Buddhism佛教

Gautama Buddha (563 - 483 BC) (Siddhartha)佛陀( 563 -4 83年) (悉達多)

General Information 一般信息

Buddha was a Hindu born in northern India.佛陀是一個印度教出生在印度北部。 He formed a school of religious thought that was primarily designed to reform Brahmanism (Hinduism) and especially to overthrow the caste system.他成立了一個學校的宗教認為,主要是旨在改革婆羅門教(印度教) ,尤其是要推翻種姓制度。

Siddhartha Gautama was born the son of a prince.悉達多喬答摩出生的兒子,一位王子。 He grew up in wealth and luxury and married happily.他從小生長在財富和奢侈和已婚快樂。 Meditating about the evils of the world led him to abandon his wife, his children, and his wealth and to wander about India as a beggar in search of truth. After many years of wandering and meditation, he found what he thought was truth.沉思的罪惡的世界使他放棄他的妻子,他的孩子,他的財富,並跑江湖印度作為一個乞丐,尋求真理。經過多年的徘徊和沉思,他發現,他認為什麼是真理。 The people who followed him called him Buddha, which means the Enlightened One.誰的人跟著他叫他佛,這意味著一個開明的。 They later wrote down his sayings and established a canon.他們後來寫下了他的說法,並設立了教會。

Buddhism appealed especially to the poor and unlettered who could not comprehend the scholarly teachings of Confucius. It taught that life was suffering, that suffering was caused by desire, and that one must overcome desire to gain peace and happiness.佛教呼籲特別是對窮人和胸無點墨誰無法理解的學術孔子的教誨。 它告訴人們,生活的痛苦,這種痛苦的原因是願望,而且必須克服企求和平和幸福。 It taught mercy and patience and kindness to all. The extreme importance of close ties to family caused nearly all Buddhists to remain in their birth town all their lives. 它教仁慈和耐心和愛心給所有。的極端重要性,緊密聯繫家庭造成幾乎所有的佛教徒留在其出生城鎮所有自己的生活。

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Importance is placed on escaping from the material life and of extinguishing desire.重要的是放在擺脫的物質生活和滅火的願望。 Buddhism is based upon the equality of all in the religious life, women as well as men.佛教的基礎是人人平等的宗教生活,婦女與男子一樣。 The aim of the Buddhist, to obtain eternal life (Nirvana) by extinguishing all desire for material existence, is attained by following the其目的是佛教,獲得永生(涅磐)的所有滅火物慾的存在,是實現後,

'Eightfold Path': '八路徑' :

The northern school (Great Wheel) regarded Buddha as a god; The southern school (Little Wheel) regarded him as a teacher.北部的學校(大車輪)視為佛陀作為一個神;南部學校(小輪)認為他是一個老師。

The northern school (of India) was the source of the Buddhism which became China's greatest religion (where he was considered a god.) The other (text) entries which follow are from the northern school.北部的學校(印度)的來源的佛教成為中國最大的宗教(他被認為是一個神。 )其他(文字)的後續作品是從北部學校。 Their texts include 'Lotus of True Laws', 'Book of Exploits', 'Lives of Buddha.'其文本包括'蓮花真法' , '圖書的攻擊' , '生命的佛像。

The southern school used different texts in their 'Tripitaka.' It included the 'History of Buddhism', 'Questions of King Milinda', 'Commentaries of Buddhaghosa.'南部的學校採用了不同的文本在其'大藏經' 。這包括'歷史的佛教' , '問題王米鄰陀' , '評的Buddhaghosa 。

Buddhism does not believe in an immortal self. Karma tells that the acts of a previous existence determines the value of the present existence (the value of reincarnation). 佛教並不認為在一個不朽的自我。噶瑪告訴的行為以前存在的價值確定本存在(價值的轉世) 。


Buddhism佛教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Buddhism, one of the major religions of the world, was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, who lived in northern India from c.佛教,一個主要的宗教世界,是由悉達多喬答摩,佛,誰住在印度北部的角 560 to c. 560角 480 BC. 480年。 The time of the Buddha was one of social and religious change, marked by the further advance of Aryan civilization into the Ganges Plain, the development of trade and cities, the breakdown of old tribal structures, and the rise of a whole spectrum of new religious movements that responded to the demands of the times.當時的佛像是一個社會和宗教的變化,其標誌是進一步推進文明的雅利安人進入恒河平原,發展貿易和城市,舊的分類部落結構,並增加了整個新的宗教運動,響應時代的要求。 These movements were derived from the Brahmanic tradition of Hinduism but were also reactions against it.這些運動是源於Brahmanic印度教的傳統,但也反應反對。 Of the new sects, Buddhism was the most successful and eventually spread throughout India and most of Asia.新的教派,佛教是最成功的,並最終蔓延到印度和亞洲大部分地區。

Today it is common to divide Buddhism into two main branches. The Theravada, or "Way of the Elders," is the more conservative of the two; it is dominant in Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand. The Mahayana, or "Great Vehicle," is more diverse and liberal; it is found mainly in Taiwan, Korea, and Japan, and among Tibetan peoples, where it is distinguished by its emphasis on the Buddhist Tantras.今天,它是共同的鴻溝佛教分為兩個主要分支。的小乘,或“路長老, ”是較為保守的兩個,這是佔主導地位,在斯里蘭卡,緬甸,泰國。大乘,或“大汽車, “是更為多樣和自由,它主要是在台灣,韓國,日本,以及藏族人民之間,而這是區分它強調佛教Tantras 。 In recent times both branches, as well as Tibetan Buddhism, have gained followers in the West.最近兩個分支,以及藏傳佛教信徒獲得了在西方。

It is virtually impossible to tell what the Buddhist population of the world is today; statistics are difficult to obtain because persons might have Buddhist beliefs and engage in Buddhist rites while maintaining folk or other (Shinto, Confucian, Taoist, Hindu) religions.這是幾乎不可能知道佛教世界人口的今天;統計數據很難獲得,因為人可能有佛教信仰和從事佛教儀式,同時保持民間或其他(神道教,儒家,道教,印度教)的宗教。 Such persons might or might not call themselves or be counted as Buddhists.這些人可能或不可能要求自己或算作佛教徒。 Nevertheless, the number of Buddhists worldwide is frequently estimated at more than 300 million.然而,一些佛教徒往往是全世界估計超過300億美元。

The Teachings of the Buddha在佛陀的教誨

Just what the original teaching of the Buddha was is a matter of some debate.究竟原來的教學是佛陀的一個問題是一些辯論。 Nonetheless, it may be said to have centered on certain basic doctrines. The first of the Four Noble Truths, the Buddha held, is suffering (duhkha). By this, he meant not only that human existence is occasionally painful but that all beings - humans, animals, ghosts, hell - beings, even the gods in the heavens - are caught up in samsara, a cycle of rebirth, a maze of suffering in which their actions (Karma) keep them wandering.儘管如此,可以說已經集中在某些基本理論第一的四諦,佛舉行的,是痛苦( duhkha ) 。通過這一點,他不僅意味著人類的生存是痛苦的,但偶爾的眾生-人類,動物,鬼,地獄-人,即使是神在天上-是陷入了輪迴,循環再生,迷宮的痛苦在他們的行動(噶瑪)讓他們遊蕩。

Samsara and karma are not doctrines specific to Buddhism.輪迴和因果報應的理論是沒有具體的佛教。 The Buddha, however, specified that samsara is characterized by three marks: suffering, impermanence, and no - self (anatman).佛陀,但明確指出,輪迴的特點是三馬克:痛苦,無常,無-自我( a natman) 。 Individuals not only suffer in a constantly changing world, but what appears to be the "self," the "soul," has no independent reality apart from its many separable elements.個人不僅受到在不斷變化的世界,但似乎是“自我”和“靈魂” ,沒有獨立的現實除了它的許多內容可分。

The second Noble Truth is that suffering itself has a cause. At the simplest level, this may be said to be desire; but the theory was fully worked out in the complex doctrine of "dependent origination" (pratityasamutpada), which explains the interrelationship of all reality in terms of an unbroken chain of causation. 第二書店真相是痛苦本身的原因。從最簡單的一級,這可以說是願望,但理論是完全出在複雜的理論, “緣起” ( pratityasamutpada ) ,這也解釋了為什麼相互所有的現實而言,一個完整的因果鏈。

The third Noble Truth, however, is that this chain can be broken - that suffering can cease. The Buddhists called this end of suffering Nirvana and conceived of it as a cessation of rebirth, an escape from samsara. 第三諾布爾真相,然而,這一鏈條才能打破-這種痛苦可以停止。所謂的佛教徒為此痛苦涅磐和設想它作為停止重生,擺脫輪迴。

Finally, the fourth Noble Truth is that a way exists through which this cessation can be brought about: the practice of the noble Eightfold Path. This combines ethical and disciplinary practices, training in concentration and meditation, and the development of enlightened wisdom, all thought to be necessary. 最後,第四高尚的事實是,存在著一種通過這可以停止了:在實踐中的崇高八路徑。這種結合的道德和紀律的做法,在集中培訓和冥想,以及發展開明的智慧,都以為是必要的。

For the monks, the notion of offering extends also to the giving of the Dharma in the form of sermons, to the chanting of scriptures in rituals (which may also be thought of as magically protective and salutary), and to the recitation of sutras for the dead.對於僧侶的概念延伸產品也給予了大法的形式布道,向誦經的經文在儀式(這也可能被認為是神奇的保護和有益) ,和背誦經文的死者。

All of these acts of offering are intimately involved in the concept of merit making.所有這些行動提供人員直接參與的概念,值得決策。 By performing them, individuals, through the working of karma, can seek to assure themselves rebirth in one of the heavens or a better station in life, from which they may be able to attain the goal of enlightenment.他們的表演,個人,通過工作的緣份,可以尋求以確保自己在一個新生的天空或一個更好的生活,從這些可以實現的目標啟迪。

The Development of Buddhism發展佛教

With the death of the Buddha, the community of his followers (the sangha) immediately faced a crisis: what were they to do in the absence of the master?隨著死亡的佛像,社區他的追隨者(在桑加)立即面臨危機:什麼是他們這樣做,沒有主人? The lay followers who had remained householders undertook to honor his bodily relics, which were enshrined in monuments called Stupas.該誰奠定的追隨者一直住戶承諾履行他的身體的文物,這是載入紀念碑稱為舍利塔。 This was the beginning of a cult of devotion (Bhakti) to the person of the Buddha that was to focus not only on stupas but on many holy sites (such as the bodhi tree), which became centers of pilgrimage, and eventually on Buddha images as well.這是開始了一個邪教組織的獻身精神(巴克蒂)的人是佛陀的重點不僅舍利塔,但對許多聖地(如菩提樹) ,成為朝聖中心,並最終在佛像圖片以及。

On the other hand, those Buddhists who had become monks and nuns undertook the gathering and preservation of their departed master's teachings (the dharma).另一方面,那些佛教徒誰已成為僧尼進行了收集和保存其離開主人的教誨(該法) 。 According to tradition (the historicity of which many scholars have contested), a great council of 500 enlightened monks was held at Rajagrha, immediately after the Buddha's death, and all the Buddha's sermons (the sutras) and the rules of the discipline (vinaya) were remembered and recited.按照傳統(在歷史性的許多學者都有爭議的) ,一個偉大國家的500開明的僧侶舉行Rajagrha之後,立即佛陀的死,所有的佛陀的說教(的經典)和規則的紀律(律)被記住和背誦。

In the years that followed, the monks gradually consolidated their communal life.在未來的幾年中,僧侶逐漸鞏固了他們的社區生活。 Originally, like many other wandering mendicants of their time, they had tended to be constantly on the move, congregating only once a year for the three months of the monsoon. Gradually, these rain - retreats grew into more structured year round monastic settlements.本來,像其他許多流浪乞丐的時間,他們往往是不斷的移動,聚集僅一年一次的3個月的季風。漸漸地,這些雨-務虛會成長為更有條理全年寺院定居點。 As new monastic communities developed, it was inevitable that some differences in their understanding of both the Buddha's teaching (dharma) and of the rules of the order (vinaya) should arise.隨著新的修道院社區發展,這是不可避免的一些分歧,在雙方的理解佛陀的教誨(佛法)和規則的命令(律)應出現。 Within 100 years of the Buddha's death, a second council took place at Vaisali, during which the advocates of certain relaxations in the vinaya rules were condemned.在100多年的佛陀的死亡,第二次理事會舉行Vaisali ,在此期間,某些主張放寬在律規則的譴責。 Then, c.接著,角 250 BC, the great Buddhist emperor Asoka is said to have held a third council at Pataliputra to settle certain doctrinal controversies. 250年,偉大的佛教皇帝阿索據說已舉行了第三次理事會在Pataliputra解決某些理論上的爭論。

It is clear from the accounts of these and other Buddhist councils that whatever the unity of early Buddhism may have been, it was rapidly split into various sectarian divisions.顯然,從這些帳目及其他佛教理事會,無論統一的早期佛教可能已經,這是迅速分裂成各種教派分歧。 One of the earliest and most important of these divisions was that between the Sthavira (Elder) and the Mahasamghika (Great Council) schools. Within the former developed such important sects as the Sarvastivada (whose canon was in Sanskrit) and the Theravadins, whose canon is in Pali and who today are the only surviving representatives of the whole of the Hinayana, or "Lesser Vehicle," of Buddhism.最早的一個,而最重要的是這些部門之間的Sthavira (老年)和Mahasamghika (大理事會)的學校。前在發達國家等重要教派的Sarvastivada (其經典是在梵文)和Theravadins ,其經典在八里今天,誰是唯一倖存的代表整個小乘,或“小車輛”的佛教。

The Mahasamghika, also a Hinayanist sect, died out completely, but it is important because it represents one of the forerunners of the Mahayana doctrines.該Mahasamghika ,也Hinayanist節,完全死亡,但它是重要的,因為它代表一個先行者的大乘學說。 These doctrines were to include a different understanding of the nature of the Buddha, an emphasis on the figure of the Bodhisattva, and on the practice of the perfections (paramitas).這些理論被列入不同的性質的理解佛陀,把重點放在人物的菩薩,在實踐中完善( paramitas ) 。

In addition, within the Mahayana, a number of great thinkers were to add some new doctrinal dimensions to Buddhism.此外,在大乘,一些偉大的思想家被添加一些新的理論層面佛教。 One of these was Nagarjuna, the 2d century AD founder of the Madhyamika school. Using subtle and thoroughgoing analyses, Nagarjuna took the theory of dependent origination (pratityasamutpada) to its logical limits, showing that the absolute relativity of everything means finally the emptiness (sunyata) of all things.其中之一是Nagarjuna ,在公元2世紀的創始人觀學校。用微妙和深入分析, Nagarjuna了理論的緣起( pratityasamutpada )合乎邏輯的限制,顯示出絕對的相對論的一切手段最終空虛(空)的所有東西。

Another important Mahayana school arose in the 4th century AD when the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu sought to establish the doctrine of Vijnanavada - that the mind alone exists and that objects have no reality external to it.另一個重要的大乘學校發生在公元4世紀時,兄弟Asanga和Vasubandhu尋求建立的理論Vijnanavada -即僅考慮是否存在,以及物體沒有任何現實的外部給它。 This idealist doctrine and Nagarjuna's emptiness were to play important roles in the further developments of Buddhist thought outside of India.這種唯心主義的理論和Nagarjuna的空虛將發揮重要的作用在進一步發展的佛教思想以外的印度。 Within India itself, they paved the way for yet another stage in the elaboration of the religion: the development of Buddhist tantra.在印度本身,他們鋪平了道路又一次階段擬定的宗教:發展的佛教密宗。

Tantric Buddhism, which is sometimes separated from the Mahayana as a distinct "Thunderbolt - Vehicle" (Vajrayana), became especially important in Tibet, where it was introduced starting in the 7th century.密宗佛教,有時分開大乘作為一個獨特的“迅雷-車輛” (金剛乘) ,成為特別重要的西藏,在那裡開始了在公元7世紀。 It was, however, the last phase of Buddhism in India, where the religion - partly by reabsorption into the Hindu tradition, partly by persecution by the Muslim invaders - ceased to exist by the 13th century.然而,它的最後階段,佛教在印度,那裡的宗教-部分重吸收進入印度教的傳統,部分受迫害的穆斯林入侵者-不復存在了1 3世紀。

The Expansion of Buddhism擴大佛教

Before its demise in India, Buddhism had already spread throughout Asia.其消亡之前在印度,佛教已遍布亞洲。 This expansion started at least as early as the time of the emperor Asoka in the 3d century BC.此次擴建開始,至少早在時間上的皇帝阿育王在公元前三世紀。 According to tradition, this great monarch, who was himself a convert to Buddhism, actively supported the religion and sought to spread the dharma.按照傳統,這個偉大的君主,誰是自己皈依佛教,積極支持,並尋求宗教傳播佛法。 He is said to have sent his own son, Mahinda, as a missionary to Sri Lanka (Ceylon).據說,他曾派出自己的兒子,馬欣達拉賈,作為一個傳教士斯里蘭卡(錫蘭) 。 There Buddhism quickly took root and prospered, and the island was to become a stronghold of the Theravada sect. The Pali Canon was first written there in the 1st century BC ; later the island was to be host to the great Theravadin systematizer and commentator Buddhaghosa (5th century AD). Asoka is also said to have sent missionaries to the East to what is now Burma and Thailand.有佛教很快扎下了根和繁榮,以及台灣要成為一個據點的小乘節。佳能的八里第一次寫在那裡公元前1世紀;後,該島是東道國的偉大Theravadin systematizer和評論員Buddhaghosa (公元5世紀) 。阿索據說也派出傳教士東現在的緬甸和泰國。 Whatever the truth of this claim, it is clear that by the first several centuries AD, Buddhism, accompanying the spread of Indian culture, had established itself in large areas of Southeast Asia, even as far as Indonesia.無論真相這種說法,很顯然,第一公元幾個世紀,佛教,伴隨蔓延的印度文化,已經確立了自己在大面積的東南亞,甚至遠在印度尼西亞。

Also, tradition has it that another son of Asoka established a Buddhist kingdom in central Asia.此外,傳統認為的另一個兒子阿索成立了一個佛教王國在中亞。 Whether or not this is true, it is clear that in subsequent centuries more missionaries (especially Mahayanists) followed the established trade routes west and north to this region, preaching the dharma as they went.不管這是事實,很顯然,在其後的數百年以上的傳教士(特別是Mahayanists )按照既定的貿易路線西部和北部這個地區,宣揚佛法作為他們的去向。

China中國

Central Asia was at that time a crossroads of creeds from all parts of Asia and the Near East, and by the 1st century AD Central Asian Buddhist monks were penetrating in turn into China. It is a matter of some debate what was transformed more in this process - China by Buddhism or Buddhism by China.中亞當時一個十字路口的信仰來自全國各地的亞洲和近東地區,以及公元1世紀中亞佛教僧侶被穿透在轉入中國。這是一個問題,一些爭論是什麼改變更多的在這過程-中國佛教或佛教的中國。 On the one hand, at an early stage, Buddhists became very influential at the Chinese court, and soon their views penetrated the philosophical and literary circles of the gentry.一方面,在早期階段,佛教徒成為非常有影響力的中國法院,不久他們的意見滲透到哲學和文壇的紳士。 On the other hand, early translators of Buddhist texts often adopted Taoist terminology in an attempt to make the Indian Buddhist concepts more understandable, and Buddhism adapted itself to Chinese world views, in particular to their stress on the importance of the family.另一方面,早期的佛教翻譯文本往往採用道家術語,企圖使印度佛教的概念更容易理解,與佛教適應中國的世界觀,特別是他們強調重視家庭。

