Cistercians

General Information 一般信息

Cistercians are members of a Roman Catholic Religious Order founded in 1098 by St. Robert, abbot of Molesme.熙成員的天主教宗教秩序成立於1098年由聖羅伯特,住持Molesme 。 He and a handful of monks left the Benedictine abbey of Molesme for a secluded area called Citeaux, not far from Dijon in Burgundy, where they began an austere monastic life.他和少數僧侶離開本篤修道院Molesme一個僻靜的地區稱為Citeaux ,而不是遠在勃艮第第戎,他們在那裡開始了簡樸的寺院生活。 From Citeaux other monasteries were founded. In 1112 or 1113, St. Bernard of Clairvaux entered Citeaux. His forceful personality and holiness encouraged recruits, and he became the spokesman for this reform movement throughout Europe. By 1151 over 300 monasteries stood, with more than 11,000 Cistercian monks and nuns.從Citeaux其他寺廟都成立。在1112年或1113年,聖伯納德的伯爾納進入Citeaux 。他強有力的個性和神聖鼓勵新兵,和他成為發言人對這一改革運動在歐洲各地。通過1151年超過300站在寺院,有超過11000修道院僧侶和尼姑。

From the beginning, the Cistercians stressed a literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, withdrawal from feudal entanglements and responsibility, and a return to the simplicity and austerity of the early desert monks.從一開始,熙強調字面遵守規則的聖本篤,從封建糾紛和責任,並返回到簡單和緊縮的早期沙漠僧侶。 They succeeded by uniting their monasteries through a constitution, called the Charter of Charity, that set forth a uniform type of life, checks and balances in monastic government, centralized authority under the abbot of Citeaux, and an annual meeting of all the abbots in a general chapter.他們成功地團結他們的寺廟通過一部憲法,聯合國憲章要求慈善,即規定一個統一類型的生命,制衡政府的寺院,中央集權下的住持Citeaux ,以及每年一次的所有在abbots一般的篇章。

The Cistercians wear white habits with a black scapular.在熙穿白色的習慣,有一黑色肩胛骨。 During the Middle Ages, they were called the white monks.在中世紀,它們被稱為白色的僧侶。 A reformed group of Cistercians was begun in the 17th century; they are known as Trappists. The original Cistercian monks are called Cistercians of the Common Observance. Many monasteries of the Common Observance were suppressed during the French Revolution. In the 20th century the order has experienced a renewal of vitality. Port Royal, the center of Jansenism in 17th-century France, was a Cistercian convent.改革組熙已經開始在17世紀,他們被稱為Trappists 。原來的修道院僧侶被稱為熙共同遵守。許多寺廟共同遵守期間遭到壓制法國大革命。在20世紀的秩序經歷了一個更新的活力。皇家港,該中心的詹森主義在17世紀的法國,是一個修道院修道院。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴維斯,定向結構刨花板

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Lekai, Louis, The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (1977); Ponnington, MG, ed., The Monastic Way (1990).樂凱,聖路易斯,在熙:理想與現實( 1977年) ; Ponnington ,鎂,版。 ,該寺院之路( 1990年) 。


Cistercians

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(See also CISTERCIAN SISTERS; CISTERCIANS IN THE BRITISH ISLES.) (亦見修道院姐妹;熙在英國小島的。 )

Religious of the Order of Cîteaux, a Benedictine reform, established at Cîteaux in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme in the Diocese of Langres, for the purpose of restoring as far as possible the literal observance of the Rule of St.宗教秩序的Cîteaux ,一個本篤的改革,建立Cîteaux在1098年由聖羅伯特,艾博特的Molesme在教區朗格勒,目的是恢復並盡可能的字面遵守規則的街 Benedict.篤。 The history of this order may be divided into four periods:歷史上的這一命令可分為四個階段:

I. The Formation (1098-1134);一組( 1098至1134年) ;

II.二。 The Golden Age (1134-1342);黃金時代( 1134年至1342年) ;

III.三。 The Decline (1342-1790);衰落( 1342年至一七九〇年) ;

IV.四。 The Restoration (after 1790).修復(僅次於1790年) 。

I. THE FORMATION (1098-1134)一,形成( 1098至1134年)

St. Robert, son of the noble Thierry and Ermengarde of Champagne, was Abbot of Molesme, a monastery dependent on Cluny.聖羅伯特的兒子,崇高的亨利和Ermengarde香檳,是艾博特的Molesme ,修道院依賴於克呂尼。 Appalled by the laxity into which the Order of Cluny had fallen, he endeavoured to effect reforms in the monasteries of Saint-Pierre-de-la-Celle, Saint-Michel of Tonnerre, and finally in that of Molesme.深感震驚的是鬆弛到該命令的克呂尼已經下降,他致力於改革的影響在寺廟的聖皮埃爾德拉勒,聖米歇爾山的雅溫得,終於在這的Molesme 。 His attempts at reform in these monasteries meeting with very little success, he, with six of his religious, among whom were Alberic and Stephen, had recourse to Hugh, Legate of the Holy See, and Archbishop of Lyons.他的改革嘗試在這些寺廟上很少成功,他與他的六個宗教,其中有阿爾貝里克和斯蒂芬,求助於休,特使的羅馬教廷,和里昂大主教。 Authorized by Archbishop Hugh to institute a reform, Robert and his companions returned to Molesme and there chose from among the religious those whom they considered most fitted to participate in their undertaking.授權休大主教建立一個改革,羅伯特和他的同伴返回Molesme和有選擇從宗教的人,他們認為最適合參加其工作。 To the number of twenty-one the company retired to the solitude of Cîteaux (in the Diocese of Châlons), which Raynald, Viscount of Beaune, had ceded to them.的人數2001年該公司退休的孤獨Cîteaux (在教區沙隆) ,其中Raynald ,子爵的波,割讓給他們。 (See Cîteaux, Abbey of.) On the feast of St. Benedict (21 March), 1098, which fell that year on Palm Sunday, they commenced to build the "New Monastery", as it is called in the "Exordium sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis". (見Cîteaux ,修道院。 )在聖本篤( 3月21日) , 1098年,屬於這一年的棕櫚主日,他們開始建設的“新寺” ,因為它是所謂的“緒論sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis “ 。 This, therefore, was the birthday of the Order of Cîteaux.因此,這是生日的命令Cîteaux 。 By order of the Apostolic legate, Robert received the pastoral staff from the bishop of the diocese, Gauthier, and was charged with the government of his brethren, who immediately made their vow of stability.的命令使徒特使羅伯特收到了畜牧工作人員的主教教區,高塞爾,以及被指控犯有政府,他的兄弟,誰立即作出誓言的穩定。 Thus was the "New Monastery" canonically erected into an abbey.因此是“新寺” canonically豎立成為一個修道院。

At this news, the monks who had remained at Molesme sent a deputation to Pope Urban II, asking that Robert might be sent back to his first monastery.在此消息,僧侶誰仍保持在Molesme發出了派遣到烏爾巴諾二,要求羅伯特可能被遣送回他的第一個寺院。 The pope yielded to their petition, and Robert returned to Molesme, after having governed Cîteaux for one year.教皇取得他們的請願書,羅伯特Molesme返回後,管轄Cîteaux為一年。 There the prior, Alberic, was elected to replace him, and, in his turn, sent the two monks, John and Ilbode, as delegates to Pascal II (who had just succeeded Urban II) to beg him to take the church of Cîteaux under the protection of the Apostolic See.有事先,阿爾貝里克,被選為接替他,在他又發出了兩名僧人,約翰和Ilbode ,作為代表帕斯卡爾二(誰剛剛成功地城市二)請求他採取了教堂下Cîteaux保護使徒見。 By Apostolic Letters, dated at Troja in Campania, 18 April, 1100, Pascal II declared that he took under his immediate protection the abbey and the religious, of Cîteaux, saving their allegiance to the Church of Châlons.由使徒書信,在特羅哈月坎帕尼亞, 1100年4月18日,帕斯卡爾二宣布,他在他的直接保護修道院和宗教的Cîteaux ,節約效忠教會的沙隆。 Dating from this day, Alberic and his religious established at Cîteaux the exact observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, substituted the white habit for the black which the Benedictines wore, and, the better to observe the rule in regard to the Divine Office day and night, associated with themselves lay brothers, to be chiefly occupied with the manual labours and material affairs of the order.自這一天,阿爾貝里克和他的宗教Cîteaux設立的確切遵守規則的聖本篤,取代白色的習慣為黑色而篤穿,並更好地遵守規則方面的神聖辦公室一天和晚上,與自己的兄弟奠定基礎,將主要被佔領的手工勞動和物質事務的秩序。 These lay brothers, or conversi, though they were not monks, were to be treated during life and after death just like the monks themselves.這些奠定兄弟,或conversi ,雖然他們不是和尚,是在對待生活和死亡後,就像僧侶本身。 St. Alberic died in 1109.聖阿爾貝里克死於1109 。

His successor was Stephen Harding, an Englishman by birth, well versed in sacred and profane science, who had been one of the first promoters of the project to leave Molesme.他的繼任者是斯蒂芬哈丁,一個英國人因出生,精通神聖和褻瀆科學,誰是第一個推廣項目離開Molesme 。 St. Robert, his two immediate successors, and their companions had but one object in view: a reaction against the laxity of Cluny and of other monasteries -- to resume manual labour, to adopt a more severe regimen, and to restore in monastic churches and church ceremonies the gravity and simplicity proper to the monastic profession.聖羅伯特,他的兩個直接的繼任者,他們的同伴了一個對象,但鑑於:反應對鬆弛的克呂尼和其他寺廟-恢復體力勞動,採取更加嚴厲的方案,並恢復在修道院教堂和教堂儀式的嚴重性和妥善簡單的僧侶的職業。 They never thought of founding a new order, and yet from Cîteaux were to go forth, in course of time, colonies of monks who should found other monasteries destined to become other Cîteaux, and thus create an order distinct from that of Cluny.他們從未想過成立一個新秩序,然而,從Cîteaux了去了,在時間的推移,殖民地的僧侶誰應該找到其他寺廟注定要成為其他Cîteaux ,從而建立一個以不同於克呂尼。

St. Bernard's entrance into the Order of Cîteaux (1112) was the signal of this extraordinary development.聖伯納德進入命令Cîteaux ( 1112 )的信號,這個非同尋常的發展。 Thirty young noblemen of Burgundy followed him, among them four of his brothers. 30個年輕的勃艮第貴族跟著他,其中包括他的四個兄弟。 Others came after them, and in such numbers that in the following year (1113) Cîteaux was able to send forth its first colony and found its first filiation, La Ferté, in the Diocese of Châlons.另一些後,並在這些數字,在下一年度( 1113 ) Cîteaux能夠發出的第一塊殖民地,並發現其第一次親子關係,堡,在教區沙隆。 In 1114 another colony was established at Pontigny, in the Diocese of Auxerre.在1114年又建立了殖民地在Pontigny ,在教區歐塞爾。 In 1115 the young Bernard founded Clairvaux in the Diocese of Langres.在1115年的年輕伯納德成立伯爾納在教區朗格勒。 In the same year Morimond was founded in the same Diocese of Langres.同年Morimond成立於同一教區朗格勒。 These were the first four offshoots of Cîteaux; but of these monasteries Clairvaux attained the highest development, becoming mother of sixty-eight monasteries even in the lifetime of St. Bernard. (See Clairvaux).這是前四個分支Cîteaux ;但這些寺廟伯爾納達到最高的發展,成為母親的68即使是在寺院的壽命聖伯納德。 (見伯爾納) 。

After this St. Stephen Harding was to complete the legislation for the new institute.在此聖士提反哈丁是完成立法的新機構。 Cluny had introduced into the monastic order the confederation of the members among themselves.克魯尼介紹了到寺院以邦聯的成員彼此。 St. Stephen added thereto the institution of general chapters and regular visits.聖士提反加上該機構的一般章節和定期查訪。 Thus mutual supervision, rendering account of the administration, rigid examination of discipline, immediate correction of abuses, were so many sure means of maintaining the observance in all its purity.因此,互相監督,使帳戶的管理,嚴格的考試紀律,立即改正的行為,有如此多的手段確保遵守維持在其所有的純潔性。 The collection of statutes which St. Stephen drafted, and in which are contained wise provisions for the government of the order, was called the Charter of Charity (La Charte de Charité).收集的章程而聖士提反起草,其中載有明智的規定,政府的命令,被稱為憲章慈善(香格里拉大憲章的慈善) 。 It and the "US", the book of usages and customs, together with some of the definitions of the first general chapters, received the approbation of Pope Callistus II.它和“美國” ,這本書的慣例和習俗,加上一些定義的第一個一般性的章節,收到了讚許教皇卡利斯圖斯二世。 At the death of St. Stephen (1134), the order, after thirty-six years of existence, counted 70 monasteries, of which 55 were in France.在死亡的聖士提反( 1134年) ,該命令後,三十六年的存在, 70個寺院,其中55人在法國。

II.二。 THE GOLDEN AGE (1134-1342)黃金時代( 1134年至1342年)

The diffusion of the new order was chiefly effected by means of foundations. Nevertheless several congregations and monasteries, which had existed before the Order of Cîteaux, became affiliated to it, among them the Congregations of Savigny and Obazine, which were incorporated in the order in 1147.傳播新秩序主要是由手段的基礎。然而一些教會和寺院,這之前就已存在的命令Cîteaux ,成為附屬於它,其中包括公理薩維尼和Obazine ,其中被納入秩序1147 。 St. Bernard and other Cistercians took a very active part, too, in the establishment of the great military orders, and supplied them with their constitutions and their laws.聖伯納德和其他熙採取了非常積極的作用,也建立了偉大的軍事命令,並提供使他們與自己的憲法和法律。 Among these various orders of chivalry may be mentioned the Templars, the Knights of Calatrava, of St. Lazarus, of Alcantara, of Avis, of St. Maurice, of the Wing of St. Michael, of Montessa, etc. In 1152 the Order of Cîteaux already counted 350 abbeys, not including the granges and priories dependent upon the principal abbeys.在這些不同的命令,騎士可能會提到聖殿,騎士的卡拉特拉瓦,聖拉撒路的阿爾坎塔拉的安飛士,聖莫里斯,在永聖邁克爾的Montessa等在1152年的訂單的Cîteaux已經清點350修道院,但不包括格朗和修道院依靠的主要修道院。 Among the causes which contributed to this prosperity of the new order, the influence of St. Bernard evidently holds the first place; in the next place comes the perfect unity which existed between the monasteries and the members of every house, a unity wonderfully maintained by the punctual assembling of general chapters, and the faithful performance of the regular visits.其中的原因促成了這種繁榮的新秩序,影響聖伯納德顯然擁有首位;在今後的地方是完美的統一之間存在的寺廟和成員的每一棟房屋,一個團結奇妙保持準時集合的一般章節,和忠實地執行情況的定期互訪。 The general chapter was an assembly of all the abbots of the order, even those who resided farthest from Cîteaux.一般章集會的所有abbots的命令,即使是那些誰住最遠的Cîteaux 。 This assembly, during the Golden Age, took place annually, according to the prescriptions of the Charter of Charity. "This Cistercian Areopagus", says the author of the "Origines Cistercienses", "with equal severity and justice kept watch over the observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, the Charter of Charity and definitions of the preceding Chapters." The collection of statutes published by Dom Martene informs us that there was no distinction of persons made.本屆大會期間的黃金時代,每年發生的,按照處方憲章的慈善事業。 “這修道院Areopagus ” ,作者說的“起源Cistercienses ” , “平等和正義的嚴重性不斷監視遵守法治的聖本篤,該憲章的慈善和定義前面的章節。 “收集的章程公佈的大教堂Martene告訴我們,沒有任何區別的人了。 After a fault became known, the same justice was meted out to lay brothers, monks, and abbots, and the first fathers of the order.在被稱為斷層,同樣是司法男子奠定兄弟,僧侶,和abbots ,第一批父親的命令。 Thus, as all were firmly persuaded that their rights would be protected with equal justice, the collection of statutes passed by the general chapter were consulted and respected in all the monasteries without exception.因此,所有人都堅定地說服了他們的權利將受到保護,平等公正,收集的章程通過一般性章進行了磋商,並尊重所有的寺廟沒有例外。 All the affairs of the order, such as differences between abbots, purchase and sale of property, incorporation of abbeys, questions relating to the laws rites, feasts, tributes, erection of colleges, etc. were submitted to the general chapter in which resided the supreme authority of the order.所有事務的秩序,如abbots之間的差異,購買和出售財產,納入修道院,有關法律儀式,節日,悼念,豎立高校等提交給了一般一頁居住的最高權力機構的命令。 Other orders took these general chapters as models of their own, either spontaneously, like the Premonstratensians, or by decree of the Fourth Lateran Council, that the religious orders should adopt the practice of holding general chapters and follow the form used by the Order of Cîteaux.其他命令了這些一般章節為榜樣自己,無論是自發,像Premonstratensians ,或法令的第四次拉特蘭理事會,宗教命令應當採取的做法,舉行一般性章節,並按照所使用的形式秩序的Cîteaux 。

