Benedictines, Saint Benedict本篤,聖本篤

General Information 一般信息

St. Benedict, 480-547, was an Italian monk who founded the Benedictines.聖本篤, 480-547 ,是意大利僧人誰創立了篤。 The rule that he wrote for his monks became a model monastic rule.這一規則,他寫他的僧侶成為一種模式規則廟宇。 The only source for his life is the second book of The Dialogues written by Gregory I (the Great).唯一的來源,他的生命是第二本書的對話寫的格里高利一世(大) 。 After being a hermit for three years, Benedict gathered disciples around him, first at Subiaco and later at Monte Cassino.經過隱士為三年,篤弟子聚集在他周圍,首先是在薩伯卡,後來在蒙特卡洛稼軒。 Recent scholarship has shown that many passages from the Rule of Benedict were copied from an older monastic rule known as the Rule of the Master, dating from the beginning of the 6th century.最近獎學金表明,許多段落規則的複製本篤從舊修道院的規則被稱為規則的碩士,自年初的6世紀。 Benedict's rule, however, was more spiritual, more person-oriented, and less narrow in its approach.本篤的統治,但是,更多的精神,更多的人導向,而較少狹隘的做法。 Feast day: July 11 (Western); March 14 (Eastern).盛宴一天: 7月11日(西方) ; 3月14日(東部時間) 。

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Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴維斯,定向結構刨花板

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Chadwick, Owen, Western Asceticism (1958); De Waal, Esther, Seeking God: The Way of Saint Benedict (1984); Saint Gregory I, Life and Miracles of Saint Benedict, trans.查德威克,歐文,西方禁慾主義( 1958年) ;德瓦爾,埃斯特,求上帝:路聖本篤( 1984年) ;聖格雷戈里我的生活和奇蹟的聖本篤,轉。 by OJ Zimmerman and BR Avery (1969); Lindsay, TF, Saint Benedict: His Life and Work (1949); Maynard, Theodore, Saint Benedict and His Monks (1964); Von Matt, L., and Hilpisch, S., Saint Benedict (1961).由黃疸齊默爾曼和BR艾弗里( 1969年) ;林,轉移因子,聖本篤:他的生活和工作( 1949年) ;梅納德,西奧多,聖本篤和他的僧侶( 1964年) ;馮馬特,研究,並Hilpisch ,美國,聖本篤( 1961年) 。


Benedictines

General Information 一般信息

The Order of St. Benedict (OSB) is the oldest order of monks in the West. 該命令的聖本篤(定向結構刨花板)是歷史最悠久的僧侶為了在西部。 There are both Roman Catholic and Anglican Benedictines, men and women who base their way of life on the rule written by St. 有兩個羅馬天主教和聖公會篤,男人和女人誰基地其生活方式的規則寫的街 Benedict. 篤。

Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines are not a centralized organization.與其他宗教命令,篤不是一個中央集權的組織。 Each monastery is independent.每個修道院是獨立的。 A large monastery is an Abbey headed by an Abbot or an abbess.大修道院是一個修道院,由住持或住持。 A small monastery is a priory headed by a Prior or a prioress.一個小修道院是一個修道院由之前或prioress 。 Individual Benedictine houses are joined with others to form a congregation.個人住房正篤與他人加入,形成聚集。 The various congregations together form a confederation at the head of which is the abbot primate, first among equals of the various abbots. A few houses belong to no congregation and are directly subject to the abbot primate.各教會共同組成邦聯的首長是住持靈長類動物,首先是平等的各種abbots 。少數的房屋不屬於任何教會,並且直接受住持靈長類動物。

The Benedictine life is led within a community in the context of personal recollection and work, interspersed with the public recitation or singing of the Divine Office. 本篤生活是導致社區內的背景下個人的回憶和工作,穿插與公眾的朗誦或演唱的神聖的辦公室。 Public worship is performed with solemnity and beauty. 公共禮拜進行的嚴肅性和美感。 Work is essential; it can be manual, intellectual, or service-oriented. Each monastery may vary in its stress on prayer and its type of work without changing the basic orientation. 工作是至關重要的,它可以是手動,智力,或以服務為導向。每個修道院可能會有所不同在其強調的祈禱和類型的工作沒有改變的基本方向。 The Benedictine habit is generally black, composed of tunic, belt, scapular, and hood, and a large flowing garment called the cowl for public worship. During the Middle Ages, the Benedictines were called the Black Monks.本篤習慣通常是黑色組成的外衣,腰帶,肩胛,以及發動機罩,以及大量流向服裝稱為罩,供公眾崇拜。在中世紀時代,被稱為本篤黑僧侶。

Until the end of the 11th century, the Benedictines were the only monastic order in the West.直至11世紀的本篤會是唯一的寺院秩序的西方。 They played important roles in apostolic activity, in education, and in the arts. Peter Abelard, the Venerable Bede, and Pope Gregory VII were Benedictines.他們發揮了重要作用使徒的活動,教育和藝術。彼得亞伯拉德,古老的比德,以及教皇格雷戈里七是篤。

Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴維斯,定向結構刨花板

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Butler, Cuthbert, Benedictine Monachism: Studies in Benedictine Life and Rule, 2d ed.巴特勒,卡斯伯特,篤Monachism :研究篤生活和規則,二維版。 (1924; repr. 1961); Daly, Lowrie J., Benedictine Monasticism (1965; repr. 1970); Meisel, Anthony C., and Del Mastro, ML, trans., The Rule of St. Benedict (1975); Mork, Wulston, The Benedictine Way (1987). ( 1924年; repr 。 1961年) ;達利, Lowrie學者,本篤修( 1965年; repr 。 1970年) ;邁澤爾,安東尼角,和Del Mastro ,運,轉運。 ,法治的聖本篤( 1975年) ; Mork , Wulston ,本篤之路( 1987年) 。


The Benedictine Order本篤秩序

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The Benedictine Order comprises monks living under the Rule of St. Benedict, and commonly known as "black monks".本篤令包括僧侶生活在法治的聖本篤,並通常被稱為“黑和尚” 。 The order will be considered in this article under the following sections:該命令將被視為在本文以下部分:

I. History of the Order;一,歷史的順序;

II.二。 Lay brothers, Oblates, Confraters, and Nuns;雷兄弟,獻主會, Confraters ,和尼姑;

III.三。 Influence and Work of the Order;影響和工作秩序;

IV.四。 Present Condition of the Order;現狀秩序;

V. Benedictines of Special Distinction;五,本篤特別區分;

VI.六。 Other Foundations Originating from, or Based upon, the Order.其他基金會起源於,或根據的命令。

I. HISTORY OF THE ORDER一,歷史上的秩序

The term Order as here applied to the spiritual family of St. Benedict is used in a sense differing somewhat from that in which it is applied to other religious orders.這個詞在這裡的命令適用於家庭的精神聖本篤是用來在一定意義上有所不同,在它適用於其他宗教的訂單。 In its ordinary meaning the term implies one complete religious family, made up of a number of monasteries, all of which are subject to a common superior or "general" who usually resides either in Rome or in the mother-house of the order, if there be one.在其普通含義一詞意味著一個完整的宗教家庭,取得了一些寺廟,所有這些都受到一個共同的上級或“一般”誰不是通常居住在羅馬還是在母親家的命令,如果有一個。 It may be divided into various provinces, according to the countries over which it is spread, each provincial head being immediately subject to the general, just as the superior of each house is subject to his own provincial.它可分為各省,根據國家它蔓延,每個省負責人立即受到普遍,就像每個上級房子是受自己的省。 This system of centralized authority has never entered into the organization of the Benedictine Order.這個系統的集中權力從來沒有進入組織的本篤秩序。 There is no general or common superior over the whole order other than the pope himself, and the order consists, so to speak, of what are practically a number of orders, called "congregations", each of which is autonomous; all are united, not under the obedience to one general superior, but only by the spiritual bond of allegiance to the same Rule, which may be modified according to the circumstances of each particular house or congregation.有沒有一般的或共同的上級整個秩序以外的教皇本人,並以組成,這麼說吧,什麼實際上的一些命令,所謂的“教會” ,其中每一項是自主;都團結起來,不屬於服從一個一般優越,但是,只有精神紐帶效忠同樣的規則,這可能是根據修改的情況,每個特定的房子或組織。 It is in this latter sense that the term Order is applied in this article to all monasteries professing to observe St. Benedict's Rule.正是在這個意義上後者的任期命令適用於本文中所有的寺廟宣信街觀察篤的規則。

Beginnings of the Order開端勳章

St. Benedict did not, strictly speaking, found an order; we have no evidence that he ever contemplated the spread of his Rule to any monasteries besides those which he had himself established.聖本篤沒有,嚴格地說,發現了秩序;我們也沒有證據證明他以往任何時候都設想的傳播他的規則對任何寺院除了他自己成立。 Subiaco was his original foundation and the cradle of the institute.薩伯卡是他原來的基礎和搖籃的研究所。 From St. Gregory we learn that twelve other monasteries in the vicinity of Subiaco also owed their origin to him, and that when he was obliged to leave that neighbourhood he founded the celebrated Abbey of Monte Cassino, which eventually become the centre whence his Rule and institute spread.格里高利聖我們了解到, 12其他寺院附近的薩伯卡還欠其原產地為他,當他不得不離開他創立鄰里著名修道院蒙稼軒,最終成為他的中心何處規則和研究所蔓延。 These fourteen are the only monasteries of which there is any reliable evidence of having been founded during St. Benedict's lifetime.這十四個是唯一的寺廟,其中有任何可靠證據成立了在聖本篤的一生。 The tradition of St. Placid's mission to Sicily in 534, which first gained general credence in the eleventh century, though accepted as genuine by such writers as Mabillon and Ruinart, is now generally admitted to be mere romance.傳統的街普萊西德的使命,在534西西里島,其中第一次普遍相信在11世紀,但作為真正接受這些作家Mabillon和Ruinart ,現在人們普遍承認僅僅是浪漫。 Very little more can be said in favour of the supposed introduction of the Benedictine Rule into Gaul by St. Maurus in 543, though it also has been strenuously upheld by many responsible writers.很少更可以說有利於理應實行篤規則到高盧聖毛魯斯在543 ,雖然它也一直堅持艱苦的許多負責的作家。 At any rate, evidences for it are so extremely doubtful that it cannot be seriously regarded as historical.無論如何,證明它是如此極為懷疑的是,它不能被視為嚴重的歷史。 There is reason for believing that it was the third Abbot of Monte Cassino who began to spread a knowledge of the Rule beyond the circle of St. Benedict's own foundations.人們有理由相信,這是第三次住持蒙稼軒誰開始傳播知識規則的圓圈以外的聖本篤自己的基金會。 It is at least certain that when Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, where they were housed by Pope Pelagius II in a monastery adjoining the Lateran Basilica.這至少是某些,當蒙稼軒被解職的倫巴族人約580年,僧人逃到羅馬,在那裡住了教皇伯拉糾二修道院毗鄰的拉特蘭大教堂。 There, in the very centre of the ecclesiastical world, they remained for upwards of a hundred and forty years, and it seems highly probable that this residence in so prominent a position constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism.在那裡,非常中心的教會世界,他們仍然為向上的100和40年,看來極有可能,這個居住在如此突出位置構成的一個重要因素傳播知識的本篤修道。 It is generally agreed also that when Gregory the Great embraced the monastic state and converted his family palace on Apostle, it was the Benedictine form of monachism that he adopted there.人們普遍認為,當還格里高利大寺院擁護國家和轉化他的家人對使徒宮,這是本篤形式的monachism ,他那裡通過。

It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that St. Augustine, the prior, and his forty companions set forth in 595 on their mission for the evangelization of England, and with them St. Benedict's idea of the monastic life first emerged from Italy.這是從修道院的聖安德魯在羅馬的聖奧古斯丁,事先,和他的同伴第四十五所列的595團的福傳的英格蘭,並與他們聖本篤的想法,寺院的生活第一次出現意大利。 The arguments and authorities for this statement have been admirably marshalled and estimated by Reyner in his "Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Angliâ" (Douai, 1626), and his proofs have been adjudged by Mabillon to amount to demonstration.該論點和當局的這一聲明已經令人欽佩的調動和Reyner估計,在他的“ Apostolatus Benedictinorum中英吉利亞” (杜埃, 1626 ) ,和他的證據已判定的Mabillon達到示範。 [Cf. [比照。 Butler, "Was St. Augustine a Benedictine?"巴特勒“是聖奧古斯丁一本篤? ” in Downside Review, III (1884).] At their various stopping places during the journey through France the monks left behind them traditions concerning their rule and form of life, and probably also some copies of the Rule, for we have several evidences of its having gradually introduced into most of the chief monasteries of Gaul during the seventh century.在下方修改,第三章( 1884年) 。 ]在其各種停車地點的旅程期間通過法國僧侶留下他們的傳統有關其規則和形式的生命,而且可能也有一些副本規則,因為我們有幾個依據其逐步引入大多數寺廟的首席高盧在第七屆世紀。 Lérins, for instance, one of the oldest, which had been founded by St. Honoratus in 375, probably received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Lérins ,例如,最古老的,已成立由聖Honoratus在375 ,可能收到的第一次知識的本篤規則的訪問街 Augustine and his companions in 596.奧古斯丁和他的同伴在596 。 Dismayed by the accounts they had heard of the ferocity of the English, the missionaries had sent their leader back to Rome to implore the pope to allow them to abandon the object of their journey. During his absence they remained at Lérins.失望的是,帳目他們聽說過的兇殘的英文,傳教士派出他們的領導人回到羅馬教皇懇求讓他們放棄的對象,他們的旅程。在他離港期間,他們仍處於Lérins 。 Not long after their departure, Aygulph, Abbot of Fleury, was called in to restore the discipline and he probably introduced the full Benedictine observance; for when St. Benedict Biscop visited Lérins later on in the seventh century he received the Benedictine habit and tonsure from the hands of Abbot Aygulph.沒多久他們離開後, Aygulph ,艾博特的弗勒裡,被稱為在恢復紀律和他大概介紹了充分篤遵守;的聖本篤時Biscop訪問Lérins稍後在第七世紀的他收到了本篤習慣和剃度來自手中的住持Aygulph 。 Lérins continued through several centuries to supply from its monks bishops for the chief churches of Southern Gaul, and to them perhaps may be traced the general diffusion of St. Benedictine's Rule throughout that country. Lérins繼續通過幾個世紀以來,以供應其僧侶主教的首席教堂南部高盧,並給他們或許可追溯到一般擴散的聖本篤的規則該國全境。 There, as also in Switzerland, it had to contend with and supplement the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by St. Columbanus and others.因此,這也是在瑞士,它不得不與和補充更加嚴格的愛爾蘭或凱爾特規則介紹了聖科倫巴努和其他人。 In or practised side by side.或實行並排。 Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian, Caesarius, and other fathers, taking and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", and doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them.格雷戈里的旅遊說,在Ainay ,在第六世紀,僧侶“遵循規則的巴茲爾, Cassian , Caesarius ,和其他的父親,同時,利用一切似乎適當的條件的時間及地點” ,並毫無疑問,同樣的自由採取與本篤規則時,他們達成的。 In other monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes, and had by the end of the eighth century so completely superseded them throughout France that Charlemagne could gravely doubt whether monks of any kind had been possible before St. Benedict's time.在其他寺廟完全取代早先守則,並在年底的8世紀,使他們完全取代了整個法國查理曼可能嚴重懷疑是否僧人任何形式的可能已在聖本篤的時間。 The authority of Charlemagne and of his son, Louis the Pious, did much, as we shall presently see, towards propagating the principles of the Father of western monachism.權威的查理曼和他的兒子,路易斯的虔誠,沒有很多,因為目前我們應看到,實現傳播的原則,西方之父monachism 。

St. Augustine and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597.聖奧古斯丁和他的僧侶建立了第一個英文本篤在坎特伯雷修道院後不久,他們到達597 。 Other foundations quickly followed as the Benedictine missionaries carried the light of the Gospel with them throughout the length and breadth of the land.其他基金會緊接著作為本篤傳教士進行鑑於福音各地與他們的長度和寬度的土地。 It was said that St. Benedict seemed to have taken possession of the country as his own, and the history of his order in England is the history of the English Church.據說,聖本篤似乎已經佔有該國作為自己的,而且歷史上的他的命令是在英格蘭歷史上的英文教會。 Nowhere did the order link itself so intimately with people and institutions, secular as well as religious, as in England.無處沒有聯繫的命令本身,以便密切與人民和機構,世俗以及宗教,因為在英格蘭。 Through the influence of saintly men, Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, and Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, and in the North, when once the Easter controversy had been settled and the Roman supremacy acknowledged (Synod of Whitby, 664), it was adopted in most of the monasteries that had been founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona.通過對影響聖潔的男子,威爾弗里德,篤Biscop ,和鄧斯坦,本篤規則蔓延非凡的速度,並在北,當一旦復活節爭議已經解決和羅馬至高無上承認(主教會議惠特, 664 ) ,它通過在大多數寺廟已成立由凱爾特傳教士從Iona公司。 Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, and no less than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them.許多主教認為,英格蘭是創建和由本篤會,並不得少於9歲的大教堂是由黑色僧侶的修道院重視他們。 Even when the bishop was not himself a monk, he held the place of titular abbot, and the community formed his chapter.即使沒有主教本人和尚,他的位置名譽住持,和社區形成了一章。

Germany owed its evangelization to the English Benedictines, Sts.德國欠其福傳英文本篤,聖。 Willibrord and Boniface, who preached the Faith, there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several celebrated abbeys.威利布羅德和博尼法斯,誰鼓吹信仰,但在第七和第八世紀,並創建了慶祝修道院。 From thence spread, hand in hand, Christianity and Benedictine monasticism, to Denmark and Scandinavia, and from the latter even to Iceland.從那裡蔓延,攜手並進,基督教和本篤修道,丹麥和斯堪的納維亞半島,並從後者甚至冰島。 In Spain monasteries had been founded by the Visigothic kings as early as the latter half of the fifth century, but it was probably some two or three hundred years later St. Benedict's Rule was adopted. Mabillon gives 640 as the date of its introduction into that country (Acta Sanctorum OSB, saec. I, praef. 74), but his conclusions on this point are not now generally accepted.在西班牙寺廟成立了由國王Visigothic儘早下半年五世紀,但它可能是一些兩個或兩個三百年後聖本篤的規則獲得通過。 Mabillon使640的日期作為其引入的國家( Sanctorum學報定向結構刨花板,南美。一, praef 。 74 ) ,但他的結論,在這一點上是不是現在普遍接受。 In Switzerland the disciples of Columbanus had founded monasteries early in the seventh century, two of the best known being St. Gall's, established by the saint of that name, and Dissentis (612), founded by St.在瑞士的弟子科倫巴努成立了寺廟早在7世紀,有兩個最著名的是聖加爾的,所設立的聖的名稱, Dissentis ( 612 ) ,成立由街 Sigisbert. Sigisbert 。 The Celtic rule was not entirely supplanted by that of St. Benedict until more than a hundred years later, when the change was effected chiefly through the influence of Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne.凱爾特的規則並不完全取代由聖本篤,直至超過100年後,當變化的影響主要是通過影響短期丕平的父親查理曼。 By the ninth century, however, the Benedictine had become the only form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two. At the time of the Reformation there were nine Benedictine houses in Ireland and six in Scotland, besides numerous abbeys of Cistercians.到9世紀,但是,本篤已成為唯一的寺院生活在整個西歐,除了蘇格蘭,威爾士,愛爾蘭,那裡的凱爾特遵守仍然普遍存在的一個世紀或兩個。當時改革有9名篤房屋在愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭的六,除了眾多的修道院中熙。

Benedictine monasticism never took such deep root in the eastern countries of Europe as it had done in the West.本篤修道從來沒有這樣深深紮根在東部歐洲國家,因為它已經在西方。 The Bohemians and the Poles, nevertheless, owed their conversion respectively to the Benedictine missionaries Adalbert (d. 997) and Casimir (d. 1058), whilst Bavaria and what is now the Austrian Empire were evangelized first by monks from Gaul in the seventh century, and later on by St. Boniface and his disciples.該Bohemians和波蘭人,但是,欠他們的轉換分別向本篤會傳教士阿德爾伯特(草997 )和卡西米(草1058 ) ,而德國巴伐利亞州和現在的奧地利帝國被evangelized首先由僧人從高盧在第七世紀,後來就由聖博尼法斯和他的弟子。 A few of the larger abbeys founded in these countries during the ninth and tenth centuries still exist, but the number of foundations was always small in comparison with those farther west.有幾個較大的修道院始建於這些國家在第九屆和第十屆世紀仍然存在,但一些基金會一直比較小與西部更遠。 Into Lithuania and the Eastern Empire the Benedictine Rule never penetrated in early times, and the great schism between East and West effectually prevented any possibilities of development in that direction.到立陶宛和東歐帝國本篤規則從來沒有侵入早期,偉大的分裂東方與西方之間有效地阻止任何可能性的發展的方向。

Early Constitution of the Order早期憲法秩序

During the first four or five centuries after the death of St. Benedict there existed no organic bond of union amongst the various abbeys other than the Rule itself and obedience to the Holy See.在第一個4或5世紀逝世後,聖本篤不存在有機債券工會在不同的修道院以外的其他規則本身和服從羅馬教廷。 According to the holy legislator's provisions each monastery constituted an independent family, self-contained, autonomous, managing its own affairs, and subject to no external authority except that of the local diocesan bishop, whose powers of control were, however, limited to certain specific occasions.根據神聖的立法者的規定,每個寺院構成一個獨立的家庭,自我控制,自主性,管理自己的事務,並且不受任何外部權威,但當地的教區主教,其權力的控制,但僅限於某些特定場合。 The earliest departures from this system occurred when several of the greater abbeys began sending out offshoots, under the form of daughter-houses retaining some sort of dependence upon the mother abbey from which they sprang.最早的偏離這一系統時發生了更大的修道院開始發出分支,根據形式的女兒房屋保留某種依賴母親的修道院他們從興起。 This mode of propagation, together with the various reforms that began to appear in the eleventh and succeeding centuries, paved the way for the system of independent congregations, still a feature peculiar to the Benedictine Order.這種模式的傳播,加上各項改革,開始出現在第十一屆和繼承百年來,鋪平了道路系統的獨立的教會,仍然是一個功能獨特的篤秩序。

Reforms改革

A system which comprised many hundreds of monasteries and many thousands of monks, spread over a number of different countries, without any unity of organization; which was exposed, moreover, to all the dangers and disturbances inseparable from those troublous times of kingdom-making; such a system was inevitably unable to keep worldliness, and even worse vices, wholly out of its midst.一個系統其中包括數以百計的許多寺廟和數以千計的僧侶,分散在若干不同的國家,沒有任何統一的組織;這是暴露,此外,所有的危險和動盪的不可分割的焦急的時候王國的決策;這種制度是必然無法跟上世故,甚至更糟惡習,完全擺脫了中間。 Hence it cannot be denied that the monks often failed to live up to the monastic ideal and sometimes even fell short of the Christian and moral standards.因此,不能否認,僧侶往往沒有辜負寺院理想,有時甚至低於基督教和道德標準。 There were failures and scandals in Benedictine history, just as there were declensions from the right path outside the cloister, for monks are, after all, but men.有失敗和醜聞篤史,就像有declensions從正確的道路以外的迴廊,為僧侶畢竟,但男子。 But there does not seem ever to have been a period of widespread and general corruption in the order.但是,似乎沒有以往任何時候都在一定時期之廣泛和普遍的腐敗行為秩序。 Here and there the members of some particular house allowed abuses and relaxations of rule to creep in, so that they seemed to be falling away from the true spirit of their state, but whenever such did occur they soon called forth efforts for a restoration of primitive austerity; and these constantly recurring reform movements form one of the surest evidences of the vitality which has pervaded the Benedictine Institute throughout its entire history.這裡和那裡的一些成員特別是住宅允許濫用職權和鬆弛的規則蠕動,所以,他們似乎是屬於遠離真正的精神狀態,但只要這種確實發生,他們呼籲盡快提出努力恢復原始緊縮和不斷反复出現的這些改革運動的形式之一,最可靠的證據活力已經瀰漫在本篤研究所在其整個歷史。 It is important to note, moreover, that all such reforms as ever achieved any measure of success came invariably from within, and were not the result of pressure from outside the order.必須指出的是,此外,所有這些改革都取得任何程度的成功是必然從內部,並沒有壓力的結果來自外部的命令。

The first of the reforms directed towards confederating the monastic houses of a single kingdom was set on foot early in the ninth century by Benedict of Aniane under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.第一次的改革方向confederating房屋的寺院一個單一的王國成立初期,徒步在第九世紀的Aniane篤的主持下,查理和路易的虔誠。 Though a Benedictine himself born in Aquitaine and trained at Saint-Seine near Dijon, Benedict was imbued with the rigid austerity of the East, and in his Abbey of Aniane practiced a mode of life that was severe in the extreme.雖然本篤本人出生在阿基坦和訓練有素的聖第戎附近的塞納河,篤是充滿剛性緊縮的東方,並在他的修道院Aniane實行的生活模式是嚴重的極端。 Over Louis he acquired an ascendancy which grew stronger as years went on.在聖路易斯,他獲得了優勢增長強勁歲了。 At his instigation Louis built for him a monastery adjoining his own palace at Aix-la-Chapelle, which was intended to serve as a model according to which all others were to be reformed, and to bring about this end Benedict was invested with a general authority over all the monasteries of the empire.在他的煽動路易斯為他建造的一個修道院毗鄰自己的宮殿在阿亨,這是打算作為模型根據這些所有其他人進行改革,並帶來篤為此投資進行了一般性權力的所有寺廟的帝國。 Absolute uniformity of discipline, observance, and habit, after the pattern of the royal monastery, was then the general scheme which was launched at an assembly of all the abbots at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in 817 and embodied in a series of eighty capitula passed by the meeting.絕對統一的紀律,遵守和習慣,在格局的皇家寺院,當時的總體方案是發起集會的所有abbots在亞琛(阿亨)在817和體現了一系列的第八十四capitula通過了會議。 Though by reason of the very minuteness of these capitula, which made them vexatious and ultimately intolerable, this scheme of centralized authority lasted only for the lifetime of Benedict himself, the capitula (printed in full in Herrgott, "Vetus Disciplina Monastica", Paris, 1726) were recognized as supplying a much needed addition to St. Benedict's Rule concerning points not sufficiently provided for therein, and as filling much the same place then as the approved Constitutions of a monastery or congregation do now. A century later, in 910, the first real reform that produced any widespread and general effect was commenced at the Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy, under St. Berno, its first abbot.雖然因非常minuteness這些capitula ,使他們無理取鬧,並最終不能容忍的,這一計劃的中央集權只持續的一生篤他本人, capitula (印刷全文Herrgott , “ Vetus Disciplina Monastica ” ,巴黎, 1726年)被確認為提供了急需的除了聖本篤的有關規則分不夠的規定,並作為充盈大致相同的地方然後作為核定的憲法修道院或教會現在要做的。一個世紀後,在910第一次真正的改革,產生任何普遍和一般效果是在開始的克呂尼修道院在勃艮第,下街Berno ,其第一住持。 The object was an elaboration of the Benedictine ideal, for the uniform preservation of which a highly centralized system of government, hitherto unknown to Benedictine monachism, except as suggested by St. Benedict of Aniane, was introduced.對象是一個制定本篤理想,為維護統一的高度集中的政府制度,以前所未有的monachism篤外,建議由聖本篤的Aniane作了介紹。 It was in fact the establishment of a veritable order, in the common acceptance of that term, within the Benedictine family, the abbot of Cluny retaining an actual headship over all dependent houses, the latter being governed only by priors as his vicars.這實際上是建立一個名副其實的秩序,在共同接受這一術語,在本篤家庭,住持克呂尼保留實際校長全部依賴房屋,後者只能由管轄厄斯他vicars 。 For two centuries or more Cluny was probably the chief religious influence in the Latin Church, as it was also the first abbey to obtain exemption from episcopal oversight.兩個世紀或更多克呂尼可能是宗教的影響主要在拉丁美洲教會,因為它也是第一個修道院獲得豁免祝監督。 Through the efforts of Berno's immediate successors the congregation grew apace, partly by founding new houses and partly by incorporating those already existing, so that by the twelfth century Cluny had become the centre and head of an order embracing some 314 monasteries in all parts of Europe, France, Italy, the Empire, Lorraine, Spain, England, Scotland, and Poland.經過長時間的努力, Berno眼前的繼任者的聚集增長迅速,部分由新成立的房屋和部分納入業已存在,因此,由12世紀克呂尼已成為該中心負責人的命令接受一些寺廟314在所有歐洲部分地區,法國,意大利,帝國,洛林,西班牙,英格蘭,蘇格蘭,和波蘭。 Although the congregation had its own constitutions and was absolutely autonomous, its members always claimed to be and were actually recognized as real Benedictines; hence it was not strictly a new order but only a reformed congregation within the order.雖然教會有自己的憲法,是完全自主的,其成員一直聲稱要和實際承認為真正篤,因此它不是嚴格的新秩序,但只有改革教會內的秩序。 (See CLUNY). (見克呂尼) 。

