Comparing The Bible's Old Testament With The Talmud比較聖經的舊約與塔木德

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Rabbinic Theology and Literature拉比神學與文學

(From Appendix 5 of Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (從附錄5的生活和時代的耶穌救世主
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886)由阿爾弗雷德愛德生, 1886年)

1. 1 。 The Traditional Law傳統的法律

The brief account given in vol.在簡短的帳戶中卷。 ip 100, of the character and authority claimed for the traditional law may here be supplemented by a chronological arrangement of the Halakhoth in the order of their supposed introduction or promulgation.知識產權100的性質和權威聲稱的傳統法可在這裡輔之以時間順序安排Halakhoth在命令他們理應引進或頒布。

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In the first class, or 'Halakhoth of Moses from Sinai,' tradition enumerates 55, [The numbers given by Maimonides, in his Preface to the Mishnah, and their arrangement, are somewhat different, but I prefer the more critical (sometimes even hypercritical) enumeration of Herzfeld.在頭等艙,或' Halakhoth摩西從西奈半島,傳統列舉了55個, [數字給予邁蒙尼德,在他的序米示拿,他們的安排,有些不同,但我寧願更重要(有時甚至挑剔)列舉赫茲費爾德。 They are also enumerated in Peiser's Nachlath Shimoni, Part I. pp.他們還列舉Peiser的Nachlath希莫尼,第一部分頁。 47 - 49 b.] which may be thus designaterd: 47 -4 9灣]可因此d esignaterd:
18 ordinances are ascribed to Joshua, of which only one is ritual, the other 17 being agrarian and police regulations. 18條例歸因於光,其中只有一個是例行公事,其他17個正在農業和警察條例。 [Baba K 81a; Tos. [巴巴K 81a ;服務條款。 Baba M 11; Jer.巴巴M 11 ;哲。 Baba K 3:2.巴巴K 3:2 。

Among the police regulations is this curious one, that all were allowed to fish in the Lake of Galilee, but not to lay down nets, so as not to impede the navigation.] The other traditions can only be briefly noted.在警察條例這是一個奇怪的,所有被允許魚類的加利利湖,但沒有放下蚊帳,以便不妨礙導航。 ]其他傳統只能是短暫的。 Boaz, or else 'the tribunal of Samuel,' fixed, that Deut.波阿斯,否則,法庭的塞繆爾, '固定,這Deut 。 23:3 did not apply to alliances with Ammonite and Moabite women. 23時03並不適用於聯盟,菊石和Moabite婦女。 Two ordinances are ascribed to David, two to Solomon, one to Jehoshaphat, and one to Jehoida.兩個條例歸因於大衛,兩到所羅門群島,一個Jehoshaphat ,一個以Jehoida 。

The period of Isaiah and of Hezekiah is described as of immense Rabbinic activity.這一時期以賽亞和Hezekiah被形容為巨大的拉比活動。 To the prophets at Jerusalem three ritual ordinances are ascribed.為了先知在耶路撒冷三個儀式條例賦予。 Daniel is represented as having prohibited the bread, wine and oil of the heathen (Dan. 1:5).丹尼爾的代表有禁止在麵包,葡萄酒和石油的異教徒( Dan. 1:5 ) 。 Two ritual determinations are ascribed to the prophets of the Exile.兩個儀式的決定是歸因於先知的流亡生活。

After the return from Babylon traditionalism rapidly expanded, and its peculiar character more and more clearly developed.回歸後從巴比倫的傳統迅速擴大,其獨特的性質越來越清楚地發展。 No fewer than 12 traditions are traced back to the three prophets who flourished at that period, while four other important legal determinations are attributed to the prophet Haggai individually.不少於12個傳統追溯到三年先知誰在蓬勃發展時期,而其他四個重要的法律裁定是由於個別先知哈。 It will readily be understood that Ezra occupied a high place in tradition.這將容易理解的是,龐德被佔領的一個高的地方傳統。 15 ordinances are ascribed to him, of which some are ritual. 15條例賦予他的,其中有些是例行公事。

Three of his supposed ordinances have a general interest. They enjoin the general education of children, and the exclusion of Samaritans from admission into the Synagogue and from social intercourse.他的三個假定條例有一個普遍利益。他們責成一般兒童教育,和排斥樂善好施從入院到猶太教堂,並從社會交往。 If only one legal determination is assigned to Nehemiah, 'the men of the great Synagogue' are credited with 15, of which 6 bear on important critical and exegetical points connected with the text of the Scriptures, the others chiefly on questions connected with ritual and worship.如果只有一個法律上確定分配給尼希米記,男人偉大的猶太教堂'記15 ,其中6負有重要的關鍵點和訓詁與文字的聖經,其他的問題,主要與儀式禮拜。 Among the 'pairs' (Zugoth) which succeeded the 'Great Synagogue,' three 'alleviating' ordinances (of a very punctilious character) are ascribed to Jose, the son of Joezer, [According to tradition (Sot. 47a, b) the Eshkoloth, or 'bunches of grapes,' ceased with Jose.在'對' ( Zugoth ) ,其中成功的'大會堂, '三個緩解'條例(一個非常拘泥形式的字符)是歸因於聖何塞的兒子, Joezer , [根據傳統( Sot. 47A條,二) Eshkoloth ,或'串葡萄,停止與何塞。

The expression refers to the Rabbis, and Herzfield ingeniously suggests this explanation of the designation, that after Jose they were no longer undivided in their opinions.表達是指拉比,並Herzfield巧妙地表明這一解釋指定後,若他們不再分割在他們的意見。 For other explanations comp.至於其他的解釋比較。 Deren'ourg, us pp. Deren'ourg ,我們頁。 88, 456 - 458.] and two, intended render all contact with heathens impossible, to him and his colleague. Under the Maccabees the feast of the dedication of the Temple was introduced. 88 , 456 -4 58。 ]和兩個打算提供一切與異教徒不可能的,他和他的同事。根據馬加比節日的獻身精神,介紹了寺廟。 To Joshua the son of Perachya, one punctilious legal determination is ascribed.為了約書亞的兒子Perachya ,一個拘泥形式是法律賦予的決心。 Of the decrees of the Maccabean High - Priest Jochanan we have already spoken in another place; similarly, of those of Simon the son of Shetach and of his learned colleague. Four legal determinations of their successors Shemayah and Abhtalion are mentioned.該法令Maccabean高級-牧師J ochanan我們已經談過在另一個地方,同樣也對這些西蒙的兒子S hetach和他的同事的經驗教訓。四個法律確定其繼承人S hemayah和A bhtalion提到。 Next in order comes the prohibition of Greek during the war between the Maccabean brothers Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. This brings us to the time of Hillel and Shammai, that is, to the period of Jesus, to which further reference will have to be made in another place.下一步是為了禁止在希臘之間的戰爭Maccabean兄弟Hyrcanus和亞里斯多布魯斯。這就使我們的時間希勒爾和Shammai ,就是這一時期的耶穌,並進一步提到,我們將要在另一地點。