Buddhism in China also saw the rise of new sects, many of which were later transmitted to Japan.佛教在中國也看到了崛起的新教派,其中許多後來被轉交給日本。 In the 6th century, the monk Chih - i consolidated the T'ien - t'ai school, which sought to order all Buddhist teachings into a set hierarchy culminating in the text known as the Lotus Sutra.在6世紀,和尚志-我鞏固了天子-台學校,為了尋求所有佛教教義到了一套等級最終案文中被稱為蓮花經。 During the T'ang dynasty (618 - 907), the so called golden age of Chinese Buddhism, the Hua - yen school (based on the teachings of the Avatamsaka sutra), the Fa - hsiang school (which taught Vijnanavada doctrines and was promoted by the great pilgrim and scholar Hsuan - Tsang), and the Ch'an school (better known in Japan as Zen Buddhism) all prospered.在唐朝( 618 -9 07) ,所謂的黃金時代中國佛教華-日元學校(根據教義的華嚴經)中,法-襄學校(其中教授V ij nanavada理論和晉升由偉大的朝聖者和學者軒-曾蔭權)和禪學校(更好地了解日本的禪)所有繁榮。 At the same time, Pure Land Buddhism became increasingly popular.與此同時,淨土宗變得越來越受歡迎。

By 845, however, the sangha had grown so large and rich that its tax exempt status now made it a severe drain on the empire's economy.由845然而,桑加增長如此之大和豐富,其免稅地位現在它的嚴重流失帝國的經濟。 For this and other reasons it became the object of a brief but effective imperial persecution.對於這一原因和其他原因,它成為對象的簡單而有效的帝國迫害。 Many temples were destroyed, thousands of monks and nuns were laicized, and the vast landholdings of monasteries were confiscated.許多寺廟被摧毀,數千名僧侶和尼姑被laicized ,和廣大的土地的寺廟被沒收。 Buddhism, especially the Ch'an school, did recover, but it never regained its former prestige in Chinese life.佛教,特別是禪學校,沒有收回,但它從來沒有恢復前的威望在中國的生活。

Japan日本

Before 845, a number of Chinese schools had been transmitted to Japan. 845之前,一些中國學校已經轉交給日本。 Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Korea about the 6th century and initially established itself as a superior means of magical power, especially for preserving and protecting the nation.佛教傳入日本,韓國的6世紀,並初步建立起自己作為一個優越的手段魔力,特別是對維護和保護的國家。 Early in its history, it received the patronage of Prince Shotoku (7th century) and during the Nara period (710 - 84) became the state religion.早在它的歷史,它收到的贊助聖德太子(公元7世紀) ,並在奈良時代( 710 -8 4) ,成為國家宗教。

During the Heian period, in the early 9th century, two monks, Saicho and Kukai, traveled to China and on their return introduced to Japan the Tendai (or Chinese, T'ien - t'ai) sect and the Shingon sect, which was a form of Chinese Tantric Buddhism. Both of these esoteric sects were to take part in the mixing of Buddhism with various Japanese Shinto folk, ascetic, and magical practices.在平安時代,在9世紀初,兩個和尚,最澄和空海,前往中國,並在他們返回日本引進的坦達(或中國,天子-台)第一節和第二節的真言,這是一種形式的中國密宗佛教。這兩個教派的深奧參加混合佛教與日本神道教的各種民俗,禁慾主義,而神奇的做法。

The Tendai sect, moreover, became a fountainhead of several later popular Japanese Buddhist movements.坦達節的,而且成為了源頭之後的幾個受歡迎的日本佛教運動。 One of the Tendai's traits was the worship of the Buddha Amida and the belief in his Pure Land.一個坦達的特徵是崇拜和彌陀佛的信念在他的淨土。 With Honen (1133 - 1212) and Shinran (1173 - 1262), these Pure Land beliefs were systematized and made the exclusive focus of two new, popular sects, the Jodo and the Jodo Shin.隨著Honen ( 1133年至1212年)和親( 1173年至1262年) ,這些淨土信仰系統化,並提出了專注的兩個新的,流行的教派,在鳥島和鳥島申。 Another Tendai trait was emphasis on the teachings of the Lotus Sutra. In the 13th century, the monk Nichiren founded a dynamic and nationalistic sect that made the Lotus its sole basis of worship. Finally, it was also in this same period that two schools of Zen Buddhism were introduced from China.坦達性狀的另一個重點是對教義的蓮花經。在13世紀,日蓮和尚創建一個充滿活力和民族節,使蓮花的唯一基礎的崇拜。最後,也有人在這同一時期,兩所學校的禪介紹了來自中國。

Under the feudal Tokugawa regime (1603 - 1867), all these sects became tools of the government; temples and priests were means of registering, educating, and controlling the populace.在封建德川制度( 1603至1867年) ,所有這些教派成為工具的政府;寺廟和神父的手段登記,教育,控制人口。 In the Meiji era (1868 - 1912), this Buddhist structure was disestablished in favor of Shinto.在明治時代( 1868年至1912年) ,這是佛教解散結構有利於神道。 Finally, during the 20th century, new religious movements within Buddhism, such as the Soka - Gakkai and the Risshokosei - kai, have arisen in response to the problems of the modern age.最後,在20世紀,新的宗教運動佛門內,如創價-學會和R isshokosei-凱出現了反應的問題,現代時代。

Institutions and Practices制度與習俗

Throughout Asia, wherever Buddhism was introduced, its leaders tended to seek the support of kings and other rulers of the state. The pattern of this relationship between a Buddhist king and the monastic community was given its definitive formulation by Emperor Asoka in the 3d century BC.在整個亞洲,無論是佛教介紹,其領導人傾向於尋求支持國王和其他統治者的狀態。格局的關係,佛教國王和僧侶社會鑑於其最終制定的皇帝阿育王在公元前三世紀。 This was a symbiotic relationship in which, in exchange for the allegiance and religious support of the sangha, the emperor became the patron and backer of the Buddhist dharma.這是一種共生的關係中,以換取效忠和宗教支持桑加,皇帝成為贊助人及支持者的佛法。

To some extent this pattern was extended to the laity as well. Everywhere, Buddhist monastic communities tended to depend on the laity for food and material support.在一定程度上這種模式擴大到俗人的。無處不在,佛教寺院的社區往往依賴於俗人對糧食和物質上的支持。 Although in some places the sangha as a whole became well - to - do and the controller of vast monastic estates, traditionally monks were beggars and, in Southeast Asian countries, they still go on daily alms rounds.雖然在一些地方,僧伽作為一個整體成為良好-到-做和控制器的廣大僧侶屋,傳統僧侶被乞丐,並在東南亞國家,他們仍然每天都去施捨子彈。

Traditionally also, Buddhist monks have been celibate.傳統的同時,佛教僧侶一直獨身。 Thus they depend on the faithful not only for food and financial support but for new recruits.因此,他們依靠忠實不僅是糧食和財政支持,但新聘人員。 Often children will enter a monastery and spend a number of years as novices, studying, learning, and doing chores. Then, following ordination, they become full members of the community, vowing to uphold its discipline.往往是兒童將進入一個修道院裡花了數年的新手,學習,學習,做家務。然後,下面的統籌,它們成為正式成員的社會,誓言要堅持紀律。 Henceforth their days will be taken up in ritual, devotions, meditation, study, teaching, and preaching.今後的日子將在儀式中, devotions ,打坐,研究,教學和說教。 Twice a month, all the monks in a given monastery will gather for the recitation of the rules of the order (the pratimoksha) and the confession of any violation of those rules.每月兩次,所有的僧侶在某一寺院將收集的背誦規則的命令(在pratimoksha )和懺悔的任何違反這些規則。

One of the pivotal concepts behind the rites and festivals of Buddhist laity and monks is that of offering (dana).其中一個關鍵概念背後的宗教儀式和節日的佛教信徒和僧侶是募股(明星) 。 This includes, for the laity, not just the giving of food and (in special ceremonies at the end of the rainy seasons) of new robes to the monks, but also the offering of flowers, incense, and praise to the image of the Buddha, stupas, bodhi trees, or, especially in Mahayanist countries, to other members of the Buddhist pantheon such as bodhisattvas.這包括,為俗人,而不僅僅是提供的食物和(特殊的儀式結束時的雨季)的新長袍的僧侶,而且還提供鮮花,香燭,並讚揚形象的佛像,舍利塔,菩提樹木,或者,尤其是在Mahayanist國家,對其他成員的佛教萬神殿,如菩薩。

For the monks, the notion of offering extends also to the giving of the dharma in the form of sermons, to the chanting of scriptures in rituals (which may also be thought of as magically protective and salutary), and to the recitation of sutras for the dead.對於僧侶的概念延伸產品也給予了佛法的形式布道,向誦經的經文在儀式(這也可能被認為是神奇的保護和有益) ,和背誦經文的死者。

All of these acts of offering are intimately involved in the concept of merit making.所有這些行動提供人員直接參與的概念,值得決策。 By performing them, individuals, through the working of karma, can seek to assure themselves rebirth in one of the heavens or a better station in life, from which they may be able to attain the goal of enlightenment.他們的表演,個人,通過工作的緣份,可以尋求以確保自己在一個新生的天空或一個更好的生活,從這些可以實現的目標啟迪。

Buddhism Today佛教今天

During this century, traditional Buddhist practices have been increasingly challenged by the advances of secularization and Westernization in Asia.在本世紀,傳統佛教的做法已越來越多地受到了世俗化的進展和洋務在亞洲。 In view of this, various modern Buddhist leaders have tended to deemphasize the popular Buddhist practices and expressions of faith and to stress the more rational and empirical aspects of Buddhist thought as well as the practice of meditation.鑑於這種情況,各種現代佛教領袖往往deemphasize流行的佛教習俗和信仰的表達,並強調更加合理和經驗方面的佛教思想,以及實踐中冥想。 At the same time, they have given to Buddhism a considerable role in the nationalist movements in their own countries and promoted contacts with other Buddhist nations through such ecumenical organizations as the World Fellowship of Buddhists, which now has chapters throughout the world.與此同時,他們考慮到佛教了相當大的作用的民族主義運動在他們自己的國家,並促進與其他國家的佛教通過這種基督教組織的世界佛教徒聯誼會,目前已章節世界各地。

In more recent years, however, some of the Buddhist leaders have lost their influence, and some of their nations have lost their Buddhism.近年來,然而,一些佛教領袖失去了他們的影響力,以及他們的一些國家已經失去了佛教。 Vietnam, Laos, and Kampuchea (Cambodia) have joined China, Mongolia, Tibet, and North Korea as once Buddhistic but now Communist nations.越南,老撾,和柬埔寨(柬埔寨)已加入中國,蒙古,西藏,朝鮮再次佛教,但現在共產主義國家。 Even as Western ideology (whether in the form of communism or secular capitalism) has advanced into Asia, however, Buddhism has begun to spread in the West. Tibetan, Theravada, and Japanese sects especially have firm toeholds in America and Western Europe, and, in the face of further uncertainties in Asia, a few Buddhist leaders have even come to think that the future of their religion lies there.即使在西方思想(無論是形式的共產主義或世俗的資本主義)已進入亞洲先進,但是,佛教已開始蔓延在西方。藏族,小乘,日本教派特別是要有堅定的toeholds在北美和西歐,並在面臨進一步的不確定性在亞洲,有幾個佛教領導人甚至認為,未來的在於他們的宗教存在。

Joseph M Kitagawa and John S Strong約瑟夫M北側和約翰的有力

Bibliography: 參考書目:
H Bechert and R Gombrich, eds., The World of Buddhism (1984); KKKS Ch'en, Buddhism in China (1964); E Conze, Buddhism: Its Essence and Development (1959); P Denwood and A Piatiagrosky, eds., Buddhist Studies (1982); H Dumoulin, ed., Buddhism in the Modern World (1976); C Eliot, Hinduism and Buddhism (1921) and Japanese Buddhism (1935); AL Herman, An Introduction to Buddhist Thought (1984); C Humphreys, Buddhism (1962); D Ikeda, The Flower of Japanese Buddhism (1986); T Ling, A Dictionary of Buddhism (1981); R Robinson and W Johnson, The Buddhist Religion (1982); N Ross, Buddhism (1980); D Snellgrove, Indo Tibetan Buddhism (1986); E Zurcher, Buddhism: Its Origin and Spread in Words, Maps, and Pictures (1962). H貝歇特和R貢布里希合編。 ,世界佛教( 1984年) ; KKKS陳,佛教在中國( 1964 ) ;電子郵件孔茲,佛教:它的本質和發展( 1959年) ; P Denwood和A Piatiagrosky合編。 ,佛學( 1982 ) ; H迪穆蘭,編輯。 ,佛教在現代世界( 1976年) ; ç艾略特,印度教和佛教( 1921年)和日本佛教( 1935年) ;美聯赫爾曼,介紹佛教思想( 1984年) ; ç漢弗萊斯,佛教( 1962年) ; D池田花的日本佛教( 1986年) ; Ť玲,詞典佛教( 1981年) ; R羅賓遜和W約翰遜,佛教宗教( 1982年) ; ñ羅斯,佛教( 1980年) ; D Snellgrove ,印度藏傳佛教( 1986年) ;電子郵件蘇黎世,佛教:它的起源與散佈在詞,地圖和照片( 1962年) 。


Pure Land Buddhism淨土宗

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Pure Land Buddhism is one of the most influential forms of Mahayana Buddhism.淨土宗是一個最有影響力的形式的大乘佛教。 According to some Mahayana schools, the cosmos contains many Pure Lands in each of which dwells one Buddha.據一些大乘學校,宇宙包含了許多純土地每談到一個佛像。 The most popular of these is Sukhavati, the Land of Bliss of Amitabha, located in the West; it is on Sukhavati that Pure Land Buddhism focuses.最受歡迎的是Sukhavati ,土地的布利斯的阿彌陀佛,設在西部,這是對Sukhavati的淨土宗的重點。 Through devotion to Amitabha, it is claimed, Buddhists can be reborn and saved in his paradise.通過奉獻阿彌陀佛,這是人,佛教徒可以重生,並保存在他的天堂。

Although the cult of Amitabha had its roots in India, it was developed and flourished in China and Japan.雖然邪教阿彌陀佛了它的根源在印度,這是發達國家和蓬勃發展的中國和日本。 Hui Yuan founded the cult in 402 AD, calling it the White Lotus sect.慧遠創立了邪教組織在公元402 ,稱這是白蓮花節。 From the 5th century on, a succession of Chinese Pure Land masters, Shan - tao (613 - 81) foremost among them, attracted followers from all social strata.從公元5世紀,一個繼承中國淨土的主人,山-濤( 6 13- 81 )其中最主要的,吸引追隨者從社會各階層。 Gradually their emphasis shifted from devout contemplation or visualization of Amitabha and his Pure Land to a doctrine of salvation through faith and the devout recitation of Amitabha's name (Amit'o fo in Chinese; Amida in Japanese).他們的重點逐步從虔誠的沉思,或可視化和他的阿彌陀佛淨土的理論救亡通過信仰和虔誠背誦阿彌陀佛的名稱( Amit'o在中國;彌陀在日本) 。 This recitation is called the nembutsu in Japanese (nien - fo in Chinese) and consists of repeating the formula "Namo Amida Batsu" (in Japanese; "Nanmo Amit'o fo" in Chinese), meaning "Salutation to the Buddha Amida."這背誦所謂的nembutsu在日本(陳建年-在中國) ,由重複的公式“南無阿彌陀佛B atsu” (日語“ ; N anmoA mit'o為”在中國) ,意思是“稱呼的彌陀佛。 ”

These Pure Land doctrines were first introduced to Japan within the Tendai sect.這些淨土學說被介紹到日本的坦達節。 Honen (1133 - 1212), emphasizing them exclusively, broke with Tendai and founded the independent Jodo (Pure Land) sect. Honen ( 1133年至1212年) ,強調他們完全打破坦達,並成立了獨立的鳥島(淨土)節。 His disciple Shinran (1173 - 1262) founded the more popularly oriented Jodo Shin (True Pure Land) sect.他的弟子親( 1173年至1262年)創辦了面向更廣泛鳥島申(真正的淨土)節。 Both emphasized the practice of the nembutsu and the primacy of faith in Amida, but whereas Honen saw faith as the means of achieving rebirth in the Pure Land of the West (called Gokuraku in Japanese), Shinran viewed it as an expression of gratitude for Amida's saving grace.雙方強調,實踐nembutsu和至上的信念,彌陀,但而Honen看到信仰的手段,來實現重生淨土西(稱為Gokuraku在日本) ,親認為這表達了感謝阿彌陀佛的節能寬限期。

Joseph M Kitagawa And John S Strong約瑟夫M北側和約翰的有力

Bibliography: 參考書目:
RH Robinson and WA Johnson, The Buddhist Religion (1982); E Steinilber - Oberlin, The Buddhist Sects of Japan (1938); DT Suzuki, Japanese Spirituality (1972); LG Thompson, Chinese Religion: An Introduction (1969); P Williams, Mahayana Buddhism (1989).相對濕度羅賓遜和WA約翰遜,佛教宗教( 1982年) ;電子郵件Steinilber -美林,佛教教派,日本( 1 938) ;差別待遇鈴木,日本的靈性( 1 972年) ; L G電子湯普森,中國宗教:簡介( 1 969年) ; P威廉姆斯,大乘佛教( 1989年) 。


Parts Of Some Buddhist Documents Follow.零件的一些佛教的後續文件。 . .