Following the example of Cluny, several other reforms were initiated from time to time in different parts during the next three centuries, which while taking the Rule of St. Benedict as a basis, aimed frequently at a greater austerity of life than was practised by the black monks or contemplated by the holy Rule. Some were even semi-eremitical in their constitution, and one - Fontevrault - consisted of double monasteries, the religious of both sexes being under the rule of the abbess.下面的例子克呂尼,一些其他方面的改革已開始不時在不同的地區在今後三個世紀,這同時法治的聖本篤為基礎,以經常在一個更大的緊縮的生活比實行的黑色或僧侶的神聖規則。有些人甚至半eremitical在其憲法,和一個-F ontevrault-包括雙寺廟,宗教的男女正在統治下的住持。 In dealing with these reformed congregations a distinction must be made between those which, like Cluny, continued to be considered as part of the main Benedictine body, and those which constituted practically new and independent orders, like Cîteaux, and have always been looked upon as outside the Benedictine confederation, though still professing the Rule of St. Benedict in some form or other.在處理這些改革教會必須區分之間的那些一樣,克呂尼,繼續被視為主要的篤機構,以及那些幾乎構成新的,獨立的訂單,如Cîteaux ,並一直看成以外的本篤邦聯,但仍然信奉法治的聖本篤在某種形式或其他。 Those of the former category are treated here, since they and their successors constitute the order as we understand it at the present day.這些前處理類在這裡,因為他們和他們的繼任者構成了以我們的理解是在今天。 In the latter class the most important were Camaldoli (1009), Vallombrosa (1039), Grammont (1076), Cîteaux (1098), Fontevrault (1099), Savigny (1112), Monte Vergine (1119), Sylvestrines (1231), Celestines (1254), and Olivetans (1319).在後一類最重要的是卡馬爾多利( 1009 ) , Vallombrosa ( 1039 ) ,格拉蒙( 1076年) , Cîteaux ( 1098 ) , Fontevrault ( 1099年) ,薩維尼( 1112 ) ,蒙特卡羅Vergine ( 1119 ) , Sylvestrines ( 1231 ) , Celestines ( 1254年) ,並Olivetans ( 1319 ) 。 All of these will be described in detail under the respective titles. The influence of Cluny, even in monasteries which did not join its congregation or adopt any of the other reforms mentioned above, was large and far-reaching. Many such abbeys, including Subiaco and Monte Cassino, adopted its customs and practices, and modelled their life and spirit according to the example it set. Monasteries such as these often became in turn the centres of revival and reform in their respective neighbourhoods, so that during the tenth and eleventh centuries there arose several free unions of monasteries based on a uniform observance derived from a central abbey.所有這些將詳細描述了根據各自的冠軍。影響克呂尼,即使是在寺院沒有加入其教會或採取任何其他方面的改革如上所述,是大國和深遠的影響。許多這樣的修道院,其中包括薩伯卡和Monte稼軒,通過其習俗和做法,並參照他們的生活和精神根據它制定的例子。寺院,如這些往往又成為中心的復興和改革在各自的街區,所以,在第十和第十一世紀有幾個是免費的寺廟工會的基礎上統一遵守來源於中央的修道院。 These unions, the germ of the congregational system which developed later on, deserve a somewhat detailed enumeration here.這些工會,胚芽的公理系統的開發之後,應該有一個比較詳細列舉在這裡。 In England there had been three distinct efforts at systematic organization.在英格蘭出現了三個不同的努力,系統的組織。 The various monasteries founded by St. Augustine and his fellow-monks had preserved some sort of union, as was only natural with new foundations in a pagan country proceeding from a common source of origin.各寺院創辦的聖奧古斯丁和他的同事,僧侶維護了某種形式的聯盟,是很自然的與新的基礎在一個異教徒的國家從一個共同的來源。 As Christianity spread through the land this necessity for mutual dependence diminished, but when St. Benedict Biscop came to England with Archbishop Theodore in 669, it fell to him to foster a spirit of uniformity amongst the various Benedictine monasteries then existing.作為傳播基督教的土地這需要相互依存有所減少,但在聖本篤Biscop來到英格蘭與大主教西奧多在669 ,下跌給他,以促進精神的統一性之間的各種篤修道院然後現有的。 In the tenth century St. Dunstan set himself to reform the English monastic houses on the model of Fleury and of what he had seen successfully carried out at Ghent during his exile in Flanders. With his co-operation St. Ethelwold brought out his "Concordia Regularis", which is interesting as an early attempt to procure a uniform observance in all the monasteries of a nation.在10世紀聖鄧斯坦為自己確定的改革英語寺院的房屋模型的弗勒裡和他所看到成功地進行了在比利時根特在他流亡在佛蘭德斯。隨著他的合作街Ethelwold帶來了他的“協和Regularis “ ,這有趣的是,作為早期企圖促統一的遵守所有的寺廟的一個國家。 A century later Lanfranc continued the same idea by issuing a series of statutes regulating the life of the English Benedictines.一個世紀後蘭弗朗克繼續同樣的想法,發布了一系列的法規規範生活的英文本篤。 It should be noted here that these several attempts were directed only towards securing outward uniformity, and that as yet there was apparently no idea of a congregation, properly so called, with a central source of all legislative authority.這裡應當指出,這幾次試圖針對只有爭取向外均勻,而且還存在顯然是不知道的聚集,所謂正確,與中央來源的所有法律依據。 In Fra Chaise-Dieu (Auvergne), St. Victor (Marseilles), St. Claude, Lérins, Sauve-Majour, Tiron, and Val-des-Choux, were all centres of larger or smaller groups of houses, in each of which there was uniformity of rule as well as more or less dependence upon the chief house.在修士馬車,上帝(奧弗涅) ,聖維克多(馬賽) ,聖克勞德, Lérins , Sauve - Majour ,鈦鐵試劑,和Val -德Choux ,都是中心的大或小團體的房屋,在每一個有統一的規則,以及或多或少依賴首席房子。 Fleury adopted the Cluniac reform, as did also St. Benignus of Dijon, though without subjection to that organization; and all were eventually absorbed by the congregation of St. Maur in the seventeenth century, excepting St. Claude, which preserved its independence until the Revolution, Val-des-Choux, which became Cistercian, and Lérins, which in 1505 joined the Italian congregation of St. Justina of Padua. In Italy the chief groups had their centres at Cluse in Piedmont, at Fonte Avellana, which united to the Camaldolese congregation in 1569, La Cava, which joined the congregation of St. Justina in the fifteenth century, and Sasso-Vivo, which was suppressed as a separate federation in the same century and its forty houses united to other congregations of the Benedictine family.弗勒裡通過Cluniac改革,也沒有聖Benignus第戎,但沒有隸屬該組織;和所有最終被吸收聚集的聖莫爾在17世紀,除聖克勞德,其中保留了其獨立性,直到革命,纈氨酸德Choux ,成為修道院,並Lérins ,在1505年加入意大利眾聖太帕多瓦。在意大利的主要群體有其中心Cluse在皮埃蒙特,在豐特Avellana ,其中美國的Camaldolese聚集在1569年,拉卡瓦,其中加入了教會的聖太在15世紀,和薩索體內,這是抑制作為一個單獨的聯合會在同一世紀,其第四十四房屋統一到其他教區的本篤家庭。 The monasteries of Germany were divided chiefly between Fulda and Hirschau, both of which eventually joined the Bursfeld Union.該寺院的德國人之間的分歧主要是富爾達和Hirschau ,兩者最終在Bursfeld加入聯盟。 (See BURSFELD.) In Austria there were two groups of monasteries, the abbeys of Melk (Molck or Melek) and Salzburg being the chief houses. (見BURSFELD 。 )在奧地利有兩個群體的寺院,在修道院的梅爾克( Molck或觸)和薩爾茨堡正在長的房屋。 They continued thus until well into the seventeenth century, when systematic congregations were organized in compliance with the Tridentine decrees, as well be described in due course.因此,他們繼續,直到進入17世紀,當系統的教會組織在遵守Tridentine法令,以及被稱為在適當的時候。 Other free unions, for purposes of mutual help and similarity of discipline, were to be found also in Scotland, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary, and elsewhere, in which the same idea was carried out, viz., not so much a congregation in its later sense, with a centralized form of government, as a mere banding together of houses for the better maintenance of rule and policy.其他自由工會,目的是相互幫助和相似的紀律,被發現在蘇格蘭,斯堪的納維亞,波蘭,匈牙利和其他地方一樣,在同樣的想法進行,即。 ,而不是這麼多聚集在其後來意義上說,同一個集中的政府形式,僅僅是一個聯合起來的房屋為更好地維護法治和政策。

Notwithstanding all these reform movements and unions of monasteries, a large number of Benedictine abbeys in different countries retained to the end of the twelfth century, and even later, their original independence, and this state of things was only terminated by the regulations of the Fourth Lateran Council, in 1215, which were to change materially the whole trend of Benedictine polity and history.儘管所有這些改革運動和工會的寺院,大量的本篤修道院在不同的國家保留的結尾12世紀,甚至以後,他們原來的獨立,這種狀態的東西只有終止條例第四拉特蘭安理會在1215年,這是重大改變整個趨勢篤政體和歷史。 By the twelfth canon of this council it was decreed that all the monasteries of each ecclesiastical province were to unite into a congregation. The abbots of each province or congregation were to meet in chapter every third year, with power to pass laws binding on all, and to appoint from amongst their own number "visitors" who were to make canonical visitation of the monasteries and to report upon their condition to the ensuing chapter.第十二屆佳能本局是頒布法令,所有的寺廟教會每個省要團結成一個教徒。 abbots中的每一個省或聚集了以滿足每章中第三個年頭,有權通過法律約束力的關於所有,並從其成員中任命自己的一些“遊客”誰是使典型探視的寺院,並報告其條件,隨後的一章。 In each congregation one of the abbots was to be elected president, and the one so chosen presided over the triennial chapter and exercised a certain limited and well-defined authority over the houses of his congregation, in such a way as not to interfere with the independent authority of each abbot in his own monastery.在每一個教徒之一abbots將當選為總統,並選擇一個,以便主持的三年期章和行使一定的限制和明確界定權力的房子,他聚集,在這樣的方式不應干涉獨立的權威,每個方丈在自己的修道院。 England was the first and for some time the only country to give this new arrangement a fair trial.英格蘭是第一次和一段時間的唯一國家給予這項新安排公正的審判。 It was not until after the issue of the Bull "Benedictina" by Benedict XII, in 1336, that other countries, somewhat tardily, organized their national congregation in conformity with the designs of the Lateran Council.但直到之後的問題紅牛“ Benedictina ”的篤十二世,在1336年,其他國家,有些慢慢地,有組織本國眾符合設計的拉特蘭理事會。 Some of these have continued to the present day, and this congregational system is now, with very few exceptions and some slight variations in matters of detail, the normal form of government throughout the order.這些問題有一些已經持續到今天,這個公理系統現在,除了極少數例外,並略有變化的詳細事項,正常的政府形式在整個秩序。

Progress of the Order進展令

At the time of this important change in the constitution of the order, the black monks of St. Benedict were to be found in almost every country of Western Europe, including Iceland, where they had two abbeys, founded in the twelfth century, and from which missionaries had penetrated even into Greenland and the lands of the Eskimo.當時的這一重要變化,憲法秩序,黑色僧侶的聖本篤都是在幾乎每一個國家的西歐,包括冰島,在那裡他們有兩個修道院,成立於12世紀,從這些傳教士已經滲透甚至到格陵蘭和土地的愛斯基摩人。 At the beginning of the fourteenth century the order is estimated to have comprised the enormous number of 37,000 monasteries.在開始的14世紀的順序估計包括大量的3.7萬寺廟。 It had up to that time given to the Church no less than 24 popes, 200 cardinals, 7,000 archbishops, 15,000 bishops, and over 1,500 canonized saints.它已達到當時考慮到教會不少於24教皇, 200名樞機主教, 7000大主教,主教15000 ,並超過1500冊封聖人。 It had enrolled amongst its members 20 emperors, 10 empresses, 47 kings, and 50 queens.它已進入其成員20個皇帝, 10個皇后, 47歲的國王和王后50 。 And these numbers continued to increase by reason of the additional strength which accrued to the order form its consolidation under the new system.與這些數字繼續增加的原因,更多的力量,因此累積到郵購表格,鞏固根據新的制度。 In the sixteenth century the Reformation and the religious wars spread havoc amongst its monasteries and reduced their number to about 5,000.在16世紀的宗教改革和宗教戰爭浩劫中蔓延的寺廟和減少其數量約5000 。 In Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden, where several houses had joined the German (Bursfeld) Union, the order was entirely obliterated by the Lutherans about 1551 and its property confiscated by the crown.在丹麥,冰島,瑞典,一些房屋已經加入了德國( Bursfeld )聯盟,為了完全消滅了約1551路德會,並沒收其財產的王冠。 The arbitrary rule of Joseph II of Austria (1765-90) and the French Revolution and its consequences completed the work of destruction, so that in the early part of the nineteenth century, the order numbered scarcely more than fifty monasteries all told.任意法治的約瑟夫二世,奧地利( 1765年至1790年)和法國革命及其後果完成了銷毀工作,因此,在早期的一部分, 19世紀,為了編號幾乎超過50寺廟告訴所有。 The last seventy years, however, have witnessed a remarkable series of revivals and an accession of missionary enterprise, with the result that there are now over one hundred and fifty monasteries of black monks, or, including affiliated congregations and convents of nuns, a total of nearly seven hundred.過去的70年裡,然而,目睹了顯著的一系列revivals ,並加入傳教的企業,因此,目前有超過150寺院僧侶的黑人,或,包括附屬教區和修道院的修女,總近700 。 These revivals and examples of expansion will now be treated in detail under the headings of the various congregations, which will bring the history of the order down to the present day.這些revivals例子和擴大現在將詳細治療項下的各種聚會,這將使歷史上的秩序到現在一天。

(1) The English Congregation.-The English were the first to put into practice the decrees of the Lateran Council. ( 1 )英文Congregation. ,英國是第一個付諸實踐的法令拉特蘭理事會。 Some time was necessarily spent in preliminary preparations, and the first general chapter was held at Oxford in 1218, from which time up to the dissolution under Henry VIII the triennial chapters appear to have been held more or less regularly.有些時候不一定是用在初步的準備工作,第一章一般是在牛津大學舉行的1218年,從時間,下解散亨利八世章的三年期似乎已經舉行了或多或少的定期。 (Details of these chapters will be found in Reyner, "Apostolatus Benedictinorum".) At first only the monasteries of the southern province of Canterbury were represented, but in 1338, in consequence of the Bull "Benedictina", the two provinces were united and the English congregation definitely established. (詳情這些章節將在Reyner , “ Apostolatus Benedictinorum 。 ” )在第一次只有寺廟的南部省份坎特伯雷派代表出席了會議,但在1338年,在後果的公牛“ Benedictina ” ,這兩個省份都團結起來,英國教會建立了肯定。 This system of the union of houses and periodical chapters interfered in the least possible degree with the Benedictine tradition of mutual independence of monasteries, though the Bull "Benedictina" was intended to give some further development to it.該系統的工會的房屋和期刊的章節干預至少可能程度與本篤傳統相互獨立的寺廟,但公牛“ Benedictina ”的目的是提供一些進一步發展它。 In other countries attempts were made from time to time to effect a greater degree of organization, but in England there was never any further advance along the path of centralization.在其他一些國家試圖不時效應更大程度的組織,但在英國從未有任何進一步前進的道路上集中。 At the time of the dissolution there were in England nearly three hundred houses of black monks, and though the numbers had from one cause or another somewhat declined, the English congregation may truthfully be said to have been in a flourishing condition at the time of the attempt to suppress it in the sixteenth century.當時的解體有在英國近300家的黑人和尚,雖然數量已經從一個事業或其他有些下降,英文教徒可如實說已經在一個繁榮的條件的時候,試圖壓制它在十六世紀。 The grave charges brought against the monks by Henry VIII's Visitors, though long believed in, are not now credited by serious historians.嚴重的指控僧侶亨利八世的參觀者,但只要相信,現在不記入嚴重的歷史學家。 This reversal of opinion has been brought about mainly through the researches of such writers as Gasquet (Henry VIII and the English Monasteries, London, new ed., 1899; Eve of the Reformation, London, 1890), and Gairdner (Prefaces to "Calendars of State Papers of Henry VIII").這扭轉了輿論帶來的主要是通過研究這些作家加斯凱(亨利八世和寺院的英文版,倫敦,新版。 , 1899年;前夕的改革,倫敦, 1890年) ,以及蓋爾德納(序,以“日曆國家論文的亨利八世“ ) 。

Throughout the period of suppression the monks were the champions of the old Faith, and when turned out of their homes very few conformed to the new religion.在整個期間鎮壓僧侶是冠軍的舊信仰,當原來的家園極少數符合新的宗教。 Some sought refuge abroad, others accepted pensions and lingered on in England hoping for a restoration of the former state of things, whilst not a few preferred to suffer lifelong imprisonment rather than surrender their convictions and claims.一些國外避難,其他公認的養老金和徘徊在英格蘭希望恢復前狀態的東西,而不是少數幾個寧願遭受終身監禁,而不是放棄自己的信念和要求。 In Queen Mary's reign there was a brief revival at Westminster, where some of the surviving monks were brought together under Abbot Feckenham in 1556.在瑪麗的統治地位有一個簡短的復興西敏寺,其中一些倖存的僧侶被召集下艾博特Feckenham在1556年。 Of the monks professed there during the three years of revived existence, Dom Sigebert Buckley alone survived at the beginning of the seventeenth century; and he, after forty years of imprisonment, when nigh unto death, in 1607, invested with the English habit and affiliated to Westminster Abbey and to the English congregation two English priests, already Benedictines of the Italian congregation.僧人宣稱在那裡三年的恢復存在,大教堂Sigebert僅存活巴克利開始時的17世紀,他經過四十多年的監禁,當時幾乎祂死亡的情況下, 1607年,投資與英文習慣和附屬到威斯敏斯特教堂和教會的英文兩個英文牧師,已經篤意大利眾。 By this act he became the link between the old and the new lines of English black monks, and through him the true succession was perpetuated.通過這一行動,他成為之間的聯繫,新和舊線的英文黑色僧侶,並通過他的真正繼承下去。 About the same time a number of English monks were being trained abroad, mostly in Spain, for the English mission, and these were in 1619 aggregated by papal authority to the English congregation, though the monasteries founded by them had perforce to be situated abroad.大約在同一時間了一些英文僧侶被國外培訓,主要是在西班牙,英語的任務,這些都是在1619年由羅馬教皇匯總權威的英語教會,但寺廟成立了由它們必然將地處國外。 St. Gregory's at Douai was established in 1605, St. Lawrence's at Dieulouard in Lorraine in 1606, and St. Edmund's at Paris in 1611.聖格雷戈里的在杜埃成立於1605年,聖勞倫斯在Dieulouard在洛林在1606年,和聖埃德蒙的在巴黎1611年。 The first two of these communities remained on the continent until driven to England by the French Revolution, but the third has only recently returned.頭兩這些社區留在大陸,直到英國推動了法國大革命,但第三次最近才返回。 In 1633, by the Bull "Plantata", Pope Urban VIII bestowed upon the restored English congregation "every privilege, grant, indulgence, faculty, and other prerogative which had ever belonged to the ancient English congregation" and also approved of its members taking on oath by which they bound themselves to labour for the reconversion of their country.在1633年的公牛“ Plantata ” ,教皇烏爾班八世授予恢復英文眾“每一個特權,補助,寬容,教師和其他特權了以往任何時候都屬於古老的英文眾” ,並批准其成員採取宣誓由他們約束自己的勞動再自己的國家。 So zealous were they in this twenty-seven suffered martyrdom for the Faith, whilst eleven died in prison.因此,熱心的人,他們在這07年遭受犧牲的信仰,而11人死在獄中。 Two other monasteries were added to the congregation, viz., Lamspring in Germany in 1643, and Saint-Malo in Brittany in 1611, the latter, however, being passed over to the French (Maurist) congregation in 1672.另外增加了寺院的聚集,即。 , Lamspring在德國1643年,和聖馬洛在布列塔尼在1611年,後者然而,正在越過法國( Maurist )聚集在1672年。

In 1795 the monks of Douai were expelled from their monastery by the Revolution, and after many hardships, including imprisonment, escaped to England, where, after a temporary residence at Acton Burnell (near Shrewsbury), they settled in 1814 at Downside in Somerset.在1795年僧侶的杜埃被趕出修道院的革命,並在許多困難,包括監禁,逃到英國,在那裡後,臨時居住在阿克頓Burnell (近舒茲伯利) ,他們於1814年定居在下方的薩默塞特。 The monks of Dieulouard were also driven out at the same time and after some years of wandering established themselves in 1802 at Ampleforth in Yorkshire.僧侶的Dieulouard也帶動了在同一時間和經過一些年的流浪確立了自己於1802年在約克郡Ampleforth 。 The monks of St. Edmund's, Paris, not successful in making their escape from France, were dispersed for a time, but when, in 1818, the buildings of St. Gregory's at Douai were recovered by the congregation, the remnants of St. Edmund's community reassembled and resumed conventual life there in 1823.僧侶聖埃德蒙的,巴黎,沒有成功地使他們擺脫法國,分散了一段時間,但在1818年,大樓的聖格雷戈里的在杜埃被收回的聚集,殘餘的聖埃德蒙的社會重新恢復conventual生活在1823年。 For eighty years they continued undisturbed, recruited by English subjects and carrying on their school for English boys, until, in 1903, the "Association Laws" of the French government once more expelled them from their monastery; returning to England, they have established themselves at Woolhampton in Berkshire.對於八十年他們繼續不受干擾,招募英文科目和執行他們的學校,英語男孩,直到在1903年的“協會法” ,法國政府再次驅逐他們從修道院;返回英格蘭,他們確立了自己在Woolhampton伯克希爾。 The Abbey of Lamspring continued to flourish amongst Lutheran surroundings until it was suppressed by the Prussian Government in 1802 and the community dispersed.該修道院Lamspring持續蓬勃發展的環境之間的信義,直到它被壓制的普魯士政府在1802年和社區散去。 In 1828 a restoration of conventual life in a small way was attempted at Broadway in Worcestershire, which lasted until 1841.在1828年恢復conventual生活在一個小的方式是在百老匯試圖在伍斯特郡,這一直持續到1841年。 The monks then went to other houses of the congregation, though the community was never formally disbanded.僧侶然後前往其他房屋的教徒,但社會從未正式解散。 Continuity was preserved by the last survivors of Broadway being incorporated in 1876 into the newly founded community of Fort Augustus in Scotland.保存連續性的最後倖存者的百老匯被納入1876年到新成立的社會奧古斯堡在蘇格蘭。 In 1859 St. Michael's priory, at Belmont, near Hereford, was established, in compliance with a decree of Pius IX, as a central novitiate and house of studies for the whole congregation.在1859年聖米歇爾修道院,在貝爾蒙,海福特附近,設立,在遵守法令的庇護九,作為一個中央見習和房屋的研究對整個禮拜堂。 It was also made the pro-cathedral of the Diocese of Newport in England, the bishop and canons of which are chosen from the English Benedictines, the cathedral-prior acting as provost of the chapter.有人還提出了親大教堂教區的新港在英格蘭,主教和大砲的是選自英文本篤,大教堂,以前作為教務長的一章。 Up to 1901 Belmont had no community of its own, but only members from the other houses who were resident there either as professors or students; the general chapter of that year, however, decided that novices might henceforth be received for St. Michael's monastery.截至1901年貝爾蒙沒有社會自身,但只有成員來自其他房屋誰是居住或者作為教授或學生;一般章這一年,然而,決定,新手可能今後將收到的聖邁克爾修道院。 In 1899 Leo XIII raised the three priories of St. Gregory's (Downside), St. Lawrence's (Ampleforth), and St. Edmund's (Douai) to the rank of abbeys, so that the congregation now consists of three abbeys, and one cathedral-priory, each with its own community, but Belmont still remains the central novitiate and tyrocinium for all the houses. 1899年利奧十三世提出了三個修道院的聖格里高利的(下行) ,聖勞倫斯( Ampleforth ) ,和聖埃德蒙的(杜埃) ,以職級的修道院,使教會現在由三個修道院,和一個大教堂,修道院,每一個都有自己的社會,但仍然貝爾蒙中央見習和tyrocinium所有的房屋。 Besides its regular prelates, the English congregations, by virtue of the Bull "Plantata" (1633), allowed to perpetuate as titular dignities the nine cathedral-priories which belonged to it before the Reformation, viz., Canterbury, Winchester, Durham, Coventry, Ely, Worcester, Rochester, Norwich, and Bath; to these have been added three more, Peterborough, Gloucester, and Chester, originally Benedictine abbeys but raised to cathedral rank by Henry VIII.除了經常主教,英文教徒,由於公牛“ Plantata ” ( 1633年) ,允許永久的名譽尊嚴的9個教堂,修道院屬於它面前的改革,即。 ,坎特伯雷,溫徹斯特,達勒姆,考文垂,伊利,伍斯特市,羅切斯特,諾里奇和浴;這些已新增3個以上,彼得伯勒,告士打道,並切斯特,原定本篤修道院,但提高到教堂排名亨利八世。 Six ancient abbacies also, St. Alban's, Westminster, Glastonbury, Evesham, Bury St. Edmunds, and St. Mary's, York, are similarly perpetuated by privilege granted in 1818.六古代abbacies也,聖奧爾本的,西敏寺,格拉斯頓伯里,伊夫舍姆,伯里聖埃德蒙茲和聖瑪麗,紐約,也同樣存在的特權在1818年。

(2) The Cassinese Congregation.-To prevent confusion it is necessary to pint out that there are two congregations of this name. ( 2 ) Cassinese Congregation. ,為了防止混淆,有必要品脫了,有兩個教會的這個名字。 The first, with Monte Cassino as its chief house, was originally known as that of St. Justina of Padua, and with one exception has always been confined to Italy.第一,與蒙稼軒作為其首席房子,原先被稱為是聖太的帕多瓦,並有一個例外一直僅限於意大利。 The other is of much later institution and is distinguished by the title of "Primitive Observance".另一種是後來的許多機構和尊敬的是標題的“原始遵守。 ” What follows relates to the former of these two.以下涉及到的前兩個。