2. 2 。 The Canon of Scripture佳能聖經

Reference has been made in the text (vol. ip 107) to the position taken by Traditionalism in reference to the written as compared with what was regarded as the oral Revelation.提到了在文本(第一卷的IP 107 )所採取的立場在參考傳統的書面相比,什麼被視為口腔啟示。 Still, nominally, the Scriptures were appealed to by the Palestinians as of supreme authority.不過,名義上,聖經是呼籲的巴勒斯坦人的最高權力機構。 The views which Josephus expresses in this respect, although in a popular and Grecianised form, were substantially those entertained by the Rabbis and by his countrymen generally (comp. Ag. Apion, i. 7, 8).該意見約瑟夫表示在這方面,儘管在流行和Grecianised形式,大大這些娛樂的拉比和他的同胞普遍( comp.銀。阿皮翁島7日, 8日) 。 [For a detailed account of the views of Josephus on the Canon and on Inspiration, refer to the article in 'Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography,' vol. [如需詳細敘述的意見約瑟夫的佳能和啟示,指的是文章中,史密斯的詞典基督教傳記,第二卷。 iii pp 453, 454.] A sharp distinction was made between canonical and non canonical books.三頁453 , 454 。 ]大幅作了區分規範和非規範的書籍。

The test of the former was inspiration, which had ceased in the time of Artaxerxes, that is, with the prophet Malachi.的考驗,前者是靈感,這已停止在時間的阿爾塔薛西斯,也就是與先知瑪拉基。 Accordingly, the work of the elder Jesus the son of Sirach (Jeshua ben Sira, ben Eliezer) was excluded from the Canon, although it is not unfrequently referred to by Rabbinic authorities in terms with which ordinarily only Biblical quotations are introduced.因此,工作的老耶穌的兒子Sirach ( Jeshua本西拉,本埃利澤)被排除在佳能,儘管這不是unfrequently所提到的拉比當局在這方面與通常只有聖經介紹了報價。 [Comp. [比較。 Zunz, Gottesd Vortr. Zunz , Gottesd Vortr 。 pp.頁。 101, 102, and c. 101 , 102 ,和角 Seligmann, d Buch d Weish d. Jesus Sirach.塞裡格曼, d書d Weish d.耶穌Sirach 。 The Talmudic quotations from the work of the elder Jesus have been repeatedly collated.該塔木德報價工作的老耶穌已經多次核對。 Refer to the collection translation of them in Append.指的是收集他們的翻譯在附加。 II.二。 to the 'History of the Jewish Nation.'] According to the view propounded by Josephus, not only were the very words inspired in which a prediction was uttered, but the prophets were unconscious and passive vehicles of the Divine message (Ant. iv. 6. 5, comp generally, Ant ii. 8. 1; vi. 8, 2; viii. 13, 3; ix. 3, 2, 8, 6; x. 2, 2; 4, 3).在'歷史的猶太國家。 ' ]據認為由約瑟夫提出,不僅是非常鼓舞的話,其中一個預測是的話,但先知被無意識和被動的車輛的神聖消息( Ant.四。 6 。 5 ,比較一般來說,螞蟻二。 8 。 1 ;六。 8 , 2 ;八。 13日, 3 ;九。 3 , 2 , 8 , 6 ;十, 2 , 2 , 4 , 3 ) 。

Although pre eminence in this respect was assigned to Moses (Ant. iv. 8, 49), yet Divine authority equally attached to the sayings of the prophets, and even, though perhaps in a still inferior degree, to the 'Hymns,' as the Hagiographa generally were called from the circumstance that the Psalter stood at the head of them (comp. Philo, De Vita contempl., ed. Mangey, voi. ii. p. 475; Luke 24:44).雖然前隆起在這方面,被分配到摩西( Ant.四。 8日, 49歲) ,但神聖的權力同樣重視諺語先知,甚至,雖然也許在一定程度仍然較差,對'讚美詩,作為在Hagiographa一般被稱為從情節的Psalter站在負責人( comp.斐羅,德簡歷contempl 。主編。 Mangey ,沃伊。二。第475頁;路加24:44 ) 。 Thus the division of the Bible into three sections, the Law, the Prophets, and the other 'Writings', which already occurs in the prologue to the work of Jesus the son of Sirach, [Comp.因此,分工的聖經分為三個部分,法,先知,和其他'創作' ,這已經發生在開場白的工作,耶穌的兒子Sirach , [比較。 also Macc. 2:13, 14.] seems to have been current at the time.還排雷協委會。 2時13分, 14 。 ]似乎已經在當前的時間。 And here it is of great interest, in connection with modern controversies, that Josephus seems to attach special importance to the prophecies of Daniel as still awaiting fulfillment (Ant. x 10. 4; 11. 7).這裡是極大的興趣,與現代的爭論,即約瑟夫似乎特別重視的預言丹尼爾作為仍在等待完成( Ant. × 10 。 4 ; 11 。 7 ) 。

That the Rabbis entertained the same views of inspiration, appears not only from the distinctive name of 'Holy Writings' given to the Scriptures, but also from the directions that their touch defiled the hands, [The general statement that this decree was intended to prevent a common or profane use of the Scripture does not explain its origin.該拉比受理了同樣的觀點的啟發,似乎不僅從獨特的名稱,羅馬著作'給聖經,但也從方向,他們的觸摸玷污的手, [的一般性發言中,這一法令是為了防止一個共同的或褻瀆使用聖經沒有說明其來源。 The latter seems to have been as follows: At first the priests in the Temple were wont to deposit the Terumah near the copy of the Law there kept (Shabb 14a).後者似乎已經如下:首先祭司在神廟的習慣交存Terumah附近的副本,有保存法( Shabb 14A條) 。 But as mice were thereby attracted, and damage to the Sacred roll was apprehended, it was enacted that the Sacred Roll in the Temple rendered all meat that touched it unclean.但由於小鼠從而吸引和損壞的神聖輥被逮捕,這是頒布的神聖輥廟提供所有肉類觸動它不乾淨。 This decree gave rise to another, by way of further precaution, that even the hands which touched the Sacred Roll, or any other part of the Bible became unclean (so that, having touched the latter they could not touch the Terumah).這一法令引起了另一個方式,進一步防範措施,甚至觸及手中神聖輥,或任何其他部分的聖經成為不潔(所以,在談到後者無法觸摸Terumah ) 。