Buddha, The Word佛陀字

500 BC公元前500

(The Eightfold Path) (在八路徑)

The Four Noble Truths在四諦

Thus has it been said by the Buddha, the Enlightened One: It is through not understanding, not realizing four things, that I, Disciples, as well as you, had to wander so long through this round of rebirths.因此,它所說的佛陀,開明的一個:它是通過不理解,而不是實現四件事,我,弟子,以及你不得不流浪只要通過這一輪的rebirths 。 And what are these four things?什麼是這四個東西? They are the Noble Truth of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the Extinction of Suffering.他們是貴族真相的痛苦,真理的高尚起源的痛苦,高尚的真相滅絕的痛苦,真理的高尚的路徑,導致滅絕的痛苦。

As long as the absolutely true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths was not quite clear in me, so long was I not sure, whether I had won that supreme Enlightenment which is unsurpassed in all the world with its heavenly beings, evil spirits and gods, amongst all the hosts of ascetics and priests, heavenly beings and men.只要千真萬確的知識和見識方面的這些四諦不很清楚,我,只要是我不知道,我是否已經贏得了最高的啟示是無與倫比的在世界上所有的天上人,辟邪與神,在所有主機的修行和牧師,神聖的存在和男人。 But as soon as the absolutely true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths had become perfectly clear in me, there arose in me the assurance that I had won that supreme Enlightenment unsurpassed.但隨著千真萬確的知識和見識方面的這些四諦已成為十分清楚,我,還有發生在我保證,我已贏得了無可比擬的最高啟示。

And I discovered that profound truth, so difficult to perceive, difficult to understand, tranquilizing and sublime, which is not to be gained by mere reasoning, and is visible only to the wise.而且我發現,深刻的道理,所以很難認為,很難理解,安定和崇高的,這是不是僅僅獲得的推理,是只看得見的英明。

The world, however, is given to pleasure, delighted with pleasure, enchanted with pleasure.然而,世界是考慮到高興,高興高興,並愉快地入迷。 Verily, such beings will hardly understand the law of conditionality, the Dependent Origination of every thing; incomprehensible to them will also be the end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving; detachment, extinction, Nirvana.真的,這種人就很難理解法律的制約條件,緣起的一切;不能理解他們也將結束所有編隊,在放棄每一個底層新生的逐漸消失渴求;支隊,滅絕,涅槃。

Yet there are beings whose eyes are only a little covered with dust: they will understand the truth.然而,人們的目光都很少滿身灰塵:他們將了解事實真相。

First Truth第一真相

The Noble Truth of Suffering真理的崇高的痛苦

What, now, is the Noble Truth of Suffering? Birth is suffering; Decay is suffering; Death is suffering; Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Grief, and Despair, are suffering; not to get what one desires, is suffering; in short: the Five Groups of Existence are suffering.是什麼,現在是貴族真相痛苦?出生是痛苦;衰變是痛苦;死亡的痛苦;悲哀,悲嘆,痛苦,悲傷和絕望,是痛苦;沒有得到人們的願望,是痛苦;在短期:五組的存在是痛苦。

What, now, is Birth?是什麼,現在是出生? The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being born, their conception and springing into existence, the manifestation of the groups of existence, the arising of sense activity - this is called Birth.出生的人屬於這個或那個秩序的人,他們出生,他們的概念和雨後春筍般成立,體現了群體的存在,產生意識的活動-這就是所謂的出生。

And what is Decay?什麼是衰減? The decay of beings belonging to this or that order of beings; their getting aged, frail, grey, and wrinkled; the failing of their vital force, the wearing out of the senses - this is called Decay.衰變的人屬於這個或那個秩序的人,他們越來越歲,年老體弱,灰色,和皺紋;失敗的重要力量,服裝的感官-這就是所謂的衰變。

And what is Death?什麼是死? The parting and vanishing of beings out of this or that order of beings, their destruction, disappearance, death, the completion of their life period, dissolution of the groups of existence, the discarding of the body - this is called Death.在離別和消失的人們的這種或那種秩序的人,他們的破壞,失踪,死亡,完成其生命週期,解散集團的存在,丟棄的屍體-這就是所謂的死亡。

And what is Sorrow?什麼是悲哀? The sorrow arising through this or that loss or misfortune which one encounters, the worrying oneself, the state of being alarmed, inward sorrow, inward woe - this is called Sorrow.所產生的悲痛通過這樣或那樣的損失或不幸遇到哪一個,令人擔憂自己的狀態感到震驚,悲痛抵港,抵港休戚與共-這就是所謂的悲哀。

And what is Lamentation?什麼是悲嘆? Whatsoever, through this or that loss or misfortune which befalls one, is wail and lament, wailing and lamenting, the state of woe and lamentation this is called Lamentation.什麼,通過這樣或那樣的損失或不幸befalls之一,是哀號和悲嘆,呻吟和嘆息,國家的方針和悲嘆,這是所謂的悲嘆。

And what is Pain?什麼是疼痛? The bodily pain and unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by bodily contact - this is called Pain.在身體上的痛苦和不愉快,痛苦和不愉快的感覺產生的身體接觸-這就是所謂的疼痛。

And what is Grief?什麼是悲傷? The mental pain and unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by mental contact - this is called Grief.的精神痛苦和不愉快,痛苦和不愉快的感覺產生的心理接觸-這就是所謂的悲痛。

And what is Despair?什麼是絕望? Distress and despair arising through this or that loss or misfortune which one encounters, distressfulness, and desperation - this is called Despair.困境和絕望的通過產生這樣或那樣的損失或不幸遇到哪一個, distressfulness ,和絕望-這就是所謂的絕望。

And what is the "suffering of not getting what one desires?"什麼是“痛苦沒有得到一個什麼願望? ” To beings subject to birth there comes the desire: "O that we were not subject to birth! O that no new birth was before us!"若要人受那裡出生的願望是: “啊,我們沒有受到誕生! ö ,沒有新的出生是擺在我們面前! ” Subject to decay, disease, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair, the desire comes to them: "O that we were not subject to these things! O that these things were not before us!"除腐爛,疾病,死亡,悲傷,悲嘆,痛苦,悲傷和絕望,希望他們來: “啊,我們沒有受到這些事情! ö ,這些東西不是擺在我們面前! ” But this cannot be got by mere desiring; and not to get what one desires, is suffering.但是,這不能僅僅得到了希望; ,而不是得到什麼人的願望,是痛苦。

The Five Groups of Existence這五個群體的存在

And what, in brief, are the Five Groups of Existence?什麼,簡言之,是五組的存在? They are Corporeality, Feeling, Perception, (mental) Formations, and Consciousness.他們Corporeality ,情感,知覺, (精神)形態和意識。

Any corporeal phenomenon, whether one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, belongs to the Group of Corporeality; any feeling belongs to the Group of Feeling; any perception belongs to the Group of Perception; any mental formation belongs to the Group of Formations; all consciousness belongs to the Group of Consciousness.任何物質的現象,無論是自己的或外部的,嚴重或微妙的,崇高的或低,遠或近,屬於該集團的Corporeality ;任何感覺屬於該集團的情感;任何知覺屬於該集團的知覺;任何心理形成屬於集團的地層;所有意識屬於集團的意識。

(Our so called individual existence is in reality nothing but a mere process of these "bodily and mental" phenomena, which since immemorial times was going on before one's apparent birth, and which also after death will continue for immemorial periods of time. In the following, we shall see that these five Groups, or Khandhas - either taken separately, or combined - in no way constitute any real "Ego - entity," and that no Ego - entity exists apart from them, and hence that the belief in an Ego - entity is merely an illusion. Just as that which we designate by the name of "chariot," has no existence apart from axle, wheels, shaft, and so forth: or as the word "house" is merely a convenient designation for various materials put together after a certain fashion so as to enclose a portion of space, and there is no separate house - entity in existence: - in exactly the same way, that which we call a "being," or an "individual," or a "person," or by the name is nothing but a changing combination of physical and psychical phenomena, and has no real existence in itself.) (我們所謂的個人的存在是在現實中只是一個單純過程中這些“身體和心理”現象,自遠古時代正在進行之前顯然出生的,它死後將繼續為遠古時期。在下面,我們應看到,這5個組,或Khandhas -要么採取單獨或合併-絕不構成任何真正的“自我-實體” ,而且沒有自我-實體的存在除了他們,因此說,在一個信仰自我-實體僅僅是一種幻想。就像是我們指定的名字叫“戰車”已不存在除車軸,車輪,軸,等等:或用“家”僅僅是一種方便的指定各種材料整理後,某時裝,以便附上的一部分空間,而且沒有單獨的房子-實體存在: -在完全相同的方式,即我們所謂的“正”或“個人”或“人” ,或由名稱只不過是一個不斷變化的結合,身體和心理現象,並沒有真正的存在本身。 )

The "Corporeality Group" of Four Elements該“ Corporeality集團”的四要素

What, now, is the Group of Corporeality?是什麼,現在是集團的Corporeality ? It is the four primary elements, and Corporeality derived from them.這是四個主要因素, Corporeality來自他們。

And what are the four primary elements?和什麼樣的四個主要因素? They are the Solid Element, the Fluid Element, the Heating Element, the Vibrating Element.他們是固體元素,流體元件,加熱元件,振動元件。

(The four elements, or - to speak more correctly - the four elementary qualities of matter, may be rendered in English as: Inertia, Cohesion, Radiation, and Vibration. (這四個要素,或-講更正確-四小學素質的問題,可提供英文為:慣性,凝聚力,輻射和振動。

The twenty four corporeal phenomena which depend upon them are, according to the Abhidharma: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, visible form, sound, odor, taste, masculinity, femininity, vitality, organ of thinking, gesture, speech, space (cavities of ear, nose, etc.), agility, elasticity, adaptability, growth, duration, decay, variability, change of substance.)在2004年有形的現象取決於他們,根據阿毗達磨:眼,耳,鼻,舌,身,明顯的形式,聲音,氣味,口味,男性,女性,充滿活力,機關的思想,姿態,言語,空間(空洞的耳,鼻等) ,敏捷性,彈性,適應性強,生長,持續時間,腐爛,可變性,變化的實質。 )

1. 1 。 What, now, is the Solid Element?是什麼,現在是固體元素? The solid element may be one's own, or it may be external.固體元素可能是自己的,也可能是外部。 And what is one's own solid element?什麼是自己的堅實的內容? The dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are hard and solid, as the hairs of head and body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, stomach, bowels, mesentery, excrement, or whatever other dependent properties which on one's own person and body are hard and solid - this is called one's own solid element.性能的依賴,這對自己的個人和機構的努力和固體,如毛的頭和身體,指甲,牙齒,皮膚,肉, sinews ,骨骼,骨髓,腎臟,心臟,肝臟,膈肌,脾,肺,胃,腸,腸系膜,糞便,或任何其他性質的依賴於自己的個人和機構都很難和固體-這就是所謂自己的堅實的元素。 Now, whether it be one's own solid element, or whether it be the external solid element, they are both only the solid element.現在,無論是自己的堅實的元素,或無論是外部堅實的元素,它們都只有堅實的元素。 And one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."和一個應該理解,根據現實,真正的智慧: “這不屬於我,這我沒有,這是不是我的自我。 ”

2. 2 。 What, now, is the Fluid Element?是什麼,現在是流體元? The fluid element may be one's own, or it may be external.流體的元素可能是自己的,也可能是外部。 And what is one own fluid element? The dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are watery or cohesive, as bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, lymph, tears, semen, spit, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, urine or whatever other dependent properties which on one own person and body are watery or cohesive - this is called one's own fluid element.什麼是自己的流體組成部分?性能的依賴,這對自己的個人和機構的水或凝聚力,作為膽汁,粘液,膿液,鮮血,汗水,淋巴結,眼淚,精液,吐痰,鼻涕,石油關節,尿或任何其他性質的依賴一個人,自己的身體是水或凝聚力-這就是所謂自己的流體元素。 Now, whether it be one's own fluid element, or whether it be the external fluid element, they are both only the fluid element. And one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."現在,無論是自己的流體組成部分,還是在外部流體元素,它們都只有流體的因素。之一應該理解,根據現實,真正的智慧: “這不屬於我,這很我不是這是不是我的自我。 “

3. 3 。 What, now, is the Heating Element?是什麼,現在是暖氣元? The heating element may be one own, or it may be external.該加熱元件可能是自己的,也可能是外部。 And what is one's own heating element? The dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are heating and radiating, as that whereby one is heated, consumed, scorched, whereby that which has been eaten, drunk, chewed, or tasted, is fully digested; or whatever other dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are heating and radiating this is called one's own heating element.什麼是自己的加熱元件?的依賴特性,這對自己的個人和機構的供暖和輻射,這是其中之一加熱,消費,焦土,即認為已經吃,喝,嚼,或品嚐,是充分消化;或任何其他附屬財產,這對自己的個人和機構的供暖和輻射,這是所謂自己的加熱元件。 Now, whether it be one's own heating element, or whether it be the external heating element, they are both only the heating element.現在,無論是自己的加熱元件,或無論是外部加熱元件,他們都只有加熱元件。 And one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."和一個應該理解,根據現實,真正的智慧: “這不屬於我,這我沒有,這是不是我的自我。 ”

4. 4 。 What, now, is the Vibrating Element?是什麼,現在是振元? The vibrating element may be one's own, or it may be external.振動的元素可能是自己的,也可能是外部。 And what is one's own vibrating element?什麼是自己的振動因素? The dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are mobile and gaseous, as the upward - going and downward - going winds; the winds of stomach and intestines; in - breathing and out - breathing; or whatever other dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are mobile and gaseous - this is called one's own vibrating element.性能的依賴,這對自己的個人和機構的流動和氣體,如向上-向下去-去風;風胃和腸道;中-外呼吸-呼吸;或任何其他附屬財產,這對自己的個人和機構的流動和氣體-這就是所謂的自身振動的因素。 Now, whether it be one's own vibrating element, or whether it be the external vibrating element, they are both only the vibrating element.現在,無論是自己的振動元件,或無論是外部振動的因素,它們都只有振動的因素。

And one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego." Just as one calls "hut" the circumscribed space which comes to be by means of wood and rushes, reeds, and clay, even so we call "body" the circumscribed space that comes to be by means of bones and sinews, flesh and skin.和一個應該理解,根據現實,真正的智慧: “這不屬於我,這我沒有,這是不是我的自我。 ”就像一個所謂的“小屋”空間的限制這是必須的手段木材和藺草,蘆葦,以及粘土,即便如此,我們稱之為“機構”的限制空間,是要通過骨骼和sinews ,肉和皮膚。

Dependent Origination of Consciousness緣起意識

Now, though one's eye be intact, yet if the external forms do not fall within the field of vision, and no corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case there occurs no formation of the corresponding aspect of consciousness.現在,雖然一個人的眼睛是完整的,但如果外部形式不屬於視野,沒有相應的一起發生,在這種情況下,有沒有形成發生了相應方面的意識。 Or, though one eye be intact, and the external forms fall within the field of vision, yet if no corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case also there occurs no formation of the corresponding aspect of consciousness. If, however, one's eye is intact, and the external forms fall within the field of vision, and the corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case there arises the corresponding aspect of consciousness.或者,雖然一隻眼睛完整,與外部形式範圍內的視野,但如果沒有相應的一起發生,在這種情況下也有發生不形成相應方面的意識。然而,如果一個人的眼睛完好無損,以及各種形式的外部範圍內的視野,以及相應的一起發生,在這種情況下有相應的產生方面的意識。

Hence, I say: the arising of consciousness is dependent upon conditions; and without these conditions, no consciousness arises. And upon whatsoever conditions the arising of consciousness is dependent, after these it is called.因此,我說:意識的產生依賴於條件; ,沒有這些條件,沒有意識的產生。並根據條件所產生的意識是依賴,在這些被稱為。

Consciousness whose arising depends on the eye and forms, is called "eye - consciousness."意識的產生依賴於眼睛和形式,被稱為“眼-意識。 ”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the ear and sound, is called "ear - consciousness."意識的產生依賴於耳朵和聲音,被稱為“耳朵-意識。 ”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the olfactory organ and odors, is called "nose - consciousness."意識的產生依賴於嗅覺器官和氣味,被稱為“鼻子-意識。 ”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the tongue and taste, is called "tongue - consciousness."意識的產生依賴於母語和口味,被稱為“母語-意識。 ”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the body and bodily contacts, is called "body - consciousness."意識的產生依賴於身體和身體接觸,被稱為“機構-意識。 ”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the mind and ideas, is called "mind - consciousness."意識的產生依賴於思想和觀念,是所謂的“銘記-意識。 ”

Whatsoever there is of "corporeality" in the consciousness thus arisen, that belongs to the Group of Corporeality.無論是對“ corporeality ”的意識從而出現,屬於該集團的Corporeality 。 there is of "feeling" - bodily ease, pain, joy, sadness, or indifferent feeling - belongs to the Group of Feeling.還有的“感覺” -身體減輕,疼痛,喜悅,悲傷,或冷漠的感覺-屬於該集團的情感。 Whatsoever there is of "perception" - visual objects, sounds, odors, tastes, bodily impressions, or mind objects - belongs to the Group of Perception. Whatsoever there are of mental "formations" impression, volition, etc.無論是對“感覺” -可視對象,聲音,氣味,口味,身體的展示,或到物體-屬於該集團的知覺。無論有精神“編隊”的印象,意志等 - belong to the Group of mental Formations. -屬於該集團的精神形態。 Whatsoever there is of "consciousness" therein, belongs to the Group of Consciousness.還有什麼是“意識”其中,屬於該集團的意識。

And it is impossible that any one can explain the passing out of one existence, and the entering into a new existence, or the growth, increase, and development of consciousness, independent of corporeality, feeling, perception, and mental formations.這是不可能的,任何人可以解釋結業的一個存在,並進入了一個新的存在,或增長,增加和發展意識,獨立corporeality ,感覺,知覺,和心理編隊。

The Three Characteristics of Existence這三個特點的存在

All formations are "transient"; all formations are "subject to suffering"; all things are "without an Ego - entity."所有編隊是“短暫” ;所有編隊是“受痛苦” ;一切事物都是“沒有一個自我-實體。 ” Corporeality is transient, feeling is transient, perception is transient, mental formations are transient, consciousness is transient. Corporeality是暫時性的,感覺是短暫的,短暫的看法是,心理編隊是短暫的,意識是短暫的。

And that which is transient, is subject to suffering; and of that which is transient, and subject to suffering and change, one cannot rightly say: "This belongs to me; this am I; this is my Ego."而且這是暫時性的,是受痛苦;和該是暫時性的,並受的苦難和變化,人們不能正確地說: “這屬於我,這我,這是我的自我。 ”

Therefore, whatever there be of corporeality, of feeling, perception, mental formations, or consciousness, whether one's own or external, whether gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."因此,無論出現的corporeality ,感覺,知覺,心理編隊,或意識,無論是自己的或外部的,不論是嚴重或微妙的,崇高的或低,遠或近,人們應該理解,根據現實,真正的智慧: “這不屬於我,這我沒有,這是不是我的自我。 ”

Suppose, a man who is not blind, were to behold the many bubbles on the Ganges as they are driving along; and he should watch them, and carefully examine them.假設,一個男人誰不是盲目的,是看見許多泡沫的恒河因為它們是沿; ,他應該關注他們,並認真加以研究。 After carefully examining them, they will appear to him empty, unreal, and unsubstantial.經過認真審查,他們會覺得空的,虛幻的,並unsubstantial 。 In exactly the same way, does the monk behold all the corporeal phenomena, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and states of consciousness - whether they be of the past, or the present, or the future, far, or near.在完全相同的方式,但和尚看見的所有物質的現象,情感,觀念,心理結構,以及規定的意識-不管是過去,還是現在,還是將來,到目前為止,或其附近。 And he watches them, and examines them carefully; and, after carefully examining them, they appear to him empty, void, and without an Ego他手錶,並仔細檢查; ,並在仔細審查,他們覺得空的,無效的,並沒有一個自我

Whoso delights in corporeality, or feeling, or perception, or mental formations, or consciousness, he delights in suffering; and whoso delights in suffering, will not be freed from suffering. Whoso在corporeality歡樂,或感覺,或觀念,或精神上的編隊,或意識,他在痛苦歡樂和愉悅whoso的痛苦,將不會擺脫痛苦。 Thus I say因此,我要說

How can you find delight and mirth,你怎麼能找到喜悅和歡樂,
Where there is burning without end?凡有燃燒不結束?
In deepest darkness you are wrapped!在黑暗中你最深切的包裹!
Why do you not seek for the light?你為什麼不尋求輕?

Look at this puppet here, well rigged,看看這個傀儡這裡,以及操縱,
A heap of many sores, piled up,堆了許多瘡,堆放,
Diseased, and full of greediness,病株,並充分的貪念,
Unstable, and impermanent!不穩定,無常!