Most of the Italian monasteries had fallen under the influence of Cluny in the tenth and eleventh centuries, and had adopted its customs, but by the end of the fourteenth century they had so greatly declined that there was then hardly one left in which the Cluniac observance was retained.大多數意大利寺廟下降的影響下,克魯尼在第十和第十一世紀,並通過了海關,但在年底的14世紀,使他們大大下降,有那麼一個很難留在該Cluniac遵守被保留。 The Abbey of St. Justina at Padua, which had formerly been Cluniac, was in a very corrupt and ruinous state in 1407 when Gregory XII bestowed it in commendam on the Cardinal of Bologna. That prelate, desirous of reform, introduced some Olivetan monks, but the three remaining Cluniac monks appealed to the Venetian Republic against this encoachment on their rights, with the result that the abbey was restored to them and the Olivetans dismissed.在修道院的聖太在帕多瓦,其中原先Cluniac ,是在一個非常腐敗和毀滅性的國家在1407年時,格雷戈里十二賦予它commendam的樞機主教的博洛尼亞。這主教,渴望改革,出台了一些歐利夫坦僧侶,但剩下的三個Cluniac僧侶呼籲威尼斯共和國對這一encoachment對他們的權利,其結果是修道院恢復他們和Olivetans駁回。 The cardinal resigned the abbey to the pope, who thereupon gave it to Ludovico Barbo, a canon regular of St. George in alga.樞機辭職修道院的教宗,誰隨即送給Ludovico Barbo ,佳能經常聖喬治的藻類。 He took the Benedictine habit and received the abbatial blessing in 1409.他把本篤習慣,收到了abbatial在1409年的祝福。 With the help of two Camaldolese monks and two canons of Alga, he instituted a reformed observance, which was quickly adopted in other monasteries as well.借助兩個Camaldolese僧侶和兩個大砲的藻類,他制定了改革的遵守,這是迅速通過在其他寺廟以及。 Permission was obtained from the pope for these to unite and form a new congregation, the first general chapters of which was held in 1421, when Abbot Barbo was elected the first president.獲得許可的教宗對這些團結一致,形成一個新的教會,第一章一般是在1421年舉行,當時住持Barbo當選為第一任總統。 Amongst those that joined were the celebrated abbeys of Subiaco, Monte Cassino, St. Paul's in Rome, St. George's at Venice, La Cava, and Farfa.其中那些加入了著名的修道院的薩伯卡,蒙特卡羅稼軒,聖保祿在羅馬,聖喬治在威尼斯,拉卡瓦,以及法爾法。 In 1504 its title was changed to that of the "Cassinese Congregation".在1504年其名稱改為即“ Cassinese眾” 。 It gradually came to embrace all of the chief Benedictine houses of Italy, to the number of nearly two hundred, divided into seven provinces, Rome, Naples, Sicily, Tuscany, Venice, Lombardy, and Genoa.它逐漸包括所有的首席篤房屋,意大利的人數將近200 ,分為七個省,羅馬,那不勒斯,西西里島,托斯卡納,威尼斯,倫巴第大區,和熱那亞。 In 1505 the Abbey of Lérins in Provence together with all its dependent houses joined it.在1505年的修道院,在普羅旺斯Lérins連同所有的房屋及其附屬加入。 A highly centralized system of government was developed, modelled on the Italian republics, by which the autonomy of the individual houses was almost entirely destroyed.高度集中的政府體制是發達國家,仿照意大利共和國,其中的自主權個人住房幾乎完全被摧毀。 All power was vested in a committee of "definitors", in whose hands were all appointments, from that of president down to the lowest official in the smallest monastery. But in spite of this obvious departure from the Benedictine ideal and the dangers arising from such a system, the congregation continued in considerable prosperity until the wars of the Revolution period; and the later decrees of the Italian government put a check to its reception of novices and began a series of suppressions which have reduced its numbers enormously and shorn it of much of its former greatness.一切權力屬於一個委員會的“ definitors ” ,在其雙手被所有的任命,從總統到最低官方在最小的寺院。然而,儘管這顯然背離了本篤會的理想和所產生的危險等一個系統,該會持續相當繁榮,直到戰爭時期的革命和後來法令,意大利政府提出檢查其接收的新手,並開始了一系列的suppressions已減少了其數量巨大和shorn它的大部分其昔日的輝煌。 The formation of the congregation of Primitive Observance from out of its midst has still further diminished the congregation, until it now consists nominally of sixteen monasteries, some entirely without communities, and only three or four with sufficient numbers to keep up full conventual observances.形成的聚集原始遵守從走出中已仍進一步削弱了教會,到現在由16個名義上的寺廟,有些完全沒有社區,只有三個或四個與足夠數量跟上充分conventual紀念活動。

(3) The Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance.-In the year 1851 Abbot Casaretto of Subiaco initiated at Genoa a return to a stricter observance than was then in vogue, and several other monasteries of the Cassinese congregation, including Subiaco itself, desiring to unite in this reforming movement, Pius IX joined all such abbeys into one federation, which was called after its chief house, the "Province of Subiaco". ( 3 ) Cassinese教會原始Observance. ,在1851年一年的住持Casaretto薩伯卡開始在熱那亞回到一個較嚴格地遵守當時流行,和其他一些寺廟的Cassinese眾,其中包括薩伯卡本身,希望團結在這一改革運動,碧岳九加入所有這些修道院成一個聯邦,其中被稱為後,其首席房子中, “省薩伯卡” 。 Before long monasteries in other countries adopted the same reformed observance and became affiliated to Subiaco.不久寺廟在其他國家採取同樣的改革,成為遵守和附屬薩伯卡。 In 1872 this union of monasteries was separated altogether from the original congregation and erected as a new and independent body under the title of the "Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance", which was divided into provinces according to the different countries in which its houses were situated, with the Abbot of Subiaco as abbot-general of the whole federation. 1872年這個工會的寺廟是完全分開從原來的聚集和豎立作為一個新的和獨立的機構的標題下的“ Cassinese教會原始遵守” ,這是分為省根據不同的國家,其房屋坐落與艾博特的薩伯卡作為住持,一般整個聯邦。

(a) The Italian Province dates from the original federation in 1851, and comprises ten monasteries with over two hundred religious. (一)意大利省日期從原來的聯合會於1851年,和包括10個寺院超過200宗教。 One of these is the Abbey of Monte Vergine, formerly the mother-house of an independent congregation, but which was aggregated to this province in 1879.其中之一是修道院的Monte Vergine ,以前的母親所獨立的教會,但是這是匯總到這個省於1879年。

(b) The English Province was formed in 1858 when certain English monks at Subiaco obtained permission to make a foundation in England. (二)英文省成立於1858年當某些英文僧侶薩伯卡獲准進行基礎在英格蘭。 The Isle of Thanet, hallowed by the memory of St. Augustine's landing there twelve hundred and sixty years previously, was selected and a church which Augustus Welby Pugin had built at Ramsgate was placed at their disposal.島薩尼特,神聖的記憶的聖奧古斯丁的目標還有1200和六十年前,被選定和教堂的奧古斯都韋爾Pugin已建在拉姆斯蓋特放在他們的處置。 By 1860 a monastery had been erected and full conventual life established.到1860年的一個修道院已經豎立和充分conventual生活成立。 It became a priory in 1880 and in 1896 an abbey.它成為一個修道院於1880年和1896年的修道院。 In course of time, in addition to serving several neighbouring missions, the community embarked on work in New Zealand, where Dom Edmund Luck, a Ramsgate monk, was made Bishop of Auckland.在課程的時間,除了幾個鄰國服務任務,社區工作開始在新西蘭,在那裡大教堂埃德蒙好運,一個拉姆斯蓋特和尚,是奧克蘭主教。 They also undertook work in Bengal in 1874, but this has since been relinquished to the secular clergy.他們還承諾在孟加拉工作於1874年,但是這已經放棄了對世俗的神職人員。

(c) The Belgian Province began in 1858 with the affiliation to Subiaco of the eleventh-century Abbey of Termonde. (三)比利時省於1858年開始同屬於薩伯卡第十一屆世紀的修道院特爾蒙德。 Afflighem followed in 1870, and since then two new foundations have been made in Belgium, and quite recently missionary work has been undertaken in the Transvaal, South Africa. Afflighem遵循1870年,從那時起兩個新的基金會已在比利時,和最近的傳教工作已在德蘭士瓦,南非。

(d) The French Province, perhaps the most numerous and flourishing in the congregation, dates from 1859. ( d )在法國省,也許是最眾多的和繁榮的聚集,從1859年的日期。 Jean-Baptiste Muard, a parish priest and founder of a society of diocesan missioners, became a monk at Subiaco.讓巴蒂斯特Muard ,一個教區牧師的創始人和社會的教區傳教士,成為一名僧人在薩伯卡。 After his profession there in 1849, he returned to France with two companions and settled at Pierre-qui-Vire, a lonely spot amid the forests of Avallon, where a most austere form of Benedictine life was established.在他的職業,在1849年,他回到法國與兩位同伴和解決皮埃爾魁維爾,一個孤獨的現場由於森林的Avallon ,其中一個最嚴峻的形式篤生活成立。 After his death in 1854, the abbey he had founded was affiliated to the Cassinese PO congregation and became the mother-house of the French province.在他死後於1854年,修道院,他成立了附屬於Cassinese婆眾,成為母親家的法國省。 New foundations were made at Béthisy (1859), Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, the ancient Fleury (1865), Oklahoma, Indian Territory, USA with an Apostolic vicariate attached (1874), Belloc (1875), Kerbeneat (1888), Encalcat (1891), Nino-Dios, Argentina (1899), and Jerusalem (1901).新的基礎上作了Béthisy ( 1859年) ,聖伯努瓦盧瓦爾河畔,古裡( 1865年) ,俄克拉何馬州,印度領土上,美國與宗座代牧區附後( 1874年) ,貝洛克( 1875年) , Kerbeneat ( 1888 ) , Encalcat ( 1891年) ,厄爾尼諾現象,迪奧斯,阿根廷( 1899 ) ,耶路撒冷( 1901 ) 。 In 1880 the French Government annexed Pierre-qui-Vire and expelled the community by force; some of them, however, were able to regain possession a year or two later.在1880年法國政府所附皮埃爾魁維爾和驅逐社會的力量;其中一些人,但能夠收回一年或兩年以後。 The remainder sought refuge in England, where in 1882 they acquired the site of the old Cistercian Abbey of Buckfast, in Devonshire.其餘尋求避難在英格蘭,他們在1882年收購了該網站的老修道院修道院Buckfast ,在德文郡。 Here they are gradually rebuilding the abbey on its original foundations.在這裡,他們正逐漸重建修道院其原始的基礎。 The "Association Laws" of 1903 again dispersed the congregation, the monks of Pierre-qui-Vire finding a temporary home in Belgium, those of Belloc and Encalcat going to Spain, and Kerbeneat to South Wales, whilst those of Béthisy and Saint-Benoit, being engaged in parochial work, obtained authorization and have remained in France.該“協會法” 1903年再次驅散了聚集,僧侶的皮埃爾魁維爾找到一個臨時的家在比利時,這些貝洛克和Encalcat前往西班牙,並Kerbeneat以南威爾士州,而這些Béthisy和聖伯努瓦,從事教會工作,得到授權和留在法國。

(e) The Spanish Province dates from 1862, the year in which the ancient Abbey of Montserrat, founded in the ninth century, was affiliated to the Cassinese PO congregation. ( e )在西班牙省從1862年的日期,在這一年中古老的修道院,蒙特塞拉特,始建於9世紀,是附屬於Cassinese婆眾。 The old Spanish congregation, which ceased to exist in 1835, is dealt with separately.這位西班牙眾,其中不復存在於1835年,是分開處理。 Other old monasteries which had been restored, St. Clodio in 1880, Vilvaneira in 1883, and Samos in 1888, were, in 1893, joined with Montserrat to form the Spanish province.其他老寺廟已恢復,聖Clodio於1880年, Vilvaneira 1883年,和薩摩斯於1888年,是在1893年,同蒙特塞拉特形式西班牙省。 Since then new foundations have been made at Pueyo (1890), Los Cabos (1900), and Solsona (1901), besides one at Manila (Philippines) in 1895.自那時起新的基礎已在普埃約( 1890 ) ,洛斯卡沃斯( 1900 ) ,並索爾索納( 1901 ) ,除了一個在馬尼拉(菲律賓)於1895年。 This province also includes the Abbey of New Nursia in Western Australia, founded in 1846 by two exiled monks from St. Martin's Abbey, Compostella, who after the general suppression in 1835 had found a home at La Cava in Italy.這個省還包括修道院的新努爾西亞在澳大利亞西部,成立於1846年由兩個流亡的僧侶從聖馬丁修道院, Compostella ,誰後,一般壓制於1835年發現了一種回家拉卡瓦在意大利。 Seeing no hope of a return to Spain they had volunteered for foreign mission work and were sent to Australia in 1846.看到沒有希望回到西班牙,他們自願為外國使團的工作,被送往澳大利亞於1846年。 Their names were Joseph Serra and Rudesind Salvado.他們的名字是約瑟夫塞拉和Rudesind薩爾瓦多。 They settled amongst the aboriginal inhabitants at a place some seventy miles north of Perth, which they called New Nursia in honour of St. Benedict's birthplace, and there worked as pioneers of civilization and Christianity amongst the natives.他們之間的解決原住民居民的地點是在一些七零英里珀斯以北,他們所謂的新努爾西亞為了紀念聖本篤的出生地,並擔任先鋒的文明和基督教之間的土人。 Their labours were crowned with success and their abbey gradually became the centre from which a number of outlying mission stations were established.他們的辛勤勞動是取得圓滿成功和他們的修道院逐漸成為該中心的一些外圍站的任務已經確定。 Dom Serra became coadjutor to the Bishop of Perth in 1848, and Dom Salvado was made Bishop of Port Victoria in 1849, though he still remained superior of New Nursia, which was made an abbey in 1867 with a diocese attached.大教堂塞拉成為幫手的主教珀斯於1848年,薩爾瓦多和大教堂主教了維多利亞港在1849年,但他仍然優於新努爾西亞,這是做了修道院於1867年與教區附後。 It had been aggregated to the Italian province of the congregation in 1864, but was transferred to the Spanish province on its formation in 1893.它匯集了意大利省於1864年集會,但被轉移到西班牙省成立於1893年。 The monks own vast tracts of bushland around their monastery and they rear horses, sheep, and cattle on a large scale.僧侶自己的大片叢林寺院周圍,他們後方馬,羊,牛的規模。 The community includes a number of aboriginal converts amongst its lay brethren.國際社會包括一些山地之間的轉換奠定兄弟。

(4) The Bursfeld Union.-Although more fully dealt with in a separate article, something must be said here about this congregation. ( 4 ) Bursfeld Union. ,雖然更充分地處理了一個單獨的條款,但必須是在此間表示,有關此聚會。 Formed in 1430, it included all the principal monasteries of Germany, and at the height of its prosperity numbered one hundred and thirty-six houses of men and sixty-four of women.成立於1430 ,它包括所有的主要寺廟的德國,並在高度繁榮的編號為136的房屋的男性和64的婦女。 It flourished until the Protestant Reformation, which with the religious wars that followed entirely obliterated it, and most of its monasteries passed into Lutheran hands.它蓬勃發展,直到新教改革,它與宗教戰爭之後完全抹殺它,它的大部分寺廟進入信義手中。 In 1628 the few remaining representatives of the congregation, having recovered a right to some of their possessions, offered seven monasteries to the newly resuscitated English congregation, on condition that the task of getting rid of the Lutheran occupants should devolve upon the English monks, whilst the monasteries should be restored to the Bursfeld congregation in the event of its ever requiring them.在1628年餘下的幾項代表聚集後,有權收回他們的一些物品,提供了7個寺院的英文版新眾復甦的條件下,任務是擺脫路德居住者應該下放的英文僧侶,而寺廟應該恢復到Bursfeld聚集在發生了以往任何時候都需要他們。 No advantage was taken of this offer except with regard to two houses-Rintelin, which was used as a seminary for a few years by the English Benedictines, and Lamspring, which continued as an abbey of English monks from 1644 to 1802.沒有任何優勢採取了這一提議,除非關於兩院- Rintelin ,這是作為神了幾年的英文本篤,並Lamspring ,繼續作為一個修道院的僧侶英語1844至02年。 No other monasteries of the Bursfeld Union were ever restored to Benedictine use.沒有其他寺廟的Bursfeld聯盟以往任何時候都恢復到篤使用。 (See BURSFELD.) (見BURSFELD 。 )

(5) The Spanish Congregation.-There were originally two distinct congregations in Spain, that of the "Claustrales" or of Tarragona, formed in 1336, and that of Valladolid, organized in 1489. ( 5 )西班牙Congregation. ,有原來兩個不同的教會在西班牙,即“ Claustrales ”或塔拉戈納,成立於1336年,而巴利亞多利德,在1489年舉辦。 At the time of the general suppression in 1835, the former comprised sixteen abbeys, and the latter fifty, besides one or two priories in Peru and Mexico.當時的一般壓制於1835年,前16修道院組成,後者50 ,除了一個或兩個修道院在秘魯和墨西哥。 Belonging to the Claustrales were Our Lady's Abbey, Vilvaneira, St. Stephen's, Rivas del Sil, founded in the sixth century, and St. Peter's, Cardena, which claimed to be the oldest in Spain.屬於Claustrales是聖母修道院, Vilvaneira ,聖士提反裡瓦斯省實,成立於第六世紀,聖彼得, Cardena ,它自稱是最古老的西班牙。 The Valladolid congregation had St. Benedict's, Valladolid (founded 1390), for its mother-house, and amongst its houses were St. Martin's, Compostella (ninth century); St. Benedict's, Sahagún, the largest in Spain; St. Vincent's, Salamanca, famous for its university; Our Lady's, Montserrat; and St. Domingo at Silos.巴利亞多利德聚集的聖本篤了的,巴利亞多利德( 1390年成立) ,供其母親家,除其房屋被聖馬丁, Compostella (九世紀) ;聖本篤的,哈岡,規模最大的西班牙聖文森的,薩拉曼卡,著名的大學;我們的夫人,蒙特塞拉特和聖多明戈在筒倉。 Of the sixty-six monasteries suppressed in 1835, five have been restored, viz., Montserrat (1844), St. Clodio (1880), Vilvaneira (1883), and Samos (1888) by the Cassinese PO congregation, and Silos (1880) by the French monks from Ligugé.在66寺廟壓制於1835年,五個已經恢復,即。 ,蒙特塞拉特( 1844年) ,聖Clodio ( 1880年) , Vilvaneira ( 1883年)和薩摩斯( 1888 )由Cassinese婆眾,並筒倉( 1880年)由法國僧侶Ligugé 。 Of the rest, sixteen remain as parish churches, thirteen are now occupied by other religious orders, two or three are used as barracks, two as prisons, one as a diocesan seminary, a few have been converted into municipal buildings or private residences, and the remainder have been destroyed.其餘16仍然是教區教堂, 13個現正被其他宗教命令,兩個或三個被用作軍營,兩個監獄,一人擔任教區神學院,有幾個已轉化為市政建築或私人住宅,並其餘的已被銷毀。

(6) The Portuguese Congregation.-In the sixteenth century the monasteries of Portugal were all held by commendatory abbots and consequently were in a very unsatisfactory state as regards discipline. ( 6 )葡萄牙Congregation. ,在16世紀的葡萄牙寺廟都舉行的褒義詞abbots ,因此是在一個非常不能令人滿意的現狀方面的紀律。 A reform was initiated in 1558 in the Abbey of St. Thirso, monks from Spain being introduced for the purpose. After much difficulty the leaders succeeded in spreading their reform to two or three other houses, and these were formed into the Portuguese congregation by Pius V in 1566.改革開始於1558年在修道院的聖Thirso ,僧侶從西班牙引進的目的。經過很多困難的領導人成功地推廣他們的改革,以兩個或三個其他房屋,而這些人形成了葡萄牙眾的庇護V在1566年。 The first general chapter was held at Tibaes in 1568 and a president elected.第一章一般舉行Tibaes在1568年和一個民選總統。 The congregation eventually comprised all the monasteries of Portugal and continued in a flourishing state until the wholesale suppression of religious houses in the early part of the nineteenth century, when its existence came to an abrupt end.該會最終包括所有的寺廟,葡萄牙,並繼續在一個蓬勃發展的狀態,直到批發鎮壓宗教的房屋在早期的一部分,十九世紀時,它的存在來突然結束。 Only one Benedictine monastery in Portugal has since been restored-that of Cucujães, originally founded in 1091.只有一本篤修道院在葡萄牙已經恢復,即Cucujães ,最初成立於1091年。 Its resuscitation in 1875 came about in this way: to evade the law forbidding their reception of novices, the Brazilian Benedictines had sent some of the subjects to Rome for study and training in the monastery of St. Paul's, where they were professed about 1870. The Brazilian government refusing them permission to return to that country, they settled in Portugal and obtained possession of the old monastery of Cucujães.其復甦在1875年才以這種方式:為逃避法律禁止他們接待的新手,巴西本篤會派出一些議題羅馬學習和訓練中的寺院聖保羅,在那裡他們宣稱大約1870年。巴西政府拒絕允許他們返回該國,他們定居在葡萄牙和佔有的舊寺院Cucujães 。 After twenty years of somewhat isolated existence there, unable to re-establish the Portuguese congregation, they were, in 1895, affiliated to that of Beuron.經過20多年的有點孤立存在那裡,無法重新建立葡萄牙語眾,他們在1895年,所屬的Beuron 。 Thus Brazil, which had received its first Benedictines from Portugal, became in turn the means of restoring the Benedictine life in that country.因此,巴西,獲得了其第一本篤來自葡萄牙,成為反過來的手段恢復篤會生活在該國。

(7) The Brazilian Congregation.-The first Benedictines to settle in Brazil came from Portugal in 1581. ( 7 )巴西Congregation. ,第一本篤定居在巴西來自葡萄牙1581 。 They established the following monasteries: St. Sebastian, Bahia, (1581); Our Lady of Montserrat, Rio de Janeiro (1589); St. Benedict, Olinda (1640); the Assumption, Sao Paulo (1640); Our Lady's, Parahyba (1641); Our Lady's, Brotas (1650); Our Lady's, near Bahia (1658); and four priories dependent on Sao Paulo.他們設立了以下寺廟:聖塞巴斯蒂安,巴伊亞, ( 1581 ) ;聖母蒙特塞拉特,里約熱內盧( 1589 ) ;聖本篤,奧林達( 1640年) ;升天,聖保羅( 1640 ) ;我們的夫人, Parahyba ( 1641年) ;我們的夫人,布羅塔斯( 1650年) ;我們的夫人,近巴伊亞( 1658 ) ;和四個修道院依賴於聖保羅。 All these remained subject to the Portuguese superiors until 1827, when in consequence of the separation of Brazil from the Kingdom of Portugal, an independent Brazilian congregation was erected by Leo XII, consisting of the above eleven houses, with the Abbot of Bahia as its president.所有這些仍然受上級葡萄牙,直到1827年,當時的後果分離巴西從英國,葡萄牙,巴西一個獨立的教會建的獅子座十二,其中包括上述11家,與艾博特的巴伊亞擔任公司總裁。 A decree of the Brazilian government in 1855 forbade the further reception of novices, and the result was that when the empire came to an end in 1889, the entire congregation numbered only about twelve members, of whom eight were abbots of over seventy years of age.一項法令,巴西政府於1855年禁止再接收新手,結果,當帝國結束於1889年,整個聚集人數只有約12名成員組成,其中8人abbots超過七十年的年齡。 The abbot-general appealed for help to the pope, who applied to the Beuronese congregation for volunteers.在方丈總呼籲幫助教皇,誰適用於Beuronese眾的志願者。 In 1895 a small colony of Beuronese monks having spent some time in Portugal learning the language, set out for Brazil and took possession of the abandoned Abbey of Olinda.在1895年一個小的殖民地Beuronese和尚花費了一些時間在葡萄牙學習的語言,闡述了巴西和擁有的廢棄修道院,奧林達。 The divine office was resumed, mission work in the neighbourhood commenced, and a school of alumni (pupils destined for the monastic state) established.神聖的辦公室得到恢復,團的工作在附近開始,和一所學校的校友(學生運往寺院州)成立。 Two new abbeys have also been added to the congregation: Quixada, founded in 1900, and St. Andre at Bruges (Belgium) in 1901, for the reception and training of subjects for Brazil.兩個新的修道院也被添加到眾: Quixada ,成立於1900年,和聖安德列在布魯日(比利時)於1901年,接待和培訓的科目為巴西。 In 1903 Rio de Janeiro was made the mother-house of the congregation and the residence of the abbot-general.在1903年里約熱內盧是母親的家中聚集和居住的住持,一般。

(8) The Swiss Congregation.-The earliest monasteries in Switzerland were founded from Luxeuil by the disciples of Columbanus, amongst whom was St. Gall, who established the celebrated abbey afterwards known by his name. ( 8 )瑞士Congregation. ,最早的寺院在瑞士成立了由Luxeuil的弟子科倫巴努,其中之一是聖加爾,誰建立了慶祝修道院後來知道他的名字。 By the end of the eighth century the Benedictine Rule had been accepted in most, if not in all of them.到了8世紀的本篤規則已被接受在大多數,如果不是全部。 Some of these monasteries still exist and their communities can boast of an unbroken continuity from those early days.其中的一些寺廟依然存在和他們的社區可以誇耀的不間斷連續性從這些初期。 The various monasteries of Switzerland were united to form the Swiss congregation in 1602, through the efforts of Augustine, Abbot of Einsiedeln.各寺廟的瑞士聯合起來,形成了聚集在瑞士1602年,通過努力,奧古斯丁,艾博特的艾因西德倫。 The political disturbances at the end of the eighteenth century reduced the number of abbeys to six, of which five still continue and constitute the entire congregation at the present day.政治動亂的結束時的18世紀的人數減少修道院到6個,其中5個仍在繼續,並構成整個聚集在本一天。 They are as follows: (a) Dissentis, founded in 612; plundered and destroyed by fire in 1799; restored 1880.它們是: (一) Dissentis ,成立於612 ;掠奪和被燒毀的1799年, 1880年恢復。 (b) Einsiedeln, founded 934, the abbey from which the Swiss-American congregation has sprung. (二)艾因西德倫,成立934人,修道院從瑞士,美國教會已湧現。 (c) Muri, founded 1027; suppressed 1841; but restored at Gries (Tyrol) 1845. (三)穆里, 1027年成立;抑制1841年,但恢復格里斯(蒂羅爾州) 1845年。 (d) Engelberg, founded 1082. (四)恩格爾伯格, 1082年成立。 (3) Maria Stein, founded 1085; the community was disbanded in 1798, but reassembled six years later; again suppressed in 1875, when the members went to Delle in France; expelled thence in 1902, they moved to Dürnberg in Austria, and in 1906 settled at Bregenz. ( 3 )瑪麗亞斯坦因, 1085年成立的社會在1798年解散,但重新六年後,再次壓制於1875年,當時的成員前往阿爾在法國驅逐再於1902年,他們遷移到Dürnberg在奧地利,並在1906年收於布雷根茨。 The sixth abbey was Rheinau, founded 778, which was suppressed in 1862; its monks, being unable to resume conventual life, were received into other monasteries of the congregation.第六屆修道院是萊瑙,成立778 ,這是在1862年鎮壓;其僧侶,無法恢復conventual生活,收到了到其他寺廟的聚集。

(9) The Congregation of St.-Vannes.-To counteract the evils resulting from the practice of bestowing ecclesiastical benefices upon secular persons in commendam, then rife throughout Western Europe, Dom Didier de la Cour, Prior of the Abbey of St.-Vannes in Lorraine, inaugurated in 1598 a strict disciplinary reform with the full approbation of the commendatory abbot, the Bishop of Verdun. ( 9 )教會的聖Vannes. ,為了對付造成的禍害的做法賜予教會benefices後世俗人commendam ,然後充滿整個西歐,大教堂迪迪埃德拉魯阿法院,之前的修道院的聖-瓦納在洛林,在1598年成立了嚴格的紀律改革的充分認可的褒義詞住持,主教凡爾登。 Other monasteries soon followed suit and the reform was introduced into all the houses of Alsace and Lorraine, as well as many in different parts of France.其他寺廟很快效仿和改革引入所有房屋的阿爾薩斯和洛林,以及許多不同地區的法國。 A congregation, numbering about forty houses in all, under the presidency of the prior of St.-Vannes, was formed, and was approved by the pope in 1604.聚集,人數約40所房屋所有主持下事先的聖瓦納,成立,並批准了教皇在1604年。 On account of the difficulties arising from the direction of the French monasteries by a superior residing in another kingdom, a separate congregation - that of St.-Maur - was organized in 1621 for the monasteries in France, whilst that of St.-Vannes was restricted to those situated in Lorraine.考慮到所產生的困難的指示,法國寺院由上級居住在另一個王國,一個單獨的聚會-即聖莫爾-舉辦16 21年的寺廟在法國,雖然是聖瓦納是限於那些坐落在洛林。 The latter continued with undiminished fervour until suppressed by the French Revolution, but is privileges were handed on by Gregory XVI in 1837 to the newly founded Gallican congregation, which was declared to be its true successor, though not enjoying actual continuity with it.後者繼續堅持不懈的熱情,直到壓制法國大革命,但特權被移交由格里高利十六世在1837年到新成立的高盧聖教會,這被宣布為它的真正的繼任者,但並不實際享有與它的連續性。