The general chapters were held every year up to 1411, when they became intermittent.一般章節舉行了每年高達1411年,當他們成為間歇性。 Their decisions were codified.他們決定編纂。 The first codification was that of 1133, under the title "Instituta Capituli Generalis".第一次編纂的是, 1133年,在標題為“ Instituta Capituli一般” 。 The second, which bears the title "Institutiones Capituli Generalis", was commenced in the year 1203 by the Abbot Arnoud I, and was promulgated in 1240.第二,它的標題是“ Institutiones Capituli一般” ,是於1203年由住持Arnoud我和頒布了1240 。 The third, "Libelli Antiquarum Definitionum Capituli Generalis Ordinis Cisterciencis", was issued in 1289 and in 1316.第三, “ Libelli Antiquarum Definitionum Capituli一般Ordinis Cisterciencis ” ,印發了1289年和1316年。 Finally, the general chapter of 1350 promulgated the "Novellae Definitiones" in conformity with the Constitution of Benedict XII, "Fulgens ut stella" of 12 July, 1355.最後,一般章1350頒布了“ Novellae Definitiones ”符合憲法的篤十二世, “葉UT斯達康斯特拉”的1355年7月12號。 The regular visits also contributed much to the maintenance of unity and fervour.經常訪問也作出了很大貢獻,以維護團結和熱情。 Every abbey was visited once a year by the abbot of the house on which it immediately depended.每一個參觀的修道院每年一次的住持房子它立即依賴。 Cîteaux was visited by the four first fathers, that is to say, by the Abbots of La Ferté, of Pontigny, of Clairvaux, and Morimond. Cîteaux訪問了四個第一的父親,這就是說,由Abbots的堡的Pontigny的伯爾納,並Morimond 。

"The Visitor", say the ancient statutes, "will urge the Religious to greater respect for their Abbot, and to remain more and more united among themselves by the bonds of mutual love for Jesus Christ's sake . . . The Visitor ought not to be a man who will easily believe every one indiscriminately, but he should investigate with care those matters of which he has no knowledge, and, having ascertained the truth, he should correct abuses with prudence, uniting his zeal for the Order with his feelings of sincere paternal affection. On the other hand, the Superior visited ought to show himself submissive to, and full of confidence in, the Visitor, and do all in his power to reform his house, since one day he will have to render an account to the Lord. . . [The Abbot] will avoid both before the Visitor and after his departure everything that will have the appearance of revenge, reproach or indignation against any of them" [sc. “訪問者” ,說古代章程“ ,將敦促宗教更好地尊重他們的住持,並繼續越來越多地團結在它們之間的相互債券愛耶穌基督的緣故。 。 。訪問者不應該誰一名男子將很容易相信每一個不分青紅皂白,但他應進行調查,照顧這些問題,他沒有知識,並在查明事實真相,他應該糾正濫用謹慎,團結他的熱情令他的感情,真誠的父親的感情。另一方面,高級訪問應該表明自己服從和充分的信心,參觀,並盡一切力量在他的改革他的房子,因為有一天,他將不得不報帳的勳爵。 。 。 [本艾博特]將避免觀眾面前,並在離職後都將有出現復仇,憤怒責備或對任何人“ [資深大律師。 his subjects].他的臣民] 。 If the visitor should act against prescriptions, he was to be corrected and punished according to the gravity of his fault by the abbot who was his superior, or by another abbot, or even by the general chapter.如果訪問者應該採取行動打擊的處方,他予以糾正和處罰的嚴重性他的過錯由住持誰是他的上級,或由另一住持,甚至一般的篇章。 Likewise, the abbot visited should know that he would become grievously culpable before God by neglecting the regular form of visit, and that he would deserve to be called to account by his "Father Immediate" or by the general chapter. Thus everything was foreseen and provided for the maintenance of good order and charity and for the preservation of the unity of observance and spirit.同樣,住持訪問應該知道,他將成為嚴重罪責的上帝面前經常忽視形式的訪問,他將應該追究他們的責任,他“父親立即”或一般的篇章。因此,一切都預見和為維護良好秩序和慈善事業和為維護統一的遵守和精神。 "No one then ought be astonished", says the author of "Origines Cistercienses", "to find in the Cistercian abbeys, during their Golden Age, so many sanctuaries of the most fervent prayer, of the severest discipline, as well as of untiring and constant labour. This explains also why, not only persons of humble and low extraction, but also eminent men, monks and abbots of other orders, doctors in every science and clerics honoured with the highest dignities, humbly begged the favour of being admitted into the Order of Cîteaux." “沒有人那麼應該是感到驚訝” ,作者說的“起源Cistercienses ” , “尋找在修道院的修道院,在其黃金時代,這麼多的避難所的最熱切的祈禱,最嚴厲的紀律,以及不懈和不斷的勞動。這就解釋了為什麼,不僅是人的謙遜和低開採,而且著名的男子,僧侶和abbots的其他命令,醫生在每一個科學和宗教榮幸的最高尊嚴,虛心乞求贊成被獲准進入勳章Cîteaux 。 “ Thus it was during this period that the order produced the greatest number of saints, blessed, and holy persons.因此,在此期間,該命令產生了最大數量的聖人,祝福,和神聖的人。 Many abbeys -- such as Clairvaux, Villiers, Himmerod, Heisterbach, etc. -- were so many nurseries of saints.許多修道院-如伯爾納,維利爾斯, H immerod, H eisterbach等-有如此多的聖人苗圃。 More than forty have been canonized by the Holy See. 40多個已冊封的羅馬教廷。 The Order of Cîteaux constantly enjoyed the favour of the Holy See, which in numerous Bulls bestowed upon the Cistercians the highest praise, and rewarded with great privileges their services to the Church.該命令的Cîteaux不斷享受到利於教廷,這在許多公牛授予熙的高度讚揚,並獲得了巨大的特權服務的教會。 They enjoyed the favour of sovereigns, who, having entire confidence in them, entrusted to them, like Frederick II, important delegations; or, like Alphonsus I of Portugal, placed their persons and kingdoms under the care and protection of Our Lady of Clairvaux; or again, like Frederick II, feeling themselves near the point of death, wished to die clothed in the Cistercian habit.他們享受到了有利於君主,誰後,整個信任他們,賦予他們一樣,弗雷德里克二世,重要的代表團,或者像阿一葡萄牙,將其人員和王國的照顧和保護我們的夫人伯爾納;或再次一樣,弗雷德里克二世,感覺自己點附近的死亡,想死的衣物修道院的習慣。

The Cistercians benefited society by their agricultural labours.在熙得益於社會的農業勞動。 According to Dr.博士 Janauscheck, "none but the ignorant or men of bad faith are capable of denying the merited praises which the sons of St. Benedict have received for their agricultural labours throughout Europe, or that this part of the world owes to them a greater debt of gratitude than to any other colony no matter how important it may be." Janauscheck , “沒有,但無知或男子不守信用能否認這值得讚揚的兒子聖本篤收到了他們的農業勞動力在整個歐洲,或者說這個世界的一部分歸功於他們更大的感激比任何其他的殖民地,無論多麼重要,可能。 “ They also conferred great benefits on society by the exercise of Christian charity.他們還賦予巨大的利益對社會所行使的基督教慈善機構。 By means of their labours, their economy, their privations, and sometimes owing to generous donations which it would be ungrateful to despise, they became more or less rich in the things of this world, and expended their wealth upon the instruction of the ignorant, the promotion of letters and arts, and the relief of their country's necessities. Caesarius of Heisterbach speaks of a monastery in Westphalia where one day all the cattle were killed, the chalices and books pledged as security, in order to relieve the poor.通過他們的辛勤勞動,他們的經濟,他們的困苦,有時由於慷慨捐贈,它將成為忘恩負義的鄙視,他們成為或多或少含有豐富的東西這個世界上,和他們的財富花費的指示,無知,促進字母和藝術,並減免其國家的必需品。 Caesarius的Heisterbach談到修道院威斯特伐利亞在一天所有的牛被炸死,該chalices和書籍保證安全,以減輕貧困。 The Cistercian abbeys had a house for the reception of the poor, and an infirmary for the sick, and in them all received a generous hospitality and remedies for the ills of soul and body.修道院修道院的房子已接待的窮人,一個療養院的病人,並在他們都收到了慷慨的款待和補救措施的弊病的靈魂和身體。

Intellectual labour had also its place in the life of the Cistercians.智力勞動還其在生活中熙。 Charles de Visch, in his "Bibliotheca Scriptorum Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis", published in 1649, devotes 773 historical and critical notices to authors who belonged to the Cistercian Order.戴高樂Visch ,在他的“書目Scriptorum Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis ” ,發表於1649年,投入773的歷史和重要通知作者誰屬於修道院秩序。 Even in the very first period, St. Stephen Harding left a work on the Bible which is superior to anything of its kind produced by any contemporary monastery, not excepting Cluny.即使是在第一期,聖士提反哈丁留下了一個工作聖經這是優於任何同類產品當代的任何寺院,而不是除克魯尼。 The Library of Dijon preserves the venerable manuscript of St. Stephen, which was to serve as a type for all Cistercian Bibles.圖書館第戎保留古老的手稿聖士提反,這是作為一個類型的所有修道院聖經。 The Cistercian libraries were rich in books and manuscripts. Nor did the sons of St. Bernard neglect the fine arts; they exercised their genius in building, contributed powerfully to the development and propagation of the Romanesque and the Gothic architecture throughout Europe, and cultivated the arts of painting and engraving.在修道院的圖書館有豐富的書籍和手稿。也沒有兒子的聖伯納德忽視了美術,他們行使其天才的建設,有力地促進的發展和傳播的羅曼和哥特式建築在整個歐洲,並培育藝術的繪畫和雕刻。

III.三。 THE DECLINE (1342-1790)衰落( 1342年至一七九○年)

The decadence of the order was due to several causes, the first of which was the large number of monasteries, often-times situated in the most widely distant countries, which prevented the "Fathers Immediate" from making the regular visits to all the houses of their filiations, while some of the abbots could not assist every year at the general chapter.在頹廢的命令是由於幾個原因,首先是大量的寺院,往往坐落在時代最廣泛的遙遠的國家,這使得“父親立即”從決策的定期訪問所有的房屋他們filiations ,而一些abbots不能協助每年一般的篇章。 Some were also found who, seeing themselves thus sheltered from the remonstrances and the punishments either of the general chapter or of the visitor, permitted abuses to creep into their houses.有些人還發現誰,看到自己的庇護從而從remonstrances和懲罰不是一般章或訪客,允許虐待蠕變到他們的房屋。 But the principal cause of the decline of the order (which is based on unity and charity) was the spirit of dissension which animated certain superiors.但主要的原因,下降的命令(這是基於團結和慈善事業)是精神的分歧而某些上級動畫。 Some abbots, even not far from Cîteaux, explained in a particular sense, and that adapted to their own point of view, certain points of the Charter of Charity.一些abbots ,甚至不遠處Cîteaux解釋說,在一個特定意義,而且適合自己的角度來看,某些點的一章,慈善機構。 The solicitude of the Roman pontiffs themselves who tried to reestablish harmony among the superiors, was not always successful. And yet at that time there were found some courageous and determined monks who became reformers, and even founded new congregations which were detached from the old trunk of Cîteaux.關懷羅馬pontiffs自己誰試圖重新建立和睦相處的上司,並非總是成功的。然而,當時有發現了一些勇敢和堅定的僧人誰成為改革者,甚至成立新的教會是脫離舊的行李箱的Cîteaux 。 Those congregations which then severed their union with Cîteaux, but which no longer exist at the present time, are:這些集會,然後割斷他們的工會與Cîteaux ,但不再存在目前,它們是:

The Congregation of the Observance of St. Bernard of Spain, founded by Dom Martin de Vargas, in 1425, at Monte Sion near Toledo; The Congregation of St. Bernard of Tuscany and of Lombardy, approved by Alexander VI (1497); the Congregation of Portugal, or of Alcobaca, founded in 1507; the Congregation of the Feuillants, founded by John de la Barriere in 1563, which spread into France and Italy, the monasteries of Italy, however, eventually detaching themselves from those of France to form the Congregation of the Riformati di San Bernardo; the Congregation of Aragon, approved by a Bull of Paul V (1616); the Congregation of Rome, or of Central Italy, created by a Decree of Gregory XV in 1623; the Congregation of Calabria and Lucania, established by Urban VIII in 1633, and to which was united the old Congregation of Flore, which had for its founder Blessed Joachim surnamed "the Prophet".該教會的慶祝聖伯納德西班牙,創辦的大教堂馬丁的巴爾加斯,在1425年,在附近的蒙錫永托萊多;聚集的聖伯納德的托斯卡納和倫巴第大區,批准了亞歷山大六世( 1497年) ;聖座葡萄牙,或阿爾科巴薩,成立於1507年;聖座的Feuillants ,成立由John德拉魯阿巴里耶爾在1563年,它蔓延到法國和意大利,意大利的寺院,但最終脫離自己免受這些法國形成教會的Riformati聖貝爾納多;聖座阿拉貢,批准了紅牛的保五( 1616年) ;的羅馬天主教,或中央意大利,創造了一項法令的格雷戈里在1623年十五;聖座的卡拉布里亞和盧卡尼亞設立城市第八於1633年,並是美國的舊教會的花神,它的創辦人有福約阿希姆姓“先知” 。

Together with the congregations which separated from Cîteaux there were five or six others which, while remaining subject to the jurisdiction of the parent house, were legislated for by provincial or national chapters.加上教會的分離Cîteaux有5個或6人,雖然剩下的管轄範圍內的父母家,是由法定的省級或國家分會。 Chief among these congregations were those of Northern Germany, the Strict Observance, and La Trappe.其中主要的教會是那些北方德國,嚴格遵守和香格里拉大黴。 The Congregation of Northern Germany was erected in 1595 by Nicholas II (Boucherat), Abbot of Cîteaux, at the desire of Pope Clement VIII, in the monastery of Furstenfeld.該教會的德國北部建於1595年由尼古拉二世( Boucherat ) ,住持Cîteaux ,在願望的教皇克萊門特八,在寺院Furstenfeld 。 It comprised four provinces ruled by the abbots, vicars of the general.它包括四個省份統治的abbots , vicars一般。 It counted twenty-two abbeys, only three of which survived the revolutionary tempest, and now form part of the Common Observance of Cîteaux, as the Cistercian province of Austria-Hungary.據統計2002年的修道院,只有三個,其中倖存的革命風暴,而現在的組成部分共同遵守Cîteaux ,作為修道院省的奧匈帝國。 The Congregation of Strict Observance, resulting from the efforts for reform of the Abbots of Charmoye and Châtillon, was established at Clairvaux by Denis Largentier, abbot of this monastery (1615).該會嚴格遵守,從而努力從改革的Abbots的Charmoye和沙蒂,成立由在伯爾納Largentier丹尼斯,住持本修道院( 1615 ) 。 The Abbot of Cîteaux, Nicholas Boucherat, approved the reform and permitted it to hold special assemblies and to choose a vicar-general with four assistant generals.該住持的Cîteaux ,尼古拉Boucherat ,批准了改革,並允許它舉行特別大會,並選擇一個副主教,一般有四個助理將軍。 The general chapter of Cîteaux in 1623 praised it highly, Cardinal Richelieu became its protector, and the popes gave it encouragement.一般的一章Cîteaux在1623年它高度讚揚,紅衣主教黎塞留成為它的保護者,以及教皇給予鼓勵。 In 1663 it received an important member in the person of Abbot de Rancé, who introduced the Strict Observance into the Abbey of La Trappe in the Diocese of Séez, adding to it other very severe practices.在1663年收到的一個重要成員的人的住持德河,誰介紹了嚴格遵守的修道院,在香格里拉大黴教區的Séez ,增加了它的其他非常嚴重的做法。