Devoured by old age is this frame,吞噬歲的年齡是這一框架內,
A prey of sickness, weak and frail;阿獵物生病,虛弱,年老體弱;
To pieces breaks this putrid body,為了這件休息,身體腐爛,
All life must truly end in death.所有生活必須真正停止死亡。

The Three Warnings這三個警告

Did you never see in the world a man, or a woman, eighty, ninety, or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable roof, bent down, resting on crutches, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since fled, with broken teeth, grey and scanty hair, or bald - headed, wrinkled, with blotched limbs?你永遠也看不到在世界上一個男人,或一個女人,八十,九十,或100歲,年老體弱,彎曲的屋頂,彎下腰來,休息的拐杖,顫巍巍與步驟,體弱,青年早已逃走,破碎的牙齒,灰色和稀少的頭髮,或禿頂-領導,皺紋,四肢與b lotched? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to decay, that also you cannot escape it?也從來沒有想到到你,你也受到衰減,這也是你無法逃避它?

Did you never see in the world a man, or a woman, who being sick, afflicted, and grievously ill, and wallowing in his own filth, was lifted up by some people, and put to bed by others?你永遠也看不到在世界上一個男人,或一個女人,誰生病,受災,並嚴重虐待,並沆瀣一氣在自己的髒物,被解除了一些人,並把睡覺的其他人呢? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to disease, that also you cannot escape it?也從來沒有想到到你,你也受到疾病,也可以逃脫不了它?

Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man, or a woman, one, or two, or three days after death, swollen up, blue - black in color, and full of corruption?你永遠也看不到在世界上的屍體一個男人,或一個女人,一個或兩個,或後3天內死亡,腫了,藍色-黑色的顏色,充滿了腐敗? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to death, that also you cannot escape it?也從來沒有想到到你,你也受到死亡,這也是你無法逃避它?

Samsara, The Wheel of Existence輪迴,該輪存在

Inconceivable is the beginning of this Samsara; not to be discovered不可思議的是本月初輪迴;不被發現

(continues . . . ) (繼續。 。 。 )


Another Important Buddhist Document (Portion) Follows另一個重要的佛教文件(部分)如下


Buddha, The Gospel佛陀福音

500 BC公元前500

The Disciple Speaks該弟子說話

Rejoice歡欣鼓舞

Rejoice at the glad tidings!歡欣鼓舞的喜訊! The Buddha our Lord has found the root of all evil; he has shown us the way of salvation.佛陀我們的主已經找到了萬惡之源,他告訴我們,拯救的方法。 The Buddha dispels the illusions of our mind and redeems us from the terror of death.佛陀的幻想驅除我們的思想和贖回我們從死亡的恐怖。

The Buddha, our Lord, brings comfort to the weary and sorrow - laden; he restores peace to those who are broken down under the burden of life.佛陀,我們的上帝,帶來舒適的疲倦和悲傷-載貨;恢復和平,他對那些誰細分下的生活負擔。 He gives courage to the weak when they would fain give up self reliance and hope.他給的勇氣弱時,會欣然放棄自力更生和希望。 You who suffer from the tribulations of life, you who have to struggle and endure, you who yearn for a life of truth, rejoice at the glad tidings!你們誰遭受磨難的生活,你誰的鬥爭和忍受的,你誰渴望生活的真理,歡欣鼓舞的喜訊! There is balm for the wounded, and there is bread for the hungry.有唇膏的人受傷,並有麵包的餓了。 There is water for the thirsty, and there is hope for the despairing.有水的渴望,有希望的絕望。 There is light for those in darkness, and there is inexhaustible blessing for the upright.有鑑於對於那些在黑暗中,有取之不盡,用之不竭的祝福直立。

Heal your wounds, you wounded, and eat your fill, you hungry. Rest, you weary, and you who are thirsty quench your thirst.您的傷口癒合,你受傷,你吃補,你餓了。休息,你感到厭倦,你是誰口渴解渴。 Look up to the light, you who sit in darkness; be full of good cheer, you who are forlorn.查一查的輕,你坐在誰在黑暗中;充分良好的歡呼,你誰是渺茫。

Trust in truth, You who love the truth, for the kingdom of righteousness is founded upon earth.信託真理,誰愛你的真相,為正義王國的基礎之上是地球。 The darkness of error is dispelled by the light of truth.黑暗的錯誤是消除了光的真理。 We can see our way and take firm and certain steps.我們可以看到我們的方式和採取堅定和某些步驟。 The Buddha, our Lord, has revealed the truth.佛陀,我們的上帝,揭示了的真理。 The truth cures our diseases and redeems us from perdition; the truth strengthens us in life and in death; the truth alone can conquer the evils of error.事實治愈我們的疾病和贖回我們從毀滅;真相加強我們的生活和死亡;的真相就可以征服的邪惡勢力的錯誤。 Rejoice at the glad tidings!歡欣鼓舞的喜訊!

Samsara and Nirvana輪迴和涅磐

Look about and contemplate life!查找並考慮生活! Everything is transient and nothing endures.一切都是短暫和沒有死去。 There is birth and death, growth and decay; there is combination and separation.有出生和死亡,生長和衰變;有結合和分離。 The glory of the world is like a flower: it stands in full bloom in the morning and fades in the heat of the day.榮耀的世界就像一個花:它盛開在上午和淡入淡出效果在激烈的一天。

Wherever you look, there is a rushing and a struggling, and an eager pursuit of pleasure.只要你看看,有一個急於和掙扎,一個渴望追求的樂趣。 There is a panic flight from pain and death, and hot are the flames of burning desires.有一種恐慌逃離痛苦和死亡,而且是熱的火焰燃燒的慾望。 The world is Vanity Fair, full of changes and transformations.世界是名利場,充滿了變化和轉變。 All is Samsara, the turning Wheel of Existence.所有的輪迴,轉法輪的存在。

Is there nothing permanent in the world?有沒有常任理事國在世界上? Is there in the universal turmoil no resting place where our troubled heart can find peace?是否有普遍風暴沒有休息的地方我們多災多難的心可以找到和平嗎? Is there nothing everlasting?有沒有永恆? Oh, that we could have cessation of anxiety, that our burning desires would be extinguished!噢,那我們可以停止焦慮,我們燃燒的慾望將被取消! When shall the mind become tranquil and composed?當應成為心靈寧靜和組成?

The Buddha, our Lord, was grieved at the ills of life.佛陀,我們的上帝,是悲痛的弊病的生活。 He saw the vanity of worldly happiness and sought salvation in the one thing that will not fade or perish, but will abide for ever and ever.他看到了虛榮的世俗的幸福和尋求救國的一件事,不會褪色或消亡,但將遵守永遠永遠。

You who long for life, learn that immortality is hidden in transiency.只要你誰的生活,學習的不朽是隱藏在頃刻。 You who wish for happiness without the sting of regret, lead a life of righteousness.誰願您幸福的刺痛遺憾,導致生活的正氣。 You who yearn for riches, receive treasures that are eternal.你們誰渴望的財富,獲得財富是永恆的。 Truth is wealth, and a life of truth is happiness.真理是財富,生活的真理是幸福。

All compounds will be dissolved again, but the verities which determine all combinations and separations as laws of nature endure for ever and aye.所有的化合物將被解散,但其中的真理確定所有組合和離職的自然規律忍受永遠和贊成。 Bodies fall to dust, but the truths of the mind will not be destroyed.機構屬於的飛塵,但真理的精神不會被摧毀。

Truth knows neither birth nor death; it has no beginning and no end. Welcome the truth.既不知道真相,也沒有出生死亡;它沒有開始,沒有結束。歡迎的真理。 The truth is the immortal part of mind.事實真相是不朽的一部分想法。 Establish the truth in your mind, for the truth is the image of the eternal; it portrays the immutable; it reveals the everlasting; the truth gives unto mortals the boon of immortality.查明真相在您看來,真理是形象的永恆的,它描述了一成不變的,它揭示了永恆的真理使你們凡人的實惠的永生。

The Buddha has proclaimed the truth; let the truth of the Buddha dwell in your hearts.佛陀已宣布的真相,讓真相佛陀住在你的心中。 Extinguish in yourselves every desire that antagonizes the Buddha, and in the perfection of your spiritual growth you will become like unto him.滅火中每一個渴望自己的拮抗佛像,並在完善您的心靈成長你將成為像祂。 That of your heart which cannot or will not develop into Buddha must perish, for it is mere illusion and unreal; it is the source of your error; it is the cause of your misery.這對你的心,不能或不會發展成佛像必須滅亡,因為它僅僅是幻想和虛幻的,它是源您的錯誤,這是您的事業的苦難。

You attain to immortality by filling your minds with truth. Therefore, become like unto vessels fit to receive the Master's words.您對實現永生填寫您的頭腦與真理。因此,成為像你們的船隻適合接收碩士的話。 Cleanse yourselves of evil and sanctify your lives.清洗自己的罪惡和認可你的生命。 There is no other way of reaching truth.沒有其他途徑達成的真理。

Learn to distinguish between Self and Truth.了解區分自我和真相。 Self is the cause of selfishness and the source of evil; truth cleaves to no self; it is universal and leads to justice and righteousness.自我的原因是自私和邪惡的來源;真相克里弗斯沒有自我,這是普遍的,並導致公平和正義。 Self, that which seems to those who love their self as their being, is not the eternal, the everlasting, the imperishable.自我,這似乎是誰愛他們的自我他們正在,是不是永恆的,永恆的不朽。 Seek not self, but seek the truth.不尋求自我,而是尋求真理。

If we liberate our souls from our petty selves, wish no ill to others, and become clear as a crystal diamond reflecting the light of truth, what a radiant picture will appear in us mirroring things as they are, without the admixture of burning desires, without the distortion of erroneous illusion, without the agitation of clinging and unrest.如果我們解放我們的靈魂從我們的小自我,希望沒有惡意給他人,並成為一個明確的水晶鑽石,反映鑑於真理,什麼是輻射圖片將出現在我們的鏡像事情是這樣,沒有摻燒的願望,無失真的錯誤幻想,但激動的執著和動盪。

Yet you love self and will not abandon self love.然而,你喜歡自我和不會放棄自我的愛。 So be it, but then, verily, you should learn to distinguish between the false self and the true self.所以,它,但隨後,忠實,你應該學會如何區分虛假的自我和真實自我。 The ego with all its egotism is the false self. It is an unreal illusion and a perishable combination.自我的一切自我中心就是虛假的自我。這是一個虛幻的幻想和易腐組合。 He only who identifies his self with the truth will attain Nirvana; and he who has entered Nirvana has attained Buddhahood; he has acquired the highest good; he has become eternal and immortal.他只確定誰與他的自我的真相將實現涅磐,他誰已進入涅槃已達到成佛,他已獲得的最高良好;他已成為永恆和不朽。

All compound things shall be dissolved again, worlds will break to pieces and our individualities will be scattered; but the words of Buddha will remain for ever.所有大院的事情應予以解散再次,世界將打破成碎片,我們的個性,將會分散;但佛陀的話將永遠。

The extinction of self is salvation; the annihilation of self is the condition of enlightenment; the blotting out of self is Nirvana.滅絕的自我救贖;的自我毀滅的條件是啟蒙;的印跡的自我涅磐。

Happy is he who has ceased to live for pleasure and rests in the truth.快樂是誰,他已不再愉快地生活和休息的真相。 Verily his composure and tranquility of mind are the highest bliss.真主他鎮定和平靜的心態是最高的幸福。

Let us take our refuge in the Buddha, for he has found the everlasting in the transient.讓我們以我們的避難的佛,因為他已經找到了永恆的瞬間。 Let us take our refuge in that which is the immutable in the changes of existence.讓我們以我們的避難所在這這是不可改變的變化存在。 Let us take our refuge in the truth that is established through the enlightenment of the Buddha.讓我們以我們的避難的真理,即通過建立的啟示佛陀。 Let us take our refuge in the community of those who seek the truth and endeavor to live in the truth.讓我們以我們的避難所在國際社會中那些誰求真務實,努力生活的真相。

Truth, The Savior真相的救星

The things of the world and its inhabitants are subject to change. They are combinations of elements that existed before, and all living creatures are what their past actions made them; for the law of cause and effect is uniform and without exception.事情的世界和它的居民可能會有所變化。他們的要素組合之前已經存在,所有生物都是自己過去的行為使他們;法律的原因和後果是一致的,沒有例外。

But in the changing things there is a constancy of law, and when the law is seen there is truth.但是,在不斷變化的東西有一個恆定的法律,當法律被認為是真理。 The truth lies hidden in Samsara as the permanent in its changes.謊言的真相隱藏在輪迴作為永久的變化。

Truth desires to appear; truth longs to become conscious; truth strives to know itself.真理的慾望出現;真理多頭,成為自覺;真相力爭知道本身。

There is truth in the stone, for the stone is here; and no power in the world, no god, no man, no demon, can destroy its existence. But the stone has no consciousness.有真理的石頭,對石頭是在這裡,沒有權力在世界上,沒有上帝,沒有人,沒有惡魔,可以摧毀它的存在。但石頭沒有意識。 There is truth in the plant and its life can expand; the plant grows and blossoms and bears fruit. Its beauty is marvelous, but it has no consciousness.有真理在工廠和其生命可以擴大;植物生長和花和熊水果。及其美麗神奇,但它沒有意識。 There is truth in the animal; it moves about and perceives its surroundings; it distinguishes and learns to choose.有真理的動物,它的行動並認為其周圍環境;它區分和學習選擇。 There is consciousness, but it is not yet the consciousness of Truth.有意識,但尚未意識的真理。 It is a consciousness of self only.這是一個自我意識只。

The consciousness of self dims the eyes of the mind and hides the truth.意識的自我調暗的眼睛思想和隱藏的真相。 It is the origin of error, it is the source of illusion, it is the germ of evil.這是原產地的錯誤,它的來源幻想,它是細菌的罪惡。 Self begets selfishness.自產生自私。 There is no evil but what flows from self.沒有什麼邪惡的,但流入自我。 There is no wrong but what is done by the assertion of self.沒有錯,但什麼是所做的自我主張。 Self is the beginning of all hatred, of iniquity and slander, of impudence and indecency, of theft and robbery, of oppression and bloodshed.自年初是所有仇恨,不公正和誹謗的無恥和流氓,盜竊和搶劫,壓迫和流血事件。 Self is Mara, the tempter, the evil doer, the creator of mischief.自是馬拉的誘惑,邪惡的實干家,創作者作怪。 Self entices with pleasures.自引誘與樂趣。 Self promises a fairy's paradise.自我承諾的童話的天堂。 Self is the veil of Maya, the enchanter.自是瑪雅面紗的魔法師。 But the pleasures of self are unreal, its paradisian labyrinth is the road to misery, and its fading beauty kindles the flames of desires that never can be satisfied.但是,快樂的自我是虛幻的,它是paradisian迷宮的道路痛苦,其衰落之美kindles火焰的願望從來沒有能夠得到滿足。

Who shall deliver us from the power of self?誰應交付我們的力量自我? Who shall save us from misery?誰應拯救我們的苦難? Who shall restore us to a life of blessedness?誰應恢復我們的生活blessedness ?

There is misery in the world of Samsara; there is much misery and pain.有苦難世界的輪迴;有很多苦難和痛苦。 But greater than all the misery is the bliss of truth.但是,大於一切的苦難是幸福的真相。 Truth gives peace to the yearning mind; it conquers error; it quenches the flames of desires; it leads to Nirvana.真相讓和平的渴望記住它征服的錯誤,它quenches火焰的慾望;它導致涅槃。 Blessed is he who has found the peace of Nirvana.祝福他是誰已經找到了和平的涅磐。 He is at rest in the struggles and tribulations of life; he is above all changes; he is above birth and death; he remains unaffected by the evils of life.他是在休息的鬥爭和苦難的生活,他是上述所有變化,他首先是出生率和死亡率; ,他仍然沒有受到邪惡的生命。

Blessed is he who has found enlightenment.祝福他是誰發現的啟示。 He conquers, although he may be wounded; he is glorious and happy, although he may suffer; he is strong, although he may break down under the burden of his work; he is immortal, although he will die.他征服,但他可能會受傷,他是光榮和幸福,但他可能因他是強有力的,但他可能會打破下的負擔,他的工作;他是不朽的,儘管他會死。 The essence of his being is purity and goodness.其實質是他正在純潔和善良。

Blessed is he who has attained the sacred state of Buddhahood, for he is fit to work out the salvation of his fellow beings.祝福他是誰達到了神聖的狀態成佛,因為他是合適的工作拯救了他的同胞人。 The truth has taken its abode in him.事實已經採取其居留權的他。 Perfect wisdom illumines his understanding, and righteousness ensouls the purpose of all his actions.完美的智慧illumines他的理解,和正義ensouls的目的,他的所有行動。 The truth is a living power for good, indestructible and invincible!事實真相是一個生活的好權力,堅不可摧的和不可戰勝的! Work the truth out in your mind, and spread it among mankind, for truth alone is the savior from evil and misery.工作真理在你的頭腦,傳播人類,真理本身的救星從罪惡和痛苦。 The Buddha has found the truth and the truth has been proclaimed by the Buddha!佛陀已經找到了真理,真理已被宣布由佛陀! Blessed be the Buddha!有福是佛祖!

