我們了解到,在年齡最早的教會有一個儀式,有別於洗禮,其中被聖靈所賦予的強制手中(直徑試驗epitheseos噸cheiron噸Apostolon ) ,並有權執行這個儀式並不意味著在權力洗禮。沒有明顯提到了作為起源這一儀式,但基督許諾的禮物的聖靈,並賦予它。 Again, no express mention is made of anointing with chrism; but we note that the idea of unction is commonly associated with the giving of the Holy Ghost.同樣,沒有明確提到了anointing與chrism ,但我們注意到,想法油膏通常是與提供的聖靈。 Christ (Luke 4:18) applies to Himself the words of Isaias (61:1): "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, wherefore he hath anointed me to preach the gospel".基督(路4點18分)適用於他自己的話伊薩亞斯( 61:1 )說: “精神是上帝給我,何故,他上帝受膏者我宣講福音” 。 St. Peter (Acts 10:38) speaks of "Jesus of Nazareth: how God anointed him with the Holy Ghost".聖彼得(使徒10:38 )說的是“拿撒勒的耶穌:如何神受膏者他與聖靈” 。 St. John tells the faithful: "You have the unction (chrisma) from the Holy One, and know all things"; and again: "Let the unction [chrisma], which you have received from him, abide in you" (1 John 2:20, 27).聖約翰告訴信徒說: “你有油膏( chrisma )由羅馬人,都知道的事情” ,並再次: “讓油膏[ chrisma ] ,您收到的他,留在你” ( 1約翰二點20 , 27 ) 。

A striking passage, which was made much use of by the Fathers and the Schoolmen, is that of St. Paul: "He that confirmeth [ho de bebaion] us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God, who also hath sealed [sphragisamenos] us, and given us the pledge [arrabona] of the Spirit in our hearts" (2 Corinthians 1:20, 21).一個突出的通道,這是取得了很大的使用由父親和Schoolmen ,是聖保祿: “他是confirmeth [浩德bebaion ]我們同你們在基督和上帝受膏者我們是上帝,誰也上帝密封[ sphragisamenos ]我們,給我們的承諾[ arrabona ]的精神在我們心中“ (哥林多後書1:20 , 21 ) 。 No mention is made of any particular words accompanying the imposition of hands on either of the occasions on which the ceremony is described; but as the act of imposing hands was performed for various purposes, some prayer indicating the special purpose may have been used: "Peter and John . . . prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost".沒有提到任何具體的話陪同實行的手在任何場合該儀式是描述,但作為行為實行手中完成用於各種目的,有些祈禱表明特殊用途可能被用來: “彼得和約翰。 。 。為他們祈禱,他們可能會得到聖靈“ 。 Further, such expressions as "signing" and "sealing" may be taken as referring to the character impressed by the sacrament: "You were signed [esphragisthete] with the holy Spirit of promise"; "Grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby you are sealed [esphragisthete] unto the day of redemption" (Ephesians 1:13; 4:30).此外,這種表現為“簽署”和“密封”可能是指採取的性質下了深刻的印象聖說: “你簽署[ esphragisthete ]與聖靈的諾言” , “悲傷不是聖靈的上帝,即你是密封[ esphragisthete ]你們一天的贖回“ (以弗所書1:13 ; 4:30 ) 。 See also the passage from Second Corinthians quoted above.又見第二通道從上面引述科林蒂安斯。

Again, in the Epistle to the Hebrews (6:1-4) the writer reproaches those whom he addresses for falling back into their primitive imperfect knowledge of Christian truth; "whereas for the time you ought to be masters, you have need to be taught again what are the first elements of the words of God" (Hebrews 5:12).此外,在書的希伯來人( 6:1-4 )作家指責那些人,他的地址重新陷入原始的不完善知識的基督教真理“而對你的時間應該是主人,你需要再次教導什麼是第一要素的話上帝“ (希伯來5點12分) 。 He exhorts them: "leaving the word of the beginning of Christ, let us go on to things more perfect, not laying again the foundation . . . of the doctrine of baptisms, and imposition of hands", and speaks of them as those who have been "once illuminated, have tasted also the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost".他敦促他們: “離開這個詞開始基督,讓我們去的東西更完美,而不是再次奠定了基礎。 。 。理論洗禮,以及實行的手” ,並談到了他們的那些誰已被“一旦發亮,也嚐到了天上的禮物,並作了partakers的聖靈” 。 It is clear that reference is made here to the ceremony of Christian initiation: baptism and the imposition of hands whereby the Holy Ghost was conferred, just as in Acts 2:38.很顯然,提到了這裡的基督教儀式開始:洗禮和實行手中,使聖靈被授予,就像在2時38分行為。 The ceremony is considered to be so well known to the faithful that no further description is necessary.儀式被認為是眾所周知的,以便忠實地,沒有進一步說明是必要的。 This account of the practice and teaching of the Apostles proves that the ceremony was no mere examination of those already baptized, no mere profession of faith or renewal of baptismal vows.此帳戶的實踐和教學的門徒證明,儀式不只是檢查那些已經受洗,不只是職業的信念或續期的洗禮誓言。 Nor was it something specially conferred upon the Samaritans and Ephesians.也不是什麼特別賦予撒瑪利亞會和以弗所書。 What was done to them was an instance of what was generally bestowed. Nor was it a mere bestowal of charismata; the Holy Ghost sometimes produced extraordinary effects (speaking with divers tongues, etc.), but these were not necessarily the result of His being given.是什麼給他們做了一個實例是什麼賦予一般。也不是僅僅授予charismata ;的聖靈有時會產生特殊效果(講母語與潛水等) ,但這些並不一定是由於他被考慮。 The practice and teaching of the Church at the present day preserve the primitive type: the imposition of hands, the gift of the Holy Ghost, the privileges of the episcopate.實踐和教學的教會在現今保存的原始類型:實行手中,禮品的聖靈,特權的主教。 What further elements were handed down by tradition will be seen presently.哪些進一步的要素下來的傳統,將被視為目前。

(2) Church Fathers ( 2 )教會的教父

In passing from Holy Scripture to the Fathers we naturally expect to find more definite answers to the various questions regarding the sacrament.在通過從聖經的父輩,我們當然希望找到更明確的答案,各種問題就聖禮。 From both their practice and their teaching we learn that the Church made use of a rite distinct from baptism; that this consisted of imposition of hands, anointing, and accompanying words; that by this rite the Holy Ghost was conferred upon those already baptized, and a mark or seal impressed upon their souls; that, as a rule, in the West the minister was a bishop, whereas in the East he might be a simple priest.從他們的實踐和教學我們學習,教會使用的儀式不同於洗禮; ,這包括實行手中, anointing ,和相應的字; ,通過這一儀式的聖靈是授予那些已經受洗,並商標或蓋章的印象時他們的靈魂;認為,作為一項規則,在西部的部長是一個主教,而在東,他可能是一個簡單的牧師。

The Fathers considered that the rites of initiation (baptism, confirmation, and the Holy Eucharist) were instituted by Christ, but they did not enter into any minute discussion as to the time, place, and manner of the institution, at least of the second of these rites.父親認為該發起儀式(洗禮,確認,和聖體聖事)是由基督提起,但他們沒有加入任何分鐘的討論時間,地點和方式的機構,至少在第二次這些儀式。

In examining the testimonies of the Fathers we should note that the word confirmation is not used to designate this sacrament during the first four centuries; but we meet with various other terms and phrases which quite clearly refer to it.在審查證據的父輩,我們應該注意到,確認這個詞不是用來指定此聖禮在第一四個世紀,但我們同其他各種字詞和詞組很清楚這是指它。 Thus, it is styled "imposition of hands" (manuum impositio, cheirothesia), "unction", "chrism", "sealing", etc. Before the time of Tertullian the Fathers do not make any explicit mention of confirmation as distinct from baptism.因此,稱為“強加的手” (癬impositio , cheirothesia ) , “假意” , “ chrism ” , “密封”等等,在時間的良的父親沒有作出任何明確提及確認有別於洗禮。 The fact that the two sacraments were conferred together may account for this silence.事實上,這兩個聖禮一起被授予可能考慮到這一點的沉默。

Tertullian (De Bapt., vi) is the first to distinguish clearly the three acts of initiation: "After having come out of the laver, we are anointed thoroughly with a blessed unction [perungimur benedictâ unctione] according to the ancient rule . . . The unction runs bodily over us, but profits spiritually . . . . Next to this, the hand is laid upon us through the blessing, calling upon and inviting the Holy Spirit [dehinc manus imponitur per benedictionem advocans et invitans Spiriturn Sanctum]."德爾圖良(德Bapt 。 ,六)是第一次明確區分這三個行為提起: “後出來的紫菜,我們選定了徹底的祝福油膏[ perungimur benedictâ unctione ]根據古老的規則。 。 。運行的油膏對我們的身體,而是精神上的利潤。 。 。 。下一步這一點,一方面是奠定通過對我們的祝福,呼籲並邀請聖靈[ dehinc癬imponitur每benedictionem advocans等invitans Spiriturn聖地] 。 “