The abbeys which did not respond to the appeal of Martin de Vargas, of Denis Largentier, or of Abbot de Rancé, formed an observance which Pope Alexander VII, in his Bull of 19 April, 1666, named Common, to distinguish it from the Strict Observance, from which in reality it differed only in the use of meat and similar articles of food three times a week, a use certainly contrary to the rule of perpetual abstinence which obtained in the early days, but which the religious wars and other evils of the times in a measure rendered necessary. Mention should be made of two other reforms: that of Orval in Luxemburg, by Bernard de Montgaillard (1605), and that of Septfons, in the Diocese of Moulins, by Eustache de Beaufort, in 1663.該修道院沒有作出反應,呼籲馬丁的巴爾加斯, Largentier的丹尼斯,或住持德河,形成了一個遵守該教皇亞歷山大七,在他的車隊在1666年4月19號,共同命名,以區別於嚴格遵守,而實際上它只是在不同的使用肉類和類似條款的食物,每週3次,一個用肯定違反了規則,其中永久禁慾獲得初期,但其中的宗教戰爭和其他邪惡的時代在提供必要的措施。應該提到的兩個其他方面的改革:即在盧森堡Orval ,由貝爾納德Montgaillard ( 1605 ) ,而Septfons ,在教區穆蘭,由厄斯塔什的波弗,在1663年。 The former numbered six monasteries, the latter did not extend beyond Septfons.前6個編號的寺廟,後者沒有延伸到Septfons 。

The Strict Observance developed rapidly.嚴格遵守迅速發展。 In a very short time it counted fifty-eight monasteries.在很短的時間計算58寺廟。 At the death of Denis Largentier (1626), Etienne Maugier, who succeeded him, inspired it afresh.在死亡的丹尼斯Largentier ( 1626 ) ,艾蒂安Maugier ,誰接替他,重新激發它。 From that time it aimed at a certain superiority to which it believed it had some claims, and was resolved, in case of meeting with any opposition, to withdraw from the jurisdiction of the General of Cîteaux.從那時起,它旨在在一定優勢,它認為它有一些要求,並得到了解決,如會議與任何反對,退出的管轄權提出Cîteaux 。 Hence arose quarrels and litigations which lasted forty years or more.因此產生的爭執和訴訟歷時四十年或更長時間。 In 1632, at the request of the king (Louis XIII), Urban VIII continued the powers which Gregory XV had given ten years before to Cardinal De La Rochefoucauld for the reform of the monasteries of the kingdom. 1632年的請求,國王(路易十三) ,八城市持續的權力格雷戈里十五了十年前紅衣主教德拉薩福科的改革寺院的王國。 The cardinal heard only the Fathers of the Strict Observance, who persuaded him that no reform was possible without a return to the abstinence from meat.樞機只聽到父親的嚴格遵守,誰勸他,任何改革不可能回到禁慾肉。 He therefore passed a sentence in 1634 which derogated in many points from the ancient constitutions and the Charter of Charity, particularly in what concerned the jurisdiction of the Abbot of Cîteaux and of the four first fathers.因此,他通過了一句1634年,減損許多點從古代憲法和聯合國憲章的慈善機構,特別是在關注什麼管轄範圍內的住持Cîteaux和四個第一父親。 The College of St. Bernard at Paris passed into the hands of the Strict Observance.該學院的聖伯納德在巴黎通過,成為手中的嚴格遵守。 The Abbot of Cîteaux, Peter de Nivelle, appealed to the sovereign pontiff.該住持的Cîteaux ,彼得的Nivelle ,呼籲教皇的主權。 The latter annulled the sentence of the cardinal in every point in which it was contrary to legitimate authority.後者取消了一句基本在每一個點,它是違背合法權力。 In the meanwhile Peter de Nivelle having resigned, the non-reformed, in the hope of escaping from the authority of Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld, elected Cardinal de Richelieu Abbot of Cîteaux. The cardinal applied the reform in his monastery.同時彼得的Nivelle辭職了,非改革,希望擺脫權力的樞機主教德拉魯阿福科,當選樞機主教黎塞留住持Cîteaux 。樞機適用的改革在他的寺院。 Sustained by him, the reformed took possession of Cîteaux after having dispersed into other monasteries the professed religious of this monastery.持續的他說,改革了擁有Cîteaux後,分散到其他寺廟的宗教信奉這個寺院。 At the death of Richelieu the expelled monks assembled at Dijon, 2 January, 1643, and elected to his place Dom Claude Vaussin, but the king vetoed the election; they voted again, 10 May, 1645, and gave all their voted to Claude Vaussin, while the reformed, to the number of only fifteen, voted for Dom Jean Jouaud, Abbot of Prieres in Britanny.在死亡的留驅逐僧侶聚集在第戎, 1643年1月2號,並當選為他的位置大教堂克勞德Vaussin ,但國王否決了選舉,他們再次投票, 1645年5月一十〇日,讓所有的投票克勞德Vaussin ,而改革的數目只有15個,投票大教堂讓Jouaud ,艾博特的Prieres在布列塔尼。 On the 27th of November following, Innocent X sent his Bulls to Dom Claude Vaussin, and imposed silence on the reformed.在11月27號之後,無辜的X派他的公牛大教堂克勞德Vaussin ,並實行沉默的改革。 February 1st, 1647, a Brief of the same pope re-established all matters in the condition in which they had been before the sentence of Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld. 1647年二月一日,一個簡同教皇重新建立所有事項的條件,他們在已收到的一句樞機德拉魯阿福科。

The Strict Observance then tried to form an independent order under the authority of the Abbot of Prieres, and with this object in view raised new difficulties in relation to the question of abstinence.嚴格遵守然後試圖形成一個獨立的命令的權力之下的Prieres住持,並與這個對象,鑑於提出了新的困難與問題的禁慾。 A Brief of Alexander VII, dated November, 1657, confirming the decision of Sixtus IV, in 1475, that abstinence from flesh meat was not essential to the rule, did not quiet their scruples.簡亞歷山大七, 11月, 1657年,證實了決定西斯四,在1475年,即從肉體禁慾肉類沒有必要的規則,沒有安靜的顧忌。 Finally, 26 January, 1662, the same pope interfered in a decisive manner by inviting the two parties to appear at the Court of Rome.最後, 1662年1月26號,同教皇干涉果斷地邀請雙方出現在法院的羅馬。 The Common Observance sent Claude Vaussin; the Strict Observance, Dom George, Abbot of Val-Richer; La Trappe, Abbot de Rancé.共同遵守發送克勞德Vaussin ;嚴格遵守,喬治大教堂,艾博特的纈氨酸豐富;香格里拉大黴,艾博特的朗斯。 On the 19th of April, 1666, appeared the Bull "In Suprema", which put an end to the divisions.在1666年4月19日,出現了紅牛“在最高法院” ,其中制止分裂。 It recommended that the visits be regularly and strictly made, that monks should live in the monasteries, and that the general chapters should be held every three years.它建議應定期互訪,並嚴格了,這和尚應該住在寺廟,和一般章節應每三年舉行一次。 It restored the night silence, poverty in apparel, and monastic tonsure.它恢復了夜晚的沉默,貧窮的服裝,和寺院剃度。 It maintained the use of meat where that already obtained, and recommended the religious who had made the vow of abstinence to be faithful to it.它堅持使用的肉類而已經獲得,並建議在宗教方面取得了誰的禁慾誓言要忠實於它。 The Strict Observance remained under the jurisdiction of the Abbot of Cîteaux.嚴格遵守仍然管轄下的住持Cîteaux 。 This constitution was accepted by the general chapter of 1667, which was held at Cîteaux, in spite of protests from the opponents, and in particular of Abbot de Rance, and the new reform was put into force in all the monasteries of France, where the number of monks was sufficient.這是憲法所接受的一般章1667年,這是Cîteaux舉行,儘管抗議的對手,尤其是住持德河,新的改革付諸生效的所有寺廟,法國,那裡的一些僧侶就足夠了。

During the eighteenth century, however, there was introduced into the Order of Cîteaux, as into almost all the great religious families, a pernicious licence of thought and morality.在十八世紀,但是,引入的命令Cîteaux ,因為幾乎所有偉大的宗教家庭,一個惡毒的牌照的思想和道德。 New conflicts between the Abbot of Cîteaux and the abbots of the four first houses of filiation arose concerning the government of the order and their own jurisdiction.新的衝突之間的住持Cîteaux和abbots的四個第一家親子關係產生對政府的命令和自己的管轄範圍之內。 In virtue of the liberties of the Gallican Church, the king and his council appointed a commission to restore order.在憑藉自由的高盧聖教會,國王和他的議會任命了一個委員會,以恢復秩序。 A new collection of statutes was drawn up, but these were not definitively adopted until 1786.一種新的收集法規制定了,但這些並沒有最終通過,直到1786年。 The general chapter of that year finally agreed among themselves and adopted the new statutes on the eve of the French Revolution.一般的一章這一年終於同意在它們之間,並通過了新章程的前夕,法國大革命。 The political and religious disturbances which then and at the commencement of the nineteenth century troubled France and Europe almost ruined this venerable order.政治和宗教騷亂,然後和開始時的19世紀困擾法國和歐洲幾乎毀掉這個古老的秩序。 When the National Convention, by the decree of 13 February, 1790, secularized all the religious houses of France, the Order of Cîteaux had in France 228 monasteries, with 1875 religious; 61 of these houses, with 532 religious, were in the filiation of Cîteaux; 3, with 33 religious, in that of La Ferté; 33, with 171 religious, in that of Pontigny; 92, with 864 religious, in that of Clairvaux; and 37, with 251 religious, in that of Morimond.當全國代表大會通過的法令1790年2月13號,所有世俗的宗教房屋法國,令Cîteaux已在法國228個寺院,與1875年的宗教; 61這些房屋,與532名宗教,是在親子關係的Cîteaux ; 3 , 33宗教,在這中堡; 33歲,宗教自由與171 ,在這的Pontigny ; 92 ,與864的宗教,在這對伯爾納;和37個,與251名宗教,在這的Morimond 。 The sixty-second and last Abbot of Cîteaux, Dom François Trouvé, having lost all hope of saving his monastery, begged Pius VI to transfer all his powers to Robert Schlecht, Abbot of Salsmansweiler, of the Congregation of Northern Germany, so that the remnants of the ancient corporation of Cîteaux might still have a ruler.第六十二屆和去年住持Cîteaux ,大教堂弗朗索瓦Trouvé ,失去了所有希望,救了他的寺院,求庇護六轉移他的所有權力,以羅伯特鐮刀,艾博特的Salsmansweiler ,在教會的德國北部,使殘餘古老的Cîteaux公司仍可能有一個統治者。

From France the hatred of religion passed with the arms of the usurpers into Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, and other countries, and there continued the work of destruction.來自法國的宗教仇恨通過武器的篡權到比利時,瑞士,意大利和其他國家,並有繼續工作的破壞。 By an imperial veto of the 25th of February, 1803, and a decree of the Prussian Government of the 28th of April, 1810, all the monasteries of Germany were ruined.由一個帝國否決1803年2月25號,並且命令普魯士政府1810年四月28日,所有的寺廟,德國人破壞。 The abbeys of Portugal were abolished by a law of the 26th of May, 1834, those of Spain by the laws of the 25th of July and 11th of October, 1835, those of Poland disappeared before the decrees of the Russian and Prussian rulers.該修道院的葡萄牙被廢除的法律, 1834年5月26號,西班牙的法律, 7月25日和1835年十月11日,這些失踪的波蘭前的法令,俄羅斯和普魯士統治者。

IV.四。 THE RESTORATION (AFTER 1790)修復(僅次於1790年)

The reform inaugurated at La Trappe by Abbot de Rance, reviving the austerity and fervour of primitive Cîteaux, was maintained, almost intact, against difficulties of every kind, until the French Revolution.改革開始在La黴的住持德河,恢復緊縮和熱情的原始Cîteaux ,保持,幾乎完好無損,對困難的每一種,直到法國大革命。 There were then at La Trappe seventy religious and a numerous and fervent novitiate.然後有在La黴70宗教和眾多熱切見習。 When, on the 4th of December, a decree of the National Assembly suppressed the Trappists in France, Dom Augustin de Lestrange, then master of novices at La Trappe, authorized by his local superior and the Abbot of Clairvaux, set out with twenty-four of his brethren for Switzerland.當,在12月4日,一項法令,國民議會抑制Trappists在法國,奧古斯丁大教堂的萊斯特蘭奇,然後船長新手在La黴,他授權的地方優勢和艾博特的伯爾納,設置了24他的兄弟瑞士。 The Senate of Fribourg permitted them to settle in Val-Sainte, 1 June, 1791.美國參議院弗里堡允許他們定居在河谷聖, 1791年6月1號。 Pope Pius VI, by a Brief of 31 July, 1794, authorized the erection of Val-Sainte into an abbey.庇護六,由一個簡介1794年7月31號,授權安裝纈氨酸聖成修道院。 Dom Augustin was elected abbot on the 27th of the following November, and on the 8th of December of the same year, a solemn decree of the nuncio of the Holy See at Lucerne, executing the Brief of Pius VI, constituted Val-Sainte an abbey and the mother-house of the whole Congregation of Trappists.奧古斯丁大教堂被選為住持於27日下列11月和12月8日在同一年,莊嚴的法令大使羅馬教廷在盧塞恩,執行簡介皮烏斯六,構成纈氨酸的修道院聖和母親的內部整個教會的Trappists 。 There the Rule of St. Benedict was observed in all its rigour, and at times its severity was even surpassed.有規則的聖本篤觀察其所有嚴格的,有時其嚴重性甚至超過。 Novices flocked thither.對岸新手蜂擁而至。 From Val-Sainte Dom Augustin sent colonies into Spain, Belgium, and Piedmont.從河谷聖奧古斯丁大教堂殖民地發送到西班牙,比利時,和皮埃蒙特。

But the French troops invaded Switzerland in 1796.但法國軍隊入侵瑞士在1796年。 Obliged to leave Val-Sainte, Dom Augustin, with his religious of both sexes, commenced two years of wanderings through Europe, during which period they gave to the world the spectacle of the most heroic virtues.不得不離開纈氨酸聖,奧古斯丁大教堂,他的宗教的男女,開始兩年的流浪歐洲,在此期間,他們給世界奇觀的最英勇的美德。 In 1800 Dom Augustin returned to France, and two years later resumed possession of Val-Sainte.在奧古斯丁大教堂1800年返回法國,兩年後恢復佔有纈氨酸聖。 In 1803 he sent a colony of his religious to America under the direction of Dom Urbain Guillet. 1803年,他發出了一個集宗教,他對美國領導下的大教堂班約特。 In 1811, fleeing from the anger of Napoleon, who first favoured the Trappists and then suppressed all their monasteries in France and the whole empire, Dom Augustin himself left for America.在1811年,逃離憤怒的拿破崙,誰第一個贊成Trappists ,然後鎮壓所有的寺廟在法國和整個帝國,奧古斯丁大教堂自己離開美國。 In 1815, on the downfall of Napoleon, he returned immediately to La Trappe, while Dom Urbain Guillet established himself at Bellefontaine in the Diocese of Angers. 1815年,在拿破崙垮台,他立即返回到香格里拉大黴,而大教堂班約特確立了自己在貝爾方丹在昂熱教區。

During this imperial persecution, a schism took place in the Congregation of La Trappe.在這個帝國迫害,分裂發生在教會的香格里拉大黴。 The colony which Dom Augustin had sent from Val-Sainte into Belgium under the direction of Dom Eugene de Laprade, and which had settled first at Westmalle, and then at Darpheld in Westphalia, had abandoned the Rules of Val-Sainte to embrace those of de Rance.在殖民地奧古斯丁大教堂派出由纈氨酸聖到比利時的指導下大教堂尤金德拉普拉德,並解決了首先在Westmalle ,然後在Darpheld在威斯特伐利亞,已經放棄了規則的纈氨酸聖擁抱那些德朗斯。 It returned to France and occupied Port-du-Salut in the Diocese of Laval; Westmalle, restored in 1821, withdrew from the jurisdiction of Dom Augustin to form, five years later, the Congregation of Belgium.它返回法國,並佔領港口迪薩呂在拉瓦爾教區; Westmalle ,恢復於1821年,從管轄的大教堂奧古斯丁形式,五年以後,天主教的比利時。