The Enlightenment的啟示

There was in Kapilavatthu a Sakya king, strong of purpose and reverenced by all men, a descendant of the Okkakas, who call themselves Gotama, and his name was Suddhodana or Pure - Rice.人們在Kapilavatthu 1薩迦國王,強烈的宗旨和reverenced的所有男人,子孫的Okkakas ,誰自稱喬達摩,他的名字是淨飯王或純-水稻。 His wife Mayadevi was beautiful as the water lily and pure in mind as the lotus.他的妻子Mayadevi是美麗的睡蓮和純銘記的荷花。 As the Queen of Heaven, she lived on earth, untainted by desire, and immaculate.作為女王的天堂,她住在地球上,自持的願望,和完美無暇的。

The king, her husband, honored her in her holiness, and the spirit of truth, glorious and strong in his wisdom like unto a white elephant, descended upon her.國王,她的丈夫,守信對她的聖潔,和精神的真理,光榮和強大的智慧在他的像你們白象,她的降臨。 When she knew that the hour of motherhood was near, she asked the king to send her home to her parents; and Suddhodana, anxious about his wife and the child she would bear him, willingly granted her request.當她知道,母親小時附近,她問國王派她回她的父母和淨飯王,擔心他的妻子和孩子,她將承擔他,心甘情願地給予她的請求。

At Lumbini there is a beautiful grove, and when Mayadevi passed through it the trees were one mass of fragrant flowers and many birds were warbling in their branches.在藍毘尼有一個美麗的小樹林,當Mayadevi通過它的樹木是一個大規模的芬芳鮮花和許多鳥類在及格及其分支機構。 The Queen, wishing to stroll through the shady walks, left her golden palanquin, and, when she reached the giant sala tree in the midst of the grove, felt that her hour had come.女王,希望漫步陰涼散步,離開了她金色轎子,並當她到達樹巨頭薩拉在各種艱難的格羅夫認為,她小時已經到來。 She took hold of a branch.她抓住的一個分支。 Her attendants hung a curtain about her and retired.她的服務員掛窗簾她和退休。 When the pain of travail came upon her, four pure minded angels of the great Brahma held out a golden net to receive the babe, who came forth from her right side like the rising sun bright and perfect.當痛苦的陣痛來到她的,純粹的頭腦四名天使的偉大梵舉行了一個金色的淨收到寶貝,誰出來從她的右側像初升的太陽明亮和完善。

The Brahma - angels took the child and placing him before the mother said: "Rejoice, O queen, a mighty son has been born unto thee."布拉馬-天使了孩子,把他的母親面前說: “慶幸,噢王后,威武的兒子出生了祂你。 ”

At her couch stood an aged woman imploring the heavens to bless the child.在她的沙發站在一個中年婦女懇求天上保佑孩子。 All the worlds were flooded with light.世界所有被洪水淹沒輕。 The blind received their sight by longing to see the coming glory of the Lord; the deaf and dumb spoke with one another of the good omens indicating the birth of the Buddha to be.盲人獲得視力的渴望看到未來的榮耀上帝;的聾啞以同一個另一個好兆頭,說明佛陀誕生的。 The crooked became straight; the lame walked.在彎曲成為直;的跛腳走。 All prisoners were freed from their chains and the fires of all the hells were extinguished.所有犯人都擺脫其連鎖店和火災的所有地獄被撲滅。

No clouds gathered in the skies and the polluted streams became clear, whilst celestial music rang through the air and the angels rejoiced with gladness.沒有雲彩聚集在天空和河流的污染很明顯,而天體的音樂響起通過空氣和天使高興與歡樂。 With no selfish or partial joy but for the sake of the law they rejoiced, for creation engulfed in the ocean of pain was now to obtain release.由於沒有自私或部分喜悅而是為了法律的,他們歡欣鼓舞,創造吞沒在海洋中的痛苦,現在獲得釋放。 The cries of beasts were hushed; all malevolent beings received a loving heart, and peace reigned on earth.的呼聲野獸被掩蓋;所有惡意的人收到了愛心,充滿和平和地球上。 Mara, the evil one, alone was grieved and rejoiced not.馬拉,邪惡的一個,僅是痛心和不歡欣鼓舞。

The Naga kings, earnestly desiring to show their reverence for most excellent law, as they had paid honor to former Buddhas, now went to greet the Bodhisattva.國王的娜迦,認真希望顯示他們崇敬的最優秀的法律,因為他們支付了榮譽,前佛像,現在去迎接菩薩。 They scattered before him mandara flowers, rejoicing with heartfelt joy to pay their religious homage.他們分散在他面前曼達拉鮮花,衷心的喜悅與歡樂支付其宗教的敬意。

The royal father, pondering the meaning of these signs, was now full of joy and now sore distressed.國王的父親,思考的意義這些跡象,現在卻充滿了喜悅和現在疼痛的苦惱。 The queen mother, beholding her child and the commotion which his birth created, felt in her timorous heart the pangs of doubt.女王的母親,她的孩子beholding和騷動,他出生創建,覺得她膽怯心臟的陣痛疑問。

Now there was at that time in a grove near Lumbini Asita, a rishi, leading the life of a hermit.現在,當時在藍毘尼附近的樹林Asita ,一個rishi ,導致生活的隱士。 He was a Brahman of dignified mien, famed not only for wisdom and scholarship, but also for his skill in the interpretation of signs.他是一個婆羅門的尊嚴的風采,著名的不僅是智慧和學識,也為他的技能在解釋的跡象。 And the king invited him to see the royal babe.國王邀請他看到皇家寶貝。

The seer, beholding the prince, wept and sighed deeply.該預言家, beholding王子,哭泣,並深深地嘆了一口氣。 And when the king saw the tears of Asita he became alarmed and asked: "Why has the sight of my son caused thee grief and pain?"當國王看到了眼淚Asita他成為震驚並問道: “為什麼看不到我的兒子因你悲傷和痛苦? ”

But Asita's heart rejoiced, and, knowing the king's mind to be perplexed, he addressed him, saying: "The king, like the moon when full, should feel great joy, for he has begotten a wondrously noble son. I do not worship Brahma, but I worship this child; and the gods in the temples will descend from their places of honor to adore him. Banish all anxiety and doubt. The spiritual omens manifested indicate that the child now born will bring deliverance to the whole world.但是Asita的心感到歡欣鼓舞,並知道國王的想法是困惑,他給他,他說: “國王一樣,充分月球時,應該感到非常高興,因為他已生一wondrously崇高的兒子。我不崇拜梵,但我崇拜這個孩子;和神的廟宇將聚首從他們的榮譽,崇拜他。摒棄所有的焦慮和懷疑。預兆的精神表現表明,現在出生的兒童將解救整個世界。

"Recollecting that I myself am old, on that account I could not hold my tears; for now my end is coming on and I shall not see the glory of this babe. For this son of thine will rule the world. The wheel of empire will come to him. He will either be a king of kings to govern all the lands of the earth, or verily will become a Buddha. He is born for the sake of everything that lives. His pure teaching will be like the shore that receives the shipwrecked. His power of meditation will be like a cool lake; and all creatures parched with the drought of lust may freely drink thereof. On the fire of covetousness he will cause the cloud of his mercy to rise, so that the rain of the law may extinguish it. The heavy gates of despondency will he open, and give deliverance to all creatures ensnared in the self entwined meshes of folly and ignorance. The king of the law has come forth to rescue from bondage all the poor, the miserable, the helpless." “追憶,我本人歲,在該帳戶我不能擁有我的眼淚,因為我現在即將結束時,我不得見的光榮這個寶貝。出於這個兒子,你將統治世界。車輪帝國將來找他。他都將成為萬王之王管轄的所有土地的泥土,或肯定會成為佛陀。出生的他是為了一切的生命。純教學他將像岸上接收該船。他的權力的冥想將像一個冷湖;和所有動物炎熱,乾旱的慾望可以自由地喝人。火災的貪婪,他將導致雲憐憫他的上升,從而使雨中的法可消滅它。沉重的大門,他垂頭喪氣將開放,並給予解脫所有生物陷入自我網交織在一起的愚蠢和無知。國王的法律已經提出拯救從奴役所有的窮人的悲慘,無助的。 “

When the royal parents heard Asita's words they rejoiced in their hearts and named their newborn infant Siddhattha, that is he who has accomplished his purpose."當王室Asita聽到父母的話,他們高興地在他們的心中,並命名為他們的新生嬰兒Siddhattha ,這是誰,他已完成他的目的。 “

And the queen said to her sister, Pajapati: "A mother who has borne a future Buddha will never give birth to another child. I shall soon leave this world, my husband, the king, and Siddhattha, my child. When I am gone, be thou a mother to him."和王后說,她的妹妹, Pajapati : “媽媽誰承擔了未來佛永遠不會放棄生育一個孩子。我將很快離開這個世界,我的丈夫,國王,並Siddhattha ,我的孩子。當我去,是你的母親給他。 “ And Pajapati wept and promised.和Pajapati哭泣和承諾。

When the queen had departed from the living, Pajapati took the boy Siddhattha and reared him.當女王已經離開了生活, Pajapati了男孩Siddhattha和飼養他。 And as the light of the moon increases little by little, so the royal child grew from day to day in mind and in body; and truthfulness and love resided in his heart.並根據月球增加一點點,所以兒童成長王室每天銘記和機構;和真誠和愛居住在他的心。 When a year had passed Suddhodana the king made Pajapati his queen and there was never a better stepmother than she.當一年已經過去了淨飯王國王提出Pajapati他女王和從未有一個更好的繼母比她。

The Ties of Life這種關係的生活

When Siddhattha had grown to youth, his father desired to see him married, and he sent to all his kinsfolk, commanding them to bring their princesses that the prince might select one of them as his wife.當Siddhattha已發展到青年,他的父親希望看到他結婚,他給他的所有親屬,指揮他們將公主的王子可能會選擇其中之一作為他的妻子。

But the kinsfolk replied and said: "The prince is young and delicate; nor has he learned any of the sciences. He would not be able to maintain our daughter, and should there be war he would be unable to cope with the enemy."但是,親戚回答說: “王子是年輕人和微妙;也沒有學到任何科學。他將無法維持我們的女兒,應該有戰爭,他將無法應付的敵人。 ”

The prince was not boisterous, but pensive in his nature.王子不熱鬧,但在他沉思的性質。 He loved to stay under the great jambu tree in the garden of his father, and, observing the ways of the world, gave himself up to meditation.他喜歡留在偉大的jambu樹在花園裡的父親,並觀察的方式對世界,投案自首,以冥想。 And the prince said to his father: "Invite our kinsfolk that they may see me and put my strength to the test."和王子說,他的父親: “請我們的親屬,他們可能會看到我,把我的實力的考驗。 ” And his father did as his son bade him.和他的父親沒有為他的兒子叫他。

When the kinsfolk came, and the people of the city Kapilavatthu had assembled to test the prowess and scholarship of the prince, he proved himself manly in all the exercises both of the body and of the mind, and there was no rival among the youths and men of India who could surpass him in any test, bodily or mental.當親戚來了,市人民Kapilavatthu了組裝,測試能力和獎學金的王子,他證明了自己男人的所有演習雙方的身體和心靈,也沒有競爭對手之間的青年和印度男子誰可能超過他的任何考驗,身體或精神。 He replied to all the他回答所有

(continues . . . ) (繼續。 。 。 )


Buddhism佛教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The religious, monastic system, founded c.宗教,寺院制度,成立角 500 BC on the basis of pantheistic Brahminism.公元前500的基礎上, pantheistic Brahminism 。 The speculations of the Vedanta school of religious thought, in the eighth and following centuries, BC, gave rise to several rival schemes of salvation.在投機的韋丹塔學校的宗教思想,在第八和下面的世紀,公元前,引起了競爭對手的拯救計劃。 These movements started with the same morbid view that conscious life is a burden and not worth the living, and that true happiness is to be had only in a state like dreamless sleep free from all desires, free from conscious action.這些運動開始以同樣的病態的觀點,即意識到生命是一個負擔和不值得的生活,而且真正的幸福是只在一個國家像夢的睡眠不受任何慾望,不受自覺行動。 They took for granted the Upanishad doctrine of the endless chain of births, but they differed from pantheistic Brahminism both in their attitude towards the Vedas and in their plan for securing freedom from rebirth and from conscious existence.他們認為理所當然的奧義書理論的無休止的鏈條產,但它們不同於pantheistic Brahminism在其態度吠陀,並在其計劃,以確保免於重生和意識的存在。 In their absolute rejection of Vedic rites, they stamped themselves as heresies.在他們的堅決反對吠陀儀式,他們蓋上自己是異端邪說。 Of these the one destined to win greatest renown was Buddhism.這些在一個注定要贏得最大的是著名的佛教。

I. THE FOUNDER島的創始人

Of Buddha, the founder of this great movement, legendary tradition has much to say, but very little of historical worth is known.佛像的創始人,這個偉大的運動,具有傳奇色彩的傳統有很多話要說,但很少的歷史價值是眾所周知的。 His father seems to have been a petty raja, ruling over a small community on the southern border of the district now known as Nepal.他的父親似乎已小額拉賈,統治一個小社會南部邊界的地區現在被稱為尼泊爾。 Buddha's family name was Gotama (Sanskrit Gautama), and it was probably by this name that he was known in life.佛陀的姓氏是喬達摩(梵文瞿曇) ,它可能是由這個名字,他被稱為生命。 In all likelihood it was after his death that his disciples bestowed on him a number of laudatory names, the most common being Buddha, ie "the enlightened".在所有的可能性是在他死後,他的弟子對他賦予了一些讚美的名字,最常見的是佛,即“開明” 。 Like the newborn youths of his day, he must have spent some time in the study of the sacred Vedas.新生兒一樣的年輕人,他一天,他必須花一些時間研究的神聖吠陀。 After the immemorial custom of the East, he married at an early age, and, if tradition may be trusted, exercised a prince's privilege of maintaining a harem.在遠古習俗,東,他已婚在幼年,如果傳統的可值得信賴的,行使王子的特權,保持了后宮。 His principal wife bore him a son.他的主要承擔他的妻子兒子。 His heart was not at rest.他的心是不是在休息。 The pleasures of the world soon palled upon him, and abandoning his home he retired to the forest, where as a hermit he spent several years in austere self-discipline, studying doubtless, the way of salvaion as taught in the Upanishads.在歡樂的世界各國盡快palled他,放棄他的家,他退休的森林,在那裡作為一個隱士,他花了數年時間在簡樸自律,學習無疑的方式salvaion作為講授Upanishads 。 Even this did not bring peace to his mind.即使這並沒有帶來和平,他的思想。 He gave up the rigorous fasts and mortifications, which nearly cost him his life, and devoted himself in his own way to long and earnest meditation, the fruit of which was his firm belief that he had discovered the only true method of escaping from the misery of rebirth and of attaining to Nirvana.他放棄了嚴格的齋戒和mortifications ,這幾乎使他的生活,投身於他自己的方式,長期和認真的打坐,水果的是,他堅信他發現的唯一真正的方法擺脫苦難新生和實現,以涅槃。 He then set out to preach his gospel of deliverance, beginning at Benares.然後,他開始宣揚他的福音解脫,開始在貝拿勒斯。 His magnetic personality and his earnest, impressive eloquence soon won over to his cause a number of the warrior caste. Brahmins, too, felt the persuasiveness of his words, and it was not long before he was surrounded by a band of enthusiastic disciples, in whose company he went from place to place, by making converts by his preaching.他磁性的人格和他的認真,令人印象深刻的口才很快贏得了他事業的一些武士種姓。婆羅門,也感受到了說服力他的話,這是前不久,他被包圍了一幫熱心的弟子,在他的公司,從地方,使他的轉換說教。 These soon became very numerous and were formed into a great brotherhood of monks.這些很快成為眾多,並形成了一個偉大博愛的僧侶。 Such was the work to which Buddha gave himself with unsparing zeal for over forty years.這是工作的佛像了自己的不留情的熱情超過四十年。 At length, worn out by his long life of activity, he fell sick after a meal of dried boar's flesh, and died in the eightieth year of his age.在長度,精疲力盡的他長期生活的活動,他病倒後,一餐幹野豬的肉,並死在八十歲的他的年齡。 The approximate date of his death is 480 BC It is noteworthy that Buddha was a contemporary of two other famous religious philosophers, Pythagoras and Confucius.的大致日期是他去世480年值得注意的是,佛陀是一個當代的另外兩個著名的宗教哲學家,畢達哥拉斯和孔子。

In the sacred books of later times Buddha is depicted as a character without flaw, adorned with every grace of mind and heart.在神聖的書籍,後來是佛陀時代描繪成一個字符沒有漏洞,每一個裝飾優雅的心靈。 There may be some hesitation in taking the highly coloured portrait of Buddhist tradition as the exact representation of the original, but Buddha may be credited with the qualities of a great and good man.可能會有一些毫不猶豫地採取高度彩色畫像,佛教傳統的完全再現原始,但佛陀可貸與素質的一項偉大而善良的人。 The records depict him moving about from place to place, regardless of personal comfort, calm and fearless, mild and compassionate, considerate towards poor and rich alike, absorbed with the one idea of freeing all men from the bonds of misery, and irresistible in his manner of setting forth the way of deliverance.這些記錄描述他走動地點,不論個人舒適,平靜和無所畏懼的,溫和的和富有同情心,體貼對窮國和富國都吸收的一個想法,讓所有的人從債券的苦難,並在他無法抗拒方式列明的方式解救。 In his mildness, his readiness to overlook insults, his zeal, chastity, and simplicity of life, he reminds one not a little of St. Francis of Assisi.在他的溫和,他願意忽視的侮辱,他的熱情,貞節,和簡單的生活,他想起一個不小的聖方濟各。 In all pagan antiquity no character has been depicted as so noble and attractive.在所有異教古代沒有性質已經描繪成如此崇高和吸引力。

II.二。 BUDDHIST TEXTS佛典

The chief sources for early Buddhism are the sacred books comprised in the first two divisions of the Ti-pitaka (triple-basket), the threefold Bible of the Southern School of Buddhists.主要來源是早期佛教的神聖書籍組成的頭兩個部門的鈦藏(三籃子) ,聖經的三倍,南部學校的佛教徒。 In India, today, the Buddhists are found only in the North, in Nepal, and in the extreme South, in the island of Ceylon.在印度,在今天,佛教是發現,只有在北方,在尼泊爾,並在極端南方,在錫蘭島。 They represent two different schools of thought, the Northern worshipping Buddha as supreme personal deity though at the same time adopting most of the degrading superstitions of Hinduism, the Southern adhering in great measure to the original teachings of Buddha.他們代表兩個不同的思想流派,北方拜佛作為最高神雖然個人在同一時間通過大部分有辱人格的迷信印度教,南堅持在很大程度上原始佛教的教義。 Each school has a canon of sacred books.每所學校有一個教會的神聖的書籍。 The Northern canon is in Sanskrit, the Southern in Pali, a softer tongue, into which Sanskrit was transformed by the people of the South.北佳能是梵文,南部的八里,軟舌,將其轉化梵文人民的南部地區。 The Southern canon, Ti-pitaka, which reflects more faithfully the teachings of Buddha and his early disciples, embraces南部佳能,鈦藏,這反映了更多的忠實的教誨,佛陀和他的早期弟子,包括

the Vinaya-pitaka, a collection of books on the disciplinary rules of the order,在律藏,藏書的紀律規則的秩序,

the Sutta-pitaka, didactic tracts consisting in part of alleged discourses of Buddha; and的經藏,教學村組組成部分涉嫌論述的佛像;和

the Abhidhamma-pitaka, comprising more detailed treatises on doctrinal subjects.在阿毗達磨藏,其中包括更詳細的論文的理論科目。

Most of the Vinavas and some of the Suttas have been made accessible to English readers in the "Sacred Books of the East".大多數Vinavas和一些Suttas已進入英文讀者在“聖書東” 。 The Ti-pitaka seems to date back to the second and third centuries BC, but a few additions were made even after it was committed to writing in the early part of the first century of the Christian Era.鈦藏似乎可以追溯到第二次和第三次公元前數百年,但作一些補充甚至發了言後,書面承諾在年初的第一個世紀的基督教時代。 While there may be doctrinal and disciplinary parts from the time of Buddha none of the twenty-nine books comprised in the Ti-pitaka can be proved to be older than 300 BC These books stripped of their tiresome repetitions, would be about equal in size to the Bible, though on the whole they are vastly inferior to the Sacred Scripture in spirituality, depth of thought, variety of subject, and richness of expression.雖然可能有理論和紀律部分從時間的佛像沒有29本書組成的鈦藏可證明是老年人超過300公元前這些書籍剝奪其煩人的重複,將大致相同的大小聖經,但總體上他們是大大低於聖經中精神,深入思想,各種各樣的問題,和豐富的表達方式。