Again (De resurr, carnis, n, 8): "The flesh is washed that the soul may be made stainless. The flesh is anointed [ungitur] that the soul may be consecrated. The flesh is sealed [signatur] that the soul may be fortified. The flesh is overshadowed by the imposition of hands that the soul may be illuminated by the Spirit. The flesh is fed by the Body and Blood of Christ that the soul may be fattened of God."再次(德resurr , carnis ,正, 8日)說: “肉是洗滌的靈魂,可不銹鋼。肉體是受膏者[ ungitur ]的靈魂可能是神聖的。肉體是密封[簽名]的靈魂可能在強化。肉體是蒙上了陰影實行手中的靈魂可以照亮的精神。肉體靠身體和血液基督的靈魂可能是養肥的上帝。 “

And (Adv. Marcion., i, n. 14): "But He [Christ], indeed even at the present time, neither rejected the water of the Creator with which He washes clean His own, nor the oil with which He anoints His own; . . . nor the bread with which He makes present [repræsentat] His own very body, needing even in His own sacraments the beggarly elements of the Creator," Tertullian also tells how the devil, imitating the rites of Christian initiation, sprinkles some and signs them as his soldiers on the forehead (signat illic in frontibus milites suos -- De Præscript., xl).和( Adv.馬吉安。 ,我注14 ) : “但是他[耶穌] ,甚至在當前情況下,既不拒絕水的造物主與他洗乾淨他自己,也不是石油與他anoints他自己; 。 。 。也不是麵包,他使本[ repræsentat ]他自己非常的機構,需要即使在他自己的聖禮的beggarly內容的創建, “良還告訴如何魔鬼,模仿基督教儀式開始, sprinkles一些跡象和它們作為他的士兵的額頭( signat illic在frontibus milites suos -德P ræscript。 ,坐標) 。

Another great African Father speaks with equal clearness of confirmation.另一位偉大的非洲之父講平等清晰的確認。 "Two sacraments", says St. Cyprian, "preside over the perfect birth of a Christian, the one regenerating the man, which is baptism, the other communicating to him the Holy Spirit" (Epist. lxxii). “兩個聖禮”說,聖塞浦路斯, “主持的完美誕生的一個基督徒,一個再生的人,這是洗禮,其他溝通他聖靈” ( Epist. lxxii ) 。

"Anointed also must he be who is baptized, in order that having received the chrism, that is the unction, he may be anointed of God" (Epist. lxx). "It was not fitting that [the Samaritans] should be baptized again, but only what was wanting, that was done by Peter and John; that prayer being made for them and hands imposed, the Holy Ghost should be invoked and poured forth upon them. Which also is now done among us; so that they who are baptized in the Church are presented to the bishops [prelates] of the Church, and by our prayer and imposition of hands, they receive the Holy Ghost and are perfected with the seal [signaculo] of the Lord" (Epist. lxxiii). “受膏者,他還必須在誰是洗禮,以便在收到chrism ,這是油膏,他可能是上帝的受膏者” ( Epist. lxx ) 。 “這是不恰當的[撒瑪利亞]應再次洗禮,但只希望是什麼,這是由彼得和約翰;的祈禱正在為他們的手中,在聖靈應援引和噴湧而出,給他們。也正在做我們中間; ,以便他們是誰受洗在教會提交給主教[主教]的教會,以及我們的祈禱和實行手中,他們得到的聖靈和完善的印章[ signaculo ]上帝“ ( Epist. lxxiii ) 。

"Moreover, a person is not born by the imposition of hands, when he receives the Holy Ghost, but in baptism; that being already born he may receive the Spirit, as was done in the first man Adam. For God first formed him and breathed into his face the breath of life. For the Spirit cannot be received except there is first one to receive it. But the birth of Christians is in baptism" (Epist. lxxiv). “此外,一個人是不是天生的實行手中,當他得到聖靈,但在洗禮,這是已經出生的他可能會收到的精神,這樣做的第一人亞當。看在上帝最初形成他和呼吸到他的臉呼吸的生活。精神不能接受,除非是第一次接收。但出生在基督徒的洗禮“ ( Epist. lxxiv ) 。

Pope St. Cornelius complains that Novatus, after having been baptized on his sickbed, "did not receive the other things which ought to be partaken of according to the rule of the Church--to be sealed, that is, by the bishop [sphragisthenai ypo tou episkopou] and not having received this, how did he receive the Holy Ghost?"教宗聖科尼利厄斯抱怨說, Novatus後,已受洗他病床“ ,沒有收到其他的事情,應該partaken的根據法治的教會-是密封的,這是由主教[ s phragisthenai ypo頭episkopou ] ,而不是收到了這一點,他如何得到聖靈? “ (Eusebius, HE, vi, xliii). (優西比烏,何,六, XLIII )號。

In the fourth and fifth centuries the testimonies are naturally more frequent and clear.在第四和第五世紀的證詞自然更加頻繁和明確的。 St. Hilary speaks of "the sacraments of baptism and of the Spirit"; and he says that "the favor and gift of the Holy Spirit were, when the work of the Law ceased, to be given by the imposition of hands and prayer" (In Matt., c. iv, c. xiv).聖希拉里講的“聖禮的洗禮和精神” ,他說, “贊成和禮品聖靈是,當工作的法律停止,得到了實施和祈禱的手” (在馬特。角4角十四) 。

St. Cyril of Jerusalem is the great Eastern authority on the subject, and his testimony is all the more important because he devoted several of his "Catecheses" to the instruction of catechumens in the three sacraments which they were to receive on being initiated into the Christian mysteries.聖西里爾耶路撒冷是偉大的東方權威的主題,他的證詞就顯得更為重要,因為他討論他的幾個“ Catecheses ”的指示慕道在三個聖禮他們就收到正在著手進入基督教奧秘。 Nothing could be clearer than his language: "To you also after you had come up from the pool of the sacred streams, was given the chrism [unction], the emblem of that wherewith Christ was anointed; and this is the Holy Ghost. . . This holy ointment is no longer plain ointment nor so as to say common, after the invocation, but Christ's gift; and by the presence of His Godhead, it causes in us the Holy Ghost. This symbolically anoints thy forehead, and thy other senses; and the body indeed is anointed with visible ointment, but the soul is sanctified by the Holy and life-giving Spirit . . . . To you not in figure but in truth, because ye were in truth anointed by the Spirit" (Cat. Myst., iii). And in the seventeenth catechesis on the Holy Ghost, speaks of the visit of Peter and John to communicate to the Samaritans the gift of the Holy Ghost by prayer and the imposition of hands.沒有什麼可以比他更明確的語言: “為了你也當您已經從游泳池的神聖河流,被授予chrism [油膏] ,會徽的wherewith基督被選定; ,這是聖靈。 。 。這個神聖的軟膏不再是純軟膏,也不以便共同表示,在調用,但基督的禮物;並當著他的神體,它起因於我們的聖靈。 anoints這象徵你的額頭,和你的其他感官;和身體確實是受膏者軟膏可見,但靈魂是神聖的聖地,並賦予生命的精神。 。 。 。要你不要在數字,但說實話,因為你們是在真理受膏者的精神“ ( Cat.神秘。 ,三) 。而且在第十七理的聖靈,談到這次訪問的彼得和約翰向樂善好施的禮物的聖靈祈禱和實施的手中。 Forget not the Holy Ghost", he says to the catechumens, "at the moment of your enlightenment; He is ready to mark your soul with His seal [sphragisai] .忘記不是聖靈“ ,他說的慕道者” ,此刻您的啟迪;他準備慶祝你的靈魂與他的印章[ sphragisai ] 。 . . He will give you the heavenly and divine seal [sphragisai] which makes the devils tremble; He will arm you for the fight; He will give you strength." Christ, says St. Optatus of Mileve, "went down into the water, not that there was what could be cleansed in God, but the water ought to go before the oil that was to supervene, in order to initiate and in order to fill up the mysteries of baptism; having been washed whilst He was held in John's hands, the order of the mystery is followed .他會給你的神聖和神聖的印章[ sphragisai ]使魔發抖;他將你的手臂的鬥爭;他會給你力量。 “基督說,聖Optatus的Mileve , ”走下水,不有什麼可以清洗上帝,但水應該去之前,石油是supervene ,以啟動和以填補了神秘的洗禮;被沖走,而他被關押在美國的手裡,的命令,其次是神秘。 . . . Heaven is opened whilst the Father anoints; the spiritual oil in the image of the Dove immediately descended and rested on His head, and poured on it oil, whence He took the name of Christ, when He was anointed by God the Father; to whom that the imposition of hands might not seem to have been wanting, the voice of God is heard from a cloud, saying, This is my Son, of whom I have thought well; hear ye him" (De schism. Donat., I, iv, n. 7).打開天堂,而父親anoints ;的精神油的形象,鴿子立即下降,落在了他的頭部,並投入上石油,何處他的名字基督,當他被選定的聖父;人,實行手中可能似乎並沒有一直希望的聲音是上帝聽到雲說,這是我的兒子,其中我覺得很好聽你們他“ (德分裂。多納特。 ,我四,注7 ) 。