Then followed (in the course of development) a third decree, that such touch defiled also outside the Temple.然後(在發展的過程中)第三法令,這種聯繫也玷污以外的廟。 Finally, the first decree was modified to the effect that the Sacred Roll in the Temple did not defile the hands., while all other Scriptures (anywhere else) defiled them (Chel 15:6) The explanation offered to the Sadducees by R Jochanan b.最後,第一次修改的法令,其大意是神聖的軋輥在廟沒有弄髒了手。 ,而所有其他聖經(地方)玷污他們( Chel 15點06 )的解釋提供給撒都該人由R Jochanan b 。 Zakkai is evidently intended to mislead (Yad iv. 6), Comp. Zakkai顯然是有意誤導(亞德瓦四。 6人) ,比較。 Levy, Neuhebr Worterb.利維Neuhebr Worterb 。 vol.第二卷。 ii.二。 pp.頁。 163, 164.] and that it was duty on the Sabbath to save them from conflagration, and to gather them up if accidentally scattered, and that it was not lawful for heirs to make division of a sacred roll (Comp. Shabb. 16:1; Erub. 10:3; Kel. 15:6; Yad. 3:2 - 5; 4:5 [where special reference is made to Daniel] 6). 163 , 164 。 ] ,這是責任的安息日,拯救他們從戰火,並收集起來,如果不小心分散,這是不合法的繼承人,使分工的一種神聖的唱名( Comp. Shabb 。 16 : 1 ; Erub 。 10時03 ;凱爾。 15時06分;亞德瓦。 3:2 -5 ; 4時0 5分[地方特別提到了丹尼爾] 6 ) 。

From what we know of the state of feeling, we might have inferred, even if direct evidence had not existed that a distinctive and superior place would be ascribed to the Books of Moses.從我們所知道的國家的感情,我們可能推斷出,即使直接證據不存在一個獨特和優越的地方將為其圖書的摩西。 In point of fact, no amount of ingenuity can conciliate the Maccabean application of Da.事實上,再多的聰明才智可以調解的Maccabean應用大。 9:24 - 27 with the chronology of that period, [This is admitted even by Mr. Drummond ('Jewish Messiah,' pp. 246, 245 - 257, 260). 9時24分-2 7年代這一時期, [這是承認,甚至德拉蒙德先生( '猶太人的彌賽亞, '頁。 2 46, 2 45- 25 7,2 6 0)。 Mr. Drummond's book is quoted as representing the advocacy by a distinguished English scholar of Maccabean theory of the authorship of Daniel.] while the messianic interpretation fits in with it, [Drummond, usp 261.] other, and seemingly insuperable difficulties are in the way of the theory impugned.德拉蒙德先生新著是引用為代表的宣傳一位傑出的英語學者Maccabean理論的作者丹尼爾。 ]而救世主的解釋符合它, [德拉蒙德,美國藥典261 。 ]另一方面,和似乎無法克服的困難是在這樣的理論非難。

It implies, that the Book of Daniel was not an Apocryphal, but a Pseudepigraphic work; that of all such works it alone has come down to us in its Hebrews or Chaldee original; that a Pseudepigraphic work, nearly contemporary with the oldest portion of the Book of Enoch, should not only be so different from it, but that it should find admission into the Canon, while Enoch was excluded; that a Pseudepigraphon younger that Jesus the Son of Sirach should have been on the Khethubhim; and, finally, that it should have passed the repeated revision of different Rabbinic 'Colleges', and that at times of considerable theological activity, without the suspicion being even raised that its authorship dated from so late a periods as a century an a half before Christ.這意味著,該但以理書不是一個未經證實,但Pseudepigraphic工作; ,所有這些作品它僅歸結為我們在希伯來人或其原始Chaldee ; ,一個Pseudepigraphic工作,近當代的最古老的一部分以諾書,不僅應該如此不同,但是,它應該尋求加入佳能,而伊諾克被排除在外; Pseudepigraphon ,一個年輕的,耶穌的兒子Sirach應已對Khethubhim ;最後,它應該通過反复修改不同的拉比院校' ,而且有時相當的神學活動,但被懷疑甚至提出,它的作者日期從這麼晚一期作為一個世紀的一個半公元前。 And we have evidence that since the Babylonish exile, at least four revisions of the Canon took place within periods sufficiently distant from each other.我們有證據表明,自Babylonish流亡國外,至少有四個修訂佳能進行了充分的時期內遠離對方。

The question hitherto treated has been exclusively of the date of the composition of the Book of Daniel, without reference to who may have been its author, whether its present it exactly the same as its original form, and finally, whether it ever belonged to those books whose right to canonicity, though not their age, was in controversy; that is, whether it belonged, so to speak, to the Old Testament.這個問題迄今已治療完全的日期組成的但以理書,沒有提及是誰可能已被其作者,不論其目前它完全一樣,其原始的形式,最後,無論是以往任何時候都屬於那些本書的權利,以正規,但他們的年齡,是在爭議,也就是說,它是否屬於,這麼說吧,在舊約。 As this is not the place for a detailed discussion of the canonicity of the Book of Daniel, or, indeed, of any other in the Old Testament canon, we shall only add, to prevent misunderstanding, that no opinion is here expressed as to possible, greater or less, interpolations on the Book of Daniel, or in any other part of the Old Testament.由於這是不是實行了詳細討論正規的但以理書,或者更確切地說,任何其他在舊約經典,我們將只會增加,以防止誤解,認為無意見在這裡表示,可能更大的或更少,插在但以理書,或以任何其他部分的舊約。

We must here bear in mind that the moral view taken of such interpolations, as we would call them, was entirely different in those times from ours; and it may perhaps be an historically and critically unwarranted proposition, that such interpolations were, to speak moderately, not all unusual in ancient documents.在這裡,我們必須牢記,道德觀點等插,我們將立即打電話給他們,是完全不同的人從我們的時代,它也許是一個歷史和極其無理的主張,這種插了,說話溫和,並非所有不尋常的古代文件。 In each case the question must be separately critically examined in the light of internal and (if possible) external evidence.在每一種情況下的問題必須分開嚴格審查,根據內部和(如果可能的話)外部證據。 But it would be a very different thing to suggest that there may be an interpolation, or, it may be, a rearrangement in a document (althoug at present we make no assertions on the subject, one way or the other), and to pronounce a whole document a fabrication dating from a much later period.但是,這將是一個非常不同的事情表明,有可能是一個插,或者,它可能成為一個重排了一份文件( althoug目前我們不作任何斷言關於這個問題的,這種或那種方式) ,以及發音整個文件捏造歷史可以追溯到更後期。 The one would, at any rate, be quite in the spirit of those times; the other implies, beside insuperable critical difficulties, a deliberate religious fraud, to which no unprejudiced student could seriously regard the so called Pseudepigrapha as forming any real analog on.一會,無論如何,是相當的精神,這些倍;其他意味著,旁邊有不可克服的關鍵困難,是故意欺詐的宗教,而沒有偏見的學生能夠認真考慮所謂的Pseudepigrapha構成任何實際的模擬上。