There are also a few extra-canonical books, likewise in Pali on which the Southern Buddhists set great value, the Dipavansa and Mahavansa, which give an uncritical history of Buddhism down to about AD 300, the "Commentaries of Buddhagosa", and the Milinda Panha, ably translated by Rhys Davids under the title "The Questions of King Milinda".也有一些額外的,典型的書籍,同樣在八里的南部佛教徒一套具有重要價值的Dipavansa和Mahavansa ,其中給予批評佛教史下降到約公元300中, “評的Buddhagosa ” ,以及米鄰陀Panha ,巧妙地翻譯了戴維斯的標題下“的問題國王米鄰陀” 。 These works belong to the fourth and following centuries of our era.這些作品屬於第四和下面的幾個世紀的我們這個時代。 In the Tri-pitaka of the Northern School are included the well-known Saddharma-pundarika (Lotus of the True Law), and the legendary biographies of Buddha, the Buddha Charita, and the Lalita Vistara (Book of Exploits), which are generally assigned to the last quarter of the first century AD Besides the Tri-pitaka, the Northern Buddhists reckon as canonical several writings of more recent times adapted from the abominable Hindu Tantras.在三藏北中學被列入眾所周知Saddharma - pundarika (蓮花真法) ,以及傳奇人物傳記的佛像,佛像Charita ,並拉利塔Vistara (圖書的攻擊) ,一般分配到最後一個季度,公元一世紀除了三藏,北佛教徒認為作為典型的一些著作近期改編自印度教Tantras可惡。

III.三。 PRIMITIVE BUDDHISM原始佛教

Buddhism was by no means entirely original.佛教決不是完全原始。 It had much in common with the pantheistic Vedanta teaching, from which it sprang belief in karma, whereby the character of the present life is the net product of the good and evil acts of a previous existence; belief in a constant series of rebirths for all who set their heart on preserving their individual existence; the pessimistic view that life at its best is misery and not worth living.它具有許多共同點與pantheistic韋丹塔教學,從它興起的信念業,其中的性質現在的生活是淨產品的善惡行為,以前存在;信念,不斷一系列rebirths所有誰確定其心臟就維護各自存在的悲觀看法,生命處於最佳狀態是痛苦和不值得的生活。 And so the great end for which Buddha toiled was the very one which gave colour to the pantheistic scheme of salvation propounded by the Brahmin ascetics, namely, the liberation of men from misery by setting them free from attachment to conscious existence.因此,偉大的結束而佛陀辛苦是非常了一個彩色的pantheistic拯救計劃所提出的婆羅門修行,即解放的男子從苦難設置他們擺脫附件意識的存在。 It was in their conception of the final state of the saved, and of the method by which it was to be attained that they differed.正是在他們的概念,最後狀態的保存,該方法通過它來實現,它們是不同的。 The pantheistic Brahmin said:該pantheistic婆羅門說:

Recognize your identity with the great impersonal god, Brahma, you thereby cease to be a creature of desires; you are no longer held fast in the chain of rebirths; at death you lose your individuality, your conscious existence, to become absorbed in the all-god Brahma.確認您的身份,與偉大的人格神,梵,你從而不再是動物的願望;您不再堅守鏈中rebirths ;死亡你失去你的個性,你的意識存在,成為吸收所有神梵天。

In Buddha's system, the all-god Brahma was entirely ignored.在佛陀的制度,所有神梵天是完全忽視。 Buddha put abstruse speculation in the background, and, while not ignoring the value of right knowledge, insisted on the saving part of the will as the one thing needful.佛陀把深奧的投機的背景下,儘管沒有忽視價值的正確知識,堅持節約的一部分,將作為必要的一件事。 To obtain deliverance from birth, all forms of desire must be absolutely quenched, not only very wicked craving, but also the desire of such pleasures and comforts as are deemed innocent and lawful, the desire even to preserve one's conscious existence.要獲得解脫,從出生,各種形式的願望必須絕對淬火,不僅是非常惡毒的渴求,但也希望這種樂趣和舒適作為被認為是無辜的,合法的,甚至希望維護自己的意識存在。 It was through this extinction of every desire that cessation of misery was to be obtained.正是通過這一瀕臨滅絕的每一個願望,即停止的苦難是為了得到。 This state of absence of desire and pain was known as Nirvana (Nibbana).這種狀況如果沒有慾望和疼痛被稱為涅磐(涅槃) 。 This word was not coined by Buddha, but in his teaching, it assumed a new shade of meaning.這個詞不是發明的佛像,但在他的教學,它承擔了新的陰影的意義。 Nirvana means primarily a "blowing out", and hence the extinction of the fire of desire, ill-will, delusion, of all, in short, that binds the individual to rebirth and misery.涅磐的手段主要是“吹了” ,因此滅絕火災的慾望,虐待會,妄想,所有總之,結合個人的重生和痛苦。 It was in the living Buddhist saint a state of calm repose, of indifference to life and death, to pleasure and pain, a state of imperturbable tranquility, where the sense of freedom from the bonds of rebirth caused the discomforts as well as the joys of life to sink into insignance.這是生活中的佛教聖狀態平靜安息,漠視生命和死亡,高興和痛苦,一個國家的沉著平靜,那裡的自由感從債券的重生造成了不適,以及歡樂的生活陷入insignance 。 But it was not till after death that Nirvana was realized in its completeness.但它不是直到去世後認為涅磐是實現其完整性。 Some scholars have so thought.有學者這樣認為。 And, indeed, if the psychological speculations found in the sacred books are part of Buddha's personal teaching, it is hard to see how he could have held anything else as the final end of man.的確,如果發現投機心理在神聖的書籍是佛陀的個人教學,這是很難想像他可能別的舉行的最後結束的男子。 But logical consistency is not to be looked for in an Indian mystic.但合乎邏輯的一致性是不能期待在印度的神秘。 If we may trust the sacred books, he expressly refused on several occasions to pronounce either on the existence or the non-existence of those who had entered into Nirvana, on the ground that it was irrelevant, not conducive to peace and enlightenment.如果我們可以信任的神聖的書籍,他明確地拒絕過幾次會議,宣布無論是否存在或不存在的這些誰已進入涅槃,在地面上,這是不相干的,不利於和平與啟迪。 His intimate disciples held the same view.他親密的弟子舉行了同樣的看法。 A monk who interpreted Nirvana to mean annihilation was taken to task by an older monk, and convinced that he had no right to hold such an opinion, since the subject was wrapped in impenetrable mystery.誰的僧人解釋涅磐意味著毀滅被帶到任務的老和尚,並確信他沒有權利舉行這樣的意見,因為主題是包裹在費解的謎。 The learned nun Khema gave a similar answer to the King of Kosala, who asked if the deceased Buddha was still in existence. Whether the Perfect One exists after death, whether he does not exist after death, whether he exists and at the same time does not exist after death, whether he neither exists nor does not exist after death, has not been revealed by Buddha.尼姑的教訓Khema了類似的回答國王柯撒拉,誰問,如果死者的佛像仍然存在。是否存在一個完美去世後,他是否不存在去世後,他是否存在,並在同一時間不不存在去世後,他是否也都存在不存在亡故後,並沒有透露佛像。 Since, then, the nature of Nirvana was too mysterious to be grasped by the Hindu mind, too subtle to be expressed in terms either of existence or of non-existence, it would be idle to attempt a positive solution of the question. It suffices to know that it meant a state of unconscious repose, an eternal sleep which knew no awakening.由於當時的性質,涅槃太神秘應把握的印度教一點,過於微妙應體現在兩個存在或不存在,這將是閒置的,試圖積極解決的問題。只要知道,它意味著一個國家的無意識養神,一個永恆的睡眠不知道該覺醒。 In this respect it was practically one with the ideal of the pantheistic Brahmin.在這方面,實際上一個理想的pantheistic婆羅門。

In the Buddhist conception of Nirvana no account was taken of the all-god Brahma.在佛教的概念涅磐沒有考慮到的所有神梵天。 And as prayers and offerings to the traditional gods were held to be of no avail for the attainment of this negative state of bliss, Buddha, with greater consistency than was shown in pantheistic Brahminism, rejected both the Vedas and the Vedic rites.並祈禱和產品的傳統舉行了神將無濟於事為實現這一消極狀態的幸福,佛像,以更大的一致性比顯示pantheistic Brahminism ,拒絕了吠陀和吠陀儀式。 It was this attitude which stamped Buddhism as a heresy.正是這種態度加蓋佛教作為一個異端。 For this reason, too, Buddha has been set down by some as an atheist. Buddha, however, was not an atheist in the sense that he denied the existence of the gods.出於這個原因,也佛像已成立了一些作為一個無神論者。佛像,但不是一個無神論者的意義,他否認存在的神。 To him the gods were living realities.他的神人生活的現實。 In his alleged sayings, as in the Buddhist scriptures generally, the gods are often mentioned, and always with respect.在他所稱的諺語,如在佛經一般來說,神是經常提到的,始終尊重。 But like the pantheistic Brahmin, Buddha did not acknowledge his dependence on them.但是就像pantheistic婆羅門,佛陀不承認自己對他們的依賴。 They were like men, subject to decay and rebirth.他們像男人一樣,但衰變和重生。 The god of today might be reborn in the future in some inferior condition, while a man of great virtue might succeed in raising himself in his next birth to the rank of a god in heaven.神今天可能會重生在未來在一些條件較差,而一個人的偉大的美德可能成功地提高了自己在其下誕生的排名神在天上。 The very gods, then, no less than men, had need of that perfect wisdom that leads to Nirvana, and hence it was idle to pray or sacrifice to them in the hope of obtaining the boon which they themselves did not possess.非常神,那麼,沒有比男子少,需要有完善的智慧,導致涅槃,因此,這是閒置的祈禱或犧牲他們希望獲得的實惠,他們本身並不具備。 They were inferior to Buddha, since he had already attained to Nirvana.他們不如佛,因為他已經實現向涅槃。 In like manner, they who followed Buddha's footsteps had no need of worshipping the gods by prayers and offerings.在同樣的方式,他們誰遵循佛陀的腳步已經不需要崇拜神的祈禱和產品。 Worship of the gods was tolerated, however, in the Buddhist layman who still clung to the delusion of individual existence, and preferred the household to the homeless state.崇拜的神靈是不能容忍的,但是,在佛教門外漢誰仍然堅持的幻覺個別存在,並傾向於家庭無家可歸的狀態。 Moreover, Buddha's system conveniently provided for those who accepted in theory the teaching that Nirvana alone was the true end of man but who still lacked the courage to quench all desires.此外,佛陀的系統提供方便的人誰接受了理論教學的涅磐單獨的真正結束,但誰的人仍然缺乏勇氣,解渴的所有慾望。 The various heavens of Brahminic theology, with their positive, even sensual, delights were retained as the reward of virtuous souls not yet ripe for Nirvana.各種天上的Brahminic神學,與他們積極,甚至感官,愉悅保留作為獎勵良性的靈魂尚未成熟涅槃。 To aspire after such rewards was permitted to the lukewarm monk; it was commended to the layman.為了追求這種獎勵是允許的冷淡的和尚,這是讚揚的門外漢。 Hence the frequent reference, even in the earliest Buddhist writings to heaven and its positive delights as an encouragement to right conduct.因此,經常提到,即使在最早的佛教著作天堂和其積極的愉悅為鼓勵正確的行為。 Sufficient prominence is not generally given to this more popular side of Buddha's teaching, without which his followers would have been limited to an insignificant and short-lived band of heroic souls.充分突出一般不考慮這方面更受歡迎佛陀的教誨,沒有他的追隨者將被限制在一個微不足道的和短期的波段的英靈。 It was this element, so prominent in the inscriptions of Asoka, that tempered the severity of Buddha's doctrine of Nirvana and made his system acceptable to the masses. In order to secure that extinction of desire which alone could lead to Nirvana, Buddha prescribed for his followers a life of detachment from the comforts, pleasures, and occupations of the common run of men.正是這一因素,如此突出的銘文阿索,即鍛煉了嚴重的佛陀涅槃學說,並作了系統接受群眾。為了確保這一瀕臨滅絕的願望只有可能導致涅槃,佛陀他明追隨者的生命脫離舒適,愉悅,和職業的共同運行的男子。 To secure this end, he adopted for himself and his disciples the quiet, secluded, contemplative life of the Brahmin ascetics.為了確保為此,他通過他本人和他的弟子中的寧靜,與世隔絕,沉思生命的婆羅門修行。 It was foreign to his plan that his followers should engage in any form of industrial pursuits, lest they might thereby be entangled in worldly cares and desires.這是外國對他的計劃,他的追隨者應該從事任何形式的工業追求,否則他們可能因此而糾纏在世俗的關心和期望。 Their means of subsistence was alms; hence the name commonly applied to Buddhist monks was bhikkus, beggars.他們的謀生手段是施捨;因而得名普遍適用於佛教僧侶是bhikkus ,乞丐。 Detachment from family life was absolutely necessary.脫離家庭生活是絕對必要的。 Married life was to be avoided as a pit of hot coals, for it was incompatible with the quenching of desire and the extinction of individual existence.婚姻生活是要避免一個坑的熱煤,因為它是不符合淬火的願望和滅絕的個人的存在。 In like manner, worldly possessions and worldly power had to be renounced-everything that might minister to pride, greed, or self-indulgence.同樣,世俗的財產和世俗的權力,必須放棄,一切可能部長驕傲,貪婪,或自我放縱。 Yet in exacting of his followers a life of severe simplicity, Buddha did not go to the extremes of fanaticism that characterized so many of the Brahmin ascetics.然而,在嚴格的他的追隨者的生活,嚴重的簡單,佛陀沒有去的極端狂熱的特點,使許多婆羅門修行。 He chose the middle path of moderate asceticism which he compared to a lute, which gives forth the proper tones only when the strings are neither too tight nor too slack.他選擇了中間道路溫和的禁慾主義,他相比,琵琶,從而使提出適當的鈴聲只有當弦既不太緊,也不過於疲弱。 Each member was allowed but one set of garments, of yellowish colour and of cheap quality.每名成員被允許,但一套服裝,黃色的顏色和廉價的質量。 These, together with his sleeping mat, razor, needle, water-strainer, and alms bowl, constituted the sum of his earthly possessions.這些,連同他的笫,剃須刀,針,水過濾器,並缽盂,構成了總結,他塵世的物品。 His single meal, which had to be taken before noon, consisted chiefly of bread, rice, and curry, which he gathered daily in his alms-bowl by begging.他的餐單,這將要採取中午十二時前,主要包括麵包,大米和咖哩,他每天都聚集在他的施捨,碗的乞討。 Water or rice-milk was his customary drink, wine and other intoxicants being rigorously forbidden, even as medicine.稻水或牛奶是他的習慣飲料,葡萄酒和其他intoxicants被嚴格禁止,甚至藥品。 Meat, fish, and delicacies were rarely eaten except in sickness or when the monk dined by invitation with some patron.肉類,魚類和美食,很少吃,除非生病或當和尚吃飯的邀請與一些贊助。 The use of perfumes, flowers, ointments, and participation in worldly amusements fell also into the class of things prohibited.使用香水,鮮花,藥膏,並參與世俗的娛樂也下降到一類的東西禁止。 In theory, the moral code of Buddhism was little more than a copy of that of Brahminism.從理論上講,道德準則的佛教是多一份的Brahminism 。 Like the latter, it extended to thoughts and desires, no less than to words and deeds.後者一樣,它延伸到的想法和願望,不得少於以言行。 Unchastity in all its forms, drunkenness, lying, stealing, envy, pride, harshness are fittingly condemned.不貞潔的所有形式,酗酒,說謊,偷竊,嫉妒,驕傲,殘酷是恰當的譴責。 But what, perhaps, brings Buddhism most strikingly in contact with Christianity is its spirit of gentleness and forgiveness of injuries.但是,也許帶來了佛教最驚人的接觸基督教是其精神的溫柔和寬恕人受傷。 To cultivate benevolence towards men of all classes, to avoid anger and physical violence, to be patient under insult, to return good for evil &151; all this was inculated in Buddhism and helped to make it one of the gentlest of religions.培養善對男女各階層,以避免憤怒和暴力行為,將根據病人的侮辱,回到好邪惡&151;這一切inculated佛教和幫助,使其之一gentlest的宗教。 To such an extent was this carried that the Buddhist monk, like the Brahmin ascetic, had to avoid with the greatest care the destruction of any form of animal life.到這樣的程度是這個進行的和尚一樣,婆羅門苦行,避免了以最大的照顧銷毀任何形式的動物生命。

In course of time, Buddha extended his monastic system to include women. Communities of nuns while living near the monks, were entirely secluded from them.在課程的時間,延長他的佛寺院制度,包括婦女。社區生活修女附近的僧侶,完全是從他們僻靜。 They had to conform to the same rule of life, to subsist on alms, and spend their days in retirement and contemplation.他們必須符合同樣的規則的生活,靠施捨,和終日在退休和沉思。 They were never as numerous as the monks, and later became a very insignificant factor in Buddhism.他們從來沒有眾多的僧人,後來成為一個非常微不足道的因素佛教。 In thus opening up to his fellow men and women what he felt to be the true path of salvation, Buddha made no discrimination in social condition.在從而開闢了他的男女同伴,他認為是真正的救國之路,佛陀沒有歧視的社會條件。 Herein lay one of the most striking contrasts between the old religion and the new.在此打下的一個最鮮明的對照歲之間的宗教和新的。 Brahminism was inextricably intertwined with caste-distinctions. Brahminism是密不可分的種姓的區別。 It was a privilege of birth, from which the Sudras and members of still lower classes were absolutely excluded.這是一種特權的出生,來自該首陀羅和成員仍然低下階層是絕對排除在外。 Buddha, on the contrary, welcomed men of low as well as high birth and station.佛像,相反,男性歡迎的低以及高出生率和高站。 Virtue, not blood, was declared to be the test of superiority.德治,而不是血液,被宣布為測試的優勢。 In the brotherhood which he built around him, all caste-distinctions were put aside. The despised Sudra stood on a footing of equality with the high-born Brahmin.在兄弟情誼,他圍繞著他,所有種姓的區別被擱置。桃一點的鄙視站在平等與高出生婆羅門。 In this religious democracy of Buddhism lay, doubtless, one of its strongest influences for conversion among the masses.在這種宗教的民主奠定基礎的佛教,無疑,它的一個最強烈的影響轉換在群眾中。 But in thus putting his followers on a plane of equal consideration, Buddha had no intention of acting the part of a social reformer.但是,在從而使他的追隨者在飛機上的平等審議,佛陀不打算採取行動的一部分,社會的改革者。 Not a few scholars have attributed to him the purpose of breaking down caste-distinctions in society and of introducing more democratic conditions.也有不少學者都歸咎於他的目的是打破種姓區分社會和引進更多民主的條件。 Buddha had no more intention of abolishing caste than he had of abolishing marriage.佛陀沒有更多的打算廢除種姓比他廢除婚姻。 It was only within the limits of his own order that he insisted on social equality just as he did on celibacy.這是唯一的限度內,他自己的秩序,他堅持社會平等公正像他那樣的獨身生活。 Wherever Buddhism has prevailed, the caste-system has remained untouched.無論佛教盛行,種姓制度仍然不變。