St. Ephraem Syrus speaks of "the Sacraments of Chrism and Baptism" (Serm. xxvii); "oil also for a most sweet unguent, wherewith they who already have been initiated by baptism are sealed, and put on the armour of the Holy Spirit" (In Joel.)聖Ephraem希如斯講的“聖禮Chrism和洗禮” ( Serm.二十七) ; “石油也是一個最甜軟膏,誰wherewith他們已經發起的洗禮密封,並提出對裝甲聖靈“ (在喬爾。 )

St. Ambrose addressing the catechumens who had already been baptized and anointed, says: "Thou hast received the spiritual seal, the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding . . . . Keep what thou hast received. God the Father has sealed thee; Christ the Lord has confirmed thee; and the Spirit has given the pledge in thy heart, as thou hast learned from what is read in the Apostle" (De myst., c. vii, n. 42).聖劉漢銓解決慕道誰已經洗禮和受膏者,說: “你收到你的精神印章,精神的智慧和理解。 。 。 。保持什麼祢收到。聖父封閉你;基督上帝已經確認你;和精神給予保證在你的心,因為祢的教訓是什麼閱讀使徒“ (德神秘。角七,注42 ) 。

The writer of the "De Sacramentis" (Inter Op. Ambros., lib. III, c. ii, n. 8) says that after the baptismal immersion "the spiritual seal [signaculum] follows . . . when at the invocation of the bishop [sacerdotis] the Holy Ghost is infused".作家的“德Sacramentis ” (國際作品。 Ambros 。 ,解放。三,二角,注8 )說,經過浸泡的洗禮“的精神印章[ signaculum ]如下。 。 。當在援引主教[ sacerdotis ]聖靈的滲透“ 。

The Council of Elvira decreed that those who had been baptized privately in case of necessity should afterwards be taken to the bishop "to be made perfect by the imposition of hands" (can. xxxviii, Labbe, I, 974).安理會頒布的埃爾維拉那些誰洗禮已私下在必要時應當隨後被帶到主教“作出完美的實施手” ( can.三十八,拉韋,我974 ) 。

And the Council of Laodicea: "Those who have been converted from the heresies . . . are not to be received before they anathematize every heresy . . . and then after that, those who were called faithful among them, having learned the creeds of the faith, and having been anointed with the holy chrism, shall so communicate of the holy mystery" (can. vii).和安理會的老底嘉: “誰已轉換的歪理邪說。 。 。不應該收到他們詛咒每一個異端。 。 。 ,然後後,這些被稱為誰忠實其中,有教訓的信條的信仰,並已選定的神聖chrism ,應使溝通的神聖之謎“ ( can.七) 。 "Those who are enlightened must after baptism be anointed with the heavenly chrism, and be partakers of the kingdom of Christ" (can. xlviii, Labbe, I, col. 1497). “誰是開明的洗禮後,必須將選定的天堂chrism ,並partakers王國的基督” ( can.四十八,拉韋,我山口。 1497 ) 。

The Council of Constantinople (381): "We receive the Arians, and Macedonians . . . upon their giving in written statements and anathematizing every heresy . . . . Having first sealed them with the holy ointment upon the forehead, and eyes, and nostrils, and mouth, and ears, and sealing them we say, 'The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost"' (can. vii, Labbe, II, col. 952).安理會君士坦丁堡( 381 ) : “我們收到Arians和馬其頓。 。 。他們提供的書面陳述和anathematizing每一個異端。 。 。 。第一次封閉了他們神聖的軟膏的前額,眼睛,鼻孔,及口,耳,和密封他們,我們說, '的印章禮品的聖靈“ ( can.七,拉韋,二,山口。 952 ) 。

St. Augustine explains how the coming of the Holy Ghost was companied with the gift of tongues in the first ages of the Church.聖奧古斯丁解釋了如何在未來的聖靈是並發的禮物舌頭在第一年齡的教會。 "These were miracles suited to the times . . . . “這些都是奇蹟適合時代。 。 。 。

Is it now expected that they upon whom hands are laid, should speak with tongues?難道現在預期,他們對其中的雙手規定,應與母語說話? Or when we imposed our hand upon these children, did each of you wait to see whether they would speak with tongues?當我們或我們一方面實行對這些孩子,沒有你們等著看是否會說話的舌頭? and when he saw that they did not speak with tongues, was any of you so perverse of heart as to say 'These have not received the Holy Ghost?'當他看到他們沒有說話的舌頭,是任何有害你的心說'這些都沒有得到聖靈? ' (In Ep. Joan., tr. vi). (在內啡肽。瓊。 ,文。六) 。

He also speaks in the same way about anointing: the sacrament of chrism "is in the genus of visible signs, sacrosanct like baptism" (Contra litt. Petil., II, cap. civ, in PL, XLI, col. 342; see Serm. ccxxvii, Ad Infantes in PL, XXXVII, col. 1100; De Trin., XV, n. 46 in PL, XL, col. 1093); "Of Christ it is written in the Acts of the Apostles, how God anointed Him with the Holy Ghost, not indeed with visible oil, but with the gift of grace, which is signified by that visible unction wherewith the Church anoints the baptized". The most explicit passage is in the letter of Pope Innocent I to Decentius: "As regards the sealing of infants, it is clear that it is not lawful for it to be done by anyone but a bishop [non ab aliis quam ab episcopo fieri licere]. For presbyters, though they be priests of the second rank (second priests), have not attained to the summit of the pontificate. That this pontificate is the right of bishops only--to wit: that they may seal or deliver the Spirit, the Paraclete is demonstrated not merely by ecclesiastical usage, but also by that portion of the Acts of the Apostles wherein it is declared that Peter and John were sent to give the Holy Ghost to those who had already been baptized. For when presbyters baptize, whether with or without the presence of the bishop, they may anoint the baptized with chrism, provided it be previously consecrated by a bishop, but not sign the forehead with that oil, which is a right reserved to bishops [episcopis] only, when they give the Spirit, the Paraclete. The words, however, I cannot name, for fear of seeming to betray rather than to reply to the point on which you have consulted me."他還談到以同樣的方式對anointing :聖禮的chrism “是屬明顯的跡象,像神聖的洗禮” (魂斗羅利特。 Petil 。 ,二,帽。持續輸注,在特等,四十一,山口。 342 ;見血清。 ccxxvii ,廣告嬰兒在特等,三十七,山口。 1100年;德草。 ,十五,在聯合國46個特等,儀山口。 1093年) , “基督是書面的使徒行傳,如何神受膏者他與聖靈,而不是實際上的石油可見,但隨著禮品的寬限期,這標誌著由該wherewith可見油膏anoints教會的洗禮。 “最明確的是通過在信中諾森一Decentius : ”至於密封的嬰兒,很顯然,這是不合法,因為它需要做的人,但主教[非從頭aliis華富公司episcopo扣押licere ] 。對於長老,儘管他們是牧師的第二級(第二神父) ,都沒有達到的首腦會議的教皇。這次教皇是正確的主教唯一的-即:它們可以查封或者交付的精神,聖靈表明不僅要教會使用,而且這部分的使徒行傳,其中宣布,彼得和約翰被送到給聖靈誰對那些已經受洗。長老的洗禮時,不論是否有存在的主教,他們可能流感病毒的洗禮與chrism ,只要它是以前神聖的主教,但沒有簽署前額,石油,這是一個正確的保留給主教[ episcopis ]只,當他們放棄的精神,在聖靈。詞語,但是,我不能名稱,由於擔心似乎背叛,而不是回答問題上,你有意見我。 “

Saint Leo in his fourth sermon on Christ's Nativity says to the faithful: "Having been regenerated by water and the Holy Ghost, you have received the chrism of salvation and the seal of eternal life" (chrisma salutis et signaculum vitae æternæ, -- PL, LIV, col. 207).聖里奧在其第四次布道的基督耶穌說,忠實地: “經過再生水和聖靈,您已經收到了chrism拯救和印章的永恆的生命” ( chrisma薩魯提斯等signaculum簡歷æternæ -特等,查找山口。 207 ) 。