But as regards the Book of Daniel, it is an important fact that the right of the Book of Daniel to canonicity was never called in question in the ancient Synagogue.但是,關於但以理書,這是一個重要的事實是,右邊的但以理書到正規從來沒有質疑在古代猶太教堂。 The fact that it was distinguished as 'versions' (Chezyonoth) from the other 'prophecies' has, of course, no bearing on the question, any more than the circumstance that later Rabbinism, which, naturally enough, could not find its way through the Messianic prophecies of the book, declare that even Daniel was mistaken in, and could not make anything of the predictions concerning the 'latter days' (Ber. R 98).事實上,這是尊敬的'版本' ( Chezyonoth )由其他'預言'當然,沒有任何影響的問題,任何以上的情況,後來Rabbinism ,這自然不夠,無法找到其通過在彌賽亞的預言這本書,宣布丹尼爾,甚至是錯誤的,不能做任何事情的預測有關,後者天( Ber. R 98 ) 。 [And yet there are frequent indications that Rabbinism sought guidance on these very subjects in the prophecies of Daniel. [和尚未有跡象表明,頻繁Rabbinism尋求指導這些科目的預言丹尼爾。

Thus, in the Pirqe de R Eliezer there are repeated references to the four monarchies, the Persian, Median, Macedonian, and Roman, when, in the time of the fifth monarchy, that of the children of Ishmael, after a terrible war against Rome, the Messiah would come (comp. Pirqe de R El. 19, and especially 28, 30, and 48).] On the other hand, Daniel was elevated to almost the same pinnacle as Moses, while it was said that, as compared with heathen sages, if they were all placed in one scale, and Daniel in the other, he would outweigh them all.因此,在Pirqe德R埃利澤有一再提到的四個王朝,波斯,中位數,馬其頓,羅馬,當時,在規定的時間內第五次君主立憲制,即兒童的伊斯梅爾後,一場可怕的戰爭羅馬,彌賽亞會( comp. Pirqe德R薩爾瓦多。 19 ,尤其是28 , 30和48 ) 。 ]另一方面,丹尼爾被提升到幾乎相同的摩西頂峰,而有人說,相比同異教徒的聖人,如果他們都放置在一個規模,和丹尼爾在其他,他將超過他們所有人。 We can readily understand that, in times of national sorrow or excitement, these prophecies would be eagerly resorted to, as pointing to a glorious future.我們很容易理解,在時代的國家悲哀或興奮,這些預言將訴諸熱切,作為指向一個輝煌的未來。

But although the Book of Daniel was not among the Antilegomena, doubts were raised, not indeed about the age, but about the right to canonicity of certain other portions of the Bible.但是,儘管但以理書並不屬於Antilegomena ,提出了懷疑,而不是實際上的年齡有關,但有關的權利,正規的某些其他部分聖經。

Thus, certain expressions in the prophecies of Ezekiel were questioned as apparently incompatible with statements in the Pentateuch [Among them the following may be mentioned (Chull. 37b): Ezek.因此,在某些詞語的預言基爾被質疑顯然不符合報表中的五[其中以下可提及( Chull.第37B ) : Ezek 。 4:14 etc., and (Mop 45a), Ezek. 4時14分等等, (拖把45a ) , Ezek 。 14:31 were regarded as suggesting that these prohibitions applied only to priests; (Moed. K 5a) Ezek. 44:19, seemed to imply that an ordinary Israelite might perform sacrifical service, while Ezek. 14:31被視為表明,這些禁令只適用於牧師; ( Moed. K 5A型) Ezek 。 44:19 ,似乎意味著一個普通以色列人的效果可能犧牲服務,而Ezek 。 14:18 appeared to enjoin a sacrifice nowhere mentioned in the Pentateuch.] (Men. 45a), and although a celebrated Rabbi, Chananyah, the son of Chizkuyah, the son of Garon (about the time of Christ), with immense labour, sought to conciliate them, and thus preserved the Book of Ezekiel (or, at least, part of it) from being relegated among the Apocrypha, it was deemed safest to leave the final exposition of the meaning of Ezekiel, 'till Elijah come,' as the restorer of all things. 14:18似乎責成犧牲無處中所提到的五。 ] ( Men. 45a ) ,雖然著名的拉比, Chananyah的兒子, Chizkuyah的兒子,加龍(約的時間是耶穌) ,與巨大的勞動,要求他們進行調解,從而維護了以西結書(或至少部分)由被降級的偽經,它被認為是安全的,以休假的最後博覽會的意義基爾,直到以利亞來, '作為恢復所有的事情。

The other objections to canonicity apply exculsively to the third division of the Old Testament, the Kethubhim of Hagiorgrapha.其他反對正規適用exculsively第三分工舊約的Kethubhim的Hagiorgrapha 。 Here even the Book of Proverbs seems at one time to have been called in question (Ab. R Nathan 1), partly on the ground of its secular contents, and partly as containing 'supposed contradictory statements' [For ex. Prov.在這裡即使是圖書的諺語似乎在一時間被稱為問題( Ab. R彌敦道1 ) ,部分在地面上的世俗內容,部分含有'假定矛盾的陳述' [對於前。省。 26:4, 5] (Shabb. 30b). 26:4 , 5 ] ( Shabb. 30B條) 。 Very strong doubts were raised on the Book of Ecclesiates (Yad. 3:5; Eduy. 5:3), first, on that ground ot its contradiction of some of the Psalms [As for ex.非常強大的誠意產生懷疑的圖書Ecclesiates ( Yad.三點05分; Eduy 。 5時03分) ,第一,對地面加時賽其矛盾的一些詩篇[至於前。 Ps.素。 115:17 compared with Eccl. 115:17相比傳道書。 4:2 and 9:4.] (Sabb. 30a); secondly, on that of its inconsistencies [For Eccl. 4時02分和9點零四。 ] ( Sabb. 30a ) ;其次,關於它的不一致[供傳道書。 2:2 comp. 2時02分補償。 with 7:3; and again, 7:15, or 4:2 comp.與7:3 ; ,並再次, 7:15 ,或4點02分補償。 with 9:4] (Shabb. 30b); and thirdly, because it seemed to countenance the denial of another life, and, as in Eccl.與9點04分] ( Shabb. 30B條) ;第三,因為它似乎面容剝奪另一個生命,並在傳道書。 11:1, 3, 9, other heretical views (Vayyikra R 28, at the beginning). 11:1 , 3 , 9 ,其他邪教的意見( Vayyikra R 28年初) 。 [The school of Shammai was against, that of Hillel in favour of the Canonicity of Ecclesiastes (Eduy. 5:3). [學校的Shammai反對,即希勒爾有利於正規的傳道書( Eduy.五時03分) 。