Dom Augustin died 16 July, 1827, at Lyons.奧古斯丁大教堂死於1827年七月16日,在里昂。 A Decree dated 1 October, 1834, confirmed two days later by Gregory XVI, united the different houses of Trappists in France in one congregation known as the Congregation of Cistercian Monks of Our Lady of La Trappe.法令月1834年10月1號證實,兩天後,格里高利十六世,團結不同的房屋Trappists在法國聚集在一個被稱為教會的修道院僧侶聖母香格里拉大黴。 The General President of the Order of Cîteaux is its head and confirms its abbots.大會主席的命令Cîteaux是其頭部,並確認其abbots 。 The four first fathers are the Abbots of Melleray, Port-du-Salut, Bellefontaine, and Gard.這四個第一的父親是Abbots的Melleray ,港迪薩呂,貝爾方丹和加爾。 The Rule of St. Benedict and the Constitutions of Cîteaux or those of de Rancé, according to the custom of each monastery, are observed.法治的聖本篤和憲法Cîteaux或去朗斯,按照習俗,每個寺院,得到遵守。 But with this diversity of observance, the union did not last long.但是,這種多樣性的尊重,工會並沒有持續多長時間。 A pontifical Decree dated the 25 February, 1847, and granted at the request of the religious of each observance, divides the Trappist monasteries of France into two congregations: the Ancient Reform of Our Lady of La Trappe, which follows the Rules of de Rance, and the New Reform, which follows the Primitive Observance and is governed by the Charter of Charity. Already Westmalle in 1836 formed a distinct congregation known as the Congregation of Belgium.阿宗座月頒布的1847年2月25號,並授予的要求,每一個宗教慶祝活動,分為特拉普寺廟法國分為兩個教會:古代改革聖母香格里拉大黴,遵循規則的德河,和新的改革,遵循原始遵守和是由慈善憲章。 Westmalle已經在1836年成立了一個獨特的聚會被稱為比利時眾。 There were then three distinct congregations of the Trappists.然後有三個不同的教會的Trappists 。

It was reserved for a later generation to see the most complete reform effected by the fusion of all the congregations into one order in unity of government and observance.這是保留給後人看到的最完整的改革的影響融合的所有教會成一個以團結政府和遵守。 On the first of October, 1892, at the desire of Leo XIII, a plenary general chapter was held in Rome, under the presidency of Cardinal Mazzella, delegated by the Cardinal Protector Monaco della Valetta.關於第一個10月, 1892年,在願望利奧十三世,一般一次全體會議章在羅馬舉行的主持下樞機Mazzella ,委託的樞機保護摩納哥教堂瓦萊塔。 The assembly lasted twelve days; the fusion was adopted; Dom Sebastian Wyart, Abbot of Septfons, who had taken the most active part in all the negotiations to effect this union, was chosen "General of the Order of the Reformed Cistercians of Our Lady of La Trappe".集會持續了12天;融合獲得通過;大教堂塞巴斯蒂安Wyart ,艾博特的Septfons ,誰採取了最積極的參加了所有的談判做到這一點工會,被選為“一般的階的改革熙篤聖母香格里拉大黴。 “ Such was the name given to the order.這樣的名字是考慮到秩序。 A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars of 8 December, 1892, then a pontifical Brief of 23 March, 1893, confirmed and ratified the Acts of the chapter.一項法令的聖主教和正規的1892年12月8號,然後教皇簡介1893年3月23號,確認和批准了該法案的一章。 On the 13th of August, 1894, the sovereign pontiff approved the new constitutions and the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars promulgated them on the 25th of the same month.在1894年8月13日,教皇的主權批准了新憲法和天主教的主教和正規頒布了他們的第25次的同一個月。 In 1898, the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the order, the sons of St. Bernard again took possession of the ancient Abbey of Cîteaux. 1898年,在800週年的基礎秩序,兒子聖伯納德再次擁有古老的修道院, Cîteaux 。 Dom Sebastian Wyart was elected abbot, and thus was restored the chain of abbots of Cîteaux which had been broken for 107 years.大教堂塞巴斯蒂安Wyart被選為住持,從而恢復鏈abbots的Cîteaux已打破107年。 It was then decided to suppress in the title of the order the words "Our Lady of La Trappe", the Abbey of La Trappe yielding the first rank to Cîteaux.當時決定鎮壓的標題中的順序改為“聖母香格里拉大黴” ,修道院的香格里拉大黴高產的第一級,以Cîteaux 。 Finally, on the 30th of July, 1902, an Apostolic Constitution of Leo XIII solemnly confirmed the restoration of the order and gave to it the definite name of "Order of Reformed Cistercians, or the Strict Observance".最後,關於〇二年7月30日,一個使徒憲法利奧十三世莊嚴確認恢復秩序,並給它定名為“令歸正熙,或嚴格遵守” 。 Dom Sebastian Wyart died 18 August, 1904.大教堂塞巴斯蒂安Wyart死於1904年8月十八號。 The general chapter, postponed that year until October, chose for his successor the Most Rev.一般一章,這一年推遲到10月,選擇他的繼任最牧師 Dom Augustin Marre, Abbot of Igny, and titular Bishop of Constance. Marre奧古斯丁大教堂,艾博特的伊尼,並領銜的康斯坦茨主教。

CONDITION OF THE ORDER IN 1908條件下的命令於1908年

Several modern congregations must be mentioned which have been grafted on the old trunk of Cîteaux, and which, with some ancient monasteries that escaped the persecution of the close of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth, form the Common Observance.一些現代的教會必須提到已嫁接的老樹幹Cîteaux ,其中,有一些古老的寺院逃脫迫害結束和18世紀初的第十九屆,形成了共同遵守。 Their mode of life corresponds to that of the Cistercians of the seventeenth century, whose mitigation was approved by Alexander VII in 1666.他們的生活模式相對應的,在熙17世紀,其緩解批准了亞歷山大在1666年第七。 They are the Congregations of Italy, Belgium, Austria, and Switzerland, and the Congregation of Sénanque.他們是公理意大利,比利時,奧地利,瑞士,以及教會的Sénanque 。

1. 1 。 The Congregation of St. Bernard of Italy was formed in 1820 with the monasteries which remained of the Congregations of the Roman Province and of Lombardy, after Pius VII had been deprived of his States.該教會的聖伯納德意大利成立於1820年的寺院仍公理的羅馬省和倫巴第大區後,皮烏斯七被剝奪了他的國家。 The congregation adopted the constitutions of the ancient Congregation of Tuscany and Lombardy.集會通過的憲法古代教會的托斯卡納和倫巴第大區。

2. 2 。 The Congregation of Belgium, formed in 1836, at Bornheim in the Diocese of Mechlin, by the religious who were expelled in 1797 from Lieu-Saint-Bernard-sur-l'Escaut, observe constitutions based upon the Brief of Alexander VII and the Cistercian Ritual.聖座比利時,成立於1836年,在博恩海姆在教區Mechlin ,由宗教誰被驅逐在1797年從遼聖貝爾納河畔l'Escaut ,遵守憲法依據的簡亞歷山大第七和修道院儀式。 They were approved by the Holy See in 1846他們被批准了羅馬教廷於1846年

3. 3 。 The Cistercian Congregation of Austria and Hungary was formed in 1859 by the monasteries of Austria which had escaped from the Revolution and submitted to the President General of the Order of Cîteaux.教會的修道院的奧地利和匈牙利成立於1859年由奧地利的寺廟已經擺脫了革命,並提交給大會主席的命令Cîteaux 。

4. 4 。 The Congregation of Switzerland was formed in 1806 by the three monasteries of Hauterive, Saint-Urbain, and Wettingen, remnants of the Congregation of North Germany.聖座瑞士成立於1806年由三個寺廟的歐特里沃,聖班,並Wettingen ,殘餘聚集德國北部。 These monasteries having succumbed in 1841 and 1846, the Abbot of Wettingen, an exile in Switzerland, purchased, in 1854, the Benedictine monastery of Mehrerau on the Lake of Bregenz, to which the Holy See transferred all the privileges of Wettingen.這些寺廟有屈從於1841年和1846年,在住持的Wettingen ,流亡在瑞士,購買,於1854年,本篤修道院Mehrerau湖的布雷根茨,而羅馬教廷轉移的所有特權的Wettingen 。 To this monastery was joined that of Marienstatt in the Diocese of Cologne in Nassau.這個修道院的加入Marienstatt在科隆教區在拿騷。

5. 5 。 The Congregation of Sénanque, or the Mean Observance, owes its origin to the parish priest, Luke Barnouin, who, with some associates, in 1849, attempted the religious life in the solitude of Our Lady of Calvary in the Diocese of Avignon, leaving that retreat in 1854, to take up his abode in the monastery of Sénanque, which he had purchased.聖座的Sénanque ,或平均遵守,歸功於其原產地為教區神父,盧克Barnouin ,誰,有一些同夥,在1849年,企圖在宗教生活中的孤獨聖母在各各教區的阿維尼翁,離開務虛會於1854年,採取了居留權修道院Sénanque ,這是他購買的。 The new congregation, which, without returning to the primitive constitutions, did not adopt all the mitigations of later centuries, received the name of "Congregation of Cistercians of the Immaculate Conception". It was incorporated in the Order of Cîteaux in 1857, and in 1872 transferred its seat to the ancient monastery of Lérins.新的教會,這不返回原始的憲法,沒有採取一切減輕後期世紀以來,收到了名為“教會的熙篤聖母的概念。 ”有人納入秩序Cîteaux在1857年,在1872年轉入其所在地的古老寺院Lérins 。 The constitutions of this congregation were approved by Leo XIII, 12 March, 1892.憲法的這一眾經利奧十三世, 1892年3月12日。

When the pope, in 1892, undertook to unite in one order the three Congregations of La Trappe, His Holiness caused the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars to address a letter to the Cistercians of the Common Observance inviting them to join their brethren of the Reformed Observance of La Trappe.當教皇,於1892年,承諾在一個團結的三項為了公理香格里拉大黴,陛下造成教會的主教和正規寫信給在熙共同舉辦,邀請他們加入他們的兄弟紀念改革鑭黴。 But as the pope left them free, they preferred to retain their respective autonomies.但是,隨著教皇讓他們自由,他們希望保留各自的自主權。 Since that time the Order of Cîteaux is divided into two branches absolutely distinct; the Strict and the Common Observances.自那時以來,該命令的Cîteaux分為兩個完全不同的分支機構;嚴格和共同紀念活動。 To these may be added the small Congregation of Trappists of Casamari in Italy, which has only three monasteries with about 45 members.這些可能會增加小眾的Trappists的Casamari在意大利,其中只有三個寺廟約45名成員。

The Order of Reformed Cistercians has (1908) 71 monasteries of men with more than 4000 subjects.該命令的改革熙已( 1908年) 71個寺院的男子超過4000個科目。 In this number of houses are included the annexes which were founded in certain places to serve as refuges for the communities which had been expelled from France.在這一些房屋被列入附件是成立於某些地方作為避難所的社區已被驅逐出法國。 These monasteries are distributed as follows: in France, 20; in Belgium, 9; in Italy, 5; in Holland, 5; in Germany, 3; in England, 3; in Ireland, 2; in Asia, 4; in Africa, 2; in America, 10; (4 in United States, 5 in Canada, and 1 in Brazil).這些寺院分佈如下:在法國, 20 ;在比利時, 9 ;在意大利, 5 ;在荷蘭, 5 ;在德國, 3 ;在英格蘭, 3 ;在愛爾蘭, 2 ;在亞洲, 4 ;在非洲, 2 ,在美國, 10 ; ( 4在美國, 5日在加拿大,和1名在巴西) 。 The Reformed Cistercians make profession of the Primitive Observance of Cîteaux, with the exception of a few modifications imposed by the Holy See at the time of the fusion.改革使職業熙原始遵守Cîteaux ,除少數實行修改羅馬教廷在時間上的融合。 Their life is strictly cenobitical, that is to say, life in common in its most absolute form.他們的生活是嚴格cenobitical ,這就是說,在共同生活中最絕對的形式。 They observe perpetual silence, except in cases of necessity provided for by the rule, or when express permission is granted by the superior.他們觀察永久的沉默,但在危急情況下所規定的規則時,或明確許可,是給予的優越。 Their day is divided between the Divine Office, agricultural and kindred labours, and free intervals for reading and study.他們每天分之間的神聖的辦公室,農業和親屬的勞動,自由間隔的閱讀和研究。 The supreme authority of the order resides in the general chapter, which assembles every year at Cîteaux, from the 12th to the 17th of September, and is presided over by the abbot general.的最高權力機構的命令居住在一般章組裝每年Cîteaux ,從12日至9月17日,並主持了由住持一般。 When the general chapter is not in session, current and urgent matters are regulated by the abbot general aided by his "Council of Definitors".當一般章不開會,當前和緊急事項受住持一般資助他的“理事會Definitors ” 。

The abbot general, who is by right Abbot Cîteaux, resides in Rome (Via San Giovanni in Laterano, 95), with the procurator general and the five definitors of the order, of whom there are two for French-speaking countries, one for English-speaking, one for German, and one for Flemish.一般的住持,誰是正確的住持Cîteaux ,居住在羅馬(威盛聖喬萬尼大教堂, 95 ) ,與總檢察長和5個definitors的命令,其中有兩個為講法語的國家,一個英文講,一個是德語,和一個佛蘭芒語。 At the house of the abbot general are also the students whom the different houses of the order send to Rome to follow the course of studies at the Gregorian University.在房子的住持也一般學生不同的人住房的命令發送給羅馬的後續課程的研究在陽曆大學。 The Order of Reformed Cistercians has for its protector at Rome Cardinal Rampolla Del Tindaro.該命令的改革熙已為保護者在羅馬紅衣主教Rampolla德爾Tindaro 。

The four first houses, which replace the ancient Abbeys of La Ferté, Pontigny, Clairvaux, and Morimond, are La Grande Trappe in the Diocese of Séez, Melleray in the Diocese of Nantes, Westmalle in the Diocese of Mechlin, and Port-du-Salut in the Diocese of Laval.這四個第一的房屋,取代古老的修道院中堡, Pontigny ,伯爾納,並Morimond ,是拉格蘭德黴在教區Séez , Melleray在教區南特, Westmalle在教區Mechlin ,以及港迪在拯救教區的拉瓦爾。 The abbots of these four houses every year visit the mother-house at Cîteaux.該abbots這四個房子,每年訪問母親的房子Cîteaux 。 The other houses are visited regularly every year by the abbots of the houses on which they immediately depend.其他房屋被訪問了每年定期的abbots的房屋,它們立即有賴於此。

The actual condition of the Common Observance is as follows: The Congregation of Italy has five monasteries (two of them in Rome, at Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, and at San Bernardo alle Terme) and about 60 members.的實際情況共同遵守如下:意大利教會有五個寺廟(其中兩人在羅馬,在聖十字在Gerusalemme ,並在聖貝爾納多阿勒溫泉)和大約60個成員。 The Congregation of Belgium has two monasteries (Bornheim and Val-Dieu), with 63 members.聖座比利時有兩個寺廟(博恩海姆和Val -上帝) , 63成員。 The Congregation of Austria, the most powerful, has 12 monasteries, with 599 religious.聖座奧地利,最強大的,有12個寺院,宗教與599 。 The Congregation of Switzerland has three monasteries, with 171 members.聖座瑞士有三個寺院,與171個成員。 Lastly, the Congregation of Mean Observance of Sénanque, which, since the Waldeck-Rousseau Laws of 1901, has lost Sénanque, Fontfroide, and Pont-Colbert, now has but two houses, with about 102 members.最後,聖座平均遵守Sénanque ,其中,自瓦爾德克,盧梭規律的1901年,已經失去了Sénanque , Fontfroide ,和橋,科爾伯特,但現在有兩個家,大約有102名。 The Cistercians of the Common Observance in 1900 elected as their general Dom Amedeus de Bie, of the Congregation of Belgium.在熙共同遵守在1900年當選為一般大教堂Amedeus別德,教會的比利時。 He has for assistants the vicars-general of the five congregations.他的助理的vicars總的5個教區。

