Black Muslims黑人穆斯林

General Information 一般信息

Black Muslims is a widely used name for the adherents of an American black nationalist religious movement whose self designation changed in 1976 from "The Lost - Found Nation of Islam" to "The World Community of Islam in the West." The movement traces its beginnings to the enigmatic figure of Wallace D Fard (Wali Farad), known as "Prophet Fard," "The Great Mahdi" or "The Savior," who attracted 8,000 followers in the short period between his appearance in Detroit in 1930 and his disappearance in June 1934.黑人穆斯林是一種廣泛使用的名稱信徒的美國黑人民族宗教運動的自我改變指定在1976年從“失落的-發現伊斯蘭國家” “國際社會對伊斯蘭教在西方。 ”運動的開端痕跡在神秘的數字華萊士D爾德(瓦利法拉) , 稱為“ 先知爾德” , “偉大的救世主”或“救世主, ”誰吸引了8000追隨者在短期內出現與他在底特律在1930年和他的失踪1934年6月。

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The movement, with its present headquarters in Chicago, gained ground significantly under Fard's successor, Elijah Muhammad, who exercised strong leadership until his death in 1975.這個運動,其目前的總部設在芝加哥,取得顯著地面下爾德的繼任者, 伊萊賈穆罕默德,誰行使強有力的領導,直到他逝世於1975年。 He saw himself as the "prophet and apostle of Allah," claiming that God had appeared in the figure of Fard. Preaching an anti integrationist message, Elijah Muhammad frequently voiced warnings about "the human beast. . . the people or race known as the white." He called "every Black Man in America to be reunited with his own" and urged a sense of black self reliance and separation from the white society, even economically.他認為自己的“先知和使徒的安拉” ,聲稱上帝已經出現在數字爾德。 鼓吹反統一的信息,以利亞表示,穆罕默德經常警告說“人的野獸。 。 。的人或種族稱為白色的。 “他所謂的”每一個黑人在美國團聚自己 ,並敦促一種黑色自力更生和脫離社會的白色,即使在經濟上。 One of the best known Black Muslim ministers during this period was Malcolm X, converted while he was in prison in 1947, who broke with the movement in March 1964 and was assassinated 11 months later.其中最有名的黑人穆斯林部長在此期間,被馬爾科姆X ,轉換當他在監獄於1947年,誰打破了運動和1964年3月被暗殺後11個月。

The BELIEVE Religious Information Source web site is not connected with the organization described in this presentation. This happens to be ONE of the 1,000 religious subjects which are included in BELIEVE.該相信宗教信息來源網站沒有連接與該組織中所描述此演示。這種情況將是1000宗教科目列入相信。

Our small Protestant Christian Church, which created and maintains the BELIEVE site, has no contact with the organization described here, so we cannot help in providing contacts or addresses. In addition, since BELIEVE does not "sell" anything, we cannot help in finding books, icons or souvenirs.我們的小基督教新教,創造和維護相信網站,沒有接觸該組織介紹,所以我們不能幫助提供接觸或地址。此外,由於相信沒有“賣”什麼,我們不能幫助尋找書籍,圖標或紀念品。

A radically different phase began under Elijah Muhammad's son and successor, Warith Deen (or Wallace D) Muhammad. He called for a new sense of patriotism, urging blacks to "identify with the land and flag."一種完全不同的階段下開始伊萊賈穆罕默德的兒子和繼承人, Warith迪恩(或華萊士丁)穆罕默德。他呼籲建立一個新的愛國主義意識,敦促黑人“確定的土地和旗幟。 ” Advocating the "religious unification of the world's Muslims," WD Muhammad abandoned unorthodox notions and expressions that had presented obstacles for many other Muslims' recognition of this movement as being authentically Islamic.鼓吹“宗教統一,全世界穆斯林, ”西部穆罕默德被遺棄的非正統的概念和表述提出了障礙,許多其他穆斯林認識到這一運動作為真正的伊斯蘭。 In May 1985 he announced the dissolution of the American Muslim Mission to unify its members with the worldwide Muslim community. 1985年5月,他宣布解散美國穆斯林團以統一其成員的全球穆斯林社區。

A splinter group led by Louis Farrakhan, however, retains the earlier separatist principles and the name "Nations of Islam." During the 1984 presidential campaign Farrakhan's racial comments stirred controversy.一個分支組織由路易斯漢,但保留了以前的原則和分裂主義名稱是“ 聯合國的伊斯蘭教。 ”在 1984年總統競選漢種族的評論引起爭議。 In subsequent years, he repeated anti-Semitic remarks at large rallies, but he did not inject himself into the 1988 presidential campaign.在隨後的幾年,他多次反猶言論大集會,但他沒有自己注入到1988年的總統競選。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
JR Howard, Becoming a Black Muslim: A Study of Commitment Processes in a Deviant Political Organization (1965); CE Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America (1973); LE Lomax, When the Word is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the Black Muslim World (1963); CE Marsh, From Black Muslims to Muslims: The Transition from Separatism to Islam, 1930 - 1980 (1984); E Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America (1965).乘坐JR霍華德,成為一名黑人穆斯林:研究過程的承諾在越軌政治組織( 1965年) ;行政長官林肯,黑色穆斯林在美國( 1973年) ;樂洛馬克斯,當Word是由於:報告伊萊賈穆罕默德,馬爾科姆X和黑人穆斯林世界( 1963年) ;行政長官沼澤,從黑白穆斯林穆斯林:在過渡分裂主義伊斯蘭教, 1930年至1980年( 1984年) ;電子郵件穆罕默德,留言的布萊克曼在美國( 1965年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 古蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 信仰支柱
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-從圖書的聖訓1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-從圖書的聖訓2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-從圖書的聖訓3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-從圖書的聖訓1 0布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書2 0布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 西遊記(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書2 6布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書5 2布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 統一性,唯一性安拉( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書9 3布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 克爾白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派穆斯林
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 阿伊莎
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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