In Tos.在服務條款。 Yad.亞德瓦。 ii. Ecclesiates is said to be uninspirited, and to contain only the wisdon of Solomon.] But these objections were finally answered by great ingenuity, while an appeal to Eccl.二。 Ecclesiates據說是uninspirited ,並只包含wisdon所羅門群島。 ]但是,這些反對意見,最後回答了巨大的聰明才智,同時呼籲傳道書。 12: 12, 13, was regarded as removing the difficulty about another life and future rewards and punishments. 12 : 12 , 13 ,被視為難以消除的另一個生活和未來獎懲。 And as the contradictions in Ecclesiastes had been conciliated, it hopefully argued deeper study would equally remove those in the Book of Proverbs (Shabb. 30b).正如傳道書中的矛盾已調解,它希望更深入的研究主張同樣移除那些在圖書諺語( Shabb. 30B條) 。 [But it must be admitted that some of these conciliations are sufficiently curious.] Still, the controversy about the canonicity of Ecclesiastes continued so late as the second century of our era (comp. Yad. 3:5). [但必須承認,其中一些調解有足夠的好奇。 ]然而,爭論的正規的傳道書繼續這麼晚的第二個世紀我們的時代( comp.亞德瓦。 3時05分) 。 That grave doubts also existed about the Song of Solomon, appears even from the terms in which its canonicity is insisted upon (Yad. us), not to speak of express statements in opposition to it (Ab. de. R Nathan 1).這嚴重懷疑也存在的雅歌,甚至出現的條款,其正規的堅持( Yad.我們) ,而不是談論聲明表示反對( Ab.德。 R彌敦道1 ) 。

Even when by an allegorical interpretation, it was shown to be the 'wisdom of all wisdom, the most precious gem, the holy of holies, tradition still ascribed its composition to the early years of Solomon (Shir haSh. R 1).即使由一個寓言的解釋,它被證明是'智慧,所有的智慧,最珍貴的寶石,神聖的至聖,仍然屬於傳統的組成的最初幾年,所羅門群島(什爾哈希。 R第1 ) 。 It had been his first work, and was followed by Proverbs, and finally by Ecclesiastes.這是他第一次工作,其次是諺語,並最終由傳道書。 [But on this subject opinion differs very widely (see Shir haSh. R 1, ed Warshan 3b, 4a) the only point on which all are agreed being that he wrote Ecclesiastes last, Rabbi Jonathan irreverently remarking that when a man is old he utters dibhre hadhalim, vain words!] [但是,關於這個問題的不同意見非常廣泛(見什爾哈希。電阻R 1 ,編輯Warshan三號乙, 4A )款的唯一的一點,大家都同意,他正在寫傳道書最後,拉比喬納森irreverently議論,當一個人是他行使歲dibhre hadhalim ,徒勞的話! ]

But perhaps the greatest objections were those taken to the Book of Esther (Meg. 7a).但也許是最大的反對意見所採取的以斯帖記( Meg. 7A條) 。 It excited the enmity of other nations against Israel, and it was outside the canon.它興奮的敵意其他國家的反對以色列,這是教會以外。 Grave doubts prevailed whether it was canonical or inspired by the Holy Spirit (Meg. us; Yoma 29a).嚴重懷疑它是否盛行是典型或啟發聖靈( Meg.我們;山脈29A條) 。 The books of Ezra and Nehemiah were anciently regarded as one, the name of the latter author being kept back on account of his tendency to self exaltation (Shanh. 93b).這些書籍的以斯拉和尼希米記被視為anciently之一的名字,後者的作者正在不斷恢復到他的傾向,自我提升( Shanh. 93b ) 。 Lastly, the genealogical parts of the Book of Chronicles were made the subject of very elaborate secret commentation (Pes. 62b).最後,家譜部分圖書的編年史作了主題的非常詳細的秘密commentation ( Pes. 62b ) 。

Two points still require brief mention.兩點仍需要簡要地提到。 Even from a comparison of the LXX Version with our Hebrew text, it is evident that there were not only many variations, but that spurious additions (as Daniel) were eliminated.即使從比較LXX版本與我們的希伯來文,很明顯,那裡不僅有許多變化,但虛假的增加(如丹尼爾)被取消了。 This critical activity, which commenced with Ezra, whose copy of the Pentateuch was, according to tradition, placed in the Temple, that the people might correct their copies by it, must have continued for many centuries.這一重要活動,開始與以斯拉,其副本五,根據傳統,放置在廟的人可能糾正他們的份了它,必須有持續了幾百年。 [In Jer. [在哲。 Tann.坦恩。 68a we read three codices of the Pentateuch, respectively named after one word in each codex, the reading of which was either rejected or adopted on comparison with the others.] There is abundant evidence of frequent divergences, though perhaps minute, and although later Rabbinism laid down the most painfully minute directions about the mode of writing and copying the rolls of the Law, there is such discrepancy, even where least it might be expected. 68a我們讀到三codices的五,分別命名為一個字後,在每一個抄本,讀的是要么拒絕或通過與其他人。 ]有大量證據表明頻繁的分歧,雖然也許分鐘,雖然後來Rabbinism奠定了最痛苦分鐘左右方向模式的寫作和複製卷法,有這樣的差異,甚至在它至少可以預料。

[ Thus, we have different notices about the number of verses in the Bible, the arrangement of the psalter, the medial letter and medial word in the Pentateuch, and the number of its sections and chapters (Kidd. 30a; Yalkut i 855). [ 因此,我們有不同的告示有多少詩句中的聖經,安排psalter ,內側信內側一詞在五,以及若干章節 ( Kidd. 30a ; Yalkut字母i 855 ) 。 But the sum total of verses in the Bible (23,199) differs by 99 from that in our present text. Similarity, one of the most learned Rabbinic critics of the third century declares himself at a loss about the exact medial letter, word, and verse of the Pentateuch, while in Palestine that Pentateuch seems to have been arranged into 1,085, in Babylonia into 378 chapters (comp. Furst, Kultur - u. Liter. Gesch. p. 62)] as to show that the purification of the text was by no means settled. 但總和的詩句在聖經( 23199 ) 99個不同的,在我們目前的案文。相似,其中最教訓拉比批評三世紀在宣布自己的損失的確切內側的信,字,詩在五,而在巴勒斯坦五似乎已安排到1085年,在東風到378章( comp.弗斯特,文化-美國升。 G esch。第6 2頁) ] ,以表明,純化的案文絕非解決。 Considering the want of exegetical knowledge and historical conscientiousness, and keeping in view how often the Rabbis, for Haggadic purposes, alter letters, and thus change the meaning of words, we may well doubt the satisfactory character of their critical labours.考慮到想要的訓詁知識和歷史的自覺性,並要考慮如何往往是拉比,為Haggadic的目的,改變字母,從而改變含義的話,我們很可能會懷疑令人滿意的性質,其關鍵的勞動。