The Order of Cîteaux has produced a great number of saints and has given two popes to the Church, Eugene III, a disciple of St. Bernard, and Benedict XII.該命令的Cîteaux產生了大量的聖人,並給予兩個教皇的教會,尤金三,弟子的聖伯納德,並篤十二。 It has also given the Church forty cardinals, five of whom were taken from Cîteaux, and a considerable number of archbishops and bishops.它也使教會的樞機主教第四十五,其中5人是從Cîteaux ,並有相當數量的大主教和主教。 The Cistercians of all observances have no less enlightened the Church by their teachings and writings, than edified it by the sanctity of their lives.在熙的所有紀念活動沒有那麼開明的教會他們的教誨和著作,比edified它的神聖性,他們的生活。 Among great teachers may be cited St. Bernard, the Mellifluous Doctor and the last of the Fathers of the Church, St. Stephen Harding, author of the "Exordium Cisterciensis Coenobii", of the "Charter of Charity", etc. Then follow Conrad of Eberbach (Exordium Magnum Ordinis Cisterciensis); Ælred, Abbot of Rieval (Sermons); Serlon, Abbot of Savigny (Sermons); Thomas of Cîteaux (Commentary on the Canticle of Canticles); Caramuel, the Universal Doctor, author of a Moral Theology very much esteemed, whom St. Alphonsus Liguori calls "the prince of Laxists"; Caesarius of Heisterbach (Homilies, "Dialogus Miraculorum", etc.); Manrique (Cistercian Annals in vols. folio); Henriques (Menologium Cisterciense); Charles de Visch (Bibliotheca Scriptorum Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis); the Abbot de Rance ("De la sainteté et des devoirs de la vie monastique", "Eclaircissements sur le même traité", "Méditations sur la règle de Saint-Benoît", etc.); Dom Julien Paris ("Nomasticon Cisterciense" in fol., Paris, 1664), Dom Pierre le Nain, sub-prior of La Trappe ("Vie de l'Abbé de La Trappe", "Essai de l'histoire de Cîteaux", 9 vols., Paris, 1690-97); Sartorius ("Cistercium bis-tertium", Prague, 1700, and others. In the nineteenth century it suffices to mention among a great many writers belonging to both Observances: Dr. Leopold Janauscheck (Originum Cisterciensium tom. I, Vienna, 1877 -- the author died before he was able to commence the second volume), Dom Hugues Séjalon, monk of Aiguebelle (Annales d'Aiguebelle, 2 vols. and a new edition of the "Nomasticon Cisterciense" of Dom Paris, Solesmes, 1892).在偉大的教師可引聖伯納德的Mellifluous醫生和最後的父親教會,聖士提反哈丁,作者在“緒論Cisterciensis Coenobii ” ,在“聯合國憲章慈善”等等,然後按照康拉德的Eberbach (緒論馬格南Ordinis Cisterciensis ) ; Ælred ,艾博特的Rieval (布道) ; Serlon ,艾博特的薩維尼(布道) ;托馬斯Cîteaux (評述頌歌的Canticles ) ; Caramuel ,世界醫生,作者的道德神學非常尊敬,其中阿方聖利顧理所謂的“王子Laxists ” ; Caesarius的Heisterbach (講道詞“ , Dialogus Miraculorum ”等) ;曼里克(修道院紀事在第一卷和第二卷。開本) ;里克斯( Menologium Cisterciense ) ;戴高樂Visch (書目Scriptorum Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis ) ;的住持德河( “德拉魯阿sainteté等沙漠devoirs德拉魯阿爭奪monastique ” “ Eclaircissements河畔樂即使traité ” , “沉思règle拉河畔聖伯努瓦”等) ;巴黎朱利安大教堂( “ Nomasticon Cisterciense ”在奧德耶克。 ,巴黎, 1664年) ,皮埃爾大教堂樂祝,分前的香格里拉大黴( “人生法國神甫德拉薩黴” , “ Essai法國Cîteaux史” ,第9卷。 ,巴黎, 1690年至1697年) ;賽多利斯( “ Cistercium二第三者” ,布拉格, 1700年,和其他人。在19世紀它足以提到的許多作家都屬於紀念活動:博士利奧波德Janauscheck ( Originum Cisterciensium湯姆。我,維也納, 1877年-作者去世前,他能夠開始第二卷) ,雨果S éjalon大教堂,僧侶的艾格貝勒(艾格貝勒紀事2第一卷和第二卷。一個新版本的“ N omasticonC isterciense “的大教堂,巴黎索雷姆, 1892 ) 。

CISTERCIANS IN AMERICA在美國熙

The establishment of the Cistercians in America is due to the initiative of Dom Augustin de Lestrange.建立了熙在美國是由於倡議奧古斯丁大教堂的萊斯特蘭奇。 He was born in 1754, in the castle of Colombier-le-Vieux, Ardèche, France, the son of Louis-César de Lestrange, an officer of the household of Louis XV, and of Jeanne-Pierrette de Lalor, daughter of an Irish gentleman who had followed in 1688 James II in his exile.他出生於1754年,在城堡科隆比耶樂,老,阿爾代什,法國的兒子,路易斯塞薩爾的萊斯特蘭奇,一個軍官家庭的路易十五,並吉妮- Pierrette德Lalor的女兒,一家愛爾蘭紳士誰曾在1688年之後詹姆斯二世在他的流亡生活。 Dom Augustin was master of novices at La Trappe when the Revolution burst forth, and upon the suppression of the religious orders he sought refuge at Val-Sainte in Switzerland, with twenty-four of his brethren.奧古斯丁大教堂是新手船長在La黴時,革命迸發,並呼籲制止宗教命令他尋求庇護纈氨酸聖在瑞士,與2004年他的兄弟。 Driven from Val-Sainte by the French troops, these religious wandered over the whole of Europe, going even into Russia.趕出纈氨酸聖的法國軍隊,這些宗教徘徊在整個歐洲,甚至去到俄羅斯。 (See above under III. The Decline.) (見上述三。下降。 )

Dom Augustin at length resolved to send a colony of Cistercian Trappists to America, where he saw much good to be done.奧古斯丁大教堂終於解決派遣一個殖民地的修道院Trappists到美國,在那裡他看到很多很好的工作要做。 Already in 1793, seeing novices flocking to Val-Sainte, he had directed to Canada a part of his religious under the guidance of Father John Baptist.早在1793年,看到新手湧向纈氨酸聖,他向加拿大的一部分,他的宗教的指導下,父親約翰浸禮會。 But at Amsterdam this colony found itself prevented by political troubles from departing, and divided into two bands, one of which settled at Westmalle in Belgium, while the other went to England and established itself at Lulworth in Dorsetshire, in the very place where formerly there had existed a Cistercian abbey which was destroyed by Henry VIII.但是,在阿姆斯特丹這個殖民地發現自己無法通過政治麻煩離開,並分為兩個頻段,其中一個解決Westmalle在比利時,而其他前往英格蘭和確立了自己在拉爾沃思在Dorsetshire ,在非常的地點以前有已存在一個修道院教堂被摧毀的亨利八世。 Dom Augustin, however, had not given up the idea of an American foundation.奧古斯丁大教堂,但沒有放棄的想法,美國的基礎。 In 1802 he charged Dom Urbain Guillet to carry out his intentions in this regard.在1802年,他被控大教堂班約特進行他的意圖在這方面。 Dom Urbain, born at Nantes, in 1766, the son of Ambroise Augustin Guillet, Knight of Malta, and of Marie-Anne Le Quellec, entered La Trappe in 1785, and was the last to pronounce his vows in that monastery when the Revolution burst forth.大教堂班,出生在南特,在1766年的兒子,昂布魯瓦奧古斯丁約特,馬耳他騎士和瑪麗安妮樂Quellec ,進入香格里拉大黴在1785年,是最後宣判他的誓言在這修道院時,革命爆發等等。 He assembled 24 religious, lay brothers, and members of the third order (an institution of Dom Augustin de Lestrange), and sailed from Amsterdam, 24 May, 1802, on board of the Sally, a Dutch vessel flying the American flag to avoid the risks of war -- for Holland was at the time an ally of France, and a conflict was imminent between that country and England. 24日,他組裝宗教,奠定兄弟,和成員的三階(一個機構奧古斯丁大教堂的萊斯特蘭奇) ,以及從阿姆斯特丹航行, 1802年5月24日,船上的莎莉,荷蘭懸掛美國國旗,以避免危險的戰爭-荷蘭當時的盟友法國和衝突之間即將該國和英格蘭。

The Sally entered the port of Baltimore, on the 25th of September, after a voyage of four months, having been hindered by contrary winds, and having gone out of her course to avoid English cruisers.在薩莉進入港口的巴爾的摩金鶯,在9月25日,航程後四個月,已經阻礙了相反的風,走出了她的課程,以避免英國巡洋艦。 Dom Urbain and his companions were received at St. Mary's Seminary, which was under the direction of the Sulpicians, to whose superior, the venerable M. Nagot, then eighty-five years of age, the Cistercian immigrants had letters.大教堂班和他的同伴收到了聖瑪麗學院,這是領導下的Sulpicians ,以優異的,受人尊敬的先生納戈,然後八五年的年齡,修道院移民的信件。 At that time St. Mary's College possessed several eminent professors, and among these was M. Flaget, who later became Bishop of Bardstown, and then of Louisville, and who, in 1848, was to receive in Kentucky the religious who left Melleray to found Gethsemane. About fifty miles from Baltimore, between the little towns of Hanover and Heberston was a plantation known as Pigeon Hill, which belonged to a friend of the Sulpicians.當時聖瑪麗學院擁有一些著名的教授,這些是先生Flaget ,誰後來成為主教Bardstown ,然後路易斯維爾,誰在1848年,是接收在肯塔基州的宗教誰留下來發現Melleray客西馬尼。約五十英里從巴爾的摩之間,小城鎮的漢諾威和Heberston是一個種植園被稱為鴿子山,屬於給朋友的Sulpicians 。 Being absent for some years, he left them the power of disposing of it as they should deem proper.缺席一些年來,他堅持讓他們有權處置它作為他們應該認為恰當的。 This large and beautiful residence was well provided with provisions by the goodness of the Sulpicians.這個大而美麗的居住提供了良好的規定,善良的Sulpicians 。 In the woods near by were found all kinds of wild fruits.在附近的樹林裡被發現的各種野果。 The Trappists installed themselves at Pigeon Hill.該Trappists安裝在自己的鴿子山。 M. de Morainvilliers, a French emigrant, a native of Amiens and pastor of St. Patrick's church, Baltimore, used his influence with his parishioners to procure for the newly-arrived community the aid necessary for their establishment.德波薩達Morainvilliers ,法國移民,土生土長的亞眠和牧師的聖帕特里克教堂,巴爾的摩,利用他的影響力與他教民採購的新來港社區援助必要的場所。 But everything was dear in the country, and the money which Father Urbain had destined for the purchase of land did not even suffice for the support of his community.但是,親愛的一切都在該國,錢父班有目的地為購買土地甚至沒有足夠的支持他的社區。 Eighteen months had already passed since the arrival of the colony at Pigeon Hill, and the true foundation had not yet been begun. Dom Urbain had not accepted any of the land which had been offered to him. Moreover, the proximity of Baltimore was a frequent source of desertions among the young people of the third order. 18個月已經過去了的到來殖民地在鴿子山,和真正基礎尚未開始。大教堂班沒有接受任何的土地已經提供給他。此外,附近的巴爾的摩是一個頻繁來源開小差之間的年輕人的第三秩序。

About the beginning of 1805 Dom Urbain heard Kentucky spoken of.關於1805年開始大教堂聽到班講的肯塔基州。 Its climate was represented to him as more temperate, and its soil more fertile.其氣候派給他更多的溫帶,其土壤更肥沃。 He left immediately to visit that country, and found there a devoted friend in the only Catholic priest then resident, Father Stephen Badin.他離開立即訪問該國,並發現有一個專門的朋友唯一的天主教神父然後駐地,父親斯蒂芬巴丁。 Father Badin took upon himself the obligation of finding for the Trappists a suitable establishment. Having left Pigeon Hill in July, 1805, Father Urbain and his companions arrived at Louisville in the beginning of September.巴丁了父親對自己的義務,為尋找一個合適的Trappists成立。審議希爾離開鴿在7月, 1805年,父親班和他的同伴來到路易斯維爾在9月初。 The inhabitants received them with great kindness and provided for their first wants.居民收到他們懷著極大的善意和為他們提供了第一要求。 They occupied for the time being a plantation which a pious woman offered them, at some distance from Louisville, and this gave them time to acquire, about sixty miles south of Louisville, in the neighbourhood of Rohan's Knob, a property called Casey Creek, or Potinger's Creek.他們佔領的時間是一個種植園的一個虔誠的婦女提供給他們,在一定距離路易斯維爾,這給他們時間來獲取,大約60以南的路易斯維爾,附近的羅漢的旋鈕,一個所謂的財產凱西溪,或Potinger溪。

In the meantime a new band had been sent out by Dom Augustin Lestrange, under the conduct of Father Mary Joseph, a native of Chapell-les-Rennes, in Jura (b. 22 April, 1774), who had been a grenadier in the French army.與此同時一個新的樂隊已發出萊斯特蘭奇奧古斯丁大教堂下,進行瑪麗的父親約瑟夫是一個土生土長的查萊雷恩,在汝拉(灣1774年4月22日) ,誰一直在吻法國軍隊。 One day he had been ordered to shoot a priest, but had refused to obey; he left the army and became a religious at Val-Sainte.有一天,他已下令射擊一名神父,但拒絕服從,他離開軍隊,成為一個宗教在河谷聖。 His community was at that time composed of seven priests, seventeen lay brothers, and twenty-one young people of the third order.他的社區當時組成的7個牧師, 17奠定兄弟,和2001年年輕人的第三秩序。

In the beginning of 1809 sixty acres of land had already been cleared at Casey Creek, a quantity of grain sowed, and a great number of trees planted.在1809年開始六〇英畝土地已被清除凱西溪,大量的糧食種子,並大量植樹。 Permanent settlement was about to be made here when a fire destroyed in a few hours all the buildings of the new monastery.永久解決即將在這裡發生火災摧毀了幾個小時的所有建築物的新的寺院。 Dom Urbain was deeply affected by the misfortune, and thought only of going elsewhere.大教堂班是深受不幸,並認為只有去其他地方。 An Irish gentleman by the name of Mulamphy whom he had met in Baltimore, offered him the ownership of a habitation in Louisiana.愛爾蘭紳士的名字叫Mulamphy他會見了在巴爾的摩,給他擁有一間居住在路易斯安那州。 Dom Urbain and Father Mary Joseph left together to visit this property.大教堂班瑪麗和父親一起離開約瑟夫訪問此屬性。 It pleased them, and they decided to leave Kentucky and Casey Creek.它高興他們,他們決定離開肯塔基州和凱西溪。

In the "Sketches of the Early Catholic Missions of Kentucky, 1787-1826" can be read the unexceptionable testimony which Bishop Spalding renders of the fervour of the religious during the whole time they spent in Kentucky.在“素描早期天主教代表團的肯塔基州, 1787年至1826年”可閱讀無懈可擊的證詞使主教斯伯丁的狂熱的宗教在整個花費的時間,他們在肯塔基州。 Faithful to the rule of penance, they retrenched nothing from the austere practices of their holy state.忠實於法治的懺悔,他們裁減沒有從簡樸的做法,他們的聖地狀態。 The Rev. Father Charles Nerinckx, in a letter to Bishop Carroll, is not sparing in his praises of the Trappists, though he blames certain details of administration which were the cause of their failure at Casey Creek.牧師父親查爾斯Nerinckx ,在信主教卡羅爾,是不是保留在他的讚揚的Trappists ,但他指責某些細節的管理這是導致其失敗的凱西溪。 In the spring of 1809 the community left for Louisiana and took up their abode at Florissant, the property of Mr. Mulamphy, some thirty miles west of St. Louis, on a hill which slopes towards the Missouri.在1809年春天,社會離開路易斯安那州和討論了他們的居留權在Florissant ,財產Mulamphy先生,一些三〇英里西部聖路易斯,山坡上的這對斜坡密蘇里州。 But Father Urbain contemplated the purchase of another property on the other side of the Mississippi, which was offered to him by M. Jarrot, former procurator of the seminary of St. Sulpice at Baltimore, who had established himself at Cahokia, six miles from St. Louis.但是,父親班設想購買另一財產的另一邊的密西西比河,這是他由M. Jarrot ,前檢察修道院的聖畢在巴爾的摩,誰建立了自己在Cahokia , 6英里由St 。路易。 In the first month of 1810 Dom Urbain bought on the prairie of "Looking Glass" the two highest of the forty mounds which formed the burial-ground of the Indians in the vicinity of Cahokia, known by the name of Indiana Mound.在第一個月的1810年大教堂班購買大草原的“展望玻璃”最高的兩個第四十五形成土堆掩埋地面印第安人附近的Cahokia ,眾所周知的名字叫印第安納塚。