(10) The Congregation of St.-Maur.-The French monasteries which had embraced the reform of St.-Vannes were in 1621 formed into a separate congregation named after St. Maur, the disciple of St. Benedict, which eventually numbered on hundred and eighty houses, ie all in France except those of the Cluniac congregation. ( 10 )教會的聖Maur. ,法國的寺廟已經接受了改革的聖瓦納是在1621年形成了一個單獨的名字命名的眾聖莫爾的門徒聖本篤,最終上編號一百八十八家,即所有在法國除外的Cluniac眾。 The reform was introduced mainly through the instrumentality of Dom Laurent Bénard and quickly spread through France.在介紹了改革主要是通過媒介的大教堂洛朗貝納爾,並迅速蔓延法國。 Saint-Germain-des-Prés at Paris became the mother-house, and the superior of this abbey was always the president.聖日耳曼德出版社在巴黎成為了母親家,和上級的修道院總是總統。 The constitution was modelled on that of the congregation of St. Justina of Padua and it was a genuine return to the primitive austerity of conventual observance.憲法是仿照,在教會的聖太的帕多瓦,這是一個真正回到原始緊縮的conventual遵守。 It became chiefly celebrated for the literary achievements of its members, amongst whom it counted Mabillon, Montfaucon, d'Achery, Martene, and many others equally famous for their erudition and industry.它主要是為慶祝文學成就,其成員之間的人清點Mabillon ,蒙福,德Achery , Martene ,以及其他許多同樣著名的博學和工業。 In 1790 the Revolution suppressed all its monasteries and the monks were dispersed.在1790年革命抑制其所有寺廟和僧人分散。 The superior general and two others suffered in the massacre at the Carmes, 2 September, 1792.該上級一般,另外兩名因在屠殺Carmes , 1792年9月2號。 Others sought safety in flight and were received into Lamspring, and abbeys of Switzerland, England, and North America.其他要求飛行安全,並收到到Lamspring ,和修道院,瑞士,英格蘭,和北美。 A few of the survivors endeavoured to restore their congregation at Solesmes in 1817, but the attempt was not successful, and the congregation died out, leaving behind it a fame unrivalled in the annals of monastic history.有幾個倖存者努力恢復其在索雷姆聚集在1817年,但嘗試沒有成功,和眾去世了,留下了無與倫比的名利的史冊寺院的歷史。 (see MAURISTS.) (見MAURISTS 。 )

(11) The Congregation of St. Placid.-This congregation was also an outcome of the reform instituted at St.-Vannes. ( 11 )天主教聖Placid. ,這教會也是一個成果的制度改革在聖瓦納。 The Abbey of St. Hubert in Ardennes, which had been founded about 706 for canons regular but had become Benedictine in 817, was the first in the Low Countries to embrace the reform.在修道院的聖休伯特在阿爾丁已成立約706的大砲經常,但已成為本篤會在817 ,是第一個在低地國家接受的改革。 To facilitate its introduction, monks were sent from St.-Vannes in 1618 to initiate the stricter observance.為了方便介紹,僧侶被送往從聖瓦納在1618年開始嚴格地遵守。 In spite of some opposition from the community as well as from the diocesan, the Bishop of Liège, the revival of discipline gradually gained the supremacy and before long other monasteries, including St. Denis in Hainault, St.儘管有一些反對,社會以及來自各教區的主教列日,復興的紀律逐漸取得了優勢,並在不久的其他寺廟,其中包括聖丹尼斯在埃諾,聖 Adrian, Afflighem, St. Peter's at Ghent, and others followed suit.阿德里安, Afflighem ,聖彼得在根特,和其他效仿。 These were formed into a new congregation (c. 1630) which was approved by Pope Urban VIII, and existed until the Revolution.這些形成了一個新的聚集(角1630 )這是教宗批准的城市第八,並存在著,直到革命。 Two abbeys of this congregation, Termonde and Afflighem, have since been restored and affiliated to the Belgian province of the Cassinese PO congregation.兩個修道院的聚集,特爾蒙德和Afflighem ,已經得到恢復和附屬於比利時省的Cassinese婆眾。

(12) The Austrian Congregations.-For many centuries the monasteries of Austria maintained their individual independence and their abbots acquired positions of much political power and dignity, which, though considerably diminished since medieval times, are still such as are enjoyed by no other Benedictine abbots. The example of reform set by the congregation of St. Justina in the fifteenth century exercised an influence upon the Austrian monasteries. ( 12 )奧地利Congregations. ,許多世紀以來的寺廟奧地利保持各自的獨立性和其職位abbots獲得許多政治權力和尊嚴,雖然大大減少,因為中世紀時代,仍然如享有任何其他篤abbots 。例子改革所規定的眾聖太在15世紀行使的影響,奧地利寺廟。 Beginning (1418) in the Abbey of Melk (founded about 1089), the reform was extended to other houses, and in 1460 a union of those that had adopted it was proposed.開始( 1418年)在修道院的梅爾克(約1089年創立) ,改革已擴大到其他房屋,並在1460工會那些通過了有人提議。 Sixteen abbots were present at a meeting held in 1470, but for some reason this union of abbeys does not seem to have been at all lasting, for in 1623 a new Austrian congregation was projected to consist of practically the same abbeys as the former congregation: Melk, Göttweig, Lambach, Kremsmünster, Vienna, Garsten, Altenburg, Seitenstetten, Mondsee, Kleinck, and Marienberg. 16 abbots出席舉行的一次會議1470年,但由於某種原因,這個聯合會修道院似乎並沒有被所有持久,因為在1623年奧地利的一個新的聚集,預計包括幾乎相同的修道院,前眾:梅爾克, Göttweig ,蘭巴赫, Kremsmünster ,維也納, Garsten ,阿爾滕堡, Seitenstetten , Mondsee , Kleinck ,並瑪利恩城堡。 In 1630 it was proposed to unite this congregation, those of Busfeld and Bavaria, and all the houses that were still independent, into one general federation, and a meeting was held at Ratisbon to discuss the scheme.在1630年有人提議將這一眾團結,那些Busfeld和巴伐利亞,所有的房屋,仍獨立,合併為一個總聯合會,並舉行了一次會議,在Ratisbon ,討論該計劃。 The Swedish invitation, however, put an end to the plan and the only result was the formation of another small congregation of nine abbeys, with that of St. Peter's, Salzburg, at its head. These two congregations, Melk and Salzburg, lasted until towards the end of the eighteenth century, when the despotic rule of Joseph II (1765-90) gave them their death-blow.瑞典的邀請函,但是,結束了計劃和唯一的結果是形成另一個小眾九個修道院,與聖彼得,薩爾茨堡,在其頭部。這兩個聚會,梅爾克和薩爾茨堡,一直持續到對十八世紀末,當專制統治的約瑟夫二世( 1765年至1790年)給他們死亡的打擊。 In 1803 many of the abbeys were suppressed and those that were suffered to remain were forbidden to receive fresh novices.在1803年的許多修道院遭到壓制和那些遭受仍然被禁止得到新的新手。 The Emperor Francis I, however, restored several of them between the years 1809 and 1816, and in 1889 those that still survived, some twenty in number, were formed into two new congregations under the titles of the Immaculate Conception and St. Joseph, respectively.皇帝弗蘭西斯一世然而,恢復了他們之間的1809年和1816年,並於1889年那些仍然存活,大約20的數量,形成了兩個新的教區的標題下的聖母無染原罪堂和聖若瑟,分別。 The former comprises ten houses under the presidency of the Abbot of Göttweig, and the latter seven, with the Abbot of Salzburg at its head.前者包括10所房屋主席的艾博特的Göttweig ,後者7個,與薩爾茨堡阿博特在其頭部。 The congregation of the Immaculate Conception, in which are Kremsmünster, dating from 777, St. Paul's in Carinthia, and the Scots monastery at Vienna, includes none of later date than the twelfth century; whilst in the congregation of St. Joseph there are Salzburg (before 700), Michaelbeuern (785), four others of the eleventh century, and only one of recent foundation, Innsbruck (1904).該教會的聖母無染原罪堂,其中有Kremsmünster的歷史可以追溯到777 ,聖保祿在卡林西亞,以及蘇格蘭修道院在維也納舉行,包括沒有日後比12世紀;而聚集在聖約瑟夫有薩爾茨堡(前700 ) , Michaelbeuern ( 785 ) , 4人的11世紀,只有一個最近的基礎上,因斯布魯克( 1904年) 。

(13) The Bavarian Congregation.-A reform initiated amongst the monasteries of Bavaria, based upon the Tridentine decrees, caused the erection of this congregation in 1684. ( 13 )德國巴伐利亞Congregation. ,改革開始寺院之一的巴伐利亞州,根據Tridentine法令,造成勃起這個教會在1684年。 It then consisted of eighteen houses which flourished until the general suppression at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Beginning in 1830, the pious King Ludwig I restored the abbeys of Metten and Ottobeuern (founded in the eighth century), Scheyern (1112), and Andechs (1455), and founded new monasteries at Augsburg (1834), Munich (1835), Meltenburg (1842), and Schäftlarn (1866).然後,由這18家蓬勃發展,直到一般壓制在19世紀初。開始於1830年,在虔誠的國王路德維希一世恢復了修道院的Metten和Ottobeuern (始建於公元8世紀) , Scheyern ( 1112 ) ,以及Andechs ( 1455 ) ,並創辦新的寺廟在奧格斯堡( 1834年) ,慕尼黑( 1835年) , Meltenburg ( 1842年) ,並Schäftlarn ( 1866年) 。 Pius IX restored the congregation (1858) comprising the above houses, of which the Abbot of Metten is president.碧岳九恢復了眾( 1858 ) ,包括上述房屋,其中住持Metten是總統。 The abbeys of Plankstetten (1189) and Ettal (1330) were restored in 1900 and 1904, respectively and added to the congregation.該修道院的Plankstetten ( 1189 )和Ettal ( 1330 )恢復了在1900年和1904年分別增加了集會。

(14) The Hungarian Congregation.-This congregation differs from all others in its constitution. ( 14 )匈牙利Congregation. ,這眾不同於其他所有在其憲法。 It comprises the four abbeys of Zalavar (1919), Bakonybel (1037), Tihany (1055), and Domolk (1252), which are dependent on the Arch-Abbey of Monte Pannonia (Martinsberg), and to these are added six "residences" or educational establishments conducted by the monks. The members of this body are professed for the congregation and not for any particular monastery, and they can be moved from one house to another at the discretion of the arch-abbot and his sixteen assessors. The arch-abbey was founded by Stephen, the first king of Hungary, in 1001, and together with the other houses enjoys an unbroken succession from the date of foundation. The congregation is affiliated to the Cassinese, though it enjoys a status of comparative independence.

(15) The Gallican Congregation.-This, the first of the new congregations of the nineteenth century, was established in 1837 at Solesmes in France by Dom Guéranger. ( 15 )高盧聖Congregation. ,這首新的教區的19世紀,成立於1837年在索雷姆在法國的大教堂Guéranger 。 He had been professed at St. Paul's, Rome, and though at one time desirous of joining the community of Monte Cassino, was urged by the Bishop of Le Mans to restore the Benedictine Order in France.他曾宣稱在聖保羅,羅馬,雖然在同一時間渴望加入國際社會的蒙特卡羅稼軒,敦促主教勒芒恢復篤令在法國。 He acquired possession of the old Maurist priory of Solesmes, which Pope Gregory XVI made an abbey and the mother-house of the new congregation.他收購了擁有老Maurist修道院的索雷姆,其中教皇格里高利十六世作出了修道院和母親所新的教會。 He also declared it to be the true successor to all the privileges formerly enjoyed by the congregations of Cluny, St.-Vannes, and St.-Maur.他還宣布它是真正的繼承者的所有特權以前所享有的克呂尼教區,聖瓦納,和聖莫爾。 Guéranger was soon joined by numbers of offshoots. Guéranger很快就加入了號碼的分支。 In this way Ligugé, originally founded by St. Martin of Tours in 360, was restored in 1853, Silos (Spain) in 1880, Glanfeuil in 1892, and Fontanelle (St. Wandrille), founded 649, in 1893.這樣Ligugé ,最初創立的聖馬丁遊360 ,恢復於1853年,筒倉(西班牙)於1880年, Glanfeuil於1892年,並囟(聖Wandrille )成立649 ,於1893年。 New foundations were likewise made at Marseilles in 1865, Farnborough (England), and Wisque in 1895, Paris 1893, Kergonan 1897, and a cell from Silos was established in Mexico in 1901.新的基礎,同樣在馬賽在1865年,範堡羅(英格蘭) ,並Wisque於1895年,巴黎1893年, Kergonan 1897年,和細胞庫成立於1901年在墨西哥。 The community of Solesmes have been expelled from their monastery by the French government no less than four times.國際社會索雷姆已被趕出修道院的法國政府不得少於4倍。 In the years 1880, 1882, and 1883 they were ejected by force, and, being afforded hospitality in the neighbourhood, kept up their corporate life as far as possible, using the parish church for the Divine Office.在未來的幾年1880年, 1882年和1883年他們以武力驅逐出場,並給予被接待的鄰里,保持自己的企業生命盡可能利用教堂的神聖的辦公室。 Each time they succeeded in re-entering their abbey, but at the final expulsion in 1903 they were, in common with all other religious of France, driven out of the country.每一次,他們成功地重新進入他們的修道院,但在最後在1903年驅逐他們,與所有其他宗教的法國,趕出了國家。 The Solesmes monks have settled in the Isle of Wight, England, those of Fontanelle, Glanfeuil, Wisque, and Kergonan have gone to Belgium, those of Ligugé to Spain, and those of Marseilles to Italy.僧侶的索雷姆定居在懷特島,英格蘭,這些囟, Glanfeuil , Wisque ,並Kergonan去了比利時,那些Ligugé ,西班牙,和馬賽到意大利。 The Fathers at Paris have been allowed to remain, in consideration of the important literary and history work on which they are engaged.父親在巴黎被允許留下來,在審議的重要的文學和歷史的工作,他們正在從事。 This congregation has endeavoured to carry on the work of the Maurists, and numbers many well-known writers amongst its members.這眾一直在努力進行的工作Maurists ,和數量眾多知名作家其成員。 The Abbot of Solesmes is the superior general, to which position he has been twice re-elected.該住持的索雷姆是優於一般,而他的立場已經兩次連任。

(16) The Congregation of Beuron.-This congregation was founded by Dom Maurus Wolter, who, whilst a seminary professor, was fired with the desire of restoring the Benedictine Order in Germany. ( 16 )教會的Beuron. ,這是教會創辦的大教堂毛魯斯沃爾特,誰,而神學院教授,被解僱的願望恢復篤令在德國。 He went to St. Paul's, Rome, where he was joined by his two brothers, and all were professed in 1856, one dying soon after.他去聖保羅,羅馬,在那裡他加入了他的兩個兄弟,和所有人都聲稱於1856年,一個後不久死亡。 The two survivors, Maurus and Placid, set out in 1860, with a sum of £40 and the pope's blessing, to reconquer Germany for St. Benedict.兩名倖存者,毛魯斯和普萊西德,提出了在1860年,與一筆40英鎊和教宗的祝福,以奪回德國聖本篤。 In 1863, through the influence of the Princess Katharina von Hohenzollern, they obtained possession of the old Abbey of Beuron, near Sigmaringen, which had been originally founded in 777, but was destroyed in the tenth century by Hungarian invaders and later restored as a house of canons regular; it had been unoccupied since 1805.在1863年通過的影響公主卡塔琳娜馮霍亨索倫,他們佔有的舊修道院Beuron ,近Sigmaringen ,這是最初成立於777 ,但被摧毀的10世紀匈牙利侵略者,後來恢復房子經常性的大砲,它已自1805年無人居住。 Dom Maurus became the first abbot of Beuron and superior of the congregation.大教堂毛魯斯成為第一位住持Beuron和優越的聚集。 In 1872 a colony was sent to Belgium to found the Abbey of Maredsous, of which Dom Placid was first abbot. 1872年一個殖民地被送往比利時發現了修道院Maredsous ,其中大教堂普萊西德第一次住持。 The community of Beuron were banished in 1875 by the "May Laws" of the Prussian Government and found a temporary home in an old Servite monastery in the Tyrol.國際社會Beuron被放逐於1875年的“五月規律”的普魯士政府和找到了臨時的家中舊Servite修道院的蒂羅爾州。 Whilst there their numbers increased sufficiently to make new foundations at Erdington, England, in 1876, Prague in 1880, and Seckau, Styria, in 1883.雖然他們的人數增加了足夠作出新的基礎上Erdington ,英格蘭,於1876年在布拉格舉行的1880年,和Seckau ,州,在1883年。 In 1887 Beuron was restored to them, and since then new houses have been established at Maria Laach, Germany (1892), Louvain, and Billerbeck, Belgium (1899 and 1901), and in 1895 the Portuguese monastery of Cucujães was added to the congregation.在1887年Beuron恢復,並自那時起新的房屋已建立了瑪麗亞Laach ,德國( 1892年) ,比利時魯汶,並Billerbeck指出,比利時( 1899年和1901年) ,並於1895年,葡萄牙修道院Cucujães添加到眾。 The founder died in 1900, and his brother, Dom Placid Wolter, succeeded him as Archabbot of Beuron.創辦於1900年去世,和他的弟弟,大教堂普萊西德沃爾特,接任Archabbot的Beuron 。

(17) The American Cassinese Congregation.-Nothing very definite can be said with regard to the first Benedictines in North America. ( 17 )美國Cassinese Congregation. ,沒有非常明確的,可以說是關於第一本篤在北美地區。 There were probably settlements amongst the Eskimo from Iceland, by way of Greenland, but these must have disappeared at an early date.有可能定居點之間的愛斯基摩人來自冰島,由格陵蘭,但這些必須已經消失早日實現。 In 1493 a monk from Montserrat accompanied Columbus on his voyage of discovery and became vicar-Apostolic of the West Indies, but his stay was short, and he returned to Spain.在1493年和尚從哥倫布蒙特塞拉特陪同他的發現之旅,並成為牧師,使徒西印度群島,但他的短暫逗留,他返回西班牙。 During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries one or two English monks, and at least one of the Maurist congregation, worked on the American mission; and at the time of the French Revolution negotiations had been commenced by Bishop Carroll, first Bishop of Baltimore, for a settlement of English Benedictines in his diocese, which, however, came to nothing.在17和18世紀的一個或兩個英文僧侶,並至少有一個Maurist眾,工作任務的美國和當時的法國大革命的談判已經開始由主教卡羅爾,首先主教巴爾的摩,為解決英文本篤在他的教區,但後來不了了之。 The Benedictine Order was first established permanently in America by Dom Boniface Wimmer, of the Abbey of Metten, in Bavaria.本篤令首次設立永久在美國的大教堂博尼法斯溫默,在修道院Metten ,在德國巴伐利亞州。 A number of Bavarians had emigrated to America, and it was suggested that their spiritual wants in the new country should be attended to by Bavarian priests.一些拜仁已經移居到美國,有人認為,他們的精神希望在新的國家應出席由巴伐利亞州牧師。 Dom Wimmer and a few companions accordingly set out in 1846, and on their arrival in America they acquired the church, a house, and some land belong to the small mission of St. Vincent, Beatty, Pennsylvania, which had been founded some time previously by a Franciscan missionary.大教堂溫默和幾個同伴相應的規定於1846年,並在他們抵達美國,他們獲得了教堂,一所房子,和一些土地屬於小任務聖文森特,貝蒂,賓夕法尼亞州,已成立一段時間以前由方濟各傳教。 Here they set to work, establishing conventual life, as far as was possible under the circumstances, and applying themselves assiduously to the work of the mission.他們在這裡工作,建立conventual生活,就可能在這種情況下,運用自己的刻苦的工作任務。 Reinforced by more monks from Bavaria and their poverty relieved by some munificent donations, they accepted additional outlying missions and established a large college.更增強僧人從德國巴伐利亞州和緩解他們的貧困優厚的一些捐款,他們接受更多的外圍任務,並設立了大學院。 In 1855 St. Vincent's, which had already founded two dependent priories was made an abbey and the mother-house of a new congregation, Dom Wimmer being appointed first abbot and president.在1855年聖文森的,已經成立兩個依賴修道院是一個修道院和母親所新的教會,大教堂溫默被任命為第一住持和總裁。 Besides St. Vincent's Arch-Abbey, the following foundations have been made: St. John's Abbey, Collegeville, Minnesota, founded 1856, mainly through the generosity of King Ludwig I of Bavaria; connected with the abbey is a large college for boys, with an attendance of over 300; St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison, Kansas, founded 1857, said to possess the finest Benedictine church in America, built in the style of the Rhenish churches of the tenth and eleventh centuries; there is in connexion a school with 150 boys; St. Mary's Abbey, Newark, New Jersey, founded 1857, with a school of 100 boys; Maryhelp Abbey, Belmont, North Carolina, founded 1885, the abbot of which is also vicar-Apostolic of North Carolina; attached to the abbey are two colleges and a school, with over 200 students; St. Procopius's Abbey, Chicago, founded 1887, with a school of 50 boys and an orphanage attached; St. Leo's Abbey, Pasco County, Florida, founded 1889; this abbey has a dependent priory in Cuba; St. Bernard's Abbey, Cullman County, Alabama, founded 1891, with a school of over 100 boys; St. Peter's Priory, established in Illinois in 1892 and transferred to Muenster, Saskatchewan, NWT, in 1903; St. Martin's Priory, Lacey, the State of Washington, founded 1895.除了聖文森的拱修道院,下列基金會已經作出:聖約翰修道院, Collegeville ,明尼蘇達州, 1856年成立,主要是通過慷慨的國王路德維希一世的巴伐利亞;與修道院是一個大男孩的大學,同參與人數逾300人;聖本篤修道院,艾奇遜,堪薩斯州, 1857年成立說,擁有最優秀的本篤教會,美國式建築風格,教堂的禮賢的第十和第十一世紀;有在聯繫一所學校與150個男孩;聖瑪麗大教堂,紐瓦克,新澤西州, 1857年成立,與一所學校的100名男孩; Maryhelp修道院,貝爾蒙,北卡羅萊納,創立1885年,住持也是牧師,使徒北卡羅萊納州;重視修道院有兩個學院和一所學校,有200名學生;聖普羅科匹厄斯的修道院,芝加哥, 1887年成立,與一所學校的50男孩和一個孤兒院重視;聖利奧的修道院,帕斯科縣,佛羅里達州, 1889年成立;這個修道院已經供養修道院在古巴;聖伯納德修道院,卡爾曼縣, 1891年成立,與一所學校的超過100個男孩;聖彼得修道院,在伊利諾伊州成立於1892年,轉移到明斯特,薩斯喀徹溫省,新世界電訊,於1903年;聖。馬丁的修道院,萊西,華盛頓州, 1895年成立。

(18) The Swiss American Congregation.-In 1845 two monks from Einsiedeln in Switzerland came to America and founded the monastery of St. Meinrad, in Indiana, serving the mission and conducting a small school for boys. ( 18 )瑞士美國Congregation. ,在1845年兩名僧人從艾因西德倫在瑞士來到美國,並成立了修道院的聖Meinrad ,在印第安納州,服務的任務,並進行一個小男孩上學。 It became a priory in 1865, and in 1870 was made an abbey and the centre of the congregation which was canonically erected at the same time.它成為一個修道院於1865年,並在1870年寫了一個修道院和中心的聚集canonically這是豎立在同一時間。 The first abbot, Dom Martin Marty, became, in 1879, first Vicar Apostolic of Dakota, where he had some years previously inaugurated mission work amongst the Indians.第一住持,馬丁馬蒂大教堂,成為在1879年,第一代使徒的南達科他州,在那裡他有一些幾年前成立的工作任務之間的印度人。 The following new foundations were made: Conception Abbey, Conception, Missouri (1873), the abbot of the abbey being president of the congregation; New Subiaco Abbey, Spielerville, Arkansas (1878); St. Benedict's Abbey, Mount Angel, Oregon (1882); St.下列新的基礎上發了言:概念修道院,觀念,密蘇里( 1873年) ,在住持的修道院院長正在聚集;新薩伯卡修道院, Spielerville ,阿肯色( 1878年) ;聖本篤修道院,山天使,俄勒岡州( 1882 ) ;街 Joseph's Abbey, Covington, Louisiana (1889); St. Mary's Abbey, Richadton, North Dakota (1899); St. Gall's Priory, Devil's Lake (1893), the last two communities subject to the same abbot.約瑟夫修道院,卡溫頓,路易斯安那州( 1889年) ;聖瑪麗修道院, Richadton ,北達科他州( 1899 ) ;聖加爾的修道院,魔鬼湖( 1893年) ,最後兩個社區受到同樣的住持。 To all these monasteries are attached numerous missions, in which the monks exercise the cure of souls.所有這些寺廟眾多的附加任務,其中和尚行使治愈的靈魂。 They also have several seminaries and colleges.他們也有一些學院和大學。

(19) The Congregation of St. Ottilien.-This congregation, specially established for the work of foreign missions, was commenced in 1884 in the Abbey of St. Ottilien, in Bavaria, under the title of the "Congregation of the Sacred Heart". It was not then Benedictine, but in 1897 was affiliated to the Cassinese congregation and in 1904 formally incorporated into the Benedictine Order. ( 19 )天主教聖Ottilien. ,這聚會,專門設立的工作,外國使團,是開始於1884年在修道院的聖Ottilien ,在巴伐利亞州的標題下的“眾聖心” 。這不是然後篤,但在1897年是附屬於Cassinese眾和於1904年正式納入本篤秩序。 The Abbot of St. Ottilien is the superior general and the Beuronese Abbot of Seckau the apostolic visitor.在住持聖Ottilien是優於一般的Beuronese住持Seckau的使徒訪問者。 This congregation has been largely recruited from the congregation of Beuron, to which it is bound by close ties.這眾已基本招募的聚集Beuron ,它的約束密切的聯繫。 In 1901 it established a cell at Wipfeld, in Bavaria, and it has also ten mission stations in Central Africa, one of its members being Vicar Apostolic of Zanzibar.在1901年設立了一個細胞Wipfeld ,在德國巴伐利亞州,也站10個代表團在中部非洲,其成員之一的牧師使徒的桑給巴爾。 Its roll of honour was opened in August, 1905, by a bishop, two monks, two lay brothers, and two nuns, who suffered martyrdom for the Faith at the hands of the Central African natives.其推出的榮幸地開設了8月, 1905年,由主教,兩名僧人,兩名業外人士兄弟,和兩名尼姑,誰遭受犧牲的信仰之手中部非洲土人。