Lastly, as certain omissions were made, and as the Canon underwent (as will be shown) repeated revision, it may have been certain portions were added as well as left out, and words changed as well as restored.最後,因為某些疏漏發了言,並作為佳能經歷(如將展示)反复修改,它可能已被某些部分增加以及排除在外,和改變的話,以及恢復。

For, ancient tradition ascribes a peculiar activity to certain 'College', as they are termed, in regard to the Canon.因為,賦予古老傳統的特殊活動,某些學院' ,因為它們被稱為,對於佳能。 In general, the well known Baraita (Baba B 14b, 15a) bears, that:一般來說,眾所周知Baraita (巴巴乙14B條,第15A )承擔,即:

['History of the Jewish Nation,' p. [ '歷史的猶太國家, '頁 418.] 418 。 ]

Loose and uncritical as these statements may appear, they so far help our investigations as to show that, according to tradition, certain portions of Scripture were compiled or edited by one or another Rabbinic 'College,' and that there were several 'College' which successively busied themselves with the codification and revision of the Canon.鬆散和批評,因為這些國家可能會出現,他們迄今幫助我們的調查表明,按照傳統,某些部分經文彙編或編輯的一個或另一個拉比學院,並有幾個'學院'這先後在忙著自己的編纂和修訂的佳能。 By these 'College,' we are not to understand gatherings of certain members, who discussed and decided a question at one or more of their meetings.通過這些'大學生' ,我們不明白聚會的某些成員,誰討論和決定的問題在一個或一個以上的會議。 They rather indicate the learned activity of the authorities during a certain period, which are respectively designated by the generic names of 'the Sanhedrin of Hezekiah,' 'The men of the Synagogue,' the 'Legal Court of the Maccabees,' and finally, 'Chananayah and his College.'而他們的經驗教訓表明,活動的當局在一定時期,這是分別指定的通用名稱,公會的Hezekiah ' , '男子的猶太教堂, '的'法律法院的馬加比,最後, ' Chananayah和他的學院。

We have thus somewhat firmer historical ground.因此,我們有堅實的歷史有點地面。 If in Prov.如果在省。 25: 1, we read of the activity about the Canon of 'the Men of Hezekiah,' and bear in mind the Scriptural account of the religious revival of that reign (for ex. 2 Chron. 29: 25 - 30; 2 Chron. 30:1), we scarely required the frequent and elaborate glorification of tradition to lead us to infer that, if the collection of the Book of Proverbs was due to their activity, they must have equally collated the other protions of Scripture then existing, and fixed the Canon at their time. 25 : 1 ,我們讀到的活動對佳能的'男子的Hezekiah ,並牢記聖經到了宗教復興的統治(為前。第二專欄。 29 : 25 -3 02慢性。 30:1 ) ,我們scarely需要經常和闡述頌揚傳統,導致我們推斷,如果收集的圖書諺語是由於它們的活動,對它們必須有同樣整理其他protions聖經然後現有的,並佳能固定在自己的時間。 Again, if we are to credit the statement that they equally collected and edited the Prophecies of Isaiah, we are obliged to infer that the contiuance of that College was not limited to the life of Hezekiah, since the latter died before Isaiah (Tos. Baba Bathra; Yeb. 49b).同樣,如果我們的信貸的聲明,他們同樣收集和編輯的預言以賽亞,我們不得不推斷, contiuance的大學生並不局限於生活的Hezekiah ,因為後者前死亡以賽亞( Tos.巴巴Bathra ; Yeb 。 49b ) 。

What has just been indicated is fully confirmated by what we know of the activity of Ezra (Ezra 7:6, 10), and of his successors in the great Synagogue.剛才表示完全confirmated由我們所知道的活動以斯拉(以斯拉七時06分, 10個) ,以及他的繼任者的偉大猶太教堂。 If we are to attach credit to the notice in 2 Macc.如果我們要重視信貸的通知2排雷協委會。 2:13, [The expression 'the epistles of the kings concerning the holy gifts' must refer ot the official Persian documents concerning gifts to the Temple, etc.] it points to such literary activity as tradition indicates. 2時13分, [表達'的書信國王的神聖禮物'必須提到加時賽的正式文件波斯的禮物寺等]這點,這種文學活動作為傳統顯示。 That the revision and determination of the Canon must have been among the main occupations of Ezra and his successors of 'the Great Synagogue', whatever precise meaning may be attached to that institution, seems scarcely to require proof.修訂和決心,佳能必須在的主要職業的龐德和他的繼任者的'大猶太教堂' ,不管確切含義可能是連接到該機構,似乎很少需要證明。

The same remark applies to another period of religious reformation, that of the so called Asmonaean College.同樣是適用的另一個時期的宗教改革,即所謂的Asmonaean學院。 Even if we had not the evidence of their exclusion of such works as those of Ben Sirach and others, there could be no rational doubt that in their time the Canon, as presently existing, was firmly fixed, and that no work of comparatively late date could have found admission into it.即使我們沒有證據的排除等工程,這些本Sirach和其他人,就不會有合理的疑問,在他們的時間佳能,目前現有的,堅決固定的,沒有工作起步較晚可以發現接納它。 The period of their activity is sufficiently known, and too near what may be called the historical times of Rabbinism, for any attempt in that direction, without leaving traces of it.這一時期的活動是充分了解,並太靠近可能是所謂的歷史時期Rabbinism ,對於任何試圖在這個方向,沒有留下痕跡的。 Lastly, we come to the indications of a critical revision of the text by 'Chananyah and his College,' [Shabb.最後,我們來到跡象表明,一個關鍵的修訂案文的' Chananyah和他的大學生, ' [ Shabb 。 13b; Chag. 13B條; Chag 。 13a; Men. 45a.] shortly before the time of our Lord. 13A條;男子。 45a 。 ]前不久的時候我們的上帝。 Thus we have, in all, a record of four critical revisions of the Canon up to time of Christ.因此,我們在所有記錄的四個關鍵修訂佳能最多時基督。

3. Any attempt to set forth in this place a detailed exposition of the Exegetical Canon of the Rabbis, or of their application, would manifestly be impossible. It would require almost a treatise of its own; and a cursory survey would neither be satisfactory nor instructive. 3 。 任何企圖規定在這個地方了詳細的闡述了訓詁佳能的拉比,或其申請,將顯然是不可能的。它需要將近論文自己和一個粗略的調查既不是令人滿意的,也不啟發性。 Besides, on all subjects connected with Rabbinic exegesis, a sufficient number of learned treatises exists, which are easily accessible to students, while the general reader can only be interested in such general results as have been frequently indicated throughtout these volumes.此外,在所有問題與拉比註釋,有足夠數量的論文存在的經驗教訓,這是方便學生,而一般讀者只能有興趣在這種一般性的結果已經表明經常throughtout這些卷。