"Looking Glass" was an immense tract of land in St. Clair County, Illinois, which, it is said, had served the savages for many generations as a burial-place for their dead. “展望玻璃”是一個巨大的道的土地,聖克萊爾縣,這是說,曾擔任的野蠻人的幾代人的埋葬地為他們死了。 These people had built there gigantic monuments which rose up from a base of 160 feet in circumference to a height of more than 100 feet.這些人建造了紀念碑有巨大的上升從一個基地160英尺,腰圍,以高度超過100英尺。 The Trappists constructed several cabins on the smaller of the two mounds purchased by Dom Urbain, reserving the higher mound for the abbey which they intended to build later. Trappists建造的幾個小木屋較小的兩個土堆購買的大教堂班,同時保留較高的投手修道院,他們打算建立以後。 But the new settlers soon felt the influence of the unhealthy climate.但是,新的定居者很快感覺到的影響,不健康的氣氛。 Several savage tribes who had attempted in the past to take up their abode there had been obliged to abandon the undertaking.一些野蠻部落誰曾試圖在過去採取了居留權出現了不得不放棄的承諾。 One of the religious escaped the fever, but only one of them died.一個宗教逃脫了高燒,但只有其中一人死亡。 However, Monks' Mound, as it was afterwards named, presented great advantages.然而,僧人'塚,因為它是後來命名,提出了巨大的優勢。 The city of St. Louis was only six or seven miles distant, all around were vast prairies or abundance of wood, and the waters of the Mississippi were so full of fish that, to use the expression of Father Urbain, "a blind man could not help but spear a big fish, if he tried".城市聖路易斯只有6或7英里的距離,周圍有廣闊草原,或大量的木材和水域的密西西比州是如此充分的魚類,使用的表達父親班, “一個瞎子可不能不矛一條大魚,如果他想。 “ The lands were easy to cultivate and very fertile.土地很容易培養和十分肥沃。 The savages who made frequent incursions into the neighbourhood never molested the monks.誰的野蠻人頻繁侵入鄰近從來沒有猥褻的僧侶。 Dom Urbain had his rights of property confirmed by Congress at Washington in March, 1810. He wished also to acquire 4000 acres of land in the neighbourhood of Monks' Mound.大教堂班,他的財產權利由國會證實在華盛頓3月, 1810年。他還希望獲得4000英畝土地附近的僧人'塚。 The president and a certain number of members of Congress were favourable to him, but the hostility of several influential members, who feared to see this country peopled under the influence and direction of religious and Catholic priests, caused his petition to go over to the next session.布什總統和一些國會議員有利於他,但敵對的幾個有影響力的成員,誰害怕看到這個國家,這裡的影響下和方向的宗教和天主教神父,造成他的請求去下會議。 While waiting, Dom Urbain, struck by the sad condition of religion in the vicinity of St. Louis and in Illinois sent two of his religious to preach the Gospel there -- Father Mary Joseph and Father Bernard, the latter a Canadian priest who he had brought with him from New York to Casey Creek.在等待,大教堂班,深刻的悲哀條件的宗教附近的聖路易斯和在伊利諾伊州派出他的兩個宗教宣揚福音那裡-父親約瑟夫和瑪麗父親伯納德,後者是加拿大牧師,他誰帶著從紐約到凱西溪。 These settled in a parish which was the most renowned for its scandals.這些定居在教區這是最聞名的醜聞。 "There", says Gaillardin ("Histoire de la Trappe", II. 285), "a husband had just sold his wife for a bottle of whisky; the purchaser in his turn sold her for a horse; and finally she was sold a third time for a yoke of oxen." “有” ,說Gaillardin ( “史黴” ,二。 285 ) , “丈夫剛剛賣掉了他的妻子瓶威士忌;買方在輪到他賣給她的馬,最後她被出售第三次的枷鎖牛。 “ But so zealously did these missionaries labour there by word and example that in a short time religion flourished.但是,沒有這些熱心的傳教士勞工有通過文字和例子,在很短的時間宗教蓬勃發展。 Father Bernard, already advanced in age, after some time succumbed to fatigue.父親伯納德,已先進的年齡,過一段時間後,屈從於疲勞。 To aid Father Mary Joseph, Dom Urbain took upon himself the care of the Christian people who were nearest to the monastery.為了幫助父親瑪麗約瑟夫大教堂了班後照顧自己的基督教的人誰是最接近的修道院。

In 1812 a terrible plague visited the colony of the Monks' Mound.在1812年一場可怕的瘟疫參觀了殖民地的和尚'塚。 This fever, which desolated the country for two years, attacked the community and rendered it impossible for them to do any work.這發燒,這荒蕪該國兩年來,攻擊社會,使他們無法做任何工作。 At the same time all necessaries were dear, and there was no money.在同一時間所有必需品了親愛的,沒有錢。 Dom Urbain resolved to leave Monk's Mound.大教堂班決心離開和尚的土墩。 He sold all he possessed and transferred his community to Maryland.他賣掉了所有他擁有和轉讓其社會馬里蘭州。 There he found on his arrival six other religious under the direction of Father Vincent de Paul, who had been sent from Bordeaux to America by Dom Augustin de Lestrange, and, having landed in Boston the 6 August, 1811, with two religious, had been joined in the following year by three lay brothers.在那裡,他發現在他到達6其他宗教的指導下文森特的父親保羅,誰被派往來自Bordeaux美國的奧古斯丁大教堂的萊斯特蘭奇,並因降落在波士頓的1811年8月6號,有兩個宗教,已加入次年3奠定兄弟。 (Father Vincent de Paul was a native of Lyons, born in 1769.) Dom Urbain found the little band in the greatest misery. (文森特的父親保羅是一個土生土長的里昂,出生於1769年。 )大教堂班發現的小樂隊中最大的痛苦。 While waiting for better conditions, he settled them upon a little farm between Baltimore and Philadelphia, and conducted his own subjects to an island near Pittsburgh.在等待更好的條件,他呼籲他們解決一些農場之間的巴爾的摩和費城,並進行自己的主題,以一個島嶼匹茲堡附近。

In the meanwhile Dom Augustin de Lestrange, pursued by the anger of Napoleon, who had even set a price upon his head, arrived in New York in December, 1813. The Jesuits had just given up their foundation in that city, and Dom Augustin took over the building they had used as a classical school and which was located where St. Patrick's Cathedral now stands in Fifth Avenue.與此同時奧古斯丁大教堂的萊斯特蘭奇,追求的憤怒的拿破崙,甚至誰的價格定在他的頭部,抵達紐約12月, 1813 。耶穌剛剛放棄其基礎在這個城市,並在奧古斯丁大教堂在建設他們作為古典學校,並設在聖派翠克大教堂現在在第五大道。 Here, with Fathers Urbain and Vincent de Paul, he began a little community which resumed the regular life and exerted on outsiders a salutary influence.在這裡,與父親班和聖文森特德保羅,他開始了一個小社會,恢復正常生活和外界施加有益的影響。 They cared for a number of children, most of them orphans; Protestants were edified, and some conversions were made among them.他們照顧的兒童人數,其中大部分是孤兒;的新教徒被edified ,一些轉換了其中之一。 The effort to establish a community was abandoned, however, after two years' experience.努力建立一個社會遺棄,然而,經過兩年的經驗。 Father Urbain made another attempt to found a colony upon a farm which was offered to him by M. Quesnet, Vicar-General of Philadelphia.父親班取得的又一嘗試,以找到一個殖民地時的一個農場,提供給他的先生Quesnet ,牧師的費城。

MONASTERY OF PETIT-CLAIRVAUX修道院的小克萊爾沃

In 1814 Dom Augustin, after the abdication of Napoleon, resolved to return to France to re-establish there the Order of Cîteaux.在1814年奧古斯丁大教堂後,拿破崙退位,決心回到法國,重新建立有秩序的Cîteaux 。 He authorized Father Mary Joseph to remain in America, to continue the evangelization of the savages.他授權的父親約瑟夫瑪麗留在美國,繼續福傳的野蠻人。 Two groups left in October, the one under the conduct of Dom Augustin, the other under that of Father Urbain.兩組留在10月,一個下進行的奧古斯丁大教堂,其他根據該班的父親。 A third group set sail later from New York for Halifax, under the guidance of Father Vincent de Paul (May, 1815).第三組開船後從紐約的哈利法克斯的指導下,文森特的父親保羅( 5月, 1815年) 。 Here he was obliged to wait fifteen days for the vessel which was to take him back to his native land, but the vessel sailed while Father Vincent de Paul was engaged upon some business in town.在這裡他不得不等待15天的船隻,是他回到自己的鄉土,但船隻航行,而父親聖文森特德保羅是從事商業的一些城鎮。 He found himself without friends, without money, and in a country of which he knew nothing.他發現自己沒有朋友,沒有錢,在一個國家,他一無所知。 But Father Vincent de Paul found there a vast field for the exercise of his zeal.但是,父親聖文森特德保羅發現有一個巨大的領域,行使他的熱情。 He undertook to preach to the savages and, at the request of Monseigneur Lartigue, Bishop of Montreal, to found a monastery in Nova Scotia.他承諾鼓吹的野蠻人和要求,在大人拉蒂格,主教蒙特利爾,以找到一個修道院新斯科舍省。 He laboured eight years for the conversion of the infidels, and then, to carry out the latter project, he left for Bellefontaine in France (1823) and, the same year, returned to America, bringing with him four religious, with whom he founded, in 1825, the monastery of Petit Clairvaux, in Big Tracadie, Nova Scotia.他辛勤八年轉換的異教徒,然後,進行項目後,他離開貝爾方丹在法國( 1823年) ,並同一年,返回美國,帶著四個宗教,同他創立在1825年,修道院的小伯爾納,在大Tracadie ,新斯科舍省。 Father Vincent de Paul lived twenty-eight years longer, spreading the blessings of the Gospel in that country.文森特的父親保羅生活二十八年更長,傳播祝福的福音在該國。 He died 1 January, 1853, in the odour of sanctity, and there is a question of introducing his cause at Rome.他死於1853年1月1號,在神聖氣味,並有一個問題,介紹了他的事業在羅馬。

For many years this foundation struggled for existence.多年來此基礎上掙扎生存。 Two fires in succession destroyed all.兩個繼承火災摧毀了所有。 Discouraged thereby, the little community, in 1900, left that country and settled near Lonsdale, Rhode Island, where it founded the monastery of Our Lady of the Valley.勸阻從而,小社會,於1900年,離開該國定居不久的辛達,羅得島,在那裡成立了修道院聖母山谷。 Since 1903 the Nova Scotian solitude of Petit Clairvaux has been repeopled. 1903年以來的新斯科舍孤獨的小伯爾納已repeopled 。 Thirty religious from the Abbey of Thymadeuc (France), under the direction of Dom Eugene Villeneuve, continued the interrupted work, clearing 1000 acres of land, two-thirds of which are forest-lands, two thirds of the remainder either pasture or meadow-lands; only about 15 acres are capable of being worked. 30宗教從修道院Thymadeuc (法國)的領導下,大教堂尤金維倫紐夫繼續中斷的工作,清理一千英畝的土地,其中三分之二是森林,土地,三分之二的其餘要么或草甸草原,土地只有15畝能夠奏效。 The monastery is situated one mile from the Intercolonial Railway.修道院位於一英里從Intercolonial鐵路。 Although the Cistercian Rule was in vigour there it was only incorporated in the Order of Reformed Cistercians in 1869.雖然修道院規則是有活力,只有納入秩序的改革熙於1869年。

Gethsemane and New Melleray客西馬尼和新Melleray

The year 1848 saw the erection of two other monasteries in the New World, one in Nelson County in the Diocese of Louisville, Kentucky, not far from the scene of the labours and hardships of Fathers Urbain and Mary Joseph and their companions, the other in the Diocese of Dubuque, Iowa, twelve miles west of the Mississippi River. 1848年這一年看到豎立其他兩個寺院中的新世界,一個在納爾遜縣教區肯塔基州路易斯維爾,而不是遠離現場的勞動和艱辛的父親班和瑪麗約瑟夫和他們的同伴,其他的教區迪比克,愛荷華州,十二英里西部的密西西比河。 The monasteries are the present Abbeys of Our Lady of Gethsemane and Our Lady of New Melleray.該寺廟是本修道院聖母客西馬尼和聖母新Melleray 。

The Abbey of Gethsemane, in the Diocese of Louisville, was founded by the Abbey of Melleray in France.該修道院的客西馬尼,在教區路易斯維爾,是由修道院Melleray在法國。 In 1848 Dom Maxime, abbot of that monastery, sent two of his religious to the United States to find a suitable location for a foundation. Bishop Flaget of Louisville -- the saint of Kentucky, as he was called -- indicated to them an establishment called Gethsemane, belonging to the Sisters of Loretto who were directing an orphanage. 1848年馬克西姆大教堂,住持的修道院,被他的兩個宗教美國找到一個合適的位置奠定了基礎。主教Flaget路易斯維爾-聖肯塔基州,因為他被稱為-向他們建立所謂的客西馬尼,屬於洛雷托修女會是誰導演了一個孤兒院。 The property, consisting of about 1400 acres of good land, was purchased, and on the 20th of December, 1848, forty religious from Melleray took possession of it.財產,其中包括約1400英畝的好土地,購買,並在1848年12月二十○日,第四十三宗教從Melleray佔有了它。 On the 21st of July, 1850, Pius IX erected Gethsemane into an abbey.在1850年7月21日,碧岳九豎立客西馬尼到修道院。 Dom Eutropius was chosen abbot in March, 1851, and on the 26th of the following October he received abbatial blessing from the hands of Mgr.大教堂Eutropius被選為住持3月, 1851年,並於26日下列10月,他收到來自abbatial祝福手中的主教。 Spalding, successor of Mgr.斯伯丁,繼任主教。 Flaget in the Diocese of Louisville.在Flaget教區的路易斯維爾。 The ten or twelve log houses which had served as dwellings for the Sisters of Loretto and their orphans had become entirely inadequate for the needs of the Fathers, and Dom Eutropius decided to build a monastery.這10個或12個記錄的房子曾擔任住房的洛雷托修女和孤兒已成為完全不夠的需要父親,以及大教堂Eutropius決定建立一個修道院。 After eleven years of hard and incessant labour, which had considerably impaired his health, the zealous superior resigned his charge and returned to Melleray.經過11年的辛勤勞動和不斷的,這大大損害他的健康,熱心上級辭職費和返回Melleray 。 From this place of retirement he was called to become the first superior of Tre Fontane near Rome.從這個地方退休,他被稱為成為第一個優越的知教堂羅馬附近。

His successor at Gethsemane was Dom Benedict Berger, under whose rule the beautiful abbatial church of Gethsemane was solemnly consecrated by Archbishop Purcell, of Cincinnati, assisted by the Bishop of Louisville and Buffalo, 15 November 1866.他的繼任者是在客西馬尼篤大教堂伯傑,在他統治的美麗abbatial客西馬尼教堂莊嚴神聖的大主教亮,辛辛那提的協助下,主教路易斯維爾和水牛11月15日, 1866年。 Mgr.主教。 Spalding, who had become Archbishop of Baltimore, was present on the occasion, and preached the sermon, a masterpiece of sacred eloquence.斯伯丁,誰已成為大主教的巴爾的摩,參加了會見,並鼓吹講道,一個傑作神聖的口才。 Dom Benedict died 13 August, 1890, and was succeeded by Dom Edward Bourban, who transformed into a college the little school which the Sisters of Loretto had left in charge of the new community.大教堂篤死於1890年八月十三日,是成功的大教堂愛德華Bourban ,誰變成了大學的小學校的洛雷托修女已經離開負責的新社會。 This college is situated about a quarter of a mile from the abbey in a picturesque location, and has since been incorporated by the legislature of Kentucky.這個學院位於約四分之一英里的阿比在風景如畫的位置,並已被納入由肯塔基州立法機關。 In 1895 Dom Edward, while on a visit to France, resigned his charge on account of the poor state of his health, and was appointed chaplain of the Trappistines of Our Lady of Les Gardes, in the Diocese of Angers, France.在1895年愛德華大教堂,而在訪問法國,辭去收費帳戶的狀況很差,他的健康狀況,並且被任命為牧師的Trappistines聖母之Gardes ,在教區Angers ,法國。 On the 11th of October, 1898, Dom Edmond Obrecht, cellarer of the Abbey of Tre Fontane near Rome, was elected Abbot of Gethsemane, and was blessed by Bishop McCloskey of Louisville on the 28th of the same month.在1898年十月十一日,大教堂愛德蒙Obrecht ,窖的修道院教堂知羅馬附近,被選為住持的客西馬尼,並祝福主教麥克洛斯基路易斯維爾28日的同一個月。