(20) Independent Abbeys.-Besides the above congregations there also are two independent abbeys, which belong to no congregation, but are immediately subject to the Holy See; (a) The Abbey of Fort Augustus, Scotland. ( 20 )獨立Abbeys. ,除了上述教會也有兩個獨立的修道院,它不屬於任何教會,但立即受到羅馬教廷; (一)修道院奧古斯堡,蘇格蘭。 Founded in 1876, as a priory of the English congregation, mainly through the munificence of Lord Lovat, its first community was drawn from the other houses of that body.成立於1876年,作為一個修道院的英文眾,主要是通過豐富的主洛瓦特,其第一社會取自其他房屋的機構。 It was intended partly to continue the community of Sts.它的目的是繼續部分社區的街。 Denis and Adrian, originally of Lamspring, which had been dispersed since 1841, and of which there were only one or two surviving members; and partly to preserve continuity with the Scottish monasteries that had from time to time been founded in different parts of Germany and Austria, and of which there was, likewise, only one survivor-Father Anselm Robertson, professed at St. Jame's, Ratisbon, in 1845. These monks took up residence with the new community and assisted in the clothing of the first novice received for Fort Augustus.丹尼斯和阿德里安,最初的Lamspring ,這是1841年以來分散,而且其中只有一個或兩個倖存的成員;和部分保持連續性與蘇格蘭寺院不時成立於不同地區的德國和奧地利,其中有,同樣,只有一名倖存者父親安瑟倫羅伯遜聲稱在聖詹姆斯的, Ratisbon ,於1845年。這些僧人居住了與新的社會,並協助服裝的第一次收到的新手堡奧古斯都。 In order that its members might be exempt from the external mission work with which the English Benedictines are specially charged, the monastery was, in 1883, separated from the English congregation by the Holy See, and in 1888 was made an independent abbey, directly subject to the pope.為了,其成員可以免受外部的工作任務與該英文本篤專門負責,寺院是,在1883年脫離英國教會的羅馬教廷,並於1888年,是一個獨立的修道院,直接受向教宗。 A monk of the Beuron congregation, Dom Leo Linse, was at the same time appointed its first abbot.阿僧人的Beuron眾,獅子座Linse大教堂,是在同一時間任命了第住持。 The Beuronese constitutions were first adopted, but these have since been replaced by new constitutions.憲法的Beuronese首次通過,但這些已被取代的新憲法。 Of late years the community has undertaken the spiritual care of three parishes in the vicinity of the abbey.近幾年社區開展了靈性照顧三個教區附近的修道院。 (b) St. Anselm's Abbey and International Benedictine College, Rome. ( b )聖安瑟倫修道院和國際篤學院,羅馬。 This was originally founded in 1687 as a college for Benedictines of the Cassinese congregation, but later on monks of other congregations were also admitted.這是最初成立於1687年作為高校的本篤會的Cassinese眾,但後來僧侶的其他教會也承認。 Having ceased to exist in 1846, it was revived on a small scale by the Abbot of St. Paul's, and reconstituted in 1886 as a college and university for Benedictines from all parts of the world by Leo XIII, who at his own expense erected the present extensive buildings.審議不復存在於1846年,這是恢復小規模的住持聖保羅,並於1886年改組為學院和大學的本篤來自世界各地的利奧十三世,誰在他自費豎起了目前廣泛的建築物。 In 1900 the abbey church was consecrated, in the presence of a great gathering of abbots from all over the world, by Cardinal Rampolla, acting as representative of the pope.在1900年修道院教堂是神聖的,存在很大的abbots收集來自世界各地的,由樞機主教Rampolla ,作為代表教宗。 St. Anselm's is presided over by Abbot Hildebrand de Hemptinne (who is also Abbot of Maredsous) with the title of "Abbot Primate" of the whole order. It has power to grant degrees in theology, philosophy, and canon law, and both professors and students are drawn from all congregations of the order.聖安瑟倫的是主持和尚希爾德布蘭德Hemptinne (誰也住持Maredsous )與“稱號住持靈長類動物”的整個秩序。它有權授予學位的神學,哲學和教會法,同時教授和學生們從所有集會的秩序。 There is accommodation for one hundred students, but the full number in residence at one time has not yet exceeded sixty.有住宿的100學生,而且充分一些居住在同一時間還沒有超過60 。

II.二。 LAY BROTHERS, ORLATES, CONFRATERS, AND NUNS糊兄弟, ORLATES , CONFRATERS ,和尼姑

(1) Lay Brothers.-Up to the eleventh century in Benedictine houses no distinction of rank was made between the clerical and the lay brethren. ( 1 )萊Brothers. ,直至11世紀的本篤房屋沒有區別,職級是之間的文書和兄弟的佈局。 All were on an equal footing in the community and at first comparatively few seem to have been advanced to the priesthood.大家都在平等的基礎上在社區及第一次比較少似乎已經先進的神父。 St. Benedict himself was probably only a layman; at any rate it is certain that he was not a priest.聖本篤本人很可能只是一個門外漢;無論如何可以確定的是,他不是神父。 A monk not in sacred orders was always considered as eligible as a priest for any office in the community, even that of abbot, though for purposes of convenience some of the monks were usually ordained for the service of the altar; and until literary and scholastic work, which could only be undertaken by men of some education and culture, began to take the place of manual labour, all shared alike in the daily round of agricultural and domestic duties.的僧人中神聖的不是訂單一直被視為有資格作為一個牧師的任何辦事處在社區,甚至住持,但為了方便一些僧侶通常被任命為服務的祭壇; ,直到文學和學術工作,這只能由男人承擔的一些教育和文化,開始代替手工勞動,所有的共享都在每天一輪的農業和家務。 St. John Gualbert, the founder of Vallombrosa, was the first to introduce the system of lay brethren, by drawing a line of distinction between the monks who were clerics and those who were not. The latter had no stalls in choir and no vote in chapter; neither were they bound to the daily recitation of the breviary Office as were the choir monks. Lay brothers were entrusted with the more menial work of the monastery, and all those duties that involved intercourse with the outside world, in order that the choir brethren might be free to devote themselves entirely to prayer and other occupations proper to their clerical vocation.聖約翰Gualbert的創始人, Vallombrosa ,首先介紹了系統的兄弟奠定基礎,通過畫線的區分誰是僧侶神職人員和這些誰沒有。後者並沒有檔位合唱團和沒有投票章;沒有約束,他們每天背誦的祈禱廳的合唱團僧侶。萊兄弟被賦予更多的體力工作的寺院,以及所有那些職責,參與交往與外部世界,以便合唱團兄弟可以免費把自己完全祈禱和適當的其他職業的辦事員的使命。 The system spread rapidly to all branches of the order and was imitated by almost every other religious order.該系統迅速擴散到所有分支機構的秩序和模仿的是幾乎所有其他的宗教秩序。 At the present day there is hardly a congregation, Benedictine or otherwise, that has not its lay brethren, and even amongst numerous orders of nuns a similar distinction is observed, either between the nuns that are bound to choir and those that are not, or between those that keep strict enclosure and those that are not so enclosed.目前每天幾乎聚集,篤或其他方式,已不是其奠定兄弟,甚至許多訂單中的修女了類似的區別是觀察,無論是修女之間有必然合唱團和那些沒有或那些之間保持嚴格的外殼和那些不那麼封閉。 The habit worn by the lay brethren is usually a modification of that of the choir monks, sometimes differing from it in colour as well as in shape; and the vows of the lay brethren are in most congregations only simple, or renewable periodically, in contrast with the solemn vows for life taken by the choir religious.習慣穿的奠定兄弟通常是一個修改,在合唱團僧侶,有時從不同的顏色以及形狀;和誓言的奠定兄弟在大多數教會只有簡單,可定期或相反,與莊嚴的誓言生命所採取的合唱團宗教性的。 In some communities at the present time the lay brothers equal and even outnumber the priests, especially in those, like Beuron or New Nursia, where farming and agriculture are carried out on a large scale.在一些社區在本次奠定兄弟平等,甚至超過了神父,尤其是在那些像Beuron或新努西亞,在農業和農業進行了大規模的。

(2) Oblates.-This term was formerly applied to children offered by their parents in a solemn way to a monastery, a dedication by which they were considered to have embraced the monastic state. ( 2 ) Oblates. ,這個詞以前是適用於兒童提供其父母在莊嚴的方式,以一個修道院,一個獻身的,他們被視為已經接受了寺院的狀態。 The custom led to many abuses in the Middle Ages, because oblates sometimes abandoned the religious life and returned to the world, whilst still looked upon as professed religious.自訂了許多踐踏在中世紀,因為獻主會有時放棄了宗教生活,回到世界,而仍然看成宣稱的宗教。 The Church, therefore, in the twelfth century, forbade the dedication of children in this way, and the term oblate has since been taken to mean persons, either lay or cleric, who voluntarily attach themselves to some monastery or order without taking the vows of religious.教會,因此,在12世紀,禁止對兒童奉獻在這之中,扁的任期一直採取的意思的人,要么躺在或神職人員,誰自願重視自己的一些寺院或命令,而沒有考慮發誓皈依宗教。 They wear the habit and share all the privileges and exercises of the community they join, but they retain dominion over their property and are free to leave at any time.他們穿的習慣和共享所有的特權和演習的社區,他們加入,但保留統治他們的財產和自由離開任何時候。 They usually make a promise of obedience to the superior, which binds them as long as they remain in the monastery, but it only partakes of the nature of a mutual agreement and has none of the properties of a vow or solemn contract.他們通常作出承諾服從上級,這約束他們,只要他們繼續留在寺院,但它只有partakes性質的相互協議,並沒有任何性質的莊嚴誓言或合同。

(3) Confratres.-A custom sprang up in the Middle Ages of uniting lay people to a religious community by formal aggregation, through which they participated in all the prayers and good works of the monks, and though living in the world, they could always feel that they were connected in a special way with some religious house or order. ( 3 ) Confratres. ,自定義興起中世紀的團結奠定人民的一個宗教社區的正式聚集,通過他們參加了所有的祈禱和優秀作品的僧人,雖然生活在世界上,他們可以總覺得他們是連接以特殊的方式與一些宗教內部或命令。 There seem to have been Benedictine confratres as early as the ninth century.人們似乎已經篤confratres早在9世紀。 The practice was widely taken up by almost every other order and was developed by the mendicants in the thirteenth century into what are now called "third orders".這一做法普遍採取了幾乎所有其他秩序,並制定了乞丐在13世紀到現在什麼是所謂的“第三次訂單” 。 It was peculiar to Benedictine confratres that they were always aggregated to the particular monastery of their selection and not to the whole order in general, as is the case with others.這是特有的篤confratres ,他們總是聚集的特殊寺院的選擇,而不是整個秩序一般,如與他人。 The Benedictines have numbered kings and emperors and many distinguished persons amongst their confratres, and there is hardly a monastery of the present day which has not some lay people connected with it by this spiritual bond of union.在本篤有編號的帝王和許多傑出人士之間的confratres ,而且幾乎沒有一個修道院至今尚未奠定一些人與它的這一精神紐帶的工會。

(4) Nuns.-Nothing very definite can be said as to the first nuns living under the Rule of St. Benedict. ( 4 ) Nuns. ,沒有非常明確的,可以說是第一次尼姑生活在法治的聖本篤。 St. Gregory the Great certainly tells us that St. Benedict's sister, Scholastica, presided over such a community of religious women who were established in a monastery situated about five miles from his Abbey of Monte Cassino; but whether that was merely an isolated instance, or whether it may be legitimately regarded as the foundation of the female department of the order, is at least an open question.聖格里高利大肯定告訴我們,聖本篤的妹妹, Scholastica ,主持了這樣一個社會的宗教婦女誰設立了一個修道院位於約5英里從他的修道院蒙稼軒;但是否這只是一個孤立的個體,或是否可視為合法的基礎,女性部門的秩序,至少是一個開放的問題。 We do not even know what rule these nuns followed, though we may conjecture that they were under St. Benedict's spiritual direction and that whatever rule he gave them probably differed but little, except perhaps in minor details, from that for monks which has come down to us bearing his name.我們甚至不知道什麼規則採取這些修女,儘管我們可能會猜想,他們根據聖本篤的精神方向和規則,無論他給了他們不同,但大概很少,但也許在小細節,從為僧侶已下降我們同時他的名字。 It seems tolerably certain, at any rate, that as St. Benedict's Rule began to be diffused abroad, women as well as men formed themselves into communities in order to live a religious life according to its principles, and wherever the Benedictine monks went, there also we find monasteries being established for nuns.看來相當肯定的,無論如何,這是聖本篤的規則開始被分散在國外,婦女與男子一樣形成自己融入社區,以過宗教生活的根據其原則,凡本篤和尚去,有同時我們發現寺廟正在建立的修女。 Nunneries were founded in Gaul by Sts. Caesarius and Aurelian of Arles, St. Martin of Tours, and St. Columbanus of Luxeuil, and up to the sixth century the rules for nuns in most general use were those of St. Caesarius and St. Columbanus, portions of which are still extant. These were, however, eventually supplanted by that of St. Benedict, and amongst the earliest nunneries to make the change were Poitiers, Chelles, Remiremont, and Faremoutier. Nunneries是成立於高盧人的街。 Caesarius和Aurelian的阿爾勒,聖馬丁的旅遊,和聖科倫巴努的Luxeuil ,以及多達六世紀的規則修女最普遍使用的那些聖Caesarius和聖科倫巴努,部分仍然是現存的。這些,但最終取代由聖本篤,而且其中最早的nunneries使普瓦捷變化, Chelles , Remiremont ,並Faremoutier 。 Mabillon assigns the beginning of the change to the year 620 though more probably the Benedictine Rule was not received in its entirety at so early a date, but was only combined with the other rules then in force. Remiremont became for women what Luxeuil was for men, the centre from which sprang a numerous spiritual family, and though later on it was converted into a convent of noble cannonesses, instead of nuns properly so called, a modified form of the Benedictine Rule was still observed there. Mabillon指定的開始改變,但一年620多大概是本篤規則,並沒有收到全部在這麼早的日期,但只有結合其他規則然後生效。 Remiremont為婦女成為什麼Luxeuil為男性該中心從一興起許多精神的家庭,但後來它被改建成了一座修道院的崇高cannonesses ,而不是尼姑所謂適當的修正形式的本篤規則仍然存在觀察。 St. Benedict's Rule was widely propagated by Charlemagne and his son, Louis the Pious, and the Council of Aix-la-Chapelle in 817 enforced its general observance in all the nunneries of the empire.聖本篤的規則被廣泛宣揚的查理曼和他的兒子,路易斯的虔誠,安理會的阿亨在817強迫其普遍遵守的所有nunneries的帝國。 The Abbey of Notre Dame de Ronceray, at Angers, founded in 1028 by Fulke, Count of Anjou, was one of the most influential convents in France in the Middle Ages, and had under its jurisdiction a large number of dependent priories.該修道院聖母院Ronceray ,在昂熱,成立於1028年由Fulke ,安茹伯爵,是一個最有影響力的法國修道院在中世紀,並在其管轄範圍內的大量依賴修道院。

The earliest convents for women in England were at Folkestone, founded 630, and St.最早的修道院婦女在英格蘭隊在福克斯通,成立630 ,和聖 Mildred's in Thanet, established 670, and it is probable that under the influence of the successors of St. Augustine's monks at Canterbury and elsewhere, these nunneries observed the Benedictine Rule from the first.米爾德里德的在薩尼特,建立670 ,並且很可能的影響下,接班人的聖奧古斯丁的僧侶在坎特伯雷和其他地方,這些nunneries遵守本篤規則從第一。 Other important Anglo-Saxon convents were: Ely, founded by St. Etheldreda in 673, Barking (675), Wimborne (713), Wilton (800), Ramsey, Hants (967), and Amesbury (980).其它重要的盎格魯撒克遜修道院是:伊利,創辦的聖Etheldreda的673 ,門口( 675 ) , Wimborne ( 713 ) ,威爾頓( 800人) ,拉姆齊, Hants ( 967 )和艾美士保( 980 ) 。 In Northumbria, Whitby (657) and Coldingham (673) were the chief houses of nuns.在諾森布里亞,惠特( 657 )和Coldingham ( 673 )的首席房屋修女。 St. Hilda was the most celebrated of the abbesses of Whitby, and it was at Whitby that the synod which decided the paschal controversy was held in 664. Most of these convents were destroyed by Danish invaders during the ninth and tenth centuries, but some were subsequently restored and many others were founded in England after the Norman conquest.聖希爾達是最有名的abbesses的惠特比,它是在惠特的主教決定爭議的逾越節是在664 。大部分被摧毀修道院由丹麥入侵者在第九和第十世紀,但有些人隨後恢復和許多其他人在英國成立後,諾曼征服。

The first nuns in Germany came from England in the eighth century, having been brought over by St. Boniface to assist him in his work of conversion and to provide a means of education for their own sex amongst the newly evangelized Teutonic races.第一次在德國修女來自英格蘭隊在第八世紀,帶來了由聖博尼法斯協助他工作的轉換,並提供一種教育手段為自己的性別之間的新evangelized日爾曼比賽。 Sts.街。 Lioba, Thecla, and Walburga were the earliest of these pioneers, and for them and their companions, who were chiefly from Wimborne, St. Boniface established many convents throughout the countries in which he preached. Lioba , Thecla ,並Walburga是最早的開拓者,並為他們和他們的同伴,誰是主要由Wimborne ,聖博尼法設立了許多整個修道院的國家中,他鼓吹。 In other parts of Europe nunneries sprang up as rapidly as the abbeys for men, and in the Middle Ages they were almost, if not quite, as numerous.在歐洲其他地區nunneries興起迅速的修道院的男子,並在中世紀,他們幾乎,如果不是完全,因為許多。 In later medieval times the names of St. Gertrude, called the "Great", and her sister St. Mechtilde, who flourished in the thirteenth century, shed a lustre on the Benedictine nuns of Germany.在以後的中世紀時代的名字街格特魯德,所謂的“大” ,和她的妹妹街Mechtilde ,誰蓬勃發展的13世紀,掉光澤的本篤會修女的德國。 In Italy the convents seem to have been very numerous during the Middle Ages.在意大利的修道院似乎已經非常眾多在中世紀。 In the thirteenth century several were founded in which the reform of Vallombrosa was adopted, but none of these now exist. There were also convents belonging to the reforms of Camaldoli and Mount Olivet, of which a few still survive.在13世紀創立幾個人在改革Vallombrosa獲得通過,但這些現在存在。也有屬於修道院的改革和卡馬爾多利山奧利韋,其中少數仍然生存。

Except in the Bursfeld Union, which included houses of both sexes, and in the Cistercian reform, where the nuns were always under the Abbot of Cîteaux, and a few others of minor importance, the congregational system was never applied to the houses of women in an organized way.除Bursfeld聯盟,其中包括房屋的男女雙方,並在修道院的改革,在修女總是下的Cîteaux住持,和其他一些輕微的重要性,公理系統從來沒有適用於房屋中的婦女有組織地。 The convents were generally either under the exclusive direction of some particular abbey, through the influence of which they had been established, or else, especially when founded by lay people, they were subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which they were situated.修道院一般都可以根據獨家方向某些特定的修道院,通過影響他們已經成立,否則,尤其是在創辦的信徒,他們管轄範圍內的主教教區,他們在被位於。 These two conditions of existence have survived to the present day; there are nine belonging to the first and over two hundred and fifty to the second category.這兩個條件的存在已存活至今,有9個屬於首次超過250第二類。

Early in the twelfth century France was the scene of a somewhat remarkable phase in the history of the Benedictine nuns.早在12世紀法國的現場有些顯著的階段歷史上的本篤會修女。 Robert of Arbrissel, formerly chancellor to the Duke of Brittany, embraced an eremitical life in which he had many disciples, and having founded a monastery of canons regular, carried out a new idea in 1099 when he established the double Abbey of Fontevrault in Poitou, famous in France for many centuries.羅伯特Arbrissel ,原校長向布列塔尼公爵,擁抱一個eremitical生活中,他有許多弟子,並成立了寺院經常大砲,進行了新的想法在1099年成立時,他的雙重修道院Fontevrault在普瓦圖,在法國著名的許多世紀。 The monks and nuns both kept the Benedictine Rule, to which were added some additional austerities.僧尼既保持了本篤規則,這又增加了一些額外的austerities 。 The law of enclosure was very strictly observed.該法的外殼是非常嚴格遵守。 In 1115 the founder placed the entire community, monks as well as nuns, under the rule of the abbess, and he further provided that the person elected to that office should always be chosen from the outside world, as such a one would have more practical knowledge of affairs and capacity for administration than one trained in the cloister.在1115年創辦置於整個社會,僧侶和尼姑,根據規則的住持,他還進一步規定,此人當選這一職務應該總是選擇從外部世界,因為這樣的人會更實際知識的事務和行政管理的能力比訓練有素的迴廊。 Many noble ladies and royal princesses of France are reckoned amongst the abbesses of Fontevrault. (See FONTEVRAULT.)許多崇高的各位嘉賓和皇家公主的法國之間的計算abbesses的Fontevrault 。 (見FONTEVRAULT 。 )

Excepting at Fontevrault the nuns seem at first not to have been strictly enclosed, as now, but were free to leave the cloister whenever some special duty or occasion might demand it, as in the case of the English nuns already mentioned, who went to Germany for active missionary work.除在Fontevrault修女們似乎第一次沒有得到嚴格的封閉,現在一樣,但他們能自由地離開修道院時,一些特殊的工作地點或場合可能需要它,如英語修女已經提到的,誰去德國積極傳教工作。 This freedom with regard to enclosure gave rise, in course of time, to grave scandals, and the Councils of Constance (1414), Basle (1431), and Trent (1545), amongst others, regulated that all the professedly contemplative orders of nuns should observe strict enclosure, and this has continued to the present time as the normal rule of a Benedictine convent.這種自由方面的文引起,在隨著時間的推移,嚴重的醜聞,以及安理會的康斯坦茨( 1414年) ,巴塞爾( 1431 )和特倫特( 1545 ) ,除其他外,規定所有的表面沉思訂單修女應遵守嚴格的外殼,這已經持續到現在的正常規則的本篤會修道院。

The Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century affected the nuns as well as the monks.新教改革的影響16世紀的修女,以及僧侶。 Throughout north-western Europe the Benedictine institute was practically obliterated.整個西北部的本篤歐洲研究所幾乎殆盡。 In England the convents were suppressed and the nuns turned adrift.在英格蘭的修道院遭到壓制和尼姑變成落後。 In Germany, Denmark, and Scandinavia the Lutherans acquired most of the nunneries and ejected their inmates.在德國,丹麥和斯堪的納維亞半島的路德會獲得大多數nunneries和驅逐他們的囚犯。 The wars of religion in France also had a disastrous effect upon the convents of that country, already much enfeebled by the evils consequent on the practice of commendam.在宗教戰爭在法國也產生了災難性影響的修道院的國家,已經很多enfeebled的罪惡由此在實踐中commendam 。 The last few centuries, however, have witnessed a widespread revival of the Benedictine life for women as well as for men.過去幾個世紀,但目睹了廣泛的復興篤生活的婦女以及男子。 In France, especially, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there sprang up several new congregations of Benedictine nuns, or reforms were instituted among those already existing.在法國,尤其是在17和18世紀,有興起一些新的教區的本篤修女,或改革這些制度之間業已存在的。 These were not strictly congregations in the technical sense, but rather unions or groups of houses which adopted a uniform observance, though the individual convents still remained for the most part subject to their respective bishops.這些都是沒有嚴格教區的技術意義,而是工會或團體的房屋,通過一個統一的遵守,但個別修道院仍然在大多數情況下,根據各自的主教。 Mention may be made of the reforms of Montmartre, Beauvais, Val-de-Grace, and Douai, and those of the Perpetual Adoration founded at Paris in 1654 and Valdosne in 1701.值得一提的是,改革的蒙馬特,博韋,瓦勒德馬恩格雷斯和杜埃,以及那些永久的崇拜成立於1654年巴黎和Valdosne在1701號決議。 The French Revolution suppressed all these convents, but many have since been restored and fresh foundations added to their number.法國大革命壓制所有這些修道院,但許多人已經得到恢復和新的基金會增加其數量。

The first convent of English nuns since the Reformation was founded at Brussels in 1598; and another was established at Cambrai in 1623 under the direction of the English Benedictine Fathers of Douai, from which a filiation was made at Paris in 1652.第一修道院修女們的英語改革以來,成立於1598年在布魯塞爾和另一個設在康布雷在1623年的指示下的英文本篤父親的杜埃,從一個親子關係是在1652年巴黎。 At Ghent in 1624 a convent was founded under Jesuit guidance, and established daughter-houses at Boulogne in 1652, Ypres in 1665, and Dunkirk in 1662.在根特在1624年修道院創立耶穌會的指導下,建立女兒在布洛涅的房屋在1652年, Ypres在1665年和1662年敦克爾克。 All these communities, except that of Ypres, were expelled at the French Revolution and escaped to England.所有這些社區,但在Ypres ,被驅逐的法國大革命和逃到英國。 That of Cambrai is now at Stanbrook and still remains a member of the English congregation under the jurisdiction of its abbot-president.這對康布雷現在正處於Stanbrook和仍然是一個成員的英文教會的管轄之下其住持總統。 The Brussels community is now at East Bergholt, and the Paris nuns at Colwich, whence an off-shoot has been planted at Atherstone (1842). Those of Ghent are now at Oulton; Boulogne and Dunkirk, having combined, are settled at Teignmouth.布魯塞爾社會正處在東Bergholt ,巴黎修女在Colwich ,何處場外拍攝已種植在阿瑟斯( 1842年) 。那些根特現在正處於Oulton ;布洛涅和敦刻爾克,在結合起來,是解決Teignmouth 。 The convent of Ypres alone remains at the place of its original foundation, having survived the troublous times of the Revolution. There are also small Benedictine convents of more recent foundation at Minster (Thanet), Ventnor, Dumfries, and Tenby, and one at Princethorpe, originally a French community founded at Montargis in 1630, but driven to England in 1792, and now almost exclusively English.修道院的Ypres僅保持在代替其原來的基礎上,有倖存者的焦急次革命。也有小本篤會修道院最近的基礎上大教堂(薩尼特) ,文特諾,鄧弗里斯,並滕比,一個在Princethorpe原來是法國社會在Montargis成立於1630年,但驅動英格蘭於1792年,現在幾乎完全是英語。 The nuns of Stanbrook, Oulton, Princethorpe, Ventnor, and Dumfries conduct boarding-school for the higher education of young ladies, and those of Teignmouth, Colwich, Atherstone, and Dumfries have undertaken the work of perpetual adoration.修女的Stanbrook , Oulton , Princethorpe ,文特諾,和鄧弗里斯進行寄宿學校為高等教育的年輕小姐,而Teignmouth , Colwich ,阿瑟斯和鄧弗里斯開展工作的永久朝拜。

In Austria many of the medieval convents have remained undisturbed, and likewise a few in Switzerland.在奧地利的許多中世紀的修道院保持原狀,同樣一些在瑞士。 In Belgium there are seven dating from the seventeenth century, and in Germany fourteen, established mostly during the last half century.在比利時有7個可追溯到17世紀,在德國14個,主要是建立在過去半個世紀。 In Italy, where at one time they were very numerous, there still remain, in spite of recent suppressions, eighty-five Benedictine convents dating from the Middle Ages, with over a thousand nuns.在意大利,在同一時間,他們是非常眾多,仍然存在,儘管最近suppressions , 85本篤會修道院歷史可以追溯到中世紀,與超過一千尼姑。 Holland has three convents of modern date, and Poland one, at Warsaw, founded in 1687.荷蘭有三個修道院的現代之日起,波蘭之一,在華沙,成立於1687年。 The convents of Spain numbered thirty at the time of the suppressions of 1835.在西班牙修道院第三十二編號的時候, suppressions的1835年。 The nuns were then robbed of all their possessions, but managed to preserve their corporate existence, though in great poverty and with reduced numbers.修女,然後搶走了所有的財產,但設法保持其法人存在,但在巨大的貧困和減少號碼。 Ten of the old convents have since been restored, and eleven new ones founded. 10歲的修道院已被恢復, 11個新的基礎。 It is a peculiarity of the Spanish convents that their abbesses who are elected triennially, receive no solemn blessing, as elsewhere, nor do they make use of any abbatial insignia.這是一個獨特的西班牙修道院,他們abbesses誰當選每三年,沒有得到嚴肅的祝福,與其他地方一樣,也沒有使用任何abbatial徽章。

Benedictine life in America may be said to be in a flourishing condition.本篤在美國的生活可以說是在一個繁榮的條件。 There are thirty-four convents with nearly two thousand nuns, all of which have been founded within the last sixty years.有34修道院有近2000修女,所有這一切都已經成立在過去的六十年。 The first establishment was at St. Mary's, Pennsylvania, where Abbot Wimmer settled some German nuns from Eichstätt in 1852; this is still one of the most important convents in the United States and from it many filiations have been made.首先是建立在聖瑪麗,賓夕法尼亞州,在那裡住持溫默解決一些來自德國修女愛希施泰特在1852年;這仍然是一個最重要的修道院在美國和它的許多filiations了。 St. Benedict's convent at St. Joseph, Minnesota, founded in 1857, is the largest Benedictine convent in America.聖本篤的修道院在聖約瑟夫,明尼蘇達州,成立於1857年,是最大的本篤會修道院在美國。 Other important houses are at Allegheny (Pennsylvania), Atchison (Kansas), Chicago (2), Covington (Kentucky), Duluth (Minnesota), Erie (Pennsylvania), Ferdinand (Indiana), Mount Angel (Oregon), Newark (New Jersey), New Orleans (Louisiana), Shoal Creek (Arkansas), and Yankton (South Dakota).其他重要的房屋都是在阿勒格尼(賓夕法尼亞州) ,艾奇遜(堪薩斯州) ,芝加哥( 2 ) ,溫頓(肯塔基州) ,德盧斯(明尼蘇達州) ,伊利(賓夕法尼亞州) ,費迪南德(印第安納州) ,天使山(俄勒岡州) ,紐瓦克(新澤西州) ,新奧爾良(路易斯安那州) ,灘溪(阿肯色州) ,並揚克頓(南達科他州) 。 The nuns are chiefly occupied with the work of education, which comprises elementary schools as well as boarding school for secondary education.修女被佔領的主要是與教育工作,其中包括小學以及寄宿學校的中學教育。 All the American convents are subject to the bishops of their respective dioceses.所有的美國修道院受主教各自的教區。