Lastly, the treatment of certain branches of the subject, such as a criticism of the Targumim, really belongs to what is known as the science of 'Introduction,' either to the Old Testament, in manuals of which, as well as in special treatises, all such subjects are fully discussed.最後,治療某些部門的問題,如批評Targumim ,真正屬於所謂的科學的'言'要么舊約,在手冊的,以及在特殊的論文所有這些問題充分討論。 Besides these the student may be referred, for a general summary, to the labours of Dr. Hamburger (Real - Encycl.).除了這些學生可能會提到,對於一般總結,向辛勤漢博士(皇家-E ncycl。 ) 。 Special works on various branches of the subject cannot here be named, since this would involve an analysis and critical disquisition.特別適用於各部門的主題不能在這裡被命名,因為這將涉及分析與關鍵本屆。 But for a knowledge of the Rabbinic statements in regard to the Codices and the text of the Old Testement, reference may here be made to the short but masterly analysis of Professor Strack (Prolegomena Critica), in which, first, the various codices of the Old Testament, and then the text and existing in Talmudical times, are discussed, and the literature of the subject fully and critically given.但是,對於一個知識的拉比聲明關於Codices和文本老Testement ,可參照這裡作短,但高超的分析教授施特拉克(緒論批判) ,其中,第一,各codices的舊約,然後在文字和現有的Talmudical倍,討論,以及文學的主題充分和審慎考慮。

The various passages are also mentioned in which the Biblical quotations in the Mishnah and Gemara differ from our present text. 各段落中也提到了在聖經中的報價和革馬拉米示拿不同於我們目前的案文。

[there are in the Mishnah 16 variations: Lev. [有在16米示拿的變化:列夫。 11:33; 25:36; Numb. 11:33 ; 25:36 ;麻木了。 28:5; 32:22; Deut. 28:5 ; 32:22 ; Deut 。 24:19; Josh. 24:19 ;喬希。 8:33; 2 Sam. 8點33 2薩姆。 15:6; Isa. 15點06分;伊薩。 10:13; Ezek. 10:13 ; Ezek 。 46:21; Amos 9:14: Mal. 46:21 ;阿莫斯9點14分:馬累。 3:16, 23; Ps. 3時16分, 23歲;物質。 68:27; Job 1:1; Prov. 68:27 ;就業1:1 ;省。 22:28; 2 Chron. 22:28 , 2慢性。 28:15. 28:15 。

In the Talmud 105 such variations occur, viz., 在塔木德經105等發生變化,即。 ,

Gen. 7:8, 23; 15:2; 25:6, 35:18;將軍7時08分, 23歲; 15時02分; 25:6 , 35:18 ;

Ex.惠。 12:3, 6; 13:16; 24:5; 25:13; 31:1; 12點03分, 6 ; 13點16分; 24:5 ; 25:13 ; 31:1 ;

Lev.列夫。 4:25, 30, 34; 10:12; 15:10; 18:18; 4:25 , 30 , 34 ; 10:12 ; 15:10 ; 18:18 ;

Numb.麻木了。 5:19; 18:16;五點19分; 18:16 ;

Deut. Deut 。 6:7, 9, 20; 23:1; 25:7; 33:27; 34:6; 6時07分, 9 , 20 ; 23點01 ; 25:7 ; 33:27 ; 34:6 ;

Josh.喬希。 3:17; 10:11; 14:7, 10; 16:6; 23:15; 3點17 ; 10:11 ; 14時07分, 10個; 16點06 ; 23:15 ;

Judg. Judg 。 15:20; 16:31; 1Sam. 15:20 ; 16:31 ; 1Sam 。 2:24; 2 Sam. 2時24分, 2薩姆。 3:25; 24:15; 3時25分; 24:15 ;

2 Kings 17:31; 23:17; Is 2:3; 38:16; 42:5; 68:7;列王紀下17:31 ; 23:17 ;是2:3 ; 38:16 , 42:5 , 68:7 ;

Jer.哲。 3:22; 29:11; Ezek. 3點22分; 29:11 ; Ezek 。 11:48; 44:9; 47:1; Hos. 11:48 , 44:9 , 47:1 ;飯店。 4:11; 4時11分;

Amos.阿莫斯。 4:6; 8:11; 9:14; Hag. 4:6 ; 8時11分, 9點14分;哈格。 2:8; Mich. 4:2; Zech. 2時08分;密歇根州四點零二;撒加利亞。 12:10; 12:10 ;

Mal.馬累。 2:12; Ps. 2時12分;物質。 5:5; 16:10 (where the difference is important); 5點05分; 16:10 (其中的差別是很重要) ;

26:5, 6; 37:32; 56:11; 62:12; 68:21; 95:5; 97:7; 127:5; 139:5; 26:5 , 6 ; 37:32 , 56:11 , 62:12 , 68:21 , 95:5 , 97:7 ; 127:5 ; 139:5 ;

6; 8; 13:4; 14:16; 36:5, 11; Ruth, 3:15; 4:11; 6 ; 8 ; 13點04分; 14:16 ; 36:5 , 11 ;露絲, 3:15 ; 4時11分;

Eccl.傳道書。 9:14, 15; 10:5; Dan. 9點14分, 15個; 10時05 ;丹。 2:29; 4:14; 6:18; 10:13; 2點29 ; 4點14 ; 6:18 ; 10:13 ;

Ezr. Ezr 。 4:3; Neh. 4:3 ;全國人文捐贈基金。 4:16; 8:8 (bis), 15, 17; 4時16分, 8時08分(之二) , 15 , 17 ;

1 Chron.一專欄。 3:17; 4:10; 5:24; 16:5; 17:9; 26:8, 23; 27:34; 3點17 ; 4點10分; 5時24分;十六點05分, 17時09分; 26:8 , 23 ; 27:34 ;

2 Chron.第2慢性。 26:2; 31:5, 13] 26:2 , 31:5 , 13 ]

Most of them are, however, of no exegetical importance.他們多數是然而,沒有訓詁的重要性。 On the exegesis of the Rabbis generally, refer to the sketch of it given in the 'History of the Jewish Nation,' ch.關於註釋的拉比一般來說,指的是示意圖它給出了'歷史的猶太國家, '路。 xi., and especially in App.十一。 ,尤其是在應用。 V, on 'Rabbinical Exegesis,' where all its canons are enumerated.五,關於'猶太教訓詁學,在其所有列舉大砲。 Some brief notices connected with Rabbinic Commentaries quoted in this work will be found at the beginning of vol.一些簡短的告示與拉比評中引用這項工作將發現在開始卷。 i.字母i.