Strictly speaking, Buddha's order was composed only of those who renounced the world to live a life of contemplation as monks and nuns.嚴格地說,佛陀的命令是由唯一的誰放棄了世界上生活的沉思的僧侶和尼姑。 The very character of their life, however, made them dependent on the charity of men and women who preferred to live in the world and to enjoy the comforts of the household state. Those who thus sympathized with the order and contributed to its support, formed the lay element in Buddhism.非常性質的生活,然而,他們依賴於慈善事業的男人和女人誰願意生活在世界和享受舒適的家庭狀態。因此,這些誰同情秩序和貢獻的支持,形成奠定元素的佛教。 Through this friendly association with the order, they could look to a happy reward after death, not Nirvana but the temporary de!ights of heaven, with the additional prospect of being able at some future birth to attain to Nirvana, if they so desired.通過這次友好協會與秩序,他們可以期待幸福的獎勵死後,而不是涅槃,但暫時的! ights的天堂,額外的前景能夠在今後實現出生到涅槃,如果他們希望這樣做。 The majority, however, did not share the enthusiasm of the Buddhist Arhat or saint for Nirvana, being quite content to hope for a life of positive, though impermanent, bliss in heaven.大多數,但並不熱情佛教羅漢或聖人的涅磐,是相當內容,希望有一個積極的生活,雖然無常,幸福的天堂。

IV.四。 LATER DEVELOPMENTS AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM後來的事態發展和蔓延的佛教

The lack of all religious rites in Buddhism was not keenly felt during the lifetime of its founder.由於缺乏所有宗教儀式佛教沒有敏銳地感覺到在有生之年其創始人。 Personal devotion to him took the place of religious fervour.個人奉獻給他取代了宗教狂熱。 But he was not long dead when this very devotion to him began to assume the form of religious worship.但他不長死時,這非常獻身於他開始承擔形式的宗教崇拜。 His reputed relics, consisting of his bones, teeth, alms-bowl, cremation-vessel, and ashes from his funeral pyre, were enclosed in dome-shaped mounds called Dagobas, or Topes, or Stupas, and were honoured with offerings of lights, flowers, and incense.他的著名文物,包括他的骨頭,牙齒,施捨,碗,火葬船,並從他的骨灰葬遺骨,被封閉的圓頂形狀的土堆所謂Dagobas ,或Topes ,或舍利塔,並榮幸地提供的燈,花和香。 Pictures and statues of Buddha were multiplied on every side, and similarly honoured, being carried about on festal days in solemn procession.圖片和佛像被乘以每一個方面,而且同樣感到榮幸,對正在開展的節日天,莊嚴的遊行。 The places, too, associated with his birth, enlightenment, first preaching, and death were accounted especially sacred, and became the objects of pilgrimage and the occasion of recurring festivals.的地方,也與他的出生,啟蒙,首先講道,和死亡佔尤其是神聖的,並成為朝聖的對象和場合的經常性節日。 But as Buddha had entered into Nirvana and could not be sensible of these religious honours, the need was felt of a living personality to whom the people could pray.但是,佛陀已進入涅槃,不能理智的這些宗教榮譽,需要感到生活的人的個性的人可以祈禱。 The later speculations of Buddhist monks brought such a personality to light in Metteyya (Maitreya), the loving one, now happily reigning in heaven as a bodhisattva, a divine being destined in the remote future to become a Buddha, again to set in motion the wheel of the law.後來猜測的佛教僧侶帶來了這樣的個性,輕Metteyya (彌勒佛) ,在愛好之一,現在高興地在天上執政作為一個菩薩,一個神注定在遙遠的未來成為佛陀,再次啟動車輪的法律。 To this Metteyya the Buddhists turned as the living object of worship of which they had so long felt the need, and they paid him religious homage as the future saviour of the world.為此Metteyya變成佛教徒的生活作為對象的崇拜,他們只要認為有必要,他們付給他朝拜的未來救世主的世界。

The emergence of the Northern School出現了北派

Such was the character of the religious worship observed by those who departed the least from Buddha's teachings.就是這種性質的宗教崇拜觀察到這些誰離開至少從佛陀的教誨。 It is what is found today in the so-called Southern Buddhism, held by the inhabitants of Ceylon, Burma, and Siam.這就是今天發現在所謂的南方佛教,舉行了居民的錫蘭,緬甸,暹羅。 Towards the end of first century AD, however, a far more radical change took place in the religious views of the great mass of Buddhists in Northern India.去年底公元一世紀,然而,一個更為根本性變化發生在宗教觀點的偉大大規模的佛教徒在印度北部。 Owing, doubtless, to the ever growing popularity of the cults of Vishnu and Siva, Buddhism was so modified as to allow the worship of an eternal, supreme deity, Adi-Buddha, of whom the historic Buddha was declared to have been an incarnation, an avatar.由於,無疑給日益普及,邪教的毗濕奴和濕婆,佛教是如此修改,使崇拜一個永恆的,最高神,阿迪,佛像,其中歷史性的佛像被宣布為是一個化身,一個化身。 Around this supreme Buddha dwelling in highest heaven, were grouped a countless number of bodhisattvas, destined in future ages to become human Buddhas for the sake of erring man.圍繞這一最高佛陀住在最高的天堂,一分為無數菩薩,注定在未來的時代將成為人類佛像為犯錯誤的人。 To raise oneself to the rank of bodhisattva by meritorious works was the ideal now held out to pious souls.為了提高自己的排名菩薩的功勳工程是理想的現在舉行了虔誠的靈魂。 In place of Nirvana, Sukhavati became the object of pious longing, the heaven of sensuous pleasures, where Amitabha, an emanation of the eternal Buddha, reigned. For the attainment of Sukhavati, the necessity of virtuous conduct was not altogether forgotten, but an extravagant importance was attached to the worship of relics and statues, pilgrimages, and, above all, to the reciting of sacred names and magic formulas.在地方涅磐,成為Sukhavati對象的虔誠嚮往的天堂感性的樂趣,在那裡阿彌陀佛,氣的一個永恆的佛陀,統治。為實現Sukhavati ,必須良性行為不完全忘記了,而是一個奢侈重視崇拜遺跡和塑像,朝聖,以及最重要的是,在背誦神聖的名字和神奇的公式。 Many other gross forms of Hindu superstition were also adopted.許多其他形式的總值迷信印度教還通過了。 This innovation, completely subversive of the teaching of Buddha, supplanted the older system in the North.這一創新,完全顛覆教學的佛像,取代舊系統在北方。 It was known as the Mahayana, or Great Vehicle, in distinction to the other and earlier form of Buddhism contemptuously styled the Hinayana or Little Vehicle, which held its own in the South.它被稱為大乘,或大汽車,在區分和其他形式的早期佛教輕蔑地稱為小乘或小車輛,並於自己在南方。 It is only by the few millions of Southern Buddhists that the teachings of Buddha have been substantially preserved.只有為數不多的數以百萬計的南部的佛教教義的佛像已大大保存。

Buddha's order seems to have grown rapidly, and through the good will of rulers, whose inferior origin debarred them from Brahmin privileges, to have become in the next two centuries a formidable rival of the older religion.佛陀的命令似乎都得到了迅速發展,並通過良好意願的統治者,其下原產地禁止他們從婆羅門特權,已成為在未來兩個世紀一項艱鉅的對手年長的宗教。 The interesting rock-edicts of Asoka-a royal convert to Buddhism who in the second quarter of the third century BC held dominion over the greater part of India &151; give evidence that Buddhism was in a most flourishing condition, while a tolerant and kindly spirit was displayed towards other forms of religion.一個有趣的岩石法令的阿索,王室皈依佛教誰在第二季度的公元前三世紀舉行的支配權大部份印度&151;提供證據,佛教是在最繁榮的條件,而一個寬容和慷慨精神顯示對其他形式的宗教。 Under his auspices missionaries were sent to evangelize Ceylon in the South, and in the North, Kashmer, Kandahar, and the so-called Yavana country, identified by most scholars with the Greek settlements in the Kabul valley and vicinity, and later known as Bactria.在他主持下的傳教士被送往福傳錫蘭在南方和北方, Kashmer ,坎大哈,以及所謂的Yavana國家確定的多數學者與希臘的定居點在喀布爾附近山谷,後來被稱為巴克特里亞。 In all these places Buddhism quickly took root and flourished, though in the Northern countries the religion became later on corrupted and transformed into the Mahayana form of worship.在所有這些地方佛教很快扎下了根,並蓬勃發展,但在北方國家的宗教成為後來損壞,並轉化為大乘形式的崇拜。

Buddhism in China佛教在中國

In the first century of the Christian Era, the knowledge of Buddha made its way to China.在第一世紀的基督教時代,知識的佛像提出了中國的方式。 At the invitation of the Emperor Ming-ti, Buddhist monks came in AD 67 with sacred books, pictures, and relics.在邀請天皇明體,佛教僧侶排在67傾銷與神聖的書籍,圖片和文物。 Conversions multiplied, and during the next few centuries the religious communications between the two countries were very close.轉換成倍增加,並在未來數百年的宗教之間的溝通兩國非常接近。 Not only did Buddhist missionaries from India labour in China, but many Chinese monks showed their zeal for the newly adopted religion by making pilgrimages to the holy places in India.不僅是佛教從印度傳教士在中國勞工,但許多中國僧人顯示了他們的熱情為新通過的宗教朝聖,使聖地印度。 A few of them wrote interesting accounts, still extant, of what they saw and heard in their travels.有幾個人寫有趣的賬戶,仍然現存的,他們所看到和聽到的旅行。 Of these pilgrims the most noted are Fahien, who travelled in India and Ceylon in the years AD 399-414, and Hiouen-Tsang who made extensive travels in India two centuries later (AD 629-645).這些朝聖者的最引人注目的是Fahien ,誰在前往印度和錫蘭在公元399-414年,並Hiouen ,誰曾進行了廣泛的旅行中印度兩百年以後(公元629-645 ) 。 The supplanting of the earlier form of Buddhism in the northern countries of India in the second century led to a corresponding change in the Buddhism of China.該取代早先形式的佛教在北方國家,印度在第二世紀導致了相應的變化,中國佛教。 The later missionaries, being mostly from the North of India, brought with them the new doctrine, and in a short time the Mahayana or Northern Buddhism prevailed.後來傳教士,被大多來自北印度,帶來了新的理論,並在很短的時間大乘佛教或北佔了上風。 Two of the bodhisattvas of Mahayana theology became the favourite objects of worship with the Chinese &151; Amitabha, lord of the Sukhavati paradise, and Avalokitesvara, extravagantly praised in the "Lotus of the True Law" as ready to extricate from every sort of danger those who think of him or cherish his name.兩個菩薩的大乘神學成為最喜愛的物體的崇拜與中國&151;阿彌陀佛,上帝的Sukhavati天堂,千手觀音,歷稱讚的“蓮花真法”準備擺脫各種危險的誰想到他還是珍惜他的名字。 The latter, known as Fousa Kwanyin, is worshipped, now as a male deity, again as the goddess of mercy, who comes to the relief of the faithful.後者稱為Fousa觀音,是崇拜,現在作為一個男神,再次為觀音,誰來救濟的忠誠。 Amitabha goes by the Chinese name Amita, or Mito.阿彌陀佛不用的中國名字阿米塔,或戶。 Offerings of flowers and incense made before his statues and the frequent repetition, of his name are believed to ensure a future life of bliss in his distant Western paradise.產品的鮮花和香燭了他的塑像前和頻繁的重複,他的名字被認為以確保未來生活的幸福在遙遠的西方天堂。 An excessive devotion to statues and relics, the employment of magic arts to keep off evil spirits, and the observance of many of the gross superstitions of Taoism, complete the picture of Buddhism in China, a sorry representation of what Buddha made known to men.過分的獻身精神雕像和文物,就業的魔術藝術保持了邪惡的精神,並遵守許多總值的迷信道教,完成圖片的佛教在中國,一個抱歉的代表性什麼佛陀知道男子。 Chinese Buddhism was introduced into Korea in the fourth century, and from there taken to Japan two centuries later.中國佛教傳入朝鮮在第四世紀,並從那裡對日本採取了兩個世紀以後。 The Buddhism of these countries is in the main like that of China, with the addition of a number of local superstitions.佛教的這些國家是主要的一樣,中國,加上一些地方迷信。 Annam was also evangelized by Chinese Buddhists at an early period.安南還evangelized由中國佛教的早期階段。

Tibetan Buddhiism (Lamaism)西藏Buddhiism (喇嘛教)

Buddhism was first introduced into Tibet in the latter part of the seventh century, but it did not begin to thrive till the ninth century.佛教最早傳入西藏後一部分七世紀,但它沒有開始茁壯成長,直到第九世紀。 In 1260, the Buddhist conqueror of Tibet, Kublai Khan, raised the head lama, a monk of the great Sakja monastery, to the position of spiritual and temporal ruler.在1260年,佛教在西藏的征服者,忽必烈,提出了頭部喇嘛,喇嘛的偉大Sakja寺院的立場,精神和時間的統治者。 His modern successors have the title of Dalai Lama.他的繼任者有現代的標題達賴喇嘛。 Lamaism is based on the Northern Buddhism of India, after it had become saturated with the disgusting elements of Siva worship.喇嘛教是根據北印度佛教後,它已成為飽和的醜惡內容的濕婆崇拜。 Its deities are innumerable, its idolatry unlimited.它是無數的神靈,其偶像崇拜無限的。 It is also much given to the use of magic formulas and to the endless repetition of sacred names.這也是考慮到很多使用神奇的公式和無休止的重複神聖的名字。 Its favourite formula is, Om mani padme hum (O jewel in the lotus, Amen), which, written on streamers exposed to the wind, and multiplied on paper slips turned by hand or wind or water, in the so-called prayer-wheels, is thought to secure for the agent unspeakable merit.其最喜愛的公式,唵嘛呢叭咪吽(海外寶石,荷花,阿門) ,其中,寫在旗暴露在風,並乘以在紙面上變成了單手或風或水,在所謂的默禱輪,認為是安全的代理人無法形容的優點。 The Dalai Lama, residing in the great monastery at Lhasa, passes for the incarnation of Amitabha, the Buddha of the Sukhavati paradise.達賴喇嘛,居住在大寺院在拉薩,通行證的化身阿彌陀佛,佛祖的Sukhavati天堂。 Nine months after his death, a newly born babe is selected by divination as the reincarnate Buddha. 9個月去世後,一個新出生的嬰兒是通過占卜選定的化身佛。

Catholic missionaries to Tibet in the early part of the last century were struck by the outward resemblances to Catholic liturgy and discipline that were presented by Lamaism-its infallible head, grades of clergy corresponding to bishop and priest, the cross, mitre, dalmatic, cope, censer, holy water, etc. At once voices were raised proclaiming the Lamaistic origin of Catholic rites and practices.天主教傳教士在西藏早期的一部分,過去一個世紀是深刻的外向相似之處天主教禮儀和紀律,提出了喇嘛教,其可靠的頭部,等級的神職人員相應的主教和神父,兩岸,邁特, dalmatic ,應付,香爐,聖水等在聲音再次提出了宣布Lamaistic原產地的天主教儀式和做法。 Unfortunately for this shallow theory, the Catholic Church was shown to have possessed these features in common with the Christian Oriental churches long before Lamaism was in existence.不幸的是,這一淺層理論,天主教會都表現出擁有這些共同的特點與基督教東方教會早在喇嘛教是存在的。 The wide propagation of Nestorianism over Central and Eastern Asia as early as AD 635 offers a natural explanation for such resemblances as are accretions on Indian Buddhism.廣泛的傳播景教在中歐和東歐地區儘早公元635提供了一個自然的解釋,例如相似之處一樣accretions對印度佛教。 The missionary zeal of Tibetan lamas led to the extension of their religion to Tatary in the twelfth and following centuries.傳教士熱情的藏族喇嘛導致延長其宗教Tatary在第十二和下面的世紀。 While Northern Buddhism was thus exerting a widespread influence over Central and Eastern Asia, the earlier form of Buddhism was making peaceful conquests of the countries and islands in the South.雖然北方佛教,因此產生了廣泛影響,中歐和東歐中亞,早先形式的佛教,使和平征服的國家和島嶼在南方。 In the fifth century missionaries from Ceylon evangelized Burma.在第五世紀傳教士從錫蘭evangelized緬甸。 Within the next two centuries, it spread to Siam, Cambodia, Java, and adjacent islands.在接下來的兩百年間,它蔓延到暹羅,柬埔寨,爪哇,和鄰近島嶼。

Statistics統計

The number of Buddhists throughout the world is commonly estimated at about four hundred and fifty millions, that is, about one-third of the human race.數目的佛教徒在世界各地普遍估計約為450百萬,也就是說,大約有三分之一的人類。 But on this estimate the error is made of classing an the Chinese and Japanese as Buddhists.但是,關於這個估計是錯誤的分類一個的中國和日本的佛教徒。 Professor Legge, whose years of experience in China give special weight to his judgment, declares that the Buddhists in the whole world are not more than, one hundred millions, being far outnumbered not only by Christians, but also by the adherents of Confucianism and Hinduism.理教授,他多年的經驗在中國特別重視他的判斷,宣布佛教在全世界不超過, 100百萬美元,遠遠超過目前不僅是基督徒,但也由儒家的信徒和印度教。 Professor Monier Williams holds the same views.莫尼爾威廉姆斯教授持有同樣的看法。 Even if Buddhism, however, outranked Christianity in the number of adherents, it would be a mistake to attribute to the religion of Buddha, as some do, a more successful propagandism than to the religion of Christ.即使佛教,然而, outranked基督教的人數追隨者,這將是一個錯誤的屬性的宗教的佛像,因為有些做,更成功的propagandism ,而不是基督宗教。 The latter has made its immense conquests, not by compromising with error and superstition, but by winning souls to the exclusive acceptance of its saving truths.後者作出了巨大的征服,而不是妥協的錯誤和迷信,但贏得的靈魂獨家接受其節約的真理。 Wherever it has spread, it has maintained its individuality.只要它已蔓延,保持了其個性。 On the other hand, the vast majority of the adherents of Buddhism cling to forms of creed and worship that Buddha, if alive, would reprobate.另一方面,絕大多數的佛教信徒堅持形式的宗教和信仰的佛,如果活著,將壞人。 Northern Buddhism became the very opposite of what Buddha taught to men, and in spreading to foreign lands accommodated itself to the degrading superstitions of the peoples it sought to win.北方佛教成為非常相反的佛陀教導的男子,並蔓延到外國的土地上安置自己的人格迷信的人民尋求獲勝。 It is only the Southern Buddhists of Ceylon, Burma, and Siam who deserve to be identified with the order founded by Buddha.只有南部的佛教徒錫蘭,緬甸,暹羅誰應該得到確認的命令成立的佛像。 They number at most but thirty millions of souls.他們人數最多,但數以百萬計的第三十二靈魂。

V. BUDDHISM AND CHRISTIANITY五,佛教和基督教

Between Buddhism and Christianity there are a number of resemblances, at first sight striking.佛教和基督教有一些相似之處,乍一看突出。

The Buddhist order of monks and nuns offers points of similarity with Christian monastic systems, particularly the mendicant orders. There are moral aphorisms ascribed to Buddha that are not unlike some of the sayings of Christ.佛教秩序的僧侶和尼姑提供的相似點與基督教修道院制度,特別是行乞的訂單。有道義上的警句歸因於佛陀不是不像一些名言基督。

Most of all, in the legendary life of Buddha, which in its complete form is the outcome of many centuries of accretion, there are many parallelisms, some more, some less striking, to the Gospel stories of Christ.最重要的是,在傳說中生活的佛像,其完整形式的結果是許多個世紀的堆積,有許多並行,有些更多,一些不太引人注目,福音的故事基督。