III.三。 INFLUENCE AND WORK OF THE ORDER影響力和工作秩序

The influence exercised by the Order of St. Benedict has manifested itself chiefly in three directions: (1) the conversion of the Teutonic races and other missionary works; (2) the civilization of north-western Europe; (3) educational work and the cultivation of literature and the arts, the forming of libraries, etc.影響行使的命令聖本篤表現主要在三個方向: ( 1 )轉換的日爾曼民族和其他傳教士的作品; ( 2 )文明的西北部,歐洲( 3 )教育工作和種植的文學和藝術,形成了圖書館等

(1) Missionary Work of the Order.-At the time of St. Benedict's death (c. 543) the only countries of Western Europe which had been Christianized were Italy, Spain, Gaul, and part of the British Isles. ( 1 )傳教工作的Order. ,當時的聖本篤的死亡(角543 )唯一的西歐國家已Christianized是意大利,西班牙,高盧人,以及部分不列顛諸島。 The remaining countries all received the Gospel during the next few centuries, either wholly or partially through the preaching of the Benedictines.其餘國家都收到了福音,在未來幾個世紀,無論是全部或部分通過說教的篤。 Beginning with St. Augustine's arrival in England in 597, the missionary work of the order can be easily traced.從聖奧古斯丁的到來在英國597個,傳教工作的命令可以很容易追查。 The companions of St.在同伴的聖 Augustine, who is usually called the "Apostle of England", planted the Faith anew throughout the country whence it had been driven out nearly two centuries previously by the Anglo-Saxon and other heathen invaders.奧古斯丁,誰通常是所謂的“使徒的英格蘭” ,種植新的信仰在全國各地何處它已被趕出近兩個世紀以前盎格魯撒克遜和其他異教徒侵略者。 St. Augustine and St. Lawrence at Canterbury, St. Justus at Rochester, St. Mellitus at London, and St. Paulinus at York were Benedictine pioneers, and their labours were afterwards supplemented by other monks who, though not strictly Benedictine, were at least assisted by the black monks in establishing the Faith.聖奧古斯丁和聖勞倫斯在坎特伯雷,聖賈斯特斯在羅切斯特,聖糖尿病在倫敦,和聖Paulinus在紐約被本篤先鋒,他們的辛勤勞動是事後輔之以其他僧侶誰,但沒有嚴格篤,上協助最不發達國家的黑色僧侶在建立信仰。 Thus St. Birinus evangelized Wessex, St. Chad the Midlands, and St. Felix East Anglia, whilst the Celtic monks from Iona settled at Lindisfarne, whence the work of St. Paulinus in Northumbria was continued by St. Aidan, St. Cuthbert, and many others.因此,聖Birinus evangelized威塞克斯,聖乍得中部和聖費利克斯東英吉利亞,而凱爾特人隊僧侶艾奧娜收於林迪斯何處工作的街Paulinus在諾森比亞繼續由聖艾丹,聖庫斯伯特,和許多其他問題。 In 716 England sent forth Winfrid, afterwards called Boniface, a Benedictine monk trained at Exeter, who preached the Faith in Friesland, Alemannia, Thuringia, and Bavaria, and finally, being made Archbishop of Mentz (Mainz), became the Apostle of central Germany.在716送往英國提出Winfrid ,後來所謂的博尼法斯,一個本篤會僧侶培訓,埃克塞特,誰鼓吹信仰的弗里斯蘭省,亞琛,圖林根州和巴伐利亞州,最後,正在取得大主教Mentz (美) ,成為使徒的中央德國。 At Fulda he placed a Bavarian convert named Sturm at the head of a monastery he founded there in 744, from which came many missionaries who carried the Gospel to Prussia and what is now Austria.在福爾達他把巴伐利亞轉換命名斯特姆領導的一個修道院,他在那裡創立744 ,其中許多傳教士來到誰的福音開展向普魯士和現在的奧地利。 From Corbie, in Picardy, one of the most famous monasteries in France, St. Ansgar set out in 827 for Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, in each of which countries he founded many monasteries and firmly planted the Benedictine Rule.從Corbie ,在皮卡第,其中最有名的寺廟在法國,聖Ansgar列出827丹麥,瑞典和挪威,在每一個國家,他創立的許多寺廟和堅定地種植的本篤規則。 These in turn spread the Faith and monasticism through Iceland and Greenland.這些反過來又傳播信仰和修道通過冰島和格陵蘭島。 For a short time Friesland was the scene of the labours of St. Wilfrid during a temporary banishment from England in 678, and the work he began there was continued and extended to Holland by the English monks Willibrord and Swithbert.很短的時間菲仕蘭是現場的勞動街威爾弗里德在一個臨時驅逐來自英格蘭的678 ,和工作,他開始有繼續和擴大荷蘭的英語僧侶威利布羅德和Swithbert 。 Christianity was first preached in Bavaria by Eustace and Agilus, monks from Luseuil, early in the seventh century; their work was continued by St. Rupert, who founded the monastery and see of Salzburg, and firmly established by St. Boniface about 739. So rapidly did the Faith spread in this country that between the years 740 and 780 no less than twenty-nine Benedictine abbeys were founded there.基督教最早是在宣揚巴伐利亞州的尤斯塔斯和Agilus ,僧侶從Luseuil ,早在7世紀,他們的工作是繼續由聖魯珀特,誰創立的修道院裡看到的薩爾茨堡,牢固確立和聖博尼法斯約739 。所以並迅速蔓延的信仰在這個國家之間的年740和780不得少於29本篤修道院都成立有。

Another phase of Benedictine influence may be founded in the work of those monks who, from the sixth to the twelfth century, so frequently acted as the chosen counsellors of kings, and whose wise advice and guidance had much to do with the political history of most of the countries of Europe during that period. In more recent times the missionary spirit has manifested itself anew amongst the Benedictines.另一個階段的本篤會的影響力可能會成立於工作的那些僧侶誰,從第六至十二世紀,所以經常擔任輔導員的選擇國王,其明智的諮詢和指導很多工作要做政治歷史上的最在歐洲國家在這一期間內。最近的傳教時代精神體現之間的重新篤。 During the penal times the Catholic Church in England was kept alive in great measure by the Benedictine missioners from abroad, not a few of whom shed their blood for the Faith.在刑法倍,天主教會在英格蘭是維持生命在很大程度上由本篤會傳教士從國外,而不是少數人拋頭顱,灑熱血的信念。 Still more recently Australia has been indebted to the order for both its Catholicity and its hierarchy.然而,最近澳大利亞一直感激以便其普遍性和等級。 The English congregation supplied some of its earliest missionaries, as well as its first prelates, in the persons of Archbishop Polding, Archbishop Ullathorne, and others during the first half of the nineteenth century.英國教會提供了一些早期的傳教士,以及其第一主教,在人的大主教Polding大主教Ullathorne ,和其他在第一十九世紀下半葉。 Later on, the Spanish monks, DD.後來,西班牙僧侶,差異。 Serra and Salvado, arrived and successfully evangelized the western portion of the continent from New Nursia as a centre.塞拉和薩爾瓦多,抵達並成功地evangelized西部的部分大陸新努爾西亞作為一個中心。 Mention must also be made of the numerous missions amongst the North American Indians by the monks of the Swiss-American congregation from St. Meinrad's abbey, Indiana; and those of the American-Cassinese congregation in various parts of the United States, from St. Vincent's Arch-Abbey, Beatty, Pennsylvania.還必須提及的眾多任務中北美印第安人的僧侶,瑞士,美國聖教會Meinrad的修道院,印第安納以及那些在美國教會Cassinese各地區的美國,從街文森特的拱修道院,貝蒂,賓夕法尼亞州。 Apostolic work was also done by the English Fathers of the Cassinese PO congregation amongst the Hindus in Western Bengal, and amongst the Maoris in New Zealand; and French monks of the same congregation laboured in the Apostolic vicariate of the Indian Territory, USA, from the headquarters at the Sacred Heart Abbey, Oklahoma.使徒的工作也做了父親的英文的教會Cassinese婆之間的印度教徒在西方孟加拉和毛利人之間在新西蘭和法國僧侶同一眾辛勤的宗座代牧區的印度領土,美國,從總部設在聖心修道院,俄克拉何馬州。 In Ceylon the Sylvestrine Benedictines have undertaken (1883) missionary work amongst the natives in the Diocese of Kandy, the bishop of which is a member of the order; and still more recently the congregation of St. Ottilien, expressly established to provide workers for the foreign mission field, has established missions amongst the native tribes of Central Africa, where the seeds of the Faith have already been watered by the blood of its first martyrs.在錫蘭的Sylvestrine篤開展( 1883年)之間的傳教工作的本地人在康提教區的主教這是一個成員的秩序;更最近的聚集街Ottilien ,明確設立工人提供的外國使團場,已設立的特派團之間的土著部落的中部非洲,那裡的種子的信仰已經被水淹了血的第一人。

(2) Civilizing Influence of the Order.-Christianity and civilization go hand in hand, and hence we naturally look to North-western Europe for the effects of the civilizing influences exerted by the Benedictine missionaries. ( 2 )文明影響的Order.基督教和文明齊頭並進,因此我們自然期待著北西歐的影響影響的文明所施加篤傳教士。 St. Benedict himself began by converting and civilizing the barbarians who overran Italy in the sixth century, the best of whom came and learned the Gospel principles at Monte Cassino.聖本篤本人開始轉換和文明的野蠻人誰佔領意大利在第六世紀,最好的人來教訓福音原則蒙稼軒。 Previous to the institution of monasticism labour had been regarded as the symbol of slavery and serfdom, but St. Benedict and his followers taught in the West that lesson of free labour which had first been inculcated by the fathers of the desert.前該機構的修道勞工被視為象徵奴隸制和農奴制,但聖本篤和他的追隨者們講授西方的教訓免費勞工首次由灌輸父親的沙漠。 Wherever the monks went, those who were not employed in preaching tilled the ground; thus whilst some sowed in pagan souls the seeds of the Christian Faith, others transformed barren wastes and virgin forests into fruitful fields and verdant meadows.只要和尚所到之處,那些沒有誰在鼓吹僱用當地耕種;因此,雖然在一些異教徒播下的種子靈魂的基督教信仰,其他改造貧瘠的廢物和原始森林變成富有成果的領域和青翠的草地。 This principle of labour was a powerful instrument in the hands of the monastic pioneers, for it attracted to them the common people who learned form the monasteries thus reared as from object lessons the secrets of organized work, agriculture, the arts and sciences, and the principles of true government.這一原則的勞動力是一個有力的工具手中的寺院先驅,因為它吸引了他們共同的人誰的經驗教訓形成了寺院因此,從飼養對象的經驗教訓的秘密組織工作,農業,藝術和科學,以及原則的真正的政府。 Neander (Eccl. Hist.) points out that the profits accruing from the labour of the monks were employed ungrudgingly for the relief of the distressed, and in times of famine many thousands were saved from starvation by the charitable foresight of the monks. The accounts of the beginnings of abbey after abbey present the same features with recurring regularity.尼安德( Eccl.組織胺) 。指出,產生的利潤從勞動力的僧侶被僱用不惜用於救濟的困擾,並在飢荒的時候許多數千人免於飢餓的慈善遠見的僧侶。決算在開始後的修道院教堂本相同的功能與週期性規律。 Not only were the marshes drained, sterile plains rendered fertile, and wild beasts tamed or driven away, but the bandits and outlaws who infested many of the great highways and forests were either put to flight or converted from their evil ways by the industrious and unselfish monks. Around many of the greater monasteries towns grew up which have since become famous in history; Monte Cassino in Italy and Peterborough and St. Alban's in England are examples.不僅是沼澤地排水,無菌提供肥沃的平原和野獸馴服或趕走,但土匪和不法誰佈滿許多偉大的公路和森林被付諸飛行或轉換其罪惡的方式勤勞和無私僧侶。周圍的許多城鎮更大的寺院長大,已成為著名的歷史;蒙稼軒在意大利和彼得伯勒和聖奧爾本斯在英格蘭的例子。 Large-hearted abbots, eager to advance the interests of their poorer neighbours, often voluntarily expended considerable annual sums on the building and repairing of bridges, the making of roads, etc., and everywhere exercised a benign influence directed only towards improving the social and material condition of the people amongst whom they found themselves.大心abbots ,急於推進的利益,他們的窮鄰居,常常自願每年花費大量資金建設和修復的橋樑,使公路等,並到處行使一種良性的影響僅針對用於改善社會和物質條件的人當中他們發現自己。 This spirit, so prevalent during the ages of faith, has been successfully emulated by the monks of later times, of which no more striking instances in our own day can be cited than the wonderful influence for good amongst the aboriginal inhabitants of Western Australia possessed by the Spanish Benedictines of New Nursia, and the great industrial and agricultural work done amongst the native tribes of South Africa by the Trappists at Mariannhill and their numerous mission stations in Natal.這種精神,所以普遍年齡在信仰,已成功地仿效的僧侶後來倍,其中有沒有更突出的情況下在我們自己的一天可以舉出比美妙的良好影響力之間的原住民居民的西澳大利亞州擁有的西班牙篤新努爾西亞,偉大的工業和農業之間的工作土著部落的南非Trappists在Mariannhill和他們眾多的任務,在納塔爾。

(3) Educational Work and the Cultivation of Literature.-The work of education and the cultivation of literature have always been looked upon as belonging by right to the Benedictines. ( 3 )教育工作,培養Literature. ,這項工作的教育和培養文學一直看成屬於有權向本篤。 In the earliest days of the order it was the custom to receive children in the monasteries that they might be educated by the monks. At first such children were always destined for the monastic state, and St. Benedict legislated in his Rule for their solemn dedication by their parents to the service of God.在初期的命令,這是自定義接收兒童的寺廟,它們可能是受過教育的僧侶。首先這些兒童總是運往寺院狀態,和聖本篤在他制定規則的莊嚴的獻身精神他們的父母,以服務的上帝。 St. Placid and St. Maur are examples from St. Benedict's own day and amongst other may be instanced the English saint, Bede, who entered the monastery of Jarrow in his seventh year.聖普萊西德和聖莫爾的例子從聖本篤自己每天除其他可能的英文實例聖比德,誰進入寺院杰諾在他的第七個年頭。 The education of these children was the germ out of which afterward developed the great monastic schools.教育這些孩子是細菌,其中發達國家之後的偉大寺院學校。 Although St. Benedict urged upon his monks the duty of systematic reading, it was Cassiodorus, the quondam minister of the Gothic kings, who about the year 538 gave the first real impetus to monastic learning at Viviers (Vivarium) in Calabria.雖然聖本篤在他的敦促僧侶的義務系統閱讀,這是Cassiodorus的quondam部長哥特國王,誰約538年了第一次真正的動力,寺院學習維威恩斯( Vivarium )在卡拉布里亞。 He made his monastery a Christian academy, collected a great number of manuscripts, and introduced an organized plan of study for his disciples.他在修道院的基督教學校,收集了大量的手稿,並介紹了一個有組織的計劃,研究他的弟子。 The liberal arts and the study of the Holy Scripture were given great attention, and a monastic school was established which became the pattern after which many others were subsequently modelled.文科和研究聖經的重視,以及寺院學校成立,成為模式後,許多人後來被模仿。

In England St. Augustine and his monks opened schools wherever they settled.在英國聖奧古斯丁和他的僧侶學校開設地方解決。 Up to that time the tradition of the cloister had been opposed to the study of profane literature, but St. Augustine introduced the classics into the English schools, and St. Theodore, who became Archbishop of Canterbury in 668, added still further developments.截至當時,傳統的迴廊一直反對這項研究的世俗文獻,但聖奧古斯丁介紹了經典的英語學校,和聖西奧多,誰成為坎特伯雷大主教在668說,仍有進一步的發展。 St. Benedict Biscop, who returned to England with Archbishop Theodore after some years abroad, presided over his school at Canterbury for two years and then, going north, transplanted the new educational system to Wearmouth and Jarrow, whence it spread to Archbishop Egbert's school at York, which was one of the most famous in England in the eighth century. There Alcuin taught the seven sciences of the "trivium" and "quadrivium", ie grammar, rhetoric, and logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy.聖本篤Biscop ,誰返回英格蘭大主教西奧多後,國外一些年來,他主持了在坎特伯雷學校為兩年,然後去北部,移植新的教育體制和杰諾Wearmouth ,何處有蔓延到大主教埃格伯的學校紐約,這是一個最有名的英格蘭在第八世紀。阿爾昆教有7個科學的“ trivium ”和“ quadrivium ” ,即語法,修辭,邏輯,算術,音樂,幾何,和天文學。 (See THE SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS.) Later on King Alfred, St. Dunstan, and St. Ethelwold did much to foster learning in England, substituting monks for secular canons in several cathedrals and greatly improving the monastic schools. (見七文科) 。後來國王阿爾弗雷德,聖鄧斯坦和聖Ethelwold大大促進學習在英國,代僧侶的世俗大砲在幾個大教堂和大大提高了修道院學校。 Ramsey Abbey, founded by St. Oswald of Worcester, long enjoyed the reputation of being the most learned of the English monasteries.拉姆齊修道院,成立由聖奧斯瓦爾德的伍斯特市,長期享有的聲譽是最教訓的英文寺廟。 Glastonbury, Abingdon, St. Alban's, and Westminster were also famous in their day and produced many illustrious scholars.格拉斯頓伯里,阿賓登,聖奧爾本的,而且也威斯敏斯特在其著名的一天,產生許多傑出的學者。

In France Charlemagne inaugurated a great revival in the world of letters and stimulated the monks of his empire to study, as an essential of their state.在法國查理曼開創了偉大復興是世界上的字母和激發了他的僧侶帝國研究,作為一個基本的狀態。 To further this end he brought over from England in 782 Alcuin and several of the best scholars of York, to whom he entrusted the direction of the academy established at the royal court, as well as various other schools which he caused to be started in different parts of the empire.為了進一步為此,他帶來了來自英格蘭的782阿爾昆和幾個最好的學者紐約,向他委託的方向學院設在宮廷,以及各種其他學校造成的,他將開始在不同的部分帝國。 Mabillon gives a list of twenty-seven important schools in France established under Charlemagne (Acta Sanctorum OSB, saec. IV, praef., 184). Mabillon提供的清單27重要的學校在法國設立的查理曼( Sanctorum學報定向結構刨花板,南美。四, praef 。 , 184 ) 。 Those of Paris, Tours, and Lyons eventually developed into universities.這些巴黎,旅遊,和里昂最終發展成為大學。 In Normandy, later on, Bec became a great scholastic centre under Lanfranc and St. Anselm, and through them gave a fresh impetus to the English schools.在諾曼底,後來,卡特萊特成為一個偉大的學術中心蘭弗朗克和聖安瑟倫,並通過他們發表了新的動力,英文學校。 Cluny also took its share in the work and became in turn the custodian and fosterer of learning in France.克魯尼還份額的工作,並成為反過來的保管和鼓勵者的學習在法國。

In Germany St. Boniface opened a school in every monastery he founded, not only for the younger monks, but also for the benefit of outside scholars.在德國開幕聖博尼法斯一所學校的每一個寺院,他成立,不僅為年輕僧人,也有利於境外學者。 Early in the ninth century two monks of Fulda were sent to Tours by their abbot to study under Alcuin, and through them the revival of learning gradually spread to other houses.早在9世紀兩名僧人的福爾達被送往他們的旅遊研究住持下阿爾昆,並通過他們恢復學習逐漸蔓延到其他房屋。 One of the two, Rabanus Maurus, returning to Fulda in 813, became scholasticus or head of the school there, later abbot, and finally Archbishop of Mainz.其中的兩個,拉巴努毛魯斯,返回在富爾達813 ,成為scholasticus或頭部的學校有,後來住持,並最終因茨大主教。 He was the author of many books, one of which, his "De Institutione Clericorum", is a valuable treatise on the faith and practice of the Church in the ninth century.他是作者的許多書籍,其中之一,他的“德Institutione Clericorum ” ,是一種寶貴的論文的信仰和實踐的教會在第九世紀。 This work probably exercised a beneficial influence on all the cloister-schools of the Frankish Empire.這項工作大概實行了有益的影響,所有的迴廊學校的法蘭克帝國。 Hirschau, a colony sent out from Fulda in 830, became a celebrated seat of learning and survived till the seventeenth century, when both the monastery and its library were destroyed during the Thirty Years War. Hirschau ,一個殖民地派出由Fulda在830 ,成為一個著名的所在地,學習和生存,直到17世紀,當時的修道院和圖書館被摧毀在三十年戰爭。 Reichenau, which suffered a similar fate at the same time, owed its early celebrity to its school under Walafrid Strabo, who had studied at Fulda and on his return became scholasticus and subsequently abbot. In Saxony the monastery of New Corbie also possessed a famous school, which sent forth many learned missionaries to diffuse learning over Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.賴歇瑙,遭受同樣的命運的同時,欠其早日名人的學校根據斯特拉波Walafrid ,誰研究了在富爾達和他的回報成為scholasticus ,後來住持。在薩克森州的修道院新Corbie還擁有著名的學校,這發出了許多經驗教訓傳教士瀰漫學習丹麥,瑞典和挪威。 It was founded by Ansgar, the apostle of Scandinavia, who came from Old Corbie in 822, where he had been the favourite disciple of Paschasius Radbertus, a theologian, poet, musician, and author of Scriptural commentaries and an exposition of the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist.它是由Ansgar ,使徒的斯堪的納維亞,誰來自老Corbie在822 ,他在那裡一直是最喜歡的弟子Paschasius Radbertus ,一個神學家,詩人,音樂家,作家的聖經評論和闡述的理論聖體聖事。

After the death of Charlemagne the revival of secular learning which he had begun waned somewhat, except in the Benedictine abbeys where the study of letters still remained the prerogative of the monks.去世後,查理曼的復興世俗的學習,他已開始有所減弱,但在本篤修道院的研究信件仍然是特權的僧侶。 The Abbey of St. Gall, in particular, during the tenth century drew to its walls numerous students desirous of gaining the knowledge that was imparted there, and produced many celebrated writers.在修道院的聖加爾,特別是在10世紀提請其牆壁許多學生希望獲得的知識是傳授,並產生許多著名作家。 The fame of Reichenau also revived, and from it was founded Einsiedeln (934), which helped to carry on the traditions of the past.在名利的賴歇瑙也恢復了,從它成立艾因西德倫( 934 ) ,這有助於繼承傳統的過去。 Nor was Italy behindhand, as is shown by the history of such monastic schools as Monte Cassino, Pomposia, and Bobbio.也不是意大利遲到,這表明了這種歷史的寺院學校蒙稼軒, Pomposia ,並比奧。

Most of the older universities of Europe have grown out of monastic schools. Paris, Tours, and Lyons have been mentioned; amongst others were Reims and Bologna, and, in England, Cambridge, where the Benedictines of Croyland first set up a school in the twelfth century.大多數老年人大學歐洲增長了修道院學校。巴黎,旅遊,和里昂已經提到;其他人之間的蘭斯和博洛尼亞,並在英格蘭,劍橋,那裡的本篤會的Croyland首先成立一所學校12世紀。 At Oxford, the English Benedictines, though they could not claim to be the founders, took an important part in the university life and development.在牛津,英文本篤,但他們不能聲稱自己是創始人,採取的一個重要組成部分的大學生活和發展。 Monks had from time to time been sent from different abbeys to study there, but in 1283 a number of the chief monasteries combined in founding a joint college for their members, called St. Benedict's, or Gloucester, Hall, which is now Worcester College.僧人不時被派往來自不同的修道院學習,但在1283年的一些主要寺廟合併成立一個聯合大學的成員,所謂的聖本篤的,或告士打道,大會堂,現在伍斯特學院。 In 1290 the cathedral-priory of Durham established for its own monks St. Cuthbert's College, which is now Trinity; and in 1362 another college, now Christ Church, was founded for the monks of Canterbury.在1290大教堂,修道院的達勒姆建立了自己的僧侶聖庫斯伯特學院,現在三一;並在1362年另一個學院,現在基督教堂,成立為僧侶的坎特伯雷。 The Cistercians had Rewley Abbey just outside the town, founded about 1280, and St. Bernard's College, now St. John's, established in 1436 by Archbishop Chichele.在熙曾Rewley修道院外的小鎮,大約1280年成立,並聖伯納德學院,現在的聖約翰,成立於1436年由大主教Chichele 。 All these colleges flourished until the Reformation, and even after the dissolution of the monasteries many of the ejected monks retired to Oxford on their pensions, to pass the remainder of their days in the peace and seclusion of their Alma Mater.所有這些院校蓬勃發展,直到改革,甚至解體後的許多寺廟的僧人退休跳傘牛津大學的養老金,通過剩下的幾天在和平與隱居的母校。 Feckenham, afterwards Abbot of Westminster under Queen Mary, was the last English Benedictine to graduate at Oxford (about 1537) until, in 1897, the community of Ampleforth Abbey opened a hall and sent some of their monks there to study for degrees. Feckenham ,後來住持下威斯敏斯特瑪麗,是去年英語篤研究生在牛津(約1537 ) ,直到1897年,國際社會Ampleforth修道院開設了一個大廳,並派出他們的一些僧人有研究的學位。