4. Somewhat similar observations must be made in regard to the mystical Theology of the Synagogue, or the so called Kabbalah. Its commencement must certainly be traced to, and before, the times described in these volumes. 4 。 有點類似意見必須在關於神學神秘的猶太教堂,或所謂的卡巴拉。及其啟動一定要追查到,和以前一樣,有時描述的這些卷。 For a discussion of its origin and doctrines, refer to the account given in the 'History of the Jewish Nation' (pp. 435, etc.).為討論其原籍國和學說,是指特定的帳戶中的'歷史的猶太國家' (第435名等) 。 The whole modern literature of the subject, besides much illustrative matter, is given in the Italian text annexed to David Castelli's edition of Sabbatai Donnolo's Hebrew Commentary on the Book Yetsirah, or the Book of Creation.整個現代文學的主題,除了說明很多問題,給出了在意大利文所附的大衛卡斯泰利出版的Sabbatai Donnolo的希伯來文評圖書Yetsirah ,或圖書的創作。 For, the Kabbalah busies itself with these two subjects: the History of the Creation (Yetsirah, perhaps rather 'formation' than Creation), and the 'Merkabhah,' or the Divine apparition as described by Ezekiel.因為,在卡巴拉busies本身與這兩個題目:歷史的創造( Yetsirah ,也許而是'形成'比創作) ,和' Merkabhah ,或神聖幻影所描述的基爾。

Both refer to the great question, underlying all theosophic speculation: that of God's connection with His creatures.這指的是大問題,基本所有theosophic猜測:那就是上帝的關於他的動物。 They treat of the mystery of Nature and of Providence, with especial bearing on Revelation; and the question, how the Infinite God can have any connection or intercourse with finite creatures, is attempted to be answered.他們對待的自然之謎和普羅維登斯,有特殊影響的啟示;和問題,如何無限上帝可以有任何聯繫或交往與有限的生物,是企圖得到回答。 Of the two points raised, that of Creation is of course the first in the order of thinking as well as of time, and the book Yetsirah is the oldest Kabbalistic document.對所提出的兩點,即創新是當然的第一順序的思維以及時間,這本書Yetsirah是歷史最悠久Kabbalistic文件。

The Sepher Yetsirah is properly a monologue on the part of Abraham, in which, by the contemplation of all that is around him, he ultimately arrives at the conviction of the Unity of God. Sepher Yetsirah的正確獨白的一部分亞伯拉罕,其中由靜觀這一切是在他周圍,他最終到達的信念,即統一的上帝。

We distinguish the substance and the form of creation; that which is, and the mode in which it is.我們區分的實質和形式的創造,這是和模式它。 We have already indicated that the original of all that exists is Divine. 1st, We have God; 2nd, God manifest, or the Divine entering into form; 3rd, That Divine in its form, from which in turn all original realities are afterwards derived.我們已經表明,原來的所有存在是神聖的。 1日起,我們已上帝;第二,上帝表現,或進入神聖的形式; 3日,在這神聖的形式,從這反過來所有原始現實後產生。 In the Sepher Yetsirah, these Divine realities (the substance) are represented by the 10 numerals, and their form by the 22 letters which constitute the Hebrew alphabet, language being viewed as the medium of connection between the spiritual and the material; as the form in which the spiritual appears.在Sepher Yetsirah ,這些神聖的現實(物質)是由10個阿拉伯數字,其形式由22字母構成希伯來文字母表,語言被視為媒介之間的聯繫,精神和物質;的形式在其中的精神出現。

At the same time, number and language indicate also the arrangement and the mode of creation, and, in general, its boundaries.與此同時,一些語言也表明了安排和模式的建立,並在一般,它的邊界。 "By 32 wonderful paths," so begins the Sepher Yetsirah, "the Eternal, the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel, the Living God, the King of the World, the merciful and gracious God, the glorious One, He that inhabiteth eternity, Whose Name is high and holy, has created the world." “通過32個精彩的道路” ,因此開始Sepher Yetsirah , “永恆的,上帝的主機,上帝,以色列生活的上帝,國王的世界,仁慈和親切的上帝,光榮的一個,他認為inhabiteth永恆,他的名字和神聖的高度,創造了世界。 “ But these 10 numerals are in reality the 10 Sephiroth, or Divine emanations, arranged in triads, each triad consisting of two opposites (flowing or emanating from a superior triad until the Divine Unity is reached), and being reconciled in a middle point of connection.但是,這10個阿拉伯數字是在現實中的10個Sephiroth ,或神emanations ,安排在黑社會,每個黑社會組成的兩個對立的(流動或產生上級黑社會,直到神聖的統一達成) ,並在核對中點連線。 These ten Sephiroth, in the above arrangement, recur everywhere, and the sacred number 10 is that of perfection.這十個Sephiroth ,在上述安排下,重演隨處可見,神聖的10號是完美的。 Each of these Sephiroth flows from its predecessor, and in this manner the Divine gradually evolves.所有這些Sephiroth流向它的前身,並在這神聖的方式逐步發展。

This emanation of the 10 Sephiroth then constitutes the substance of word; we may add, it constitutes everything else.這氣的10 Sephiroth然後構成的實質字,我們可能會增加,它構成一切。 In God, in the world, in man, everywhere we meet these 10 Sephiroth, at the head of which is God manifest, or the Memra (Logos, the Word).在上帝,在世界,在人,我們都滿足這10個Sephiroth ,在團長這是上帝表現,或Memra (標識,在Word中) 。 If the ten Sephiroth give the Substance, the 22 letters are the form of creation and of revelation.如果10 Sephiroth給予物質, 22個字母的形式,建立和啟示。 "By giving them form and shape,. and by interchanging them, God has made the soul of everything that has been made, or shall be made." “通過給他們的形式和形狀。並交換他們,上帝的靈魂取得的一切已經取得,或應。 ” "Upon those letters, also, has the Holy One, Whose Name be praised, founded His holy and glorious Name." “在這些信函中,也有神聖的一個,他的名字被稱讚,他創立神聖和光榮的名字。 ” These letters are next subdivided, and their application in all the departments of nature is shown.這些信件明年細分,其適用於所有部門的性質證明。 In the unit creation, the triad; world, time and man are found.在單位創建,三合會;世界,時間和男子被發現。 Above all these is the Lord.上述所有這些是上帝。 Such is a very brief outline of the rational exposition of the Creation, attempted by the Sepher Yetsirah.'這是一個非常簡短的概要地闡述了理性的創作,企圖由Sepher Yetsirah 。 ['History of the Jewish Nation,' pp. [ '歷史的猶太國家, '頁。 435, 436.] 435 , 436 。 ]


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者愛德生提到許多參考資料在他的作品。 As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list. All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.作為一個書目資源,我們創建了一個單獨的愛德生參考清單。所有提到他的括號內顯示頁碼的作品中引用。


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