The Blessed Theodoret commenting on the first chapter of the Canticle of Canticles says: "Bring to thy recollection the holy rite of initiation, in which they who are perfected after the renunciation of the tyrant and the acknowledgment of the King, receive as a kind of royal seal the chrism of the spiritual unction (sphragida tina basiliken . . . tou pneumatikou myron to chrisma) as made partakers in that typical ointment of the invisible grace of the Holy Spirit" (PG, LXXXI, 60).的祝福Theodoret評論第一章的頌歌的Canticles說: “把你的回憶神聖的儀式開始,他們在誰是完善後,放棄暴君和承認國王,收到作為一種璽的chrism的精神油膏( sphragida蒂納basiliken 。 。 。頭pneumatikou邁倫以chrisma )作為取得partakers在這典型的藥膏是看不見的寬限期聖靈“ (前列腺素, LXXXI , 60 ) 。

Among the homilies formerly attributed to Eusebius of Emesa, but now admitted to be the work of some bishop of southern Gaul in the fifth century, is a long homily for Whitsunday: "The Holy Ghost who comes down with a life-giving descent upon the waters of baptism, in the font bestows beauty unto innocence, in confirmation grants an increase unto grace. Because we have to walk during our whole life in the midst of invisible enemies and dangers, we are in baptism regenerated unto life, after baptism we are confirmed for the battle; in baptism we are cleansed, after baptism we are strengthened . . . . confirmation arms and furnishes weapons to those who are reserved for the wrestlings and contests of this world" (Bib. Max., SS. PP., VI, p. 649).在講道詞歸咎於以前的優西比烏Emesa ,但現在承認是工作的一些主教南部高盧在第五世紀,是一個長期的聖靈降臨節講道: “在聖靈誰歸結與生命的後裔水域的洗禮,在字體之美賦予你們的清白,在確認補助增加你們的寬限期。由於我們已經走在我們的整個生命處於看不見的敵人和危險,我們正處在祂的洗禮生命再生後,我們的洗禮確認的戰鬥;的洗禮,我們清洗後的洗禮,我們得到加強。 。 。 。確認武器和提供武器給那些誰是保留給wrestlings和競賽這個世界“ ( Bib.最高。 ,黨衛軍。聚丙烯。 ,六,第649 ) 。

These passages suffice to show the doctrine and practice of the Church during the patristic age.這些段落足以說明理論和實踐的過程中,教會的教父時代。

(3) Early Middle Ages ( 3 )早期中世紀

After the great Trinitarian and Christological controversies had been decided, and the doctrine of Divine grace had been defined, the Church was able to devote attention to questions regarding the sacraments, the means of grace.經過偉大的三位一體和基督的爭論已決定,原則和神聖的寬限期已經界定,教會能夠重視問題的聖禮,手段的寬限期。 At the same time, the sacramentaries were being drawn up, fixing the various rites in use. With precision of practice came greater precision and completeness of doctrine. "Chrisma", says St. Isidore of Seville, "is in Latin, called 'unctio' and from it Christ receives His name, and man is sanctified after the laver [lavacrum]; for as in baptism remission of sins is given, so by anointing [unctio] the sanctification of the Spirit is conferred. The imposition of hands takes place in order that the Holy Spirit, being called by the blessing, may be invited [per benedictionem advocatus invitetur Spiritus Sanctus]; for after the bodies have been cleansed and blessed, then does the Paraclete willingly come down from the Father" (Etym., VI, c.xix in PL, LXXXII, col. 256).與此同時,該sacramentaries正在擬定,確定不同的宗教儀式中使用。隨著實踐的精度來更精確和完整的理論。 “ Chrisma ”說,聖伊西多爾的塞維利亞, “是在拉丁美洲,所謂的' unctio和基督從收到他的名字,和人的認可後,紫菜[ lavacrum ] ;的洗禮中緩解的罪孽是,這樣的anointing [ unctio ]的神聖的精神是賦予。實行手中發生為了使聖靈,被稱為的祝福,可邀請[每benedictionem advocatus invitetur Spiritus的眾神] ;後的屍體已清洗和祝福,然後不情願的聖靈是從父“ ( Etym. ,六,在特等c.xix , LXXXII山口。 256 ) 。

The great Anglo-Saxon lights of the early Middle Ages are equally explicit.偉大的盎格魯撒克遜燈光中世紀早期也同樣明確。 "The confirmation of the newly baptized", says Lingard (Anglo-Saxon Church, I, p. 296), "was made an important part of the bishop's duty. We repeatedly read of journeys undertaken by St. Cuthbert chiefly with this object . . . . Children were brought to him for confirmation from the secluded parts of the country; and he ministered to those who had been recently born again in Christ the grace of the Holy Spirit by the imposition of hands, 'placing his hand on the head of each, and anointing them with the chrism which he had blessed (manum imponens super caput singulorum, liniens unctione consecratâ quam benedixerat; Beda, "Vita Cuth.", c. xxix, xxxii in PL, XCIV, Oper. Min., p. 277)." “確認了新的洗禮” ,說林加德(盎格魯撒克遜教會,我,第296頁) , “是一個重要組成部分主教的職責。反复閱讀我們的行程由聖庫斯伯特主要與此對象。 。 。 。兒童被帶到他確認僻靜的地區;和他ministered那些誰最近已經再次出生在基督的恩典聖靈所實行的手,把他的手的頭部每個,並anointing他們chrism他祝福( manum imponens超級人均singulorum , liniens unctione consecratâ華富benedixerat ;貝達, “簡歷Cuth 。 ”角二十九,三十二中特等,第九十四,歌劇院。民。 ,磷。 277 ) 。 “

Alcuin also in his letter to Odwin describes how the neophyte, after the reception of baptism and the Eucharist, prepares to receive the Holy Spirit by the imposition of hands.阿爾昆還在信中介紹了如何Odwin的新手,在接待的洗禮和聖體,準備接受聖靈所實行的手中。 "Last of all by the imposition of the hands by the chief priest [summo sacerdote] he receives the Spirit of the seven-fold grace to be strengthened by the Holy Spirit to fight against others" (De bapt. cæremon. in PL, CI, col. 614). “最後的實行手中的首席神父[ summo薩塞爾多特]他收到精神的7倍,寬限期,以得到加強,聖靈打擊他人” (德bapt 。 cæremon 。特等中,氯山口。 614 ) 。

It will be observed that in all these passages imposition of hands is mentioned; St.這將是觀察到,在所有這些通道實行提到的手中;街 Isidore and St. Bede mention anointing also.伊西多爾和聖比德還提到anointing 。 These may be taken as typical examples; the best authorities of this age combine the two ceremonies. As to the form of words used the greatest variety prevailed.這些可作為典型的例子;的最佳當局的這個年齡段的結合這兩個儀式。至於形式的用字最大的品種佔了上風。 The words accompanying the imposition of hands were generally a prayer calling upon God to send down the Holy Ghost and confer upon the neophytes the seven gifts.陪同的話實行手中一般都祈禱上帝,呼籲派遣了聖靈,並賦予新手的7個禮物。 In the Gregorian Sacramentary no words at all are assigned to the anointing; but it is clear that the anointing must be taken in connection with the words belonging to the imposition of hands.在陽曆的話Sacramentary沒有在所有被分派到各個anointing ;但它清楚地表明, anointing必須採取與詞屬於實行手中。 Where special words are assigned they sometimes resemble the Greek formulary (signum Christi in vitam æternam, etc.), or are indicative, like the present formula (signo, consigno, confirmo), or imperative (accipe signum, etc.), or deprecatory (confirmet vos Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus, etc.).凡特別指定的話,他們有時像希臘處方( signum基督的維生素æternam等) ,或指示,如本公式( signo , consigno , confirmo ) ,或者必須( accipe signum等) ,或貶低( confirmet沃斯佩特等Filius等Spiritus的眾神,等等) 。 St. Isidore is clearly in favor of a prayer: "We can receive the Holy Ghost, but we cannot give Him: that He may be given, we call upon God" (De Off. Eccl., II, c. xxvi in PL, LXXXIII, col. 823).聖伊西多爾顯然是有利於祈禱: “我們不能接受聖靈,但我們不能給他:他可以考慮,我們呼籲上帝” (德關閉。傳道書。 ,二角二十六中特等, LXXXIII號山口。 823 ) 。