Besides being the chief educational centres during the Middle Ages, the monasteries were, moreover, the workshops where precious manuscripts were collected, preserved, and multiplied.除了首席教育中心在中世紀的修道院是,此外,在研討會珍貴手稿收集,保存,並成倍地增加。 To the monastic transcribers the world is indebted for most of its ancient literature, not only the Scriptures and the writings of the Fathers, but those of the classical authors also.在寺院謄寫世界是負債的大部分古代文學,不僅是聖經和著作的父親,但那些經典的作者還。 (Numerous examples are cited in Newman, Essay on the Mission of St. Benedict, 10.) The monastic scriptoria were the book-manufactories before the invention of printing, and rare manuscripts were often circulated amongst the monasteries, each one transcribing copies before passing the original on to another house. Without doubt the copying was often merely mechanical and no sign of real scholarship, and the pride taken by a monastery in the number and beauty of its manuscripts sometimes rather that of the collector than of the scholar, yet the result is the same as far as posterity is concerned. (許多例子中提到紐曼,論團的聖本篤, 10 。 ) scriptoria的修道院的書之前,廠家發明的印刷,以及罕見的手稿往往被分發各寺院,每一個轉錄拷貝逝世之前原來另一個房子。毫無疑問,複製往往是僅僅是機械和沒有跡象顯示真正的獎學金,以及所採取的自豪感的一個修道院的數量和美麗的手稿,而有時是收藏家,而不是學者,但結果是一樣的盡可能子孫後代的問題。 The monks preserved and perpetuated the ancient writings which, but for their industry, would undoubtedly have been lost to us.僧人保存和延續了古代著作的,但他們的產業,無疑將已經失去給我們。 The copyists of Fontanelle, Reims, and Corbie were especially noted for the beauty of their penmanship, and the number of different manuscripts transcribed by some of their monks was often very large. Full particulars are given by Ziegelbauer (Hist. Lit. OSB, I) of the most important medieval Benedictine Libraries.該copyists的囟,蘭斯,並Corbie特別指出的美的書法,和一些不同的手稿抄寫的一些他們僧侶往往是非常大的。全部詳情給出了Ziegelbauer ( Hist. 25,823 。定向結構刨花板,我)最重要的中世紀篤圖書館。 The following are some of the chief amongst them: In England: Canterbury, founded by St. Augustine, enlarged by Lanfranc and St. Anselm, containing, according to a catalogue of the thirteenth century, 698 volumes; Durham, catalogues printed by the Surtees Society (VII, 1838); Whitby, catalogues still existing; Glastonbury, catalogues still existing; Wearmouth; Croyland, burnt in 1091, containing 700 volumes; Peterborough.以下是一些主要其中包括:在英格蘭:坎特伯雷創辦的聖奧古斯丁,擴大蘭弗朗克和聖安瑟倫載,根據目錄, 13世紀, 698卷;達勒姆,目錄印製的瑟蒂斯協會(七, 1838年) ;惠特,目錄仍然存在;格拉斯頓伯里,目錄仍然存在; Wearmouth ; Croyland ,燒毀1091 ,其中載有700卷;彼得伯勒。 In France: Fleury, manuscripts deposited in the town library of Orléans, 1793; Cobrie, 400 of the most valuable manuscripts removed to Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris, 1638, the remainder, partly to the National Library, Paris (1794), and partly to the town library of Amiens; Saint-Germain-des-Prés; Cluny, manuscripts dispersed by the Huguenots, except a few which were destroyed at the Revolution; Auxerre; Dijon.在法國:弗勒裡,手稿存放在鎮圖書館的新奧爾良, 1793 ; Cobrie , 400最寶貴的手稿運到聖日耳曼德出版社,巴黎, 1638年,其餘部分向國家圖書館,巴黎( 1794 ) ,部分鎮圖書館的亞眠;聖日耳曼德出版社;克呂尼,手稿分散的胡格諾派,除了少數被摧毀的革命;歐塞爾;第戎。 In Spain: Montserrat, the majority of the manuscripts still existing; Valladolid; Salamanca; Silos, library still existing; Madrid.在西班牙:蒙特塞拉特,大部分手稿仍然存在;巴利亞多利德;薩拉曼卡;筒倉,圖書館仍然存在;馬德里。 In Switzerland: Reichenau, destroyed in the seventeenth century; St. Gall, dating from 816, still existing; Einsiedeln, still existing.在瑞士:賴歇瑙,摧毀了在17世紀;街癭,可追溯到816 ,仍然存在;艾因西德倫,依然存在。 In Germany: Fulda, much indebted to Charlemagne and Rabanus Maurus, with 400 copyists under Abbot Sturm, and containing, in 1561, 774 volumes; New Corbie, manuscripts removed to the University of Marburg in 1811; Hirschau, dating from 837; St. Blaise.在德國:富爾達,感激查理曼和拉巴努毛魯斯, 400 copyists下艾博特狂飆,並載,在1561年, 774卷;新Corbie ,手稿轉移到馬爾堡大學在1811年; Hirschau的歷史可以追溯到837 ;街布萊斯。 In Austria and Bavaria: Salzburg, founded in the sixth century, and containing 60,000 volumes; Kremsmünster, of the eleventh century, with 50,000 volumes; Admont, the eleventh century, 80,000 volumes; Melk, the eleventh century, 60,000 volumes; Lambach, the eleventh century, 22,000 volumes; Garsten; Metten.在奧地利和德國巴伐利亞州:薩爾茨堡,成立於六世紀,並載有60000卷; Kremsmünster ,第十一屆世紀, 50000卷; Admont , 11世紀, 80000卷;梅爾克, 11世紀, 60000卷;蘭巴赫的11世紀, 22000卷; Garsten ; Metten 。 In Italy: Monte Cassino, three times destroyed by the Lombards in the sixth century, by the Saracens, and by fire in the ninth, but each time restored and still existing; Bobbio, famous for its palimpsests, of which a tenth-century catalogue is now in the Ambrosian Library, Milan, printed by Muratori (Antiq. Ital. Med. Aev., III); Pomposia, with an eleventh-century catalogue printed by Montfaucon (Diarium Italicum, c. xxii). Besides preserving the writings of the ancient authors, the monks were also the chroniclers of their day, and much of the history of the Middle Ages was written in the cloister.在意大利:蒙稼軒,三次摧毀了倫巴人在第六世紀,由撒拉遜人,以及火災中的第九名,但每次恢復和仍然存在;比奧,著名的palimpsests ,其中十世紀目錄現在是在安布羅西安聖圖書館,米蘭,印刷穆拉托裡(意大利Antiq. 。醫科大學。禽腦脊髓炎病毒。 ,三) ; Pomposia ,與第十一屆世紀目錄印刷蒙福( Diarium青黴角22 ) 。除了維護著作古老的作者,僧侶也是編年史的一天,和許多歷史上的中世紀寫在迴廊。 English history is especially fortunate in this respect, the monastic chroniclers including St. Bede, Ordericus Vitalis, William of Malmesbury, Florence of Worcester, Simeon of Durham, Matthew Paris, and Eadmer of Canterbury.英國歷史特別是幸運的在這方面,寺院編年史包括聖比德, Ordericus Vitalis ,威廉馬姆斯伯里,佛羅倫薩的伍斯特市,西面的達勒姆,馬修巴黎, Eadmer的坎特伯雷。 The rise of the scholastics, for the most part outside the Benedictine Order, in later medieval times, seems to have checked, or at any rate relegated to the background, both the literary and the educational activity of the black monks, whilst the introduction of the art of printing rendered superfluous the copying of manuscripts by hand; at the same time it is worth noticing that many of the earliest printing presses were set up in Benedictine cloisters, eg by Caxton at Westminster, and by some authorities the invention of movable types is also ascribed to the sons of St. Benedict.的崛起scholastics ,大部分是境外篤命令,在以後的中世紀時代,似乎已經檢查,或在任何速度降級的背景,無論是文學和教育活動的黑人僧侶,同時引進最先進的印刷變得多餘複製的手稿的手;同時值得注意的是許多最早的印刷廠是成立於篤cloisters ,如卡克斯頓在威斯敏斯特大教堂,和一些當局發明的動產類型也為其兒子的聖本篤。

The most notable revival of learning in post-Reformation times was that effected by the congregation of St.-Maur in France in the seventeenth century.最顯著的恢復學習後改革時代是由聚集的聖莫爾在法國在十七世紀。 Diligent and profound study in all departments of ecclesiastical literature was one of the professed objects of this reform, and a congregation that produced such men of letters as Mabillon, Montfaucon, d'Achery, Menard, Lami, Garnier, Ruinart, Martene, Sainte-Marthe, and Durand needs no further eulogy than a reference to their literary achievements.勤奮學習和深刻在所有部門的教會文學是一個聲稱這種物體的改革,並聚集產生這樣的人的信件作為Mabillon ,蒙福,德Achery ,梅納,海帶,卡尼爾, Ruinart , Martene ,聖瑪爾特,並杜蘭德不需要作進一步的悼詞比參照其文學成就。 Their editions of the Greek and Latin Fathers and their numerous historical, theological, archaeological, and critical works are sufficient evidence of their industry.他們的版本的希臘和拉丁父親和眾多的歷史,神學,考古,和關鍵工程的足夠的證據證明其業。 There were not less successful in the conduct of the schools they established, of which those at Soreze, Saumur, Auxerre, Beaumont, and Saint-Jean d'Angely were the most important.有沒有不太成功的進行,他們建立了學校,而那些在Soreze ,索米爾,歐塞爾,博蒙特,和聖讓德Angely是最重要的。 (See MAURISTS.) (見MAURISTS 。 )

The arts, sciences, and utilitarian crafts also found a home in the Benedictine cloister from the earliest times.藝術,科學,實用工藝品還發現了家中的本篤修道院從最早的時間。 The monks of St. Gall and Monte Cassino excelled in illumination and mosaic work, and the latter community are credited with having invented the art of painting on glass.僧侶聖加爾和Monte稼軒優異的照明和鑲嵌工作,而後者則記入社會與發明了繪畫藝術玻璃。 A contemporary life of St. Dunstan states that he was famous for his "writing, painting, moulding in wax, carving of wood and bone, and for work in gold, silver, iron, and brass". Richard of Wallingford at St. Alban's and Peter Lightfoot at Glastonbury were well-known fourteenth-century clockmakers; a clock by the latter, formerly in Wells cathedral, is still to be seen in the South Kensington Museum, London. In modern times the monks of Beuron have established a school of art where painting and design, especially in the form of polychromatic decoration, have been brought to a high stage of perfection.當代生活的聖鄧斯坦說,他是著名的“寫作,繪畫,造型蠟,雕刻的木材和骨骼,以及工作的金,銀,鐵,銅。 ”理查德的沃林福德在聖奧爾本斯萊特富特和彼得在格拉斯頓伯里眾所周知十四世紀clockmakers ;時鐘由後者,以前在威爾斯大教堂,仍是被視為在南肯辛頓博物館,倫敦。近代僧人的Beuron已建立了學校在繪畫藝術和設計,尤其是在多形式的裝飾,已提請高階段的完善。 The printing presses of Solesmes and Ligugé (both now confiscated by the French Government) have produced much excellent typographical work, whilst the study and restoration of the traditional plainchant of the Church in the same monasteries, under DD.該印刷機的索雷姆和Ligugé (現在都沒收了法國政府)產生了許多優秀的印刷工作,同時研究和恢復傳統的plainchant教會在同一寺院,根據差異。 Pothier and Mocquereau, is of world-wide reputation.波蒂埃和Mocquereau ,是世界各地的聲譽。 Embroidery and vestment-making are crafts in which many communities of nuns excel, and others, like Stanbrook, maintain a printing office with considerable success.刺繡和投資決策的手工藝品,其中許多社區修女擅長,和其他一樣, Stanbrook ,保持印刷的辦公室相當大的成功。

IV.四。 PRESENT CONDITION OF THE ORDER目前的狀況的命令

Development of external organization發展的外部組織

A brief sketch of the constitution and government of the order is necessary for a proper understanding of its present organization.簡單示意圖憲法和政府的命令是必要的正確了解其目前的組織。

According to St. Benedict's idea, each monastery constituted a separate, independent, autonomous family, the members of which elected their own superior. The abbots, therefore, of the different houses were equal in rank, but each was the actual head of his own community and held his office for life.據聖本篤的想法,每個寺院構成一個單獨的,獨立,自主的家庭,其成員選出自己的優勢。 abbots的,因此,不同的房子都是平等的排名,但每個是實際負責人自己社會和他的辦公室舉行的生活。 The necessities of the times, however, the need for mutual support, the establishment of daughter-houses, and possibly the ambition of individual superiors, all combined in course of time to bring about a modification of this ideal.必需品的時代,但是,需要相互支持,建立女兒的房屋,以及可能的野心個人的上級,所有的合併過程中的時間,以實現修改這一理想。 Although foreshadowed by the Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) capitula of 817 under St. Benedict of Aniane, the actual results of which died out with their originator, the first real departure from the Benedictine ideal, subjecting the superiors of different houses to one central authority, was made by Cluny in the tenth century.雖然預示了亞琛(阿亨) capitula下的817聖本篤的Aniane ,實際結果死了自己的發端,第一次真正離開本篤理想,受到上級不同的房屋之一中央權威,是由克呂尼在十世紀。 The plan of the Cluniac congregation was that of one grand central monastery with a number of dependencies spread over many lands.該計劃的Cluniac眾是一個宏偉的寺院中央與許多相依遍布許多土地。 It was feudalism applied to the monastic institute.這是封建主義適用於寺院研究所。 Every prior or subordinate superior was the nominee of the Abbot of Cluny and held office only during his pleasure; the autonomy of the individual communities was destroyed so far, even, that no monk could be professed in any house except by permission of the Abbot of Cluny, and all were obliged usually to spend some years at Cluny itself.每事先上級或下級的提名的住持舉行克魯尼只在辦公室,他很高興;的自主權個別社區被摧毀,到目前為止,甚至沒有任何僧人宣稱可以在任何房子除了許可住持克魯尼,所有通常不得不花一些年,克呂尼本身。 But notwithstanding the extent of this departure from Benedictine tradition, the Cluniacs were never considered to have seceded from the main Benedictine body or to have instituted a new order.但是,儘管這種程度的偏離本篤傳統, Cluniacs從未被視為已退出的主要篤機構或已設立了一個新秩序。 Hirschau, in Germany, copied Cluny, though with less conspicuous success, and Cîteaux developed the system still further and constituted a new order outside the Benedictine fold, which has ever since been regarded as such. Hirschau ,在德國,複製克魯尼,雖然不太顯眼的成功, Cîteaux開發的系統仍然進一步構成了新的秩序以外的本篤倍,這都一直這樣認為。 The example of Cluny produced imitators and many new unions of monasteries subject to a central abbey resulted.的例子克呂尼產生模仿和許多新工會的寺廟受到中央修道院造成。 The Lateran Council of 1215, perceiving the good points of the system as well as its dangers, set itself to strike the mean between the two.該理事會的拉特蘭1215感知的優點系統以及它的危險,為自己確定罷工的平均兩者之間的關係。 The risks of an ever-widening breach between those which adhered to Benedictine tradition and those which had adopted the Cluniac ideas, were to be minimized, whilst at the same time uniformity of observance and the mutual strength resulting therefrom, were to be fostered.風險的日益擴大之間違反那些遵守本篤傳統和那些已經通過了Cluniac的想法,要盡量減少,同時統一的遵守和相互由此產生的力量,要加強。 The council decreed that the monasteries of each country should be banded together into a congregation; periodical representative chapters were to ensure systematic government after one pattern; the appointment of definitors and visitors was to secure uniformity and cohesion; and the autonomy of the individual monasteries were to be preserved.該委員會頒布的寺院每個國家應該聯合起來成為一個眾;期刊代表章,以確保系統的政府後,一個模式;任命definitors和遊客的安全統一和凝聚力;和自主性的個別寺廟被予以保留。 The plan promised well, but England alone seems to have given it a fair trial.該計劃承諾,但僅英格蘭似乎已經給予了公正的審判。 In some of the countries it was not until the issue of the Bull "Benedictina" in 1336, or even the Tridentine decrees of two centuries later, that any serious attempt was made towards carrying out the proposals of 1215.在一些國家,直到問題的通報“ Benedictina ”在1336年,甚至Tridentine法令的兩個世紀後,任何認真的努力方面取得了實施的建議1215 。 Meanwhile certain Italian reforms had produced a number of independent congregations outside the order, differing from each other in organization and spirit, and in each of which the departure from Benedictine principles was carried a stage further.同時某些意大利的改革產生了一些獨立的教會內外的秩序,從每個不同的其他組織和精神,並在每個離開本篤原則進行進一步的階段。 Even in the Cluniac congregation the power of the Abbot of Cluny was, after the twelfth century, somewhat curtailed by the institution of chapters and definitors.即使在Cluniac眾的力量,艾博特的克呂尼是,在12世紀,在某種程度上限制了機構和definitors章。 The Sylvestrines (1231) preserved the perpetuity of superiors and recognized the advantages of a representative chapter, though its chief superior was something more than a mere primus inter pares.該Sylvestrines ( 1231 )的永久保存的上級和公認的優點有代表性的篇章,但其主要優勢是什麼不僅僅是普里默斯間匯率。 The Celestines (1274) adopted a somewhat similar system of centralized authority, but differed from it in that their superior was elected triennially.該Celestines ( 1274 )通過了一項有點類似系統的集中權力,但不同於在其上級當選為一次。 The Olivetans (1319) marked the furthest point of development by instituting an abbot-general with jurisdiction over all the other abbots as well as their communities.該Olivetans ( 1319 )標誌著最遠點的發展,建立一個住持,一般有管轄權的其他所有abbots以及他們的社區。 The general chapter nominated the officials of all the houses; the monks belonged to no one monastery in particular, but to the whole congregation; and by thus destroying all community rights, and placing all power in the hands of a small committee, the Olivetan congregation approximated nearest to the alter orders like the Dominicans and Jesuits, with their highly centralized systems of government.一般章提名的官員所有的房屋;僧侶屬於任何人尤其是修道院,但整個集會;並從而破壞所有的社會權利,並把所有的權力掌握在一個小型委員會,聚集了歐利夫坦近似最接近改變訂單像多米尼加和耶穌,他們高度集中的政府體制。 The congregation of St. Justina of Padua was modelled on similar lines, though afterwards considerably modified, and some centuries later St.-Vannes and St.-Maur followed in its wake.該教會的聖太帕多瓦是仿照類似的路線,但後來的修改,有些世紀後聖瓦納和聖莫爾隨後在其喚醒。 The Spanish congregation of Valladolid, too, with its abbot-general, and with superiors who were not perpetual and chosen by the general chapters, must be classed with those that represent the line of departure from earlier Benedictine tradition; as must also the resuscitated English congregation of the seventeenth century, which inherited its constitution from that of Spain.西班牙的巴利亞多利德眾,也同它的住持,總體而言,與上級誰沒有永久的和選擇的一般章節,必須被歸類與那些代表一行離開前本篤傳統;作為也必須在復甦英文聚集在十七世紀,繼承其憲法從西班牙。 In these two latter congregations, however, there were some modifications, which made their dissent from the original ideal less marked than in those previously enumerated.在這兩個後者聚會,然而,有一些修改,這使得他們的持不同政見從原來的理想不太明顯比以前列舉。 On the other side, as representing those that preserved the traditional autonomy and family spirit in the individual houses, we have the Bursfeld Union which, in the fifteenth century, made an honest attempt to carry out the Lateran decrees and the provisions of the Bull "Benedictina".另一方面,代表那些保留了傳統的自主權和家庭的精神在個人的房屋,我們有Bursfeld聯盟,在15世紀,作出了誠實試圖進行拉特蘭法令和規定的公牛“ Benedictina “ 。 The Austrian, Bavarian, and Swiss congregations of the same period followed out the same idea, as do also almost all of the more modern congregations, and by the legislation of Leo XIII the traditional principles of government have been revived in the English congregation.奧地利,德國,瑞士教會同期遵循了同樣的想法一樣,也幾乎所有的更現代的教會,並受到法律的利奧十三世的傳統原則,政府已重新在英文眾。 In this way the true Benedictine ideal was restored, whilst by means of general chapters, at which every monastery of the congregation was represented, and by the periodical visitations made by the presidents or others elected for that duty, uniform observance and regular discipline were preserved. The presidents were elected by the other abbots composing the chapter and their office was merely presidential not that of a superior general or abbas abbatum.這樣,真正篤理想的恢復,而用一般的章節,在每一個寺院的眾派代表出席了會議,並定期visitations所提出的總統或其他人當選為這一義務的,統一的遵守和經常性的紀律得到維護。總統當選的其他abbots撰寫的章節和他們的辦公室只不過是總統而不是一個一般性或上級阿巴斯abbatum 。

Present System of Government目前的政府體制

All the congregations of more recent formation have been constituted, with slight variations, on the same plan, which represents the normal and traditional form of government in the order.所有的教會最近的形成已經構成,並略有不同,在同樣的計劃,這是正常的和傳統的政府形式的秩序。 Uniformity in the various congregations is further secured by what are called Constitutions.均勻的各種聚會,進一步擔保的所謂憲法。 These are a series of declarations on the holy Rule, defining its interpretation and application, to which are added other regulations on points of discipline and practice not provided for by St. Benedict.這些都是一系列的聲明神聖的規則,確定其解釋和適用,其中新增其他規章對點的紀律和做法沒有規定的由聖本篤。 The constitutions must be approved at Rome, after which they have binding force upon the congregation for which they are intended. The capitula of Aachen and the Concordia Regularis were the earliest examples of such constitutions.憲法必須得到在羅馬,之後他們具有約束力的聚會這是他們的打算。 capitula的亞琛和迪亞Regularis是最早的例子,如憲法。 Amongst others may be mentioned the "Statues" of Lanfranc, the "Discipline of Farfa", the "Ordo" of Bernard of Cluny, and the "Constitutions" of St. William of Hirschau.除其他外可提到“章程”的蘭弗朗克的“學科的法爾法”的“秩序”的貝爾納的克魯尼和“憲法”聖威廉Hirschau 。 (The three latter are printed by Herrgott in "Vetus Disciplina Monastica", Paris, 1726.) Since the thirteenth century every congregation has had its own set of constitutions, in which the principles of the Rule are adapted to the particular work of the congregation to which they apply. (三後者是印刷Herrgott在“ Vetus Disciplina Monastica ” ,巴黎, 1726 。 )自13世紀每一個聚集了自己的一套憲法,其中法治原則的調整,以適應特定的工作聚集它們適用。 Each congregation is composed of a certain number of monasteries, the abbots of which, with other officials and elected representatives, form the general chapter, which exercises legislative and executive authority over the whole body.每個教會組成的一定數量的寺院,在abbots其中,與其他官員和民選代表組成的總章,行使立法和行政權力整個機構。 The power possessed by it is strictly limited and defined in the constitutions.該所擁有的權力是嚴格限制和界定的憲法。 The meetings of the chapter are held usually every two, three, or four years and are presided over by one of the members elected to that office by the rest.會議的舉行第二章通常每兩個,三個或4年,並主持一個成員當選這一職務的休息。 Whilst the office of abbot is usually for life, that of the president is generally only for a term of years and the person holding it is not in all cases eligible for continuous re-election.雖然辦公室的住持通常是生活,即總統是通常只,任期兩年,並持有人並非在所有情況下獲得連續連任。 Each president, either by himself or in conjunction with one or more specially elected visitors, holds canonical visitations of all the houses of his congregation, and by this means the chapter is kept informed of the spiritual and temporal condition of each monastery, and discipline is maintained according to the constitutions.每個總統,無論是由他本人或與一個或多個專門選出的訪客,擁有典型visitations所有的房屋,他教會,並以這種方式的一章通報的精神和時間條件的每一個寺院,有紀律的堅持按照憲法。

The Abbot Primate在方丈猿

In order the better to bind together the various congregations that constitute the order at the present day, Pope Leo XIII, in 1893, appointed a nominal head over the whole federation, with the title of Abbot Primate.為了更好地聯繫在一起的各種集會,構成的命令在本一天,教皇利奧十三世,於1893年,任命了一位負責人的名義,在整個聯邦,與標題住持靈長類動物。 The traditional autonomy of each congregation, and still further of each house, is interfered with in the least possible degree by this appointment, for, as the title itself indicates, the office is in its nature different from that of the general of an order.傳統的自主權每個聚集,並進一步每個房子,是在干擾最小的程度這一任命,因為正如標題本身就說明,該辦事處是其性質不同於一般的命令。 Apart from matters explicitly defined, the abbot primate's position with regard to the other abbots is to be understood rather from the analogy of a primate in a hierarchy than from that of the general of an order like the Dominicans or Jesuits.

Methods of Recruiting招生方法

The recruiting of the various monasteries of the order differs according to the nature and scope of the influence exerted by each individual house.招募各寺廟的命令根據不同的性質和範圍施加影響每一個人房子。 Those that have schools attached to them naturally draw their members more or less from these schools.那些學校重視他們自然提請其成員或多或少地從這些學校。 The English congregation is recruited very largely from the schools attached to its monasteries; and other congregations are similarly recruited.英國教會是非常招募主要來自學校重視其寺廟和其他教會也同樣聘用。 Some educate and train in their monasteries a number of alumni, or pupils provisionally intended for the monastic state, who though not in any way bound to do so, if showing any signs of vocation, are encouraged to receive the habit on reaching the canonical age.一些教育和培訓的寺院的一些校友,學生或暫時打算用於寺院狀態,但誰不以任何方式約束這樣做,如果表現出任何跡象使命,鼓勵接收的習慣達到規範年齡。

A candidate for admission is usually kept as a postulant for at least some weeks in order that the community he seeks to join may judge whether he is a suitable person to be admitted to the probationary stage.考生入學通常是保持作為一個postulant至少幾個星期,以便使國際社會尋求加入可判斷他是否是一個合適的人被接納為見習階段。 Having been accepted as such, he is "clothed" as a novice, receiving the religious habit and a religious name, and being placed under the care of the novice-master.在被接納為如此,他已是“衣”作為一個新手,接收的宗教習慣和宗教的名稱,被置於照顧新手主。 According to the Rule he has to be trained and tested during his period of noviceship, and canon law requires that for the most part the novice is to be kept apart form the rest of the community.根據規則,他已接受培訓和測試期間, noviceship期間,和佳能法律規定,大部分是新手要分開的其他形式的社區。 For this reason the novices' quarters are generally placed, if possible, in a different part of the monastery from those occupied by the professed monks.出於這個原因,新手宿舍一般都放在,如果可能的話,在不同的一部分,從這些寺院所佔用聲稱僧侶。 The canonical novitiate lasts one year, at the end of which, if satisfactory, the novice may be admitted to simple vows, and at the conclusion of another three years, unless rejected for grave reasons, he makes his solemn vows of "Stability, Conversion of manners, and Obedience".規範見習持續一年,在年底,如果令人滿意,新手可能會被接納為簡單的誓言,並在最後的三年,除非拒絕嚴重的原因,他作出了莊嚴的誓言的“穩定,轉換禮儀,並服從“ 。 (Rule of St. Benedict.) (第的聖本篤。 )

Habit習性

With slight modifications in shape in some congregations the habit of the order consists of a tunic, confined at the waist by a girdle of leather or of cloth, a scapular, the width of the shoulders and reaching to the knees or ground, and a hood to cover the head.隨著中稍作修改形成的一些教會的習慣,該命令由一個中山裝,限於在腰間的腰帶的皮革或布,一個肩胛骨,寬度的肩膀和深遠的膝蓋或地面,並罩支付的頭部。 In choir, at chapter, and at certain other ceremonial times, a long full gown with large flowing sleeves, called a "cowl", is worn over the ordinary habit.在合唱團,在第一章,並在某些其他禮儀倍,長期全面的袍子大流動的袖子,被稱為“罩” ,是破舊的普通習慣。 The colour is not specified in the Rule but it is conjectured that the earliest Benedictines wore white or grey, as being the natural colour of undyed wool.顏色沒有指定的規則,但它是推測最早篤穿白色或灰色,被認為是自然的顏色未染色的羊毛。 For many centuries, however, black has been the prevailing colour, hence the term "black monk" has come to signify a Benedictine not belonging to one of those separate congregations which has adopted a distinctive colour, eg the Camaldolese, Cistercians, and Olivetans, who wear white, or the Sylvestrines, whose habit is blue.許多世紀,然而,黑色一直是普遍存在的膚色,因此長期的“黑和尚”已經到來意味著篤不屬於其中的一個單獨的教會已經通過了一項獨特的顏色,如Camaldolese ,熙和Olivetans ,誰穿白色,或Sylvestrines ,其習慣是藍色的。 The only differences in colour within the Benedictine federation are those of the monks of Monte Vergine, who though now belonging to the Cassinese congregation of Primitive Observance, still retain the white habit adopted by their founder in the twelfth century, and those of the congregation of St. Ottilien, who wear a red girdle to signify their special missionary character.唯一不同膚色的本篤會聯合會是那些僧人的Monte Vergine ,雖然現在誰屬於Cassinese聚集原始遵守,仍然保留了白色的習慣通過其創始人在12世紀,和那些聚集聖Ottilien ,誰穿紅色腰帶,以顯示其特殊的傳教性質。

Present Work of the Order目前的工作秩序

Parochial work is undertaken by the following congregations: Cassinese, English, Swiss, Bavarian, Gallican, American-Cassinese, Swiss-American, Beuronese, Cassinese PO, Austrian (both), Hungarian, and the Abbey of Fort Augustus.狹隘的工作是由以下教區: Cassinese ,英,瑞士,巴伐利亞,高盧聖,美國Cassinese ,瑞士,美國, Beuronese , Cassinese婆,奧地利(均) ,匈牙利,以及修道院的奧古斯堡。 In the majority of these congregations the mission are attached to certain abbeys and the monks serving them are under the almost exclusive control of their own monastic superiors; in others the monks only supply the place of the secular clergy and are, therefore, for the time being, under their respective diocesan bishops.在大多數這些教會的使命是重視某些修道院的僧侶和他們的服務下,幾乎完全控制自己的寺院上級;在另一些僧侶不僅供應地點的神職人員和世俗的,因此,時間目前,根據各自的教區主教。

The work of education is common to all congregations of the order.這項工作的教育是共同的所有教會的秩序。 It takes the form in different places of seminaries for ecclesiastical studies, schools, and gymnasia for secondary education not strictly ecclesiastical, or of colleges for a higher or university course.它採取的形式在不同地方的教會神學院的研究,學校,體育館和中學教育不嚴格教會,或高校較高或大學課程。 In Austria and Bavaria many of the government lycées or gymnasia are entrusted to the care of the monks.在奧地利和德國巴伐利亞州許多政府中學體育館或委託給照顧的僧侶。 In England and America the Benedictine schools rank high amongst the educational establishments of those countries, and compete successfully with the non-Catholic schools of a similar class.在英格蘭和美國的本篤名列前茅的學校之間的教育機構,這些國家,並成功地競爭與非天主教學校類似的階級。 Those of the American Cassinese congregation have already been enumerated; they include three seminaries, fourteen schools and colleges, and an orphanage, with a total of nearly two thousand students.這些美國Cassinese眾已經列舉;他們包括三個學院, 14個學校和學院,和一所孤兒院,總共有近2000學生。 The Swiss American congregation carries on scholastic work at five of its abbeys.瑞士的美國教會學校進行工作五個修道院。 At.在。 St. Meinrad's, besides the seminary, there is a commercial college; at Spielerville (Arkansas) and Mount Angels (Oregon) are seminaries; and at Conception, Spielerville, Covington (Louisiana), and Mount Angel are colleges.聖Meinrad的,除了神學院,有一個商業學院;在Spielerville (阿肯色州)和山天使(俄勒岡州)是神學院;和概念, Spielerville ,溫頓(路易斯安那州)和山天使的學院。 The English Benedictines have large and flourishing colleges attached to each of their abbeys, and belonging to Downside are also two other smaller schools, one a "grammar school" at Ealing, London, and the other a preparatory school recently established at Enniscorthy, Ireland.英文本篤大和繁榮高校重視各自的修道院,以及屬於下方還有兩個其他較小的學校,一個是“文法學校”在Ealing ,倫敦和其他籌備學校最近成立於Enniscorthy ,愛爾蘭。