This community numbers 75 members.該社區75名成員人數。

The Abbey of New Melleray, in the Diocese of Dubuque, Iowa, about twelve miles west of the Mississippi, is so called because its mother-house is the Abbey of Mount Melleray in Ireland, which was founded by the Melleray Abbey of France.該修道院的新Melleray ,在教區迪比克,愛荷華州,大約12英里西部的密西西比,就是所謂的母親,因為它的內部是修道院山Melleray在愛爾蘭,這是成立Melleray的法國修道院。 In 1848 Dom Bruno Fitzpatrick, Abbot of Mount Melleray, sent some of his religious to the State of Iowa.在1848年布魯諾菲茨帕特里克大教堂,艾博特Melleray山,發出了他的一些宗教國家的愛荷華州。 Mgr.主教。 Lorans, Bishop of Dubuque, offered them 80 acres of land in the vicinity of his episcopal city. Lorans ,主教迪比克,給他們提供八十英畝的土地附近,他推崇的城市。 The cornerstone of the monastery was laid 16 July, 1849.的基石奠定修道院1849年7月16日。 Raised to the dignity of an abbey in 1862, it had for first abbot, Dom Ephrem McDonald.提高到尊嚴的一個修道院於1862年,它已首次住持,大教堂弗雷姆麥當勞。 After twenty years he resigned and returned to Mount Melleray.二十年後,他辭職回山Melleray 。 The Rev. Alberic Dunlea, who arrived in September, 1885, with an important colony from Mount Melleray, succeeded him as superior.牧師阿爾貝里克Dunlea ,誰抵達9月, 1885年,一個重要的殖民地從山Melleray ,接任優越。 He relieved the financial condition of the abbey, and ended the difficulties which had nearly ruined it under the preceding administration.他寬慰的財務狀況的修道院,並結束了困難,幾乎毀了它的前面的行政管理。 In 1889 a new superior was elected in the person of Father Louis Carew.在1889年一個新的優勢當選人的父親路易卡魯。 Later he became definitor of the order for the English-speaking countries, and was succeeded by Father Alberic who became titular prior.後來,他成為definitor的命令講英語的國家,並成功地由父親阿爾貝里克誰成為掛名之前。 In 1897 the monastery was restored to its dignity of abbey, and Dom Alberic Dunlea was elected abbot. 1897年修道院是恢復其尊嚴的修道院,以及大教堂阿爾貝里克Dunlea當選為住持。 The property comprises some 3000 acres of land, with an abundance of excellent water.該財產包括3000英畝的土地,有豐富的出色的水。 The abbey has been rebuilt, but in 1908 it was not yet completed.修道院已經重建,但在1908年還沒有完成。

Abbey of La Trappe, Canada修道院的香格里拉大黴,加拿大

The Abbey of Our Lady of the Lake of Two Mountains (better known by the name of La Trappe, the official name given to the post-office established there) is situated in the territory of Oka, in the Diocese of Montreal, about thirty miles from that city and upon the shores of the Lake of the Two Mountains, whence it derives its name.該修道院的聖母湖兩山(更好地了解的名字叫香格里拉大黴,正式名稱考慮到郵局設在那裡)是在我國境內的奧卡,在蒙特利爾教區,約三〇英里從這個城市並呼籲兩岸湖兩山,它源於何處其名稱。 The first thought of founding this monastery was due to the venerable M. Rousselot, priest of St. Sulpice, and pastor of Notre-Dame of Montreal.第一次思想的創始這個寺院是由於古老先生魯斯洛,神父的聖畢,和牧師聖母院的蒙特利爾。 Born at Cholet (Maine et Loire, France), a few leagues distant from the Abbey of Bellefontaine, M. Rousselot had often, in his youth, visited this monastery.出生在紹萊(緬因州等省,法國) ,有幾個聯賽遠離修道院貝爾方丹先生魯斯洛常常在他的青年,來到寺院。 Several times during his visits to France he had communicated his projects to the Abbot of Bellefontaine, Dom Jean-Marie Chouteau.有幾次在訪問法國,他傳達他的項目向住持的貝爾方丹,大教堂讓馬里舒托。 The expulsion of the religious decreed by the French Government, and put into execution at Bellefontaine, 6 November, 1880, decided the Rev. Father Jean-Marie to accept the proposition of M. Rousselot.驅逐的宗教法令由法國政府,並付諸執行的貝爾方丹11月6 1880年,決定牧師父親讓馬里接受命題先生魯斯洛。 On the 8th of April, 1881, the Rev. Father Abbot, accompanied by one of his religious, arrived in Montreal, where he was most kindly received by Bishop Fabre.在1881年4月8日,牧師住持神父的陪同下,他的一個宗教,抵達蒙特利爾,在那裡他是最慷慨收到的主教法布爾。 After some weeks of negotiation, the Seminary of St. Sulpice ceded to the Trappists 1000 acres of land in the seigniory of the Lake of the Two Mountains.經過幾個星期的談判,學院街畢割讓給Trappists千英畝的土地seigniory湖兩山。 At the same time the provincial Government of Quebec promised to encourage the foundation and to come to its aid.同時,省魁北克政府承諾,以鼓勵基礎和前來援助。 On his return to France the Rev. Father Abbot sent to Canada four of his religious, so that the infant colony comprised five members, including his companion who remained.在他返回法國神父牧師住持向加拿大發出他的四個宗教,所以,嬰兒的殖民地五名成員組成,其中包括他的同伴誰依然存在。 Father William was the superior.父親威廉是卓越的。 They installed themselves for the time being as well as they could in a little wooden house that belonged to the Mill of the Bay, as it was called, in the territory of Oka. This temporary installation lasted until the month of September.他們安裝自己的時間正在以及他們可以在一個小木頭房子,屬於磨灣,因為它是所謂的,在其境內的奧卡。這項臨時安裝一直持續到9月份。 The religious then took possession of a monastery which, without being a permanent abode, gave them room enough for faithfully carrying out the Cistercian observances and receiving new recruits.宗教然後佔有了一個修道院,在不被永久居留權,給了他們足夠的房間忠實地貫徹修道院紀念活動和接受新聘人員。 This first monastery was blessed, 8 September, 1881.這是第一個寺院是得天獨厚, 1881年9月8號。 It has since been transformed into an agricultural school.它已經變成一個農業學校。

The grain of mustard seed promised to become a great tree.糧食的芥籽答應成為一個偉大的樹。 Novices presented themselves, and at the same time the grounds, until then uncultivated, covered with brush and forests and filled with rocks, were cleared and tilled.新手介紹自己,並在同一時間的理由,直到那時荒地,覆蓋著刷子和森林,充滿了岩石,清除,並耕種。 After this a permanent monastery was planned.在此永久修道院計劃。 In the autumn of 1889, thanks to a generous benefactor, M. Devine, work was commenced upon it.在1889年秋季,由於慷慨的恩人,先生迪瓦恩,工作開始時它。 In the month of May, 1890, the corner-stone was laid, and on the 28th of August, 1891, Mgr.在5月份, 1890年,基石奠定,並在1891年8月28日,主教。 Fabre solemnly blessed the first two wings which had been completed.法布爾莊嚴神聖的頭兩個翅膀已經完成。 This same day, by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, the priory of Our Lady of the Lake was erected into an abbey.這同一天,通過了一項法令,聖教會的主教和正規的修道院聖母湖建一個教堂。 On the 26th of March the community chose as abbot the Very Rev. Father Anthony Oger, who, on the 29th of the following June, received the abbatial blessing from the hands of Mgr.在3月26日社會選擇的住持甚牧師父親安東尼奧熱爾,誰,在第29次以下6月,收到來自abbatial祝福手中的主教。 Fabre in the cathedral of Montreal.法布爾在蒙特利爾大教堂。 Finally, in 1897, by the aid of a benefactor as modest as he was generous, M. Rousseau, priest of St. Sulpice, the monastery and the abbatial church were entirely completed, and on the 7th of November Archbishop Bruchesi solemnly consecrated the church.最後,在1897年,由援助的恩人是微薄的,他是慷慨的,先生盧梭,牧師的聖畢,寺院和教堂abbatial完全完成,對11月7日大主教Bruchesi莊嚴神聖的教堂。 Thence-forth the monks could give themselves fully to their lives of labour and prayer, without fearing any inconvenience in the fulfilment of their regular exercises.那裡來回修士可以給自己完全對他們的生活勞動和祈禱,不害怕任何不便,在履行其正常工作。 But on the 23rd of July, 1902, a fire destroyed the monastery, and the community was obliged to take shelter in the agricultural school.但在1902年七月23日的大火燒毀寺院,以及社會有義務採取住房在農業學校。 While waiting for sufficient means to rebuild their monastery, the monks constructed a temporary wooden shelter, and on Holy Thursday, 1903, were able to leave the school.在等待足夠的手段來重建他們的寺院,僧人建造了一個木製臨時住所,以及聖週四, 1903年,能夠離開學校。 The aid rendered by the different houses of the order and the traditional generosity of the Canadian people and the people of the United States, without distinction of creed, soon enabled them to commence the building of a new monastery upon the site of the former, and on the 21st of August, 1906, Mgr.援助所提供的不同房屋的秩序和傳統的慷慨加拿大人民和美國人民,不分信仰,使他們盡快開始建設一個新的修道院的網站前,並在1906年8月21號,主教。 Bruchesi, Archbishop of Montreal, surrounded by several archbishops and bishops, consecrated the abbatial church. The Abbey of Our Lady of the Lake had in 1908, according to statistics, 120 inmates, including the oblates. Bruchesi大主教蒙特利爾,周圍幾個大主教和主教, abbatial神聖的教堂。修道院聖母湖在1908年,據統計, 120名囚犯,其中包括獻主會。 This name is given to boys of eleven to fifteen years who are entrusted to the monks by their parents to be brought up according to the Rule of St. Benedict, so that later, if the superiors judge them to be called to the religious life, they may become monks.這個名稱是給男孩的11至15年徒刑誰委託給僧侶他們的父母被帶到了根據規則的聖本篤,所以後來,如果上級認為他們被稱為宗教生活,他們可能會成為僧侶。 The rule is mitigated for them in consideration of their tender age.規則是減輕他們在考慮他們的年紀。 This is a revival of the monastic school of the Middle Ages and of the first centuries of religious life.這是一個復興的修道院學校中世紀和第一世紀的宗教生活。 The principal industries of Our Lady of the Lake are the manufacture of cheese and of a medicinal wine.主要工業聖母湖是製造奶酪和一個藥用酒。 The monastery possesses also an important creamery for the manufacture of butter.寺院擁有也是一個重要的酪農業生產的黃油。 But that which contributes most of all to the renown of La Trappe of Oka is its agricultural school.但是,這有助於最重要的是向著名的香格里拉大黴的奧卡是其農業學校。 In this matter the Reformed Cistercians (Trappists) of Our Lady of the Lake follow the glorious traditions of their ancestors.在這個問題上的改革熙( Trappists )聖母湖後續的光榮傳統,他們的祖先。 From their very installation in the country, their skill in deriving profit from lands previously sterile was noticed by the farmers of the neighbourhood.從他們的安裝在該國,他們的技能中獲得的利潤從以前的土地被發現不育的農民鄰居。 Persons of every age and condition asked to be permitted to work with them, so as to learn their methods.每個人的年齡和條件要求被允許與他們一道工作,以便學習他們的方法。 This was the beginning of the agricultural school which the Government was in a short time to recognize officially, and which, reorganized since the burning of the former monastery, gives instruction in agricultural science every year to 80 or 100 students.這是年初的農業學校,政府在很短的時間正式承認,它與重組,因為燃燒前者修道院,使教學的農業科技,每年80或100名學生。

To-day the building devoted to this school is a large modern construction delightfully situated in a picturesque location, and commands a beautiful view of the Lake of the Two Mountains.今天建設專門用於這所學校是一家大型現代化建設delightfully坐落在風景如畫的位置,並命令一個美麗鑑於湖兩山。 This agricultural school has been affiliated with the University of Laval.這種農業學校一直隸屬於拉瓦爾大學。

Monastery of Lake St. John寺湖聖約翰

For a long time the Honourable Honoré Mercier, Prime Minister of the Province of Quebec, had at the request of the colonization agent of the province, been earnestly entreating the Abbot of Bellefontaine and Dom Anthony of Our Lady of the Lake to send some religious into the country of Lake St. John, recently opened to colonization.很長一段時間這位奧諾雷梅西埃總理魁北克省,曾要求殖民代理人的省,得到切實的住持求的貝爾方丹和安東尼大教堂聖母湖派一些宗教納入該國的聖約翰湖,最近打開的殖民統治。 He had offered to the Trappist Fathers 6000 acres of land and a considerable sum of money.他提供給特拉普父親六〇 〇 〇英畝土地和相當大一筆錢。 In the year 1891 he charged the Rev. Th. Greg.在1891年一年,他被控牧師釷。格雷格。 Rouleau, principal of the Laval Normal School, who accompanied Mgr.盧婁,主要拉瓦爾師範學校,誰陪同主教。 Begin on his visit ad limina, to urge this request of the Government upon the Abbot of Bellefontaine.開始了他訪問廣告limina ,敦促這一要求政府對住持的貝爾方丹。 When the abbot, with the necessary authorization from his order, arrived in Quebec to settle the matter, M. de Boucherville had succeeded M. Mercier as prime minister.當住持,必要的授權,他的命令,抵達魁北克省為解決這一問題,布謝維爾先生已經成功梅西埃先生擔任總理。 M. Pelletier, Secretary of the Province, and the Honourable Louis Beaubien, Minister of Agriculture, were exceedingly happy to continue the work of the preceding ministry.佩爾提埃先生,秘書省,尊敬的路易斯Beaubien ,農業部長,是非常樂意繼續工作的前部。 They favoured with all their power the establishment of the Trappists at Lake St. John.他們贊成他們的所有權力建立Trappists湖聖約翰。 Mgr.主教。 Labrecque, who had succeeded Mgr.拉布雷克,誰成功主教。 Begin in the See of Chicoutimi, made the foundation the particular object of his personal care and attention.開始在希庫蒂米見的,取得的基礎特定對象的個人護理和照顧。 In 1892 Dom Anthony sent a little colony to Lake St. John.在1892年大教堂安東尼發出了一個小殖民地湖聖約翰。 Thus was founded the prosperous and beneficent monastery of Our Lady of Mistassini at Lake of St. John in the Diocese of Chicoutimi.因此,成立的繁榮和善行寺聖母湖米斯塔西尼聖約翰在希庫蒂米教區。 In January, 1906, it was erected into a priory, and the Rev. Dom Pacomius Gaboury was elected prior.今年1月, 1906年,這是豎立成一個修道院和大教堂牧師Pacomius Gaboury當選之前。 The monastery in 1907 had twenty inmates.寺院在1907年有21名犯人。