In contrast with this diversity as to the form there is complete agreement that the sole minister is a bishop.與此相反這一多樣性的形式是完全一致的唯一部長是一個主教。 Of course this refers only to the Western Church. The writers appeal to the Acts of the Apostles (eg St. Isidore, "De Off. Eccl.", II, c. xxvi; St. Bede, "In Act. Apost." in PL, XCII, col. 961; "Vit. Cuth.", c. xxix); but they do not examine the reason why the power is reserved to the bishops, nor do they discuss the question of the time and mode of the institution of the sacrament.當然,這只是指西方教會。作家呼籲使徒行傳(如聖伊西多爾, “德關閉。傳道書。 ” ,二角26 ;聖比德“ ,在法案。 Apost 。 ”在特等, XCII山口。 961 “ ;維生素。 Cuth 。 ”角二十九) ; ,但他們不審查的原因是保留權力的主教,也沒有討論這個問題的時間和模式機構的聖禮。

(4) Scholastic Theology ( 4 )學習神學

The teaching of the Schoolmen shows a marked advance upon that of the early Middle Ages.的教學Schoolmen顯示了顯著進展後,在中世紀早期。 The decision as to the number of the sacraments involved the clear distinction of confirmation from baptism; and at the same time the more exact definition of what constitutes a sacrament led to the discussion of the institution of confirmation, its matter and form, minister, and effects, especially the character impressed.該決定的數目聖禮涉及明確區分的確認洗禮;同時更確切定義什麼構成聖禮導致的討論機構的確認,其物質和形式,部長,並影響,尤其是性格留下深刻印象。

We can follow the development through the labors of Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, St. Anselm his successor, Abelard, Hugh of St. Victor, Peter Lombard (Sent., IV, dist. vii); then branching out into the two distinct schools of Dominicans (Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas) and Franciscans (Alexander of Hales, St. Bonaventure, and Duns Scotus).我們可以按照通過發展勞動力蘭弗朗克,坎特伯雷大主教,聖安瑟倫他的繼任者,亞伯拉德,休聖維克多,彼得倫巴第( Sent. ,四區。七) ,然後拓展到兩個不同的學校在多米尼加(阿爾貝馬格努斯和聖托馬斯)濟(亞歷山大黑爾斯,聖文德,和鄧司各脫) 。 As we shall see, the clearness with which the various questions were set forth by no means produced unanimity; rather it served to bring out the uncertainty with regard to them all.正如我們應看到,與清晰的各種問題所提出的任何手段生產的一致性;相反,它有助於帶來的不確定性方面他們所有人。 The writers start from the fact that there was in the Church a ceremony of anointing with chrism accompanied with the words: "I sign thee with the sign of the cross", etc.; this ceremony was performed by a bishop only, and could not be repeated.作者從這一事實是在教會儀式anointing與chrism伴的話: “我與你簽訂的跡象,兩岸”等;這個儀式是由主教只,並不能重複。 When they came to examine the doctrine underlying this practice they all admitted that it was a sacrament, though in the earlier writers the word sacrament had not yet acquired a distinct technical meaning.當他們來到審查的理論基礎這一做法,他們均承認這是一種聖禮,但在以前的作家聖禮一詞尚未取得了明顯的技術意義。 So strongly did they insist upon the principle Lex orandi, lex credendi, that they took for granted that the anointing must be the matter, and the words "I sign thee", etc., the form, and that no one but a bishop could be the valid minister.如此強烈,他們堅持的原則orandi法,法credendi ,他們認為理所當然的anointing必須注意此事,並改為“我申請你”等形式,並沒有任何人,但可能會主教是有效的部長。 But when they came to justify this doctrine by the authority of Scripture they encountered the difficulty that no mention is made there either of the anointing or of the words; indeed nothing is said of the institution of the sacrament at all.但是,當他們來到證明了這一理論的權威,聖經,他們遇到了困難,沒有提到有兩種anointing或詞;確實沒有什麼說的機構,在所有聖事。 What could be the meaning of this silence?有什麼能所指的這種沉默? How could it be explained?怎麼可能不是這樣解釋?

(a) The institution of the sacrament (一)機構的聖禮

Regarding the institution there were three opinions.關於機構有三種意見。 The Dominican School taught that Christ Himself was the immediate author of confirmation.多米尼加學校教導基督本人立即作者確認。 Earlier writers (eg Hugh of St. Victor, "De Sacram.", ii, and Peter Lombard, "Sent.", IV, dist. vii) held that it was instituted by the Holy Ghost through the instrumentality of the Apostles.早些時候作家(如休聖維克多, “德Sacram 。 ”二,和彼得倫巴第, “寄件。 ”四區。七)舉行,這是建立由聖靈通過媒介的使徒。 The Franciscans also maintained that the Holy Ghost was the author, but that He acted either through the Apostles or through the Church after the death of the Apostles.方濟還認為,聖靈是作家,但他採取行動或者通過使徒或通過教會去世後,使徒。 St. Thomas says,聖托馬斯說,

Concerning the institution of this sacrament, there are two opinions: some say that it was instituted neither by Christ nor by His Apostles, but later on in the course of time at a certain council [Meaux, 845; this was the opinion of Alexander of Hales, Summ., iv, q.關於這一機構的聖禮,有兩種意見:有人說,這是既不提起基督也不是他的門徒,但後來隨著時間的推移在某一個國家[莫, 845 ;這是輿論的亞歷山大黑爾斯,薩姆。 ,四,問: 9, m.], whereas others said that it was instituted by the Apostles. 9日,米] ,而另一些說,這是建立在使徒。 But this cannot be the case, because the institution of a sacrament belongs to the power of excellence which is proper to Christ alone.但是,這不能如此,因為建立一個屬於聖事的力量,這是卓越適當僅基督。 And therefore we must hold that Christ instituted this sacrament, not by showing it [exhibendo] but by promising it, according to the text (John 16:7), "If I go not, the Paraclete will not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you."因此,我們必須持有基督提起這聖禮,而不是顯示它[ exhibendo ] ,但它的前途,根據文字(約16點07分) , “如果我沒有,聖靈不會來找你;但如果我去,我會派他去給你。 “ And this because in this sacrament the fullness of the Holy Ghost is given, which was not to be given before Christ's resurrection and ascension, according to the text (John 7:39), "As yet the Spirit was not given, because Jesus was not yet glorified."這是因為在這聖禮的豐滿的聖靈是,這不是給予公元前的復活和升天,根據文字(約7時39分) , “作為精神還沒有得到,因為耶穌尚未榮耀。 “ ((ST III:72:1). ( (聖三: 72:1 ) 。

It will be noticed that the Angelic Doctor hesitates a little about the direct institution by Christ (non exhibendo, sed promittendo).這將是注意到,天使博士有點猶豫的直接機構的基督(非exhibendo ,基於promittendo ) 。 In his earlier work (In Sent., IV, dist. vii, q. 1) he had said plainly that Christ had instituted the sacrament and had Himself administered it (Matthew 19).在他以前的工作(在發送。 ,四區。七,問: 1 )他說,顯然是基督已經制定的聖禮,並自己管理它(馬太19 ) 。 In this opinion the saint was still under the influence of his master, Albert, who went so far as to hold that Christ had specified the chrism and the words, "I sign thee", etc. (In Sent., IV, dist. vii, a. 2).在此輿論仍聖的影響下,他的主人,阿爾貝,誰竟然認為,基督已經指定了chrism和的話來說, “我申請你”等(在發送。 ,四區。七,字母a. 2 ) 。

The opinion of Alexander of Hales, referred to by St. Thomas, was as follows: the Apostles conferred the Holy Ghost by mere imposition of hands; this rite, which was not properly a sacrament, was continued until the ninth century, when the Holy Ghost inspired the Fathers of the Council of Meaux in the choice of the matter and form, and endowed these with sacramental efficacy (Spiritu Sancto instigante et virtutem sanctificandi præstante).認為亞歷山大的海爾斯,所提到的聖托馬斯,結果如下:使徒授予聖靈僅僅通過實行手中;這個儀式,這是不正確一聖禮,是一直持續到9世紀時,羅馬鬼啟發了父親理事會的莫在選擇的問題和形式,並賦予這些與聖事的功效( Spiritu Sancto instigante等virtutem sanctificandi præstante ) 。 He was led to this extraordinary view (which he states as merely personal) by the fact that no mention is made in Holy Scripture either of the chrism or of the words; and as these were undoubtedly the matter and the form they could only have been introduced by Divine authority.他是導致這次非同尋常的觀點(他國只是個人)的事實,即沒有提到聖經中任一chrism或詞;並作為這些都是毫無疑問的問題和形式,他們只能是介紹了神聖的權力。