A few third-rate scholars taking for granted that all these resemblances are pre-Christian, and led by the fallacious principle that resemblance always implies dependence, have vainly tried to show that Christian monasticism is of Buddhist origin, and that Buddhist thought and legend have been freely incorporated into the Gospels.有幾個三流的學者同時想當然地認為所有這些相似之處是前基督教,和領導的荒謬的原則,即相似性總是意味著依賴,已是徒勞的嘗試表明,基督教修道是佛教起源,而且佛教思路和傳說都自由納入了福音。 To give greater speciousness to their theory, they have not scrupled to press into service, besides the few bona fide resemblances many others that were either grossly exaggerated, or fictitious, or drawn from Buddhist sources less ancient than the Gospels.為了讓更多的似是而非的理論,他們還沒有scrupled新聞界投入服務,除了少數真正的相似之處其他許多被嚴重誇大,或虛構,或取自佛教古老的來源較少比福音。 If, from this vast array of alleged Buddhist infiltrations, all these exaggerations, fictions, and anachronisms are eliminated, the points of resemblance that remain are, with perhaps one exception, such as may be explained on the ground of independent origin.如果從這個巨大的滲透佛家據稱,所有這些誇張,小說,和過時的取消,該點的相似性仍然是,可能一個例外,如原因可能是在地面上的獨立起源。

The exception is the story of Buddha's conversion from the worldly life of a prince to the life of an ascetic, which was transformed by some Oriental Christian of the seventh century into the popular medieval tale of "Barlaam and Josaphat".唯一的例外是這個故事的佛像的轉換從世俗生活的王子生活的苦行僧,這是改變一些東方基督教第七世紀成為流行的中世紀童話故事“ Barlaam和約薩法特” 。 Here is historic evidence of the turning of a Buddhist into a Christian legend just as, on the other hand, the fifth-century sculptures of Gospel scenes on the ruined Buddhist monasteries of Jamalgiri, in Northern Panjab, described in the scholarly work of Fergusson and Burgess, "The Cave Temples of India", offer reliable evidence that the Buddhists of that time did not scruple to embellish the Buddha legend with adaptations from Christian sources.這是歷史證明了一個轉折點佛教到基督教傳說一樣,另一方面,第五世紀的雕塑的福音場景的破壞佛教寺院的Jamalgiri ,在北方旁遮普,描述的學術工作的弗格森和伯吉斯說: “洞穴廟宇,印度”提供可靠的證據表明,佛教的時間沒有顧忌美化佛陀的傳說改編自同基督教來源。

But is there any historical basis for the assertion that Buddhist influence was a factor in the formation of Christianity and of the Christian Gospels?但是,沒有任何歷史根據,斷言佛教的影響是一個因素形成的基督教和基督教福音? The advocates of this theory pretend that the rock-inscriptions of Asoka bear witness to the spread of Buddhism over the Greek-speaking world as early as the third century BC, since they mention the flourishing existence of Buddhism among the Yavanas, ie Greeks within the dominion of Antiochus.主張這一理論假設岩銘文阿索見證的傳播佛教的希臘世界的,早在公元前三世紀,因為他們提到的繁榮存在著佛教之間的Yavanas ,即希臘人的自治領的安。 But in the unanimous judgment of first-rate scholars, the Yavanas here mentioned mean simply and solely the Greek-speaking peoples on the extreme frontier next to India, namely, Bactria and the Kabul valley.但是,在一致判決的一流學者,在這裡提到的Yavanas意味著簡單和純粹的希臘講人民的極端的前沿旁邊的印度,即巴克特里亞和喀布爾的山谷。 Again the statement in the late Buddhist chronicle, Mahavansa, that among the Buddhists who came to the dedication of a great Stupa in Ceylon in the second century BC, "were over thirty thousand monks from the vicinity of Alassada, the capital of the Yona country" is taken to prove that long before the time of Christ, Alexandria in Egypt was the centre of flourishing Buddhist communities.再次聲明,已故佛教紀事Mahavansa ,這之間的佛教徒誰來奉獻了一個偉大的錫蘭佛塔在公元前二世紀, “已超過3.0萬僧侶附近的Alassada ,資本的尤納弗國“是證明,很久以前的時候基督,埃及亞歷山大是蓬勃發展中心的佛教團體。 It is true that Alassada is the Pali for Alexandria; but the best scholars are agreed that the city here meant is not the ancient capital of Egypt, but as the text indicates, the chief city of the Yona country, the Yavana country of the rock-inscriptions, namely, Bactria and vicinity.誠然, Alassada是八里的亞歷山德里亞,但最好的學者們一致認為,城市在這裡的意思是不是古都埃及,但由於文字表示的首席城市尤納弗國家, Yavana國家的岩石,題詞,即巴克特里亞及附近地區。 And so, the city referred to is most likely Alexandria ad Caucasum.因此,城市稱為是最有可能的亞歷山德里亞的廣告Caucasum 。

In short, there is nothing in Buddhist records that may be taken as reliable evidence for the spread of Buddhism westward to the Greek world as early as the foundation of the Christian religion.簡言之,就是佛教中的記錄,可能被視為可靠的證據為傳播佛教向西希臘世界最早的基礎基督教。 That Buddhist institutions were at that time unknown in the West may be safely inferred from the fact that Buddhism is absolutely ignored in the literary and archaeological remains of Palestine, Egypt, and Greece.這是佛教的機構,當時未知在西方可以安全地推斷出的事實,佛教是絕對忽視的文學和考古遺跡的巴勒斯坦,埃及和希臘。 There is not a single remains of Buddhist monastery or stupa in any of these countries; not a single Greek translation of a Buddhist book; not a single reference in all Greek literature to the existence of a Buddhist community in the Greek world.不存在一個單一的遺骸剎或佛塔在任何這些國家沒有一個希臘翻譯佛教書籍;沒有一個參考的所有希臘文學的存在佛教界在希臘的世界。 The very name of Buddha is mentioned for the first time only in the writings of Clement of Alexandria (second century).非常念佛提到第一次只在著作的克萊門特亞歷山大(二世紀) 。 To explain the resemblances in Christianity to a number of pre-Christian features of Buddhism, there is no need of resorting to the hypothesis that they were borrowed.解釋相似之處基督教的一些前基督教佛教的特點,因此沒有必要訴諸的假說,他們借來的。 Nothing is more common in the study of comparative ethnology and religion than to find similar social and religious customs practised by peoples too remote to have had any communication with one another.沒有比這更常見的研究比較民族和宗教比找到類似的社會和宗教習俗實行的人民過於遙遠而有任何溝通彼此。 How easily the principle of ascetic detachment from the world may lead to a community life in which celibacy as observed, may be seen in the monastic systems that have prevailed not only among Buddhists, Essenes, and Christians, but also among the early Aztecs and Incas in the New World.如何輕鬆的原則苦行脫離世界可能會導致社會生活中獨身觀察,可以看到在寺院制度,普遍不僅在佛教,愛色尼,和基督教徒,但也屬於早期阿芝台克人和印加人在新的世界。 Nor is this so strange when it is recalled that men everywhere have, to a large extent, the same daily experiences, the same feelings, the desires.也不是這樣奇怪時,人們記得,男人都有,在很大程度上,同樣的日常生活經驗,同樣的感情,慾望。 As the laws of human thought are every here the same, it lies in the very nature of things that men, in so far as they have the same experiences, or face the same religious needs, will think the same thoughts, and give expression to them in sayings and customs that strike the unreflecting old server by their similarity.隨著法律的人都以為這裡是相同的,這是非常自然的事情,男人,只要他們有相同的經驗,或面臨著同樣的宗教需要,會認為同樣的想法,並表達這些諺語和習俗罷工的舊服務器unreflecting他們的相似性。 It is only by losing sight of this fundamental truth that one can unwittingly fall into the error of assuming that resemblance always implies dependence.只有忽視這一基本事實,即人們可以不知不覺地落入錯誤的假設相似性總是意味著依賴。

It is chiefly the legendary features of Buddha's life, many of which are found for the first time only in works of later date than the Gospels, that furnish the most striking resemblances to certain incidents related of Christ in the Gospels, resemblances which might with greater show of reason be traced to a common historic origin.這是傳奇的主要特點佛陀的生命,其中有許多是發現第一次只在作品日後比福音,即提供最引人注目的相似之處某些事件有關的基督福音,相似之處這可能有更大顯示的原因要追溯到一個共同的歷史起源。 If there has been any borrowing here, it is plainly on the side of Buddhism.如果有任何借貸在這裡,它顯然是一方的佛教。 That Christianity made its way to Northern India in the first two centuries is not only a matter of respectable tradition, but is supported by weighty archaeological evidence.基督教提出了以印度北部的頭兩個世紀不僅是一個令人尊敬的傳統,但得到了重大的考古證據。 Scholars of recognized ability beyond the suspicion of undue bias in favour of Christianity - Weber, Goblet d'Alviella, and others-think it very likely that the Gospel stories of Christ circulated by these early Christian communities in India were used by the Buddhists to enrich the Buddha legend, just as the Vishnuites built up the legend of Krishna on many striking incidents in the life of Christ. The fundamental tenets of Buddhism are marked by grave defects that not only betray its inadequacy to become a religion of enlightened humanity, but also bring into bold relief its inferiority to the religion of Jesus Christ.學者們公認的能力超出了涉嫌不正當偏袒基督教-韋伯,火焰杯德A lviella等,認為這很可能是福音的故事基督分發這些早期基督教社區在印度所使用的佛教徒,以豐富佛陀的傳說,就像Vishnuites建立了傳說裡的許多引人注目的事件生活中的基督。的基本原理佛教的標誌是嚴重的缺陷,不僅背叛其不足成為一個開明的宗教人類,但也把大膽減免其自卑的宗教耶穌基督。 In the first place, the very foundation on which Buddhism rests-the doctrine of karma with its implied transmigrations-is gratuitous and false.首先,非常基礎上,佛教在於,理論的氣質與暗示transmigrations ,是無端的和虛假的。 This pretended law of nature, by which the myriads of gods, demons, men, and animals are but the transient forms of rational beings essentially the same, but forced to this diversity in consequence of varying degrees of merit and demerit in former lives, is a huge superstition in flat contradiction to the recognized laws of nature, and hence ignored by men of science.這假裝自然法則,其中無數神,魔,男人和動物,但短暫形式的合理而基本不變,但被迫在這種多樣性的後果不同程度的優點和記過處分前的生活,是一個巨大的迷信持平矛盾的認識自然規律,從而忽視了男子的科學。 Another basic defect in primitive Buddhism is its failure to recognize man's dependence on a supreme God.另一個基本的缺陷原始佛教是不承認人的依賴最高的上帝。 By ignoring God and by making salvation rest solely on personal effort, Buddha substituted for the Brahmin religion a cold and colourless system of philosophy. It is entirely lacking in those powerful motives to right conduct, particularly the motive of love, that spring from the consecration of religious men and women to the dependence on a personal all-loving God.無視上帝和拯救,使其餘的完全個人的努力,佛陀取代婆羅門宗教寒冷和無色系統的哲學。這是完全缺乏這些強大的動機,以正確的行為,特別是愛的動機,即春季的奉獻宗教男性和女性的依賴於個人所有熱愛上帝。 Hence it is that Buddhist morality is in the last analysis a selfish utilitarianism.因此,它是佛教道德是在過去的分析是自私的功利主義。 There is no sense of duty, as in the religion of Christ, prompted by reverence for a supreme Lawgiver, by love for a merciful Father, by personal allegiance to a Redeemer. Karma, the basis of Buddhist morality, is like any other law of nature, the observance of which is prompted by prudential considerations.沒有使命感,在基督宗教,提示崇敬的最高立法者,愛一個仁慈的父親,由個人效忠的救世主。噶瑪,根據佛教道德,就像是任何其他法律的性質,遵守這是促使謹慎的考慮。 Not infrequently one meets the assertion that Buddha surpassed Jesus in holding out to struggling humanity an end utterly unselfish.很少人不符合斷言耶穌佛超過舉行了掙扎結束人類完全無私的。 This is a mistake.這是一個錯誤。 Not to speak of the popular Swarga, or heaven, with its positive, even sensual delights the fact that Nirvana is a negative ideal of bliss does not make it the less an object of interested desire.不要說流行的Swarga ,或天堂,其積極,甚至感官愉悅的事實,涅槃是一種消極的理想,幸福不使它成為一個不太感興趣的物體的願望。 Far from being an unselfish end, Nirvana is based wholly on the motive of self-love.遠東從一個無私的目的,是基於涅磐全的動機自愛。 It thus stands on a much lower level than the Christian ideal, which, being primarily and essentially a union of friendship with God in heaven, appeals to motives of disinterested as well as interested love. Another fatal defect of Buddhism is its false pessimism.因此,它站在低得多的水平比基督教的理想,這主要是和基本上是一個工會的友誼與上帝在天上,呼籲無私的動機以及感興趣的愛。另一個致命的缺陷,佛教是其虛假的悲觀情緒。 A strong and healthy mind revolts against the morbid view that life is not worth living, that every form of conscious existence is an evil.一個強大和健康的心智起義對病態認為,生活是不值得的生活,這一切形式的意識的存在是一種罪惡。 Buddhism stands condemned by the voice of nature the dominant tone of which is hope and joy.佛教主張的譴責的聲音,自然佔主導地位的基調是希望和喜悅。 It is a protest against nature for possessing the perfection of rational life.這是一種抗議性質的擁有完善合理的生活。 The highest ambition of Buddhism is to destroy that perfection by bringing all living beings to the unconscious repose of Nirvana.最高的野心佛教是要破壞這一完善,使所有生物的無意識安息的涅磐。 Buddhism is thus guilty of a capital crime against nature, and in consequence does injustice to the individual.因此,佛教是犯有死罪的性質,因此不公平的個人。 All legitimate desires must be repressed.所有合法願望必須鎮壓。 Innocent recreations are condemned.娛樂無辜受到譴責。 The cultivation of music is forbidden.種植的音樂是被禁止的。 Researches in natural science are discountenanced.研究自然科學的discountenanced 。 The development of the mind is limited to the memorizing of Buddhist texts and the study of Buddhist metaphysics, only a minimum of which is of any value.發展的思想是有限的背誦的佛經和佛教研究形而上學,只有最低限度的這是沒有任何價值。 The Buddhist ideal on earth is a state of passive indifference to everything.佛教的理想在地球上是一種被動的一切漠不關心。 How different is the teaching of Him who came that men might have life and have it more abundantly.不同的是如何教學的他誰是男人可能有生命和有更豐富。 Again Buddhist pessimism is unjust to the family.再次佛教悲觀是不公正的家庭。 Marriage is held in contempt and even abhorrence as leading to the procreation of life.婚姻是在蔑視和憎惡的甚至導致生育的生活。 In thus branding marriage as a state unworthy of man, Buddhism betrays its inferiority to Christianity, which recommends virginity but at the same time teaches that marriage is a sacred union and a source of sanctification.因此,品牌在婚姻作為一個國家不配的人,佛教暴露其自卑基督教,其中建議貞潔,但在同一時間教導我們,婚姻是一個神聖的工會和來源的神聖。 Buddhist pessimism likewise does injustice to society.佛教也並不悲觀不公正的社會。 It has set the seal of approval on the Brahmin prejudice against manual labor.它設立的印章審批的婆羅門歧視體力勞動。 Since life is not worth living, to labour for the comforts and refinements of civilized life is a delusion.由於生活是不值得的生活,勞動的舒適和完善的文明生活是一種妄想。 The perfect man is to subsist not by the labour of his hands but on the alms of inferior men.完美的人是生存而不是由勞動,他的手,但對施捨劣質男人。 In the religion of Christ, "the carpenter's son", a healthier view prevails.在基督宗教, “木匠的兒子” ,一個更加健康的觀點佔上風。 The dignity of labour is upheld, and every form of industry is encouraged that tends to promote man's welfare. Buddhism has accomplished but little for the uplifting of humanity in comparison with Christianity.尊嚴的勞動是堅持和各種形式的行業感到鼓舞的是,往往以促進人的福利。佛教已經完成,但很少為提高人類在與基督教的比較。 One of its most attractive features, which, unfortunately, has become wellnigh obsolete, was its practice of benevolence towards the sick and needy.其中一個最吸引人的特點,不幸的是,已成為wellnigh過時的,是其仁的做法對病人和窮人。 Between Buddhists and Brahmins there was a commendable rivalry in maintaining dispensaries of food and medicine.之間的佛教徒和婆羅門有一個值得稱道的競爭中保持藥房的食品和藥品。 But this charity did not, like the Christian form, extend to the prolonged nursing of unfortunates stricken with contagious and incurable diseases, to the protection of foundlings, to the bringing up of orphans, to the rescue of fallen women, to the care of the aged and insane.但是,這並沒有慈善機構,如基督教的形式,延伸到長期護理不幸受災的傳染和不可治愈的疾病,保護棄兒,向養育的孤兒,救助下降婦女,照顧老年人和精神病患者。 Asylums and hospitals in this sense are unknown to Buddhism. Asylums和醫院在這個意義不明佛教。 The consecration of religious men and women to the lifelong service of afflicted humanity is foreign to dreamy Buddhist monasticism.在神聖的宗教男子和婦女的終身服務的困擾人類的外國以夢幻般的佛教修道。 Again, the wonderful efficacy displayed by the religion of Christ in purifying the morals of pagan Europe has no parallel in Buddhist annals.同樣地,美妙效果所表現出的基督宗教在淨化道德的異教徒的歐洲沒有並行的佛教史冊。 Wherever the religion of Buddha has prevailed, it has proved singularly inefficient to lift society to a high standard of morality.只要宗教的佛像已佔了上風,它已證明了奇異低效解除社會對高標準的道德準則。 It has not weaned the people of Tibet and Mongolia from the custom of abandoning the aged, nor the Chinese from the practice of infanticide.它沒有斷奶西藏人民和蒙古的習俗,放棄歲,也不是從中國的實踐女嬰。 Outside the establishment of the order of nuns, it has done next to nothing to raise woman from her state of degradation in Oriental lands.境外設立秩序的修女,它已經為下一步要做什麼,提高婦女從她的狀態退化的東方土地。 It has shown itself utterly helpless to cope with the moral plagues of humanity.這已表明自己沒奈何,以應付道德困擾人類。 The consentient testimony of witnesses above the suspicion of prejudice establishes the fact that at the present day Buddhist monks are everywhere strikingly deficient in that moral earnestness and exemplary conduct which distinguished the early followers of Buddha.該consentient證人證言上述涉嫌妨害確定的事實是,在當今佛教僧侶到處都是驚人的不足,道德的真誠和模範行為,尊敬的早期追隨者的佛像。 In short, Buddhism is all but dead.總之,佛教是一切,但死亡。 In its huge organism the faint pulsations of life are still discernible, but its power of activity is gone.在其龐大的生物體微弱的生命脈動仍然辨,但其權力的活動現在都不見了。 The spread of European civilization over the East will inevitably bring about its extinction.蔓延的歐洲文明的東方將不可避免地帶來了滅絕的邊緣。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯鄧巴艾肯。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,第三卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat , 08年11月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Mahayana Buddhism 大乘佛教

Theravada Buddhism 小乘

Lamaism 喇嘛教

Zen Buddhism

Tantra 譚崔


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