Monastery of Our Lady of the Prairies, Manitoba修道院聖母草原,曼尼托巴

Archbishop Taché of St. Boniface had long desired to enrich his diocese with an institution of this kind.大主教環節聖博尼法斯長期以來的願望,以豐富他的教區同一個機構的這種。 He wrote about it several times to the Abbot of Bellefontaine, and in the spring of 1892 the latter came to an understanding with the archbishop, and his colabourer, M. Ritchot, pastor of St. Norbert.他寫這幾次的住持貝爾方丹,並在1892年春天,後者來理解的主教,他colabourer先生Ritchot ,牧師的聖諾伯特。 The prelates gave the Rev. Father Abbot 1500 acres of good land in the parish of St. Norbert, and immediately sent thither a little colony under the direction of Father Louis de Bourmont.主教給牧師父親艾博特一五〇 〇英畝良好的土地教區的聖諾伯特,並立即被送往那兒有點殖民地的指導下父親路易德布爾蒙。 The work of construction was carried on with vigour and rapidity, and on the 18th of October in the same year, Archbishop Taché blessed the monastery and named it Our Lady of the Prairies.這項工作的建設上進行積極和迅速,並在10月18日在同一年,大主教環節得天獨厚的寺院,命名它聖母大草原。 St. Norbert is situated on the west bank of the Red River, about nine miles south of Winnipeg, the great metropolis of Western Canada.聖諾伯特位於約旦河西岸的紅河,大約9英里以南的溫尼伯,偉大的大都市加拿大西部。 It is exclusively an agricultural colony, and farming is carried on there on an extensive scale by means of the latest improved machinery.它完全是一個農業殖民地,農業是那裡進行大規模的手段,最新的改進機制。 In 1893 the harvest was remunerative.在1893年的收穫是有利可圖的。 In 1897 there were more than five hundred acres of first-class land under cultivation. 1897年有超過500英畝一流耕地。 The monastery of Our Lady of the Prairies had forty inmates in the year 1908.修道院的聖母草原已第四十三犯人在1908年一年。 By this date a new building had been erected.在上述日期之前的新大樓已經豎立。

Monastery of Our Lady of the Valley, Lonsdale, Rhode Island, US修道院聖母谷,辛達,羅德島,美國

This monastery is no other than the former Little Clairvaux transferred.這寺院沒有其他比前小伯爾納轉移。 After the disastrous events which made it impossible for the community of Little Clairvaux to continue its work at Big Tracadie, Dom John Mary Murphy, yielding to the desire of Bishop Harkins of Providence to have some contemplative religious in his diocese, transferred it to Lonsdale, Rhode Island, in March, 1900, leaving to other religious who came from France his monastery of Little Clairvaux.在災難性事件,不可能為社會的小伯爾納上繼續其工作大Tracadie ,約翰大教堂瑪麗墨菲,高產的願望主教哈金斯的普羅維登斯有一些宗教沉思在他的教區,轉讓給代爾,羅得島州,在3月, 1900年,離開其他宗教誰來自法國的修道院小伯爾納。 He commenced without delay to build a wooden structure which would serve for a temporary shelter for the religious.他毫不拖延地建立一個木結構將起到一個臨時住所的宗教。 At the same time he was constructing the buildings indispensable for farming.與此同時,他修建的建築物不可缺少的耕作。 These preparations were pushed forward with such energy that by the month of July the community were able to commence the clearing and cultivation of the lands.這些準備工作是推動這種能量,由7月份的社會能夠開始清理和種植的土地。 It was an arduous and ungrateful task; no single-handed farmer would have undertaken it.這是一個艱鉅和忘恩負義的任務;沒有單交給農民將進行它。 But what was impossible to individual effort was soon effected by united labour, and the ungrateful soil became productive.但是,什麼是不可能的,以個人的努力,盡快實施由聯合國勞工,並成為忘恩負義的土壤生產力。 The new monastery, begun in April, 1902, was finished in December of the same year, and in the month of January, 1903, the religious had the consolation of being installed in a building appropriate to their kind of life.新的寺院,在4月開始, 1902年,已經完成在同年12月,並在1月份, 1903年,在宗教的安慰被安裝在建設適合他們的一種生活。 For a farm the water supply is of prime importance.對於一個農場的水供應是頭等重要的意義。 The religious of Our Lady of the Valley have discovered a spring which supplies water abundantly for all purposes.宗教聖母山谷發現了一個春天充分供水的所有目的。 Moreover, this water, on account of its mineral properties, has a considerable commercial value.此外,這種水,考慮到其礦物特性,已經有相當的商業價值。 The total area of the property is 450 acres.總面積的財產是450英畝。 The success which has thus far attended the efforts of the monks at Lonsdale is a precious encouragement for all those who are engaged in farming pursuits in that rocky part of Rhode Island. The monastery was erected into a priory in 1907, and the religious elected the Rev.其中的成功迄今已參加了努力的僧侶代爾是一種寶貴的鼓勵所有這些誰是從事農耕的追求在這岩石的一部分,羅得島。修道院建成一個修道院於1907年,和宗教選出牧師 Dom John Mary Murphy prior.約翰大教堂前瑪麗墨菲。 It retains in the order the rank of seniority corresponding to the date of incorporation of Little Clairvaux in the Order of Cîteaux.它保留在該命令的級別資歷相應的日期將在小伯爾納秩序的Cîteaux 。 in 1869.於1869年。

Monastery of Our Lady of Calvary, Rogersville, NB修道院聖母髑髏,羅傑斯維爾,毒品調查科

Foreseeing the evils with which their communities were threatened by the law of 1901 (Waldeck-Rousseau), several abbots of the Order of Cîteaux in France looked to find a refuge in case of expulsion.前瞻的罪惡與他們的社區受到威脅的法律1901年(瓦爾德克,盧梭) ,有幾個abbots勳章Cîteaux在法國希望找到一個避難的情況下被驅逐。 Dom Anthony Oger, Abbot of Our Lady of the Lake, wrote to Mgr.大教堂安東尼奧熱爾,艾博特聖母湖,寫信給主教。 Richard, pastor of Rogersville, NB, who answered promptly, placing at his disposal certain mills and 1000 acres of land already partly cultivated.理查德牧師羅傑斯維爾,鈮,誰回答迅速,把他掌握的一些工廠和1000英畝的土地已經部分耕地。 In August, 1902, the prior of Bonnecombe, France, the Rev. Father Anthony Piana and the Rev. Mother Lutgarde, prioress, with another sister, arrived in Montreal and afterwards at Our Lady of the Lake by way of Montreal.今年8月, 1902年前的Bonnecombe ,法國,牧師神父安東尼皮亞納和牧師的母親Lutgarde , prioress ,另外還有姐姐,抵達蒙特利爾後在聖母湖的方式蒙特利爾。 Dom Anthony Oger devoted his whole paternal solicitude to aiding his visitors in finding a place suitable for a foundation.大教堂安東尼奧熱爾把自己整個父系慰問協助他的訪客在尋找適合的地方了基礎。 The abbot communicated Mgr.住持傳達的主教。 Richard's proposal to the prior of Bonnecombe, who, after two visits to Rogersville decided to accept it, and the project was submitted to the approbation of the general chapter.理查德的建議,事先的Bonnecombe ,誰後,兩次訪問羅傑斯維爾決定接受它,該項目已提交給讚許一般的篇章。 The abbot general, Dom Sebastian Wyart, urged Dom Emile, Abbot of Bonnecombe for Canada under the direction of Dom Anthony Piana.一般的住持,塞巴斯蒂安Wyart大教堂,大教堂埃米爾呼籲,艾博特的Bonnecombe加拿大的指導下大教堂安東尼皮亞納。 On the 5th of the following November the little colony was solemnly received at Rogersville by the pastor and his parishioners, and took possession of the monastery, to which was given the name of Our Lady of Calvary, which was canonically erected into a priory 12 July, 1904.在5日11月以下的小殖民地莊嚴收到羅傑斯維爾的牧師和他的教友,並佔有了寺院,其中定名為聖母各各他,這是canonically豎立成一個修道院7月12日, 1904 。

Monastery of Our Lady of Jordan, Oregon修道院聖母約旦,美國俄勒岡州

In 1904 the Cistercian monks of Fontgombault (Indreet-Loire, France), were forced to abandon their monastery.在1904年的修道院的僧侶Fontgombault ( Indreet盧瓦爾,法國) ,他們被迫放棄自己的寺院。 They, too, looked for a refuge in America. Under the direction of their abbot, Dom Fortunato Marchand, they went to Oregon to ask for a place of retreat where they would be able to serve Almighty God, and observe their rule.他們也尋找在美國避難。領導下的住持,大教堂福爾尚,他們前往俄勒岡州要求的地方撤退時,他們將能夠提供萬能的上帝,並遵守其規則。 The new foundation of Our Lady of Jordan is situated in the township of Jordan, Linn County, about 90 miles from the Pacific Coast, upon a plateau a mile and a half in area.在新的基礎聖母約旦是坐落在鄉鎮的約旦,屬縣,約90英里的太平洋海岸,在高原一英里半的地區。 The property consists of about 400 acres of land, almost 200 of which are actually under cultivation or in meadow-lands, 100 in wood land, and the remainder covered with brush.該財產由大約400英畝的土地,將近200個,其中實際種植或在草地,土地,木材100的土地,其餘的覆蓋刷。 A torrent, tributary of the Santiam River, bounds it on the south.激流,支流Santiam河,跨越它的南部。 Upon this torrent has been built a steam saw-mill in connection with the monastery.在此洪流已經建立了一個蒸汽鋸廠與修道院。 Here the Oregon fir-trees, which attain immense heights, are converted into lumber for the needs of the community and for commerce.在這裡,俄勒岡州的樅樹,實現巨大的高地,轉換成木材為社會的需要和商業。 The future of this Cistercian community to a great extent rests upon this industry.未來的這修道院社會在很大程度上取決於這個行業。 The land is ordinarily fertile and produces cereals, vegetables, pears, plums, apples, etc. The monastery of Our Lady of Jordan was solemnly dedicated in 1907, the Archbishop of Oregon City officiating, in the presence of a large assembly of the laity, among whom were many non-Catholics. On the same occasion the Sacrament of Confirmation was administered by the archbishop.土地是肥沃的土壤通常和生產穀物,蔬菜,梨,李子,蘋果等,修道院聖母莊嚴約旦致力於在1907年,大主教俄勒岡州城市主,存在一個大的裝配俗人,其中有許多非天主教徒。在同一場合的聖確認是由大主教。 The Right Rev. Father Thomas, Abbot of the Benedictine Abbey of Mount Angel, preached the dedicatory sermon, in which he explained the nature and the object of the life of the Cistercians, or Trappists.權之父托馬斯牧師,住持的篤山修道院安琪爾,鼓吹dedicatory講道,他在解釋的性質和對象的生活熙,或Trappists 。

The Monastery of Our Lady of Maristella修道院聖母Maristella

This monastery, at Taubaté in the Archdiocese of São Paulo do Brazil, is the first, and up to now the only monastery of the Cistercian Order in South America.這寺院,在Taubaté大主教在聖保羅巴西這樣做,是第一次,而且到現在唯一的修道院修道院秩序的南美洲。 It was founded in 1904 by the Abbey of Septfons in France, on a farm, or fazenda, at the foot of the Serra Mantiqueira, not far from the railroad between Rio and São Paulo, about twelve miles from Taubaté and six from Trememblé, a small place connected with Taubaté by a tramway.它成立於1904年的修道院Septfons在法國,一個農場或牧場,在腳下的塞拉Mantiqueira ,而不是遠離鐵路之間的裡約和聖保羅,約十二英里Taubaté以及六個Trememblé ,一個小地方與Taubaté的纜車。 The property consisting of 4000 or 5000 acres, had remained untilled since the abolition of slavery in 1888, and the buildings were falling into ruins.財產4000組成的5000英畝,一直以來untilled廢除奴隸制於1888年,與建築物陷入一片廢墟。 One half of the land lies along the River Parahyba, and the other, consisting of hills and valleys, forms the base of the chain of mountains of Mantiqueira.其中一半的土地位於沿江Parahyba ,和其他,其中包括丘陵和山谷,形式的基礎鏈的山區Mantiqueira 。 Rice, coffee, sugar-cane, Indian corn, etc., are cultivated, and cattle are raised.大米,咖啡,甘蔗,印度玉米等,種植和牛的提高。 The climate is temperate, although it is within the tropics.氣候溫和,但它是在熱帶地區。 The community, forty in number, has established a school for the children of the vicinity.社區,第四十二的數量,已建立了一個學校的孩子附近。

Publication information Written by FM Gildas.出版信息撰稿調頻吉爾達斯。 Transcribed by Larry Trippett.轉錄的拉里Trippett 。 In memory of Fr. Columban, Our Lady of Guadalupe monastery, Oregon, whose kindness and wisdom remain with me. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.在記憶的神父。 Columban ,我們的瓜達盧佩聖母修道院,俄勒岡州,他們的善良和智慧留在了我。天主教百科全書,第三卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat , 08年11月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

Exordes de Cîteaux (Grande Trappe, 1884); D'Arbois De Jubainville, Interieur des abbayes cisterciennes au XII et au Les annales d' Aiguebelle (Valence, 1863); Janauscheck, Originum Cisterciensium etc. (Vienna, 1877), I; Gallia Christiana, IV; Hélyot, Dictionnaire des ordres religieux; Ordinis Cisterciensis Jurium etc. (Rome, 1902); Abrege de l'histoire de l'ordre de Cîteaux par un moine de Thymadeuc (St. Brieuc, 1897). Exordes德Cîteaux (大黴, 1884 ) ;德阿波依斯德朱班維爾, Interieur萬abbayes cisterciennes太子港海地等十二之紀事之艾格貝勒(價, 1863年) ; Janauscheck , Originum Cisterciensium等(維也納, 1877年) ,我;高盧克里斯蒂安娜,四; Hélyot ,萬ordres詞典宗教; Ordinis Cisterciensis Jurium等(羅馬, 1902年) ; Abrege法國歷史法國勳章Cîteaux桿取消moine德Thymadeuc (聖布里厄, 1897年) 。 Gaillardin, Histoire de La Trappe; Dom Augustin de Lestrange et les trappists pendant la Revolution (Grande Trappe, 1898); Vie du RP Urbain Guillet (Montligeon, 1899); Vérite, Cîteaux, La Trappe et Bellefontaine (Paris, 1885); Spalding, Sketches of the Early Missions of Kentucky, 1781-1826; Maes, The life of Rev. Charles Nerinckx (Cincinnati, 1880); L'abbaye de Notre-Dame du Lac et l'ordre de Cîteaux au Canada et dans les Etats-Unis (Montreal, 1907); Tessier, Bibliotheca Patrum Cisterciensium (4 vol. 4x, 1660); Alanus De Insulis, Opera Mosalia (4x, 1654); Bona, Opera Omnia (4x 1677): Caretto, Santosale del S. Ordine Cisterciense (4 vol. 4x, 1705); Debreyne, many volumes on theology an medicine; Ughelli, Italia Sacra (10 vol. folio, 1717); Henriquez should be quoted for having not only the menologium but also the Phoenix reviviscens (4x, 1626); Regula Constit. Gaillardin ,史黴;奧古斯丁大教堂的萊斯特蘭奇等萊trappists吊墜革命(大黴, 1898 ) ;生活都反相班約特( Montligeon , 1899年) ;真理, Cîteaux ,香格里拉大黴等貝爾方丹(巴黎, 1885年) ;斯伯丁,素描早期代表團的肯塔基州, 1781年至1826年;告捷,生命的Nerinckx牧師查爾斯(辛辛那提, 1880年) ;歐萊雅修道院聖母院等濱湖治安隊的Cîteaux加拿大等太子港中的萊多次入境的,清華紫光(蒙特利爾, 1907年) ; Tessier ,書目Patrum Cisterciensium ( 4卷。 4倍, 1660 ) ;藤德Insulis ,歌劇Mosalia ( 4倍, 1654 ) ;善意,歌劇廣告計劃( 4倍1677年) : Caretto , Santosale省南秩序Cisterciense ( 4卷。 4倍, 1705年) ; Debreyne ,許多卷神學的藥品; Ughelli ,意大利薩克拉( 10卷。開本, 1717 ) ;里克斯應當引用了不僅menologium而且鳳凰reviviscens ( 4倍, 1626 ) ;雷Constit 。 et Privilegia Ord. Cist. Privilegia條例等。中科院。 (folio, 1630); Janauscheck, Bibliographia Bernardina. (開本, 16時30分) ; Janauscheck , Bibliographia Bernardina 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教訂單
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌
Benedictines
Trappists Trappists
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites Carmelites
Discalced Carmelites Discalced Carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟會

Monasticism
Nuns 修女
Friars 修士
Convent 修道院
Ministry
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 羅馬訂單


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在