His disciple, St. Bonaventure, agreed in rejecting the institution by Christ or His Apostles, and in attributing it to the Holy Ghost; but he set back the time to the age of "the successors of the Apostles" (In Sent., IV, dist. vii, art. 1).他的弟子,聖文德,同意該機構拒絕接受由基督或他的門徒,並歸咎於它的聖靈;但他挫折時的年齡“的繼承人使徒” (在發送。 ,四區。七,藝術。 1 ) 。 However, like his friendly rival St. Thomas, he also modified his view in a later work viloquium, p.然而,如同他的友好競爭對手聖托馬斯,他還修改他的觀點在以後的工作viloquium頁 vi.六。 c. 4) where he says that Christ instituted all the sacraments, though in different ways; "some by hinting at them and initiating them [insinuando et initiando], as confirmation and extreme unction". 4 ) ,他說,建立基督的所有聖禮,但以不同的方式; “一些的暗示,並開始採取他們[ insinuando等initiando ] ,如確認和臨終” 。 Scotus seems to have felt the weight of the authority of the Dominican opinion, for he does not express himself clearly in favor of the views of his own order.司各脫似乎已經感受到了體重的權威多米尼加認為,他並不清楚地表達自己贊成的意見,他自己的秩序。 He says that the rite was instituted by God (Jesus Christ? the Holy Ghost?); that it was instituted when Christ pronounced the words, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost", or on the day of Pentecost, but this may refer not to the rite but to the thing signified, viz.他說,儀式是由上帝提起(耶穌基督?的聖靈? ) ; ,這是建立在基督顯著的話來說, “收到你們的聖靈” ,或在一天的降臨,但這可能是指不的禮儀,而且對事標誌著,即。 the gift of the Holy Ghost (In Sent., IV, dist. vii, q. 1; dist. ii, q. 1).禮品的聖靈(在發送。 ,四區。七,問: 1 ;區。二,問: 1 ) 。 The Fathers of the Council of Trent, as said above, did not expressly decide the question, but as they defined that all the sacraments were instituted by Christ, the Dominican teaching has prevailed.父親理事會的遄達,如上述情況,沒有明確的問題作出決定,但因為它們定義的所有聖禮被提起基督,多米尼加教學佔了上風。 We shall see, however, that this is capable of many different meanings.我們應看到,然而,這是能夠許多不同的含義。

(b) The question of matter and form (二)問題的事項和形式

The question of the institution of the sacrament is intimately bound up with the determination of the matter and form.問題的機構,聖密切與決心的問題和形式。 All agreed that these consisted of the anointing (including the act of placing the hand upon the candidate) and the words, "I sign thee", or "I confirm thee", etc. Were this action and these words of Divine, or of Apostolic, or of merely ecclesiastical origin?大家一致認為,這些組成的anointing (包括行為置於手的候選人)和的話來說, “我申請你” ,或“我可以證實你”等,這一行動,並這些話的神,或使徒,或僅僅是教會起源? St. Albertus held that both were ordained by Christ Himself; others that they were the work of the Church; but the common opinion was that they were of Apostolic origin. St.阿爾貝街都舉行了祝聖基督自己;他人,他們的工作,教會,但共同的意見是,他們的使徒來源。街 Thomas was of opinion that the Apostles actually made use of chrism and the words, Consigno te, etc., and that they did so by Christ's command.托馬斯認為使徒實際使用chrism和的話, Consigno德等,並認為他們這樣做的基督的命令。 The silence of Scripture need not surprise us, he says, "for the Apostles observed many things in the administration of the sacraments which are not handed down by the Scriptures" (ST III:72:3).沉默的聖經沒有必要使我們感到驚訝,他說, “使徒的觀察很多事情在管理聖禮不屬於下來的聖經” (聖三: 72:3 ) 。

(c) The reservation of the rite to the bishops (三)保留的成年禮的主教

In proof of the reservation of the rite to bishops the Schoolmen appeal to the example of Acts 8; and they go on to explain that as the sacrament is a sort of completion of baptism it is fitting that it should be conferred by "one who has the highest power [summam potestatem] in the Church" (St. Thomas, III:72:11). They were aware, however, that in the primitive Church simple priests sometimes administered the sacrament.在證據保留給主教儀式的Schoolmen呼籲例子行為8 ;和他們去解釋,作為聖禮是一種完成的洗禮它是恰當的,應該賦予“一個誰也最高權力[ summam potestatem ]在教會“ (聖托馬斯,三: 72:11 ) 。他們都知道,但是,在原始的教會神職人員有時簡單管理的聖禮。 This they accounted for by the fewness of bishops, and they recognized that the validity of such administration (unlike the case of Holy orders) is a mere matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction.這佔了fewness主教,他們認識到,有效性等管理(不同的情況下羅馬教廷的命令)是一個單純的宗教問題的管轄權。 "The pope holds the fullness of power in the Church, whence he can confer upon certain of the inferior orders things which belong to the higher orders . . . . And out of the fullness of this power the blessed pope Gregory granted that simple priests conferred this sacrament" (St. Thomas, III:72:11). “教皇擁有的全部權力的教會,何處,他可以賦予某些東西下訂單屬於較高的訂單。 。 。 。和擺脫這個充滿動力的祝福教皇格里高利想當然地認為簡單的神父授予這聖禮“ (聖托馬斯,三: 72:11 ) 。

(5) The Council of Trent ( 5 )理事會的遄

The Council of Trent did not decide the questions discussed by the Schoolmen. But the definition that "all the sacraments were instituted by Christ" (Sess. VII, can. i), excluded the opinion that the Holy Ghost was the author of confirmation.安理會的遄沒有決定的問題,討論了Schoolmen 。但定義: “所有的聖禮被提起基督” ( Sess.七,可以。一) ,排除認為,聖靈是作者的確認。 Still, nothing was said about the mode of institution--whether immediate or mediate, generic or specific.然而,什麼也沒有說,有關的體制模式-無論是直接或調解,一般或具體的。 The post-Tridintine theologians have almost unanimously taught that Christ Himself was the immediate author of all the sacraments, and so of confirmation (cf. De Lugo, "De Sacram. in Gen.", disp. vii, sect. 1; Tournély, "De Sacram. in Gen.", q. v, a. 1).後Tridintine神學家幾乎一致告訴我們,基督本人立即作者的所有聖禮,因此確認(參見德盧戈, “德Sacram 。中將軍” ,位移。第七章,節。 1 ; Tournély , “德Sacram 。中將軍” ,問:五,字母a. 1 ) 。 "But the historical studies of the seventeenth century obliged authors to restrict the action of Christ in the institution of the sacraments to the determination of the spiritual effect, leaving the choice of the rite to the Apostles and the Church." “但是,歷史研究17世紀作者不得不限制行動基督教機構的聖禮的決心的精神效應,使選擇的禮儀向使徒和教會。 ” (Pourrat, La théologie sacramentaire, p. 313.) That is to say, in the case of confirmation, Christ bestowed upon the Apostles the power of giving the Holy Ghost, but He did not specify the ceremony by which this gift should be conferred; the Apostles and the Church, acting under Divine guidance, fixed upon the imposition of hands, the anointing, and the appropriate words. ( Pourrat ,香格里拉神學sacramentaire ,第313頁。 )這就是說,如果確認,賦予基督使徒的力量,讓聖靈,但他沒有具體儀式的這禮物應該賦予;使徒和教會,根據神的指導下,固定後實行手中, anointing ,以及適當的話。 Further information on this important and difficult question will be found in the article SACRAMENTS.進一步了解這一重要和困難的問題將在文章聖禮。

III.三。 CONFIRMATION IN THE BRITISH AND IRISH CHURCHES確認在英國和愛爾蘭教會

In his famous "Confession" (p. clxxxiv) St. Patrick refers to himself as the first to administer confirmation in Ireland.在他的著名的“自白” (第clxxxiv )聖帕特里克是指本人的第一個管理確認在愛爾蘭。 The term here used (populi consummatio; cf. St. Cyprian, ut signaculo dominico consummentur, Ep. lxxiii, no. 9) is rendered by nocosmad, cosmait (confirmabat, confirmatio) in a very ancient Irish homily on St. Patrick found in the fourteenth century, "Leabar Breac".這個詞用在這裡(楊consummatio ;比照。聖塞浦路斯, UT斯達康signaculo dominico consummentur ,內啡肽。 lxxiii ,沒有。 9日)是提供nocosmad , cosmait ( confirmabat , confirmatio )在一個非常古老的愛爾蘭講道的聖帕特里克發現14世紀, “ Leabar Breac ” 。 In the same work (II, 550-51) a Latin preface to an ancient Irish chronological tract says: Debemus scire quo tempore Patriacius sanctus episcopus atque præceptor maximus Scotorum inchoavit .在同樣的工作(二550-51 )拉丁美洲前言一個古老的愛爾蘭順序道說: Debemus scire現狀臨時Patriacius眾神episcopus atque præceptor鮃Scotorum inchoavit 。 . . sanctificare et consecrare, et consummare, ie "we ought to know at what time Patrick, the holy bishop and greatest teacher of the Irish, began to come to Ireland . . . to sanctify and ordain and confirm". sanctificare等consecrare等consummare ,即“我們應該知道什麼時候帕特里克,神聖的主教和最大的教師愛爾蘭,開始到愛爾蘭。 。 。認可和任命,並確認” 。

From the same "Leabar Breac" Sylvester Malone quotes the following account of confirmation which exhibits an accurate belief on the part of the Irish Church: "Confirmation or chrism is the perfection of baptism, not that they are not distinct and different. Confirmation could not be given in the absence of baptism; nor do the effects of baptism depend on confirmation, nor are they lost till death. Just as the natural birth takes place at once so does the spiritual regeneration in like manner, but it finds, however, its perfection in confirmation" (Church History of Ireland, Dublin, 1880, I, p. 149).從相同的“ Leabar Breac ”西爾維斯特馬龍引用了以下帳戶確認該展覽的準確信仰的一部分,愛爾蘭教會: “確認或chrism是完善的洗禮,這並不是說他們沒有明顯的不同。無法確認考慮在沒有洗禮;也不影響的洗禮取決於確認,也不是失去直至死亡。正如自然分娩發生一次如此的精神再生的同樣方式,但它發現,但其完善確認“ (教會歷史,愛爾蘭的都柏林, 1880年,我第149頁) 。

It is in the light of these venerable texts, which quite probably antedate the year 1000, that we must interpret the well-known reference of St. Bernard to the temporary disuse of confirmation in Ireland (Vita Malachiæ), c.正是鑑於這些古老的文本,這很可能antedate 1000年,我們必須解釋眾所周知的參考聖伯納德暫時不用的確認,愛爾蘭(簡歷Malachiæ ) ,角 iv, in Acta SS., Nov., 1I, 145).四,在學報黨衛軍。 , 11月, 1I , 145 ) 。 He relates that St. Malachy (b. about 1095) introduced the practices of the Holy Roman Church into all the churches of Ireland, and mentions especially "the most wholesome usage of confession, the sacrament of confirmation and the contract of marriage, all of which were either unknown or neglected".他與聖Malachy (灣約1095 )介紹的做法羅馬教會所有教堂的愛爾蘭,並提到特別是“最有益健康的使用懺悔,聖禮的確認和合同的婚姻,所有的這些身份不明或忽視“ 。 These Malachy restored (de novo instituit).這些Malachy恢復(從頭instituit ) 。

The Welsh laws of Hywel Dda suppose for children of seven years and upwards a religious ceremony of laying on of hands that can hardly be anything else than confirmation.威爾士法律Hywel多哈發展議程假設為兒童七年以上的宗教儀式上鋪設的手中,就很難比任何其他確認。 Moreover, the Welsh term for this sacrament, Bedydd Esgob, ie bishop's baptism, implies that it was always performed by a bishop and was a complement (consummatio) of baptism.此外,威爾士任期為聖禮, Bedydd Esgob ,即主教的洗禮,意味著它總是由主教和補充( consummatio )的洗禮。 Gerald Barry notes that the whole people of Wales were more eager than any other nation to obtain episcopal confirmation and the chrism by which the Spirit was given.杰拉爾德巴里指出,全體人民的威爾士人更渴望比其他任何國家都獲得主教確認和chrism其中給予精神。

The practice in England has already been illustrated by facts from the life of St.這種做法在英國已經說明了事實的生命街 Cuthbert.卡斯伯特。 One of the oldest ordines, or prescriptions for administering the sacrament, is found in the Pontifical of Egbert, Archbishop of York (d. 766). The rite is practically the same as that used at present; the form, however, is: "receive the sign of the holy cross with the chrism of salvation in Christ Jesus unto life everlasting."其中最古老的ordines ,或處方管理聖禮,被發現在該宗座的埃格伯,約克大主教(草766 ) 。的儀式幾乎是一樣,目前使用;的形式,卻是: “收到的跡象,聖十字與拯救chrism在基督耶穌祂永恆的生命。 “ Among the rubrics are: modo ligandi sunt, ie the head of the person confirmed is to be bound with a fillet; and modo communicandi sunt de sacrificio, ie they are to receive Holy Communion (Martène).在標題是: modo ligandi必須遵守,即負責人證實是受到約束的魚片;和modo communicandi必須遵守由sacrificio ,即它們接受聖餐( Martène ) 。

It was especially during the thirteenth century that vigorous measures were taken to secure the proper administration of the sacrament.這是尤其是在13世紀的積極採取措施,以確保適當管理聖禮。 In general, the councils and synods direct the priests to admonish the people regarding the confirmation of their children.總的來說,政局和synods直接的司鐸,訓誡人民對確認自己的孩子。 The age limit, however, varies considerably. Thus the Synod of Worcester (1240) decreed that parents who neglected to have their child confirmed within a year after birth should be forbidden to enter the church.年齡限制,但有很大的差別。因此,伍斯特主教會議( 1240年)規定,父母誰忽視他們的孩子已經證實在一年內出生後應禁止進入教堂。 The Synod of Exeter (1287) enacted that children should be confirmed within three years from birth, otherwise the parents were to fast on bread and water until they complied with the law.主教會議的埃克塞特( 1287 )頒布的兒童應得到確認三年內從出生,否則,父母都以快速的麵包和水,直到他們遵守法律。 At the Synod of Durham (12177? Cf. Wilkins, loc. cit. below) the time was extended to the seventh year.在達勒姆主教( 12177 ?參閱。威爾金斯,同上。前。下文)的時間延長到第七個年頭。

Other statutes were: that no one should be admitted to Holy Communion who had not been confirmed (Council of Lambeth, 1281); that neither father nor mother nor stepparent should act as sponsor (London, 1200); that children to be confirmed must bring "fillets or bands of sufficient length and width", and that they must be brought to the church the third day after confirmation to have their foreheads washed by the priest out of reverence for the holy chrism (Oxford, 1222); that a male sponsor should stand for the boys and a female sponsor for the girls (Provincial Synod of Scotland, 1225); that adults must confess before being confirmed (Constitution of St. Edmund of Canterbury, about 1236).其他法規有:任何人都不應被接納為聖餐誰尚未得到確認(理事會的蘭貝斯, 1281 ) ; ,無論父親還是母親,也不stepparent應作為贊助商(倫敦, 1200 ) ; ,兒童得到確認必須使“魚片或帶足夠的長度和寬度” ,他們必須把教會的第三天後,確認他們的額頭洗牧師的崇敬的神聖chrism (牛津, 1222 ) ; ,一個男性贊助商要站在為男孩和一名女贊助商的女孩(省議會,蘇格蘭, 1225 ) ; ,成年人必須承認,在得到證實(憲法的聖埃德蒙的坎特伯雷,約1236年) 。

Several of the above-named synods emphasize the fact that confirmation produces spiritual cognation and that the sacrament cannot be received more than once. The legislation of the Synod of Exeter is especially full and detailed (see Wilkins, Concilia Magnæ Brittanniæ et Hiberniæ, London, 1734). Among the decrees issued in Ireland after the Reformation may be cited: no one other than a bishop should administer confirmation; the Holy See had not delegated this episcopal function to any one (Synod of Armagh, 1614); the faithful should be taught that confirmation cannot be reiterated and that its reception should be preceded by sacramental confession (Synod of Tuam, 1632).一些上述synods強調一個事實,即產生精神的確認,並cognation聖禮不能超過一次。的立法會議埃克塞特尤其是充分和詳細(見威爾金斯, Concilia Magnæ Brittanniæ等Hiberniæ ,倫敦, 1734 ) 。之一簽發的法令後,在愛爾蘭的改革可引:沒有人以外的其他主教應確認管理;羅馬教廷沒有授權這個主教功能的任何一個(主教阿瑪, 1614 ) ;忠實應當教導確認不能重申,其接待應先聖事自白(主教會議Tuam , 1632年) 。

IV.四。 IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES在美國的殖民地

Previous to the establishment of the hierarchy, many Catholics in North America died without having received confirmation.以前建立了層次,許多天主教徒在北美的死亡沒有得到確認。 In some portions of what is now the United States the sacrament was administered by bishops from the neighboring French and Spanish possessions; in others, by missionary priests with delegation from the Holy See.在某些部分,現在美國的聖禮是由主教從鄰近的法文和西班牙文的財產;在其他情況下,由神父傳教與代表團由羅馬教廷。

Bishop Cabezas de Altimirano of Santiago de Cuba, on his visitation of Florida, confirmed (25 March, 1606) a large number, probably the first administration of the sacrament in the United States territory.主教角Altimirano的聖地亞哥,探望他的佛羅里達州,證實( 1606年3月25日)一大批,這可能是第一屆政府的聖禮在美國的領土。 In 1655, Don Diego de Rebolledo, Governor of Florida, urged the King of Spain to ask the pope to make St. Augustine an episcopal see, or to make Florida a vicariate Apostolic so that there might be a local superior and that the faithful might receive the Sacrament of Confirmation; but nothing came of the petition.在1655年,唐迭戈德雷沃,佛羅里達州州長,敦促西班牙國王要求教皇,使聖奧古斯丁的主教看到,或使佛羅里達州一宗座代牧區,以便有可能是當地的優勢和教友會收到聖確認,但沒有結果出來的請願書。 Bishop Calderon of Santiago visited Florida in 1647 and confirmed 13,152 persons, including Indians and whites.卡爾德龍的主教訪問了佛羅里達州聖地亞哥在1647年和確認13152人,其中包括印第安人和白人。 Other instances are the visitations of Bishop de Velasco (1735-6) and Bishop Morel (1763).其他情況是visitations德主教貝拉斯科( 1735-6 )和主教毛磊( 1763年) 。 Subsequently, Dr. Peter Camps, missionary Apostolic, received from Rome special faculties for confirmation.後來,彼得營博士,傳教士使徒,收到了羅馬特別院系確認。

In New Mexico, during the seventeenth century, the custos of the Franciscans confirmed by delegation from Leo X and Adrian VI.在新墨西哥州,在十七世紀,在保管人的方濟各代表團證實,從利奧X和阿德里安六。 In 1760, Bishop Tamaron of Durango visited the missions of New Mexico and confirmed 11,271 persons.在1760年,主教Tamaron杜蘭戈訪問的任務新墨西哥和確認11271人。 Bishop Tejada of Guadalajara administered (1759) confirmation at San Fernando, now San Antonio, Texas, and Bishop de Pontbriand at Ft.主教特哈達管理瓜達拉哈拉( 1759 )確認在聖費爾南多,現在德克薩斯州聖安東尼奧,德和主教在Pontbriand堡。 Presentation (Ogdensburg, NY) in 1752.文稿( Ogdensburg訊)在1752年。

The need of a bishop to administer the sacrament in Maryland and Pennsylvania was urged by Bishop Challoner in a report to the Propaganda, 2 Aug., 1763. Writing to his agent at Rome, Rev. Dr. Stonor, 12 Sept., 1766, he says: "there be so many thousands there that live and die without Confirmation"; and in another letter, 4 June, 1771: "It is a lamentable thing that such a multitude have to live and die always deprived of the Sacrament of Confirmation."需要一個主教管理聖禮在馬里蘭州和賓夕法尼亞州敦促主教林在一份報告中的宣傳, 1763年八月二日。寫作,以他的經紀人在羅馬舉行,牧師Stonor博士, 1766年九月12號,他說: “有這麼多的數千那裡生活和死亡不認可” ,並在另一封信中, 1771年6月4日: “這是一個可悲的事情,這樣眾多的生活和死亡總是被剝奪了聖認可“ 。 Cardinal Castelli wrote, 7 Sept., 1771, to Bishop Briand of Quebec asking him to supply the need of the Catholics in Maryland and Pennsylvania.紅衣主教卡斯泰利寫道, 1771年9月7日,昂主教魁北克省要求他提供必要的天主教徒在馬里蘭州和賓夕法尼亞州。 In 1783 the clergy petitioned Rome for the appointment of a superior with the necessary faculties "that our faithful living in many dangers, may be no longer deprived of the Sacrament of Confirmation . . . . " On 6 June, 1784, Pius VI appointed Rev. John Carroll as superior of the mission and empowered him to administer confirmation (Shea, Life and Times of Archbishop Carroll, New York, 1888; cf. Hughes in Am. Eccl. Review, XXVIII, 23).在1783年神職人員請願羅馬任命一位卓越的必要系“ ,我們忠實地生活在許多危險,可能會不再被剝奪了聖認可。 。 。 。 ”在1784年6月6日,庇護六世任命為牧師。約翰卡羅爾作為上級的任務,並授權他管理的確認(謝,生活和時代的大主教卡羅爾,紐約, 1888年;比照。休斯在我。傳道書。審查,二十八, 23 ) 。

V. CONFIRMATION AMONG NON-CATHOLICS五,確認在非天主教徒

The Protestant Reformers, influenced by their rejection of all that could not be clearly proved from Scripture and by their doctrine of justification by faith only, refused to admit that confirmation was a sacrament (Luther, De Capt. Babyl., VII, p. 501).新教改革者,影響他們拒絕一切不能清楚地證明從聖經和他們的學說的理由只有信仰,拒絕承認確認是一個聖禮(路德,德上校Babyl 。 ,七,第501頁) 。 According to the Confession of Augsburg, it was instituted by the Church, and it has not the promise of the grace of God.據供認的奧格斯堡,有人提起教會,也沒有承諾的恩典的上帝。 Melanchthon (Loci Comm., p. 48) taught that it was a vain ceremony, and was formerly nothing but a catechism in which those who were approaching adolescence gave an account of their faith before the Church; and that the minister was not a bishop only, but any priest whatsoever (Lib. Ref. ad Colonien.).梅蘭希通(座通信。 ,第48頁)教授,這是徒勞的儀式上,和以前只是一個理在這些誰接近青春期敘述了自己的信仰之前,教會和牧師不是一個主教只,但無論任何司鐸( Lib.參。廣告Colonien 。 ) 。

These four points were condemned by the Council of Trent (supra I; cf. A. Theiner, Acta Genuina SS. Œcum. Conc. Trid., I, p. 383 sqq.).這四點是譴責安理會的遄達(前一;比照。 Theiner字母a. ,學報Genuina黨衛軍。 Œcum 。濃。 Trid 。 ,我,第383頁sqq 。 ) 。 Nevertheless the Lutheran Churches retain some sort of confirmation to the present day.然而,路德教會保持某種形式的確認到今天。 It consists of the examination of the candidate in Christian doctrine by the pastors or members of the consistory, and the renewal by the candidate of the profession of faith made for him at the time of his baptism by his godparents. How the pastors properly ordained can alone be said to "give" confirmation does not appear.它包括審查候選人的基督教教義的牧師或成員的一致性,並延長候選人的職業信仰為他在他的洗禮,他的教父母包括挪威。如何牧師可以適當祝僅僅說“請”確認不出現。 The Anglican Church holds that "Confirmation is not to be counted for a sacrament of the Gospel . . . for it has not the like nature of sacraments [sacramentorum eandem rationem] with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, for it has not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God" (Art. xxv).聖公會認為, “確認是不可計數的聖福音。 。 。因為它已經不一樣性質的聖禮[ sacramentorum eandem rationem ]的洗禮和上帝的晚餐,因為它已經沒有任何明顯的標誌或祝聖儀式的上帝“ (第25 ) 。 But, like the Lutheran Churches, it retains "the Confirmation of children, by examining them of their knowledge in their articles of faith and joining thereto the prayers of the Church for them" (Homily on Common Prayer and Sacraments, p. 300).但是,像路德教會,它保留“確認兒童,檢查他們的知識在其文章的信念和加入此祈禱的教會為他們” (講道共同祈禱和聖禮,第300頁) 。 The rite of confirmation has undergone various changes in the different prayer books (see BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER).在成年禮的確認經歷了各種變化的不同的祈禱書(見公禱書) 。 From these it can be seen how the Anglican Church has varied between the complete rejection of the Catholic doctrine and practice, and a near approach to these.從這些可以看出如何聖公會的變化之間的完全拒絕天主教理論和實踐,以及附近的這些做法。 Testimonies could easily be quoted for either of these opinions.證詞很容易被引用的這兩種意見。 The wording of Art.的措辭藝術。 xxv left a loophole which the Ritualistic party has made good use of. 25留下了漏洞老一套黨已經取得了良好的使用。 Even some Catholics, as stated above, have admitted that confirmation "has not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God"; the imposition of hands, the anointing, and the words used being all of them "ordained of" the Apostles of the Church.即使是一些天主教徒,如前所述,都承認確認“沒有任何明顯的標誌或祝聖儀式的上帝” ;實行手中, anointing ,以及用字的所有這些“祝聖的”使徒的教會。

Publication information Written by TB Scannell.出版信息撰稿結核病斯坎內爾。 Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.轉錄由查爾斯斯威尼,律政司司長。天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Sacrament
Baptism 洗禮

or, for Jewish applications of confirmation:或者,猶太人的申請確認:
Bar Mitzvah 酒吧Mitzvah
Judaism 猶太教


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