Foreign Missionary Work外交部傳教工作

Besides the congregation of St. Ottilien, which exists specially for the purpose of foreign missionary work, and has ten mission stations in the Apostolic Vicariate of Zanzibar, a few others are also represented in the foreign mission field.除了聚集Ottilien街,其中存在著專門為目的的外國傳教士的工作,並有10個團站的宗座代牧區的桑給巴爾,其他幾個也派代表參加在外國使團場。 Both American congregations labour amongst the Indians, in Saskatchewan (NWT, Canada), Dakota, Vancouver's Island, and elsewhere.美教區勞工之間的印度人,在薩斯喀徹溫省(新世界電訊,加拿大) ,南達科他州,溫哥華島,和其他地方。 The Cassinese PO congregation has missions in the Apostolic Vicariate of the Indian Territory (USA) and in Argentina, under the monks of the French province, in New Zealand under the English province, in Western Australia (Diocese of New Nursia and Apostolic Vicariate of Kimberley) and in the Philippines under the Spanish province, and the Belgian province has quite lately made a foundation in the Transvaal, South Africa.該Cassinese婆聚集了特派團在宗座代牧區的印度領土(美國)和在阿根廷,根據僧侶的法國省,在新西蘭的英語省,西澳大利亞州(教區新努爾西亞和宗座代牧區金伯利)和在菲律賓的西班牙省和比利時省最近已作出相當的基礎在德蘭士瓦,南非。 The Brazilian congregation has several missions in Brazil, which are under the direction of the Abbot of Rio de Janeiro, who is also a bishop.巴西眾有幾個代表團在巴西,這是領導下的住持里約熱內盧,誰也是一個主教。 In the island of Mauritius the Bishop of Port Louis is generally an English Benedictine.在毛里求斯島主教路易港通常是一個英文版篤。 Mention has already been made of the work of the Sylvestrine Benedictines in Ceylon and of the Cistercians in Natal, South Africa.提到已經取得的工作Sylvestrine篤在錫蘭和熙在納塔爾,南非。

Statistics of the Order統計令

Notice that these figures were published in 1907.公告表示,這些數字在1907年出版。

Congregation聖座 Monasteries寺院 Monks僧侶 Missions and Churches Served特派團和教會服務 No. of Souls第靈魂 Administered to以經管
Schools學校 Students學生
Cassinese 16 188 274 170,540十七點○五四萬 6 6日 476
English英語 4 277 79 87,328 87328 5 380
Swiss瑞士 5 355 42 34,319 34319 7 7日 978
Bavarian巴伐利亞 11 11日 383 51 78,422 78422 10 10個 1,719 1719
Brazilian巴西 1 3 1 1064 7 7日 70
Gallican高盧聖 1 13 74 1550 1550年 2 42
American Cassinese美國Cassinese 10 10個 753 151 110,320 110320 18 1,702 1702
Beuronese 9 9日 71 11 11日 43,812 43812 5 141
Swiss American瑞士美國 7 7日 348 103 35,605 35605 10 10個 675
American美國 7 7日 348 103 35,605 35605 10 10個 675
Cassinese PO Cassinese婆 36 1,092 1092 90 115,410一十一萬五千四百一 17 859
Austrian: Imm.奧地利:入境事務處。 Conc.濃。 11 11日 647 367 460,832 460832 11 11日 1,891 1891
Austrian: St. Joseph奧地利:聖若瑟 7 7日 293 61 55,062 55062 10 10個 901
Hungarian匈牙利語 11 11日 198 145 37,269 37269 6 6日 1,668 1668
St. Ottilien聖Ottilien 2 16 310 2,835 2835 3 190
Fort Augustus奧古斯堡 1 4 7 7日 8430
St. Anselm's聖安瑟倫的 1 1
TOTAL 總計 155 155 5,940 5940 1,402 1402 1,192,734 1,192,734 114 114 12,392 12392

Other其他

Orders and congregations professing the Rule of St. Benedict but not included in the Benedictine Federation are as follows:-訂單和教會信奉法治的聖本篤,但不包括在本篤聯邦如下: -

Congregation聖座 Monasteries寺院 No. of Religious宗教號
Camaldolese 19 241
Vallombrosa 3 60
Cistercians (Common Observance)熙(共同遵守) 29 1,040
Cistercians (Trappists)熙( Trappists ) 58 3,637 3637
Sylvestrines 9 9日 95
Olivetans 10 10個 122
Mechitarists 14 152
TOTALS 合計 142 142 5,347 5347

Nuns, Benedictine and others:-修女,本篤和其他: -

>
Congregation聖座 Convents修道院 No. of Religious宗教號
Benedictine Nuns: 1.本篤會修女: 1 。 Under Benedictine Abbots根據篤Abbots 9 9日 251
Benedictine Nuns: 2.本篤會修女: 2 。 Under Bishops根據主教 253 7,156 7156
Camaldolese Nuns Camaldolese修女 5 150
Cistercian Nuns修道院修女 100 2,965 2965
Olivetan Nuns歐利夫坦修女 20 200
TOTALS 合計 387 387 10,722 10722

The foregoing tables, which are taken from the "Album Benedictinum" of 1906, give a grand aggregate of 684 monasteries, with 22,009 religious of both sexes. The statistics for missions and churches served include those churches and missions over which the monasteries exercise the right of patronage, as well as those actually served by monks.上述表格,這是取自“專輯Benedictinum ”的1906年,給予了隆重的合計684寺院,宗教與22009的男女。統計的任務和教會服務,包括教堂和團以上的寺廟行使權利贊助,以及實際服務的僧侶。

V. BENEDICTINES OF SPECIAL DISTINCTION五,本篤的特殊區別

The following lists are not intended to be in any way exhaustive; they merely profess to include some of the more famous members of the order.下面列出不打算以任何方式詳盡無遺;它們只是信奉,包括一些比較著名的成員的命令。 The names are classified according to the particular sphere of work in which they are most celebrated, but although many of them might therefore have a just claim to be included in more than one of the different classes, when the same individual was distinguished in several different departments of work, from considerations of space and for the avoidance of unnecessary repetition, his name has been inserted only under one head.名字被歸類的特定領域的工作,他們最有名的,但儘管許多人可能會因此有一個公正的索賠包括在一個以上的不同類別時,同一個人的尊敬在幾個不同的各部門的工作,從空間的考慮和避免不必要的重複,他的名字一直只能在插入一個頭。 The lists are arranged more or less chronologically, except where some connecting features seem to call for special grouping.這些名單佈置或多或少順序,但在一些連接功能似乎特別呼籲分組。 To most of the names the country to which the individual belonged is added in parenthesis.大部分國家的名字該是屬於個人補充括號中。

Popes教皇

St. Gregory the Great (Rome); born c.聖格里高利大(羅馬) ;出生的角 540, d. 540 , d. 604; one of the four Latin doctors; celebrated for his writings and for his reform of ecclesiastical change; called the "Apostle of England" because he sent St. Augustine to that country in 596. 604 ;之一四個拉丁美洲醫生;慶祝他的著作和他的改革教會變化;所謂的“使徒的英格蘭隊” ,因為他送往聖奧古斯丁該國596 。 Sylvester II or Gerbert (France), 999-1003; a monk of Fleury. St.西爾維斯特二世或熱爾貝特(法國) , 999-1003 ;和尚的弗勒裡。街 Gregory VII or Hildebrand Aldobrandeschi (Tuscany), 1073-85; a monk of Cluny and afterwards Abbot of St. Paul's, Rome.格雷戈里第七或希爾德布蘭Aldobrandeschi (托斯卡納) , 1073至1085年,一個和尚的克呂尼及以後艾博特聖保羅,羅馬。 Bl.天麻。 Victor III (Benevento), 1087-87; Abbot of Monte Cassino.維克托三世(貝內文托) , 1087年至1087年;艾博特蒙稼軒。 Paschal II (Tuscany), 1099-1118; a monk of Cluny. Gelasius II or Giovanni da Gaeta, John Cajetan (Gaeta), 1118-19; historian.復活節二(托斯卡納) , 1099年至1118年,一個和尚的克呂尼。格拉西II或喬瓦尼達蓋塔,約翰Cajetan (蓋塔) , 1118年至1119年;歷史學家。 St. Celestine V or Pietro di Murrhone (Apulia), b.聖巴巴亞羅V或彼得教堂Murrhone (普利亞) ,灣 1221, d. 1221年, d. 1296; founder of the order of Celestines; was elected pope 1294, but abdicated after reigning only six months. 1296年,創始人為Celestines ;被選為教皇1294年,但退位後,在位僅六個月。 Clement VI (France), 1342-52; a monk of Chaise-Dieu.第六克萊門特(法國) , 1342年至1352年,一個和尚的馬車,上帝。 Bl.天麻。 Urban V (France), 1362-70; Abbot of St. Victor, Marseilles.城市第五(法國) , 1362至1370年;住持聖維克多,馬賽。 Pius VII or Barnaba Chiaramonti (Italy), 1800-23; was taken by force from Rome and imprisoned at Savona and Fontainebleu (1809-14) by Napoleon, whom he had crowned in 1804; returned to Rome in 1814.皮烏斯第七或Barnaba Chiaramonti (意大利) , 1800年至1823年,是由部隊從羅馬和關押在薩沃納和楓丹白露( 1809至1814年)的拿破崙,他曾在1804年加冕;返回羅馬於1814年。 Gregory XVI or Maurus Cappellari (Venice), 1831-46, a Camaldolese monk and Abbot of St. Andrew's on the Coelian Hill, Rome.格里高利十六或毛魯斯Cappellari (威尼斯) , 1831年至1846年,一個和尚和Camaldolese住持聖安德魯的Coelian山,羅馬。

Apostles and Missionaries使徒和傳教士

St. Augustine (Rome), d.聖奧古斯丁(羅馬) , d. 604; Prior of St. Andrew's on the Coelian Hill; the Apostle of England (596); first Archbishop of Canterbury (597). 604 ;之前的聖安德魯的Coelian希爾;使徒英格蘭( 596 ) ;第一坎特伯雷大主教( 597 ) 。 St. Boniface (England), b.聖博尼法斯(英格蘭) ,灣 680, martyred 755; Apostle of Germany and Archbishop of Mainz. 680 , 755烈士;使徒德國和大主教美因茨。 St. Willibrord (England), born c.聖威利布羅德(英格蘭) ,生於角 658, d. 658 , d. 738; the Apostle of Friesland. 738 ;使徒的弗里斯蘭省。 St. Swithbert (England), d.聖Swithbert (英格蘭) , d. 713; the Apostle of Holland. 713 ;使徒荷蘭。 St. Rupert (France), d. 718; the Apostle of Bavaria and Bishop of Salzburg.聖魯珀特(法國) , d. 718 ;使徒的巴伐利亞州和薩爾茨堡主教。 St. Sturm (Bavaria), d.聖斯特姆(巴伐利亞州) , d. 779; first Abbot of Fulda. 779 ;第一住持的福爾達。 St. Ansgar (Germany), b.聖Ansgar (德國) ,灣 801, d. 801 , d. 865; monk of Corbie and Apostle of Scandinavia. 865 ;和尚的Corbie和使徒的斯堪的納維亞半島。 St. Adalbert, d.聖阿德爾伯特, d. 997; the Apostle of Bohemia. Founders of Abbeys and Congregations, Reformers, etc. 997 ;使徒的波西米亞。創辦的修道院和聚會,改革者,等等

St. Erkenwald (England), died c.聖Erkenwald (英格蘭) ,死亡角 693; Bishop of London; founder of Chertsey and Barking abbeys. 693 ;主教倫敦創辦徹特西和門口的修道院。 St. Benedict Biscop (England), d.聖本篤Biscop (英格蘭) , d. 690; founder of Wearmouth and Jarrow. 690 ;創始人Wearmouth和杰諾。 St. Filbert (France), d.聖榛(法國) , d. 684; founder of Jumièges. 684 ;創始人Jumièges 。 St. Benedict of Aniane (France), d.聖本篤的Aniane (法國) , d. 821; reformer of monasteries under Charlemagne; presided at council of abbots, Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), 817. 821 ;改革者下寺廟查理曼;主持理事會abbots ,亞琛(阿亨) , 817 。 St. Dunstan (England), d.聖鄧斯坦(英格蘭) , d. 988; Abbot of Glastonbury (c. 945), and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury (961); reformer of English monasteries. 988 ;艾博特的格拉斯頓伯里(角945 ) ,此後坎特伯雷大主教( 961 ) ;改革者的英語寺廟。 St. Berno (France), d.聖Berno (法國) , d. 927; founder and first Abbot of Cluny (909). 927 ;創始人和第一住持的克呂尼( 909 ) 。 St. Odo or Eudes (France), b.聖Odo或Eudes (法國) ,灣 879, d. 879 , d. 942; second Abbot of Cluny. 942 ;第二艾博特的克呂尼。 St. Aymard (France), d.聖Aymard (法國) , d. 965; third Abbot of Cluny. 965 ;第三艾博特的克呂尼。 St. Majolus or Maieul (France), b.聖Majolus或Maieul (法國) ,灣 906, d. 906 , d. 994; fourth Abbot of Cluny; Otto II desired to make him pope in 974 but he refused. 994 ;第四住持的克呂尼;奧托二世理想使他在974教皇,但他拒絕了。 St. Odilo (France), d.聖Odilo (法國) , d. 1048; fifth Abbot of Cluny. Bernard of Cluny (France), d. 1048年;第五住持的克呂尼。伯納德的克呂尼(法國) , d. 1109; famous in connexion with the eleventh-century "Ordo Cluniacensis" which bears his name. 1109 ;有名的聯繫與第十一屆世紀的“秩序Cluniacensis ”承擔著他的名字。 Peter the Venerable (France), d.彼得尊者(法國) , d. 1156; ninth Abbot of Cluny; employed by several popes in important affairs of the Church. 1156年,第九屆艾博特的克呂尼;僱用的幾個教皇在重要事務的教會。 St. Romuald (Italy), b.聖若慕爾德(意大利) ,灣 956, d. 956 , d. 1026; founder of the Camaldolese congregation (1009). 1026年,創始人Camaldolese眾( 1009 ) 。 Herluin (France), d. Herluin (法國) , d. 1078; founder of Bec (1040). 1078年,創始人卡特萊特( 1040 ) 。 St. Robert of Molesmes (France), b.聖羅伯特Molesmes (法國) ,灣 1018, d. 1018年, d. 1110; founder and Abbot of Molesmes (1075); joint-founder and first Abbot of Cîteaux (1098). 1110年,創始人和艾博特的Molesmes ( 1075 ) ;聯合創始人和第一住持Cîteaux ( 1098 ) 。 St. Alberic (France), d.聖阿爾貝里克(法國) , d. 1109; joint-founder and second Abbot of Cîteaux. 1109 ;聯合創始人和第二住持Cîteaux 。 St. Stephen Harding (England), d.聖士提反哈丁(英格蘭) , d. 1134; joint-founder and third Abbot of Cîteaux. 1134 ;聯合創始人和第三住持Cîteaux 。 St. Bernard (France), b.聖伯納德(法國) ,灣 1091, d. 1091年, d. 1153; joined Cîteaux with thirty other noblemen (1113); founded Clairvaux (1115); wrote many spiritual and theological works; was a statesman and adviser of kings, and a Doctor of the Church; he preached the Second Crusade throughout France and Germany at the request of Eugenius III (1146). 1153 ;加入Cîteaux與其他貴族30 ( 1113 ) ;成立伯爾納( 1115 ) ;寫了許多精神和神學作品;是一個政治家和國王的顧問和醫生的教會,他鼓吹的第二次十字軍東征整個法國和德國在的要求,葉夫根尼三( 1146 ) 。 St. William of Hirschau (Germany), c.聖威廉Hirschau (德國) ,角 1090; author of "Constitutions of Hirschau". 1090年,作者的“憲法Hirschau ” 。 St. John Gualbert (Italy), b.聖約翰Gualbert (意大利) ,灣 999, d. 999 , d. 1073; founder of Vallombrosa (1039). 1073年,創始人Vallombrosa ( 1039 ) 。 St. Stephen or Etienne (France), d.聖士提反或聖埃蒂安(法國) , d. 1124; founder of Grammont (1076). Bl. 1124年,創始人格拉蒙( 1076 ) 。天麻。 Robert of Arbrissel (France), d.羅伯特Arbrissel (法國) , d. 1116; founder of Fontevrault (1099). 1116年,創始人Fontevrault ( 1099 ) 。 St. William (Italy), d.聖威廉(意大利) , d. 1142; founder of Monte Vergine (1119). 1142年,創始人蒙Vergine ( 1119 ) 。 St. Sylvester (Italy), b.聖西爾維斯特(意大利) ,灣 1177, d. 1177年, d. 1267; founder of the Sylvestrines (1231). 1267年,創始人Sylvestrines ( 1231 ) 。 St. Bernard Ptolemy (Italy), b.聖伯納德托勒密(意大利) ,灣 1272, d. 1272年, d. 1348; founder of the Olivetans (1319). 1348年,創始人Olivetans ( 1319 ) 。 Ludovico Barbo (Italy), d. Ludovico Barbo (意大利) , d. 1443; first a canon regular, then Abbot of St. Justina of Padua and founder of the congregation of the same name (1409). 1443 ;首次佳能定期,然後住持聖太的帕多瓦和創始人聚集相同的名稱( 1409 ) 。 Didier de la Cour (France), b.迪迪埃德拉魯阿法院(法國) ,灣 1550, d. 1550年, d. 1623; founder of the congregation of St.-Vannes (1598). Laurent Bénard (France), b. 1623年,創始人聚集聖瓦納( 1598 ) 。洛朗貝納德(法國) ,灣 1573, d. 1573年, d. 1620; Prior of Cluny College, Paris, and founder of the Maurist congregation (1618). 1620年;之前的克呂尼學院,巴黎和創始人Maurist眾( 1618 ) 。 José Serra (Spain), b.何塞拉(西班牙) ,灣 1811, died c. 1880; Coadjutor bishop of Perth, Australia (1848); and Rudesind Salvado (Spain), b. 1811年, 1880年死於角;助理主教珀斯,澳大利亞( 1848年) ;和Rudesind薩爾瓦多(西班牙) ,灣 1814, d. 1814年, d. 1900; Bishop of Port Victoria (1849); founders of New Nursia, Australia. 1900年;主教維多利亞港( 1849年) ;創辦新努爾西亞,澳大利亞。 Prosper Guéranger (France), b.普羅斯珀Guéranger (法國) ,灣 1805, d. 1805年, d. 1875; founder of the Gallican congregation (1837); restored Solesmes (1837); well known as a liturgical writer. 1875年,創始人高盧聖教會( 1837 ) ;恢復索雷姆( 1837 ) ;眾所周知作為禮儀的作家。 Jean-Baptiste Muard (France), b.讓巴蒂斯特Muard (法國) ,灣 1809, d. 1809年, d. 1854; founder of Pierre-qui-Vire and of the French province of the Cassinese Congregation of the Primitive Observance (1850). 1854年,創始人皮埃爾魁維爾和法國省Cassinese教會原始遵守( 1850 ) 。 Maurus Wolter (Germany), b.毛魯斯沃爾特(德國) ,灣 1825, d. 1825年, d. 1900; founder of the Beuronese congregation (1860); Abbot of Beuron (1868). 1900年,創始人Beuronese眾( 1860 ) ;住持Beuron ( 1868年) 。 Pietro Francesco Casaretto (Italy), b.彼得弗朗西斯Casaretto (意大利) ,灣 1810, d. 1810年, d. 1878; founder and first Abbot-General of Cassinese congregation of Primitive Observance (1851). 1878年,創始人和第一艾博特秘書長Cassinese聚集原始遵守( 1851年) 。 Boniface Wimmer (Bavaria), b.博尼法斯溫默(巴伐利亞州) ,灣 1809, d. 1809年, d. 1887; founder of American Cassinese congregation (1855). Martin Marty (Switzerland), b. 1887年,創始人美國Cassinese眾( 1855年) 。馬蒂馬丁(瑞士) ,灣 1834, d. 1834年, d. 1896; founder of Swiss American congregation (1870); Abbot of St. Meinrad's, Indiana (1870); Vicar Apostolic of Dakota (1879). 1896年,創始人瑞士美國眾( 1870年) ;住持聖Meinrad的,印地安那( 1870年) ;牧師使徒的南達科他州( 1879年) 。 Jerome Vaughan (England), b.杰羅姆沃恩(英格蘭) ,灣 1841, d. 1841年, d. 1896; founder of Fort Augustus Abbey (1878). 1896年,創始人奧古斯堡修道院( 1878年) 。 Gerard van Caloen (Belgium), b.杰拉德麵包車Caloen (比利時) ,灣 1853; restorer of Brazilian congregation; Abbot of Bahia (1896); titular Bishop of Phocaelig;a (1906). 1853 ;恢復了巴西眾;艾博特的巴伊亞州( 1896年) ;領銜主教Phocaelig一個( 1906年) 。

Scholars, Historians, Spiritual Writers, etc.學者,歷史學家,作家的精神,等等

St. Bede (England), b.聖比德(英格蘭) ,灣 673, d. 673 , d. 735; monk of Jarrow, Doctor of the Church, historian, and commentator. 735 ;和尚的杰諾,醫生的教會,歷史學家,和解說員。 St. Aldhelm (England), d.聖Aldhelm (英格蘭) , d. 709; Abbot of Malmesbury and Bishop of Sherborne. 709 ;艾博特的馬姆斯伯里和舍伯恩主教。 Alcuin (England), d.阿爾昆(英格蘭) , d. 804, monk of York; founder of schools in France under Charlemagne. 804 ,和尚的紐約;創辦的學校在法國的葡萄園。 Rabanus Maurus (Germany), d.拉巴努毛魯斯(德國) , d. 856; Archbishop of Mainz. 856 ;大主教美因茨。 St. Paschasius Radbertus (Germany), d.聖Paschasius Radbertus (德國) , d. 860; Abbot of Corbie. 860 ;住持Corbie 。 Ratramnus (Germany), d. Ratramnus (德國) , d. 866; a monk of Corbie, who took part in Sacramentarian controversy. 866 ;和尚的Corbie ,誰參加了Sacramentarian爭議。 Walafrid Strabo (Germany), d. Walafrid斯特拉波(德國) , d. 849; a monk of Fulda, and afterwards Abbot of Reichenau. 849 ;和尚的富爾達,此後的賴歇瑙住持。 Abbon of Fleury (France), tenth century; at one time a monk at Canterbury. Abbon的弗勒裡(法國) , 10世紀;一次和尚在坎特伯雷。 Notker (Switzerland), d. Notker (瑞士) , d. 1022; a monk of St. Gall; theologican, mathematician, and musician. 1022 ;和尚聖加爾; theologican ,數學家,音樂家。 Guido d'Arezzo (Italy), died c. 1028; inventor of the gamut.圭多德Arezzo (意大利) , 1028年死於角;發明者域。 Hermannus Contractus (Germany), eleventh century; a monk of St. Gall; learned in Eastern languages; author of the "Salve Regina". Paul Warnefrid, or Paul the Deacon (Italy), eighth century; historian and teacher (scholasticus) at Monte Cassino. Hermannus契約(德國) , 11世紀;和尚聖加爾;的經驗教訓在東歐語言;作者的“寬慰里賈納。 ”保羅Warnefrid ,或保羅的迪肯(意大利) ,第八世紀的歷史學家和教師( scholasticus )在蒙稼軒。 Hincmar (France), d. Hincmar (法國) , d. 882; a monk of St. Denis; Archbishop of Reims (845). 882 ;和尚的聖丹尼斯;大主教蘭斯( 845 ) 。 St. Peter Damian (Italy), b.聖彼得達米安(意大利) ,灣 988, d. 988 , d. 1072; a monk of the Camaldolese reform at Fonte Avellano; Cardinal Bishop of Ostia (1057). 1072年,一個和尚的Camaldolese改革,豐特Avellano ;樞機主教915 ( 1057 ) 。 Lanfranc (Italy), b.蘭弗朗克(意大利) ,灣 1005 in Lombardy, d. 1005年在倫巴第大區, d. at Canterbury, 1089; a monk at Beck (1042); founder of the school there; Archbishop of Canterbury (1070).在坎特伯雷, 1089年,一個和尚在貝克( 1042 ) ;創辦的學校有;坎特伯雷大主教( 1070 ) 。 St. Anselm (Italy), b.聖安瑟倫(意大利) ,灣 1033 in Piedmont, d. 1033年在皮埃蒙特, d. 1109; a monk at Bec (1060); Abbot of Bec (1078); Archbishop of Canterbury (1093); usually considered the first scholastic. 1109年,一個和尚在卡特萊特( 1060 ) ;艾博特的卡特萊特( 1078 ) ;坎特伯雷大主教( 1093年) ;通常被視為第一學年。 Eadmer (England), d. Eadmer (英格蘭) , d. 1137; a monk of Canterbury and disciple of St. Anselm, whose life he wrote. 1137年,一個和尚和坎特伯雷的聖弟子安瑟倫,他的生命他寫道。 The English historians; Florence of Worcester, d. 1118; Simeon of Durham, d.英國歷史學家;佛羅倫薩的伍斯特市, d. 1118 ;西門達勒姆, d. 1130; Jocelin de Brakelonde, d. 11時30分; Jocelin德Brakelonde , d. 1200, a monk and chronicler of Bury St. Edmunds; Matthew Paris, d. 1200年,一個和尚和chronicler的伯里聖埃德蒙茲;馬修巴黎, d. 1259, a monk of St. Albans; William of Malmesbury, died c. 1259年,一個和尚的聖奧爾本斯;馬姆斯伯里的威廉去世,享年角 1143; Gervase of Canterbury, died c. 1143 ; Gervase坎特伯雷,死亡角 1205; Roger of Wendover, d. 1205 ;羅傑的溫多弗, d. 1237, a monk of St. Albans. 1237年,一個和尚的聖奧爾本斯。 Peter the Deacon (Italy), died c. 1140; a monk of Monte Cassino.彼得的迪肯(意大利) , 1140死於角;和尚蒙稼軒。 Adam Easton (England), d.亞當伊斯頓(英格蘭) , d. 1397, a monk of Norwich; Cardinal (1380). 1397年,一個和尚的諾里奇;樞機主教( 1380年) 。 John Lydgate (England), died c.約翰Lydgate (英格蘭) ,死亡角 1450; a monk of Bury St. 1450 ;和尚街的伯里 Edmunds; poet.埃德蒙茲;詩人。 John Wheathamstead (England), d.約翰Wheathamstead (英格蘭) , d. 1440; Abbot of St. Albans. Johannes Trithemius (Germany), b. 1440年,住持聖奧爾本斯。約翰內斯Trithemius (德國) ,灣 1462, d. 1462年, d. 1516; Abbot of Spanheim, a voluminous writer and great traveller. 1516 ;的施潘海姆伯爵阿伯特,一個浩繁的作家和偉大的旅行家。 Louis Blosius (Belgium), b.路易Blosius (比利時) ,灣 1506, d. 1506年, d. 1566; Abbot of Liessies (1530); author of the "Mirror for Monks". 1566 ;住持Liessies ( 1530 ) ;作者的“鏡和尚” 。 Juan de Castaniza (Spain), d. 1599; a monk of St. Saviour's, Onna.胡安德Castaniza (西班牙) , d. 1599 ;和尚聖救主的,女。 Benedict van Haeften (Belgium), b.篤麵包車Haeften (比利時) ,灣 1588, d. 1648; Prior of Afflighem. 1588年, d. 1648年;之前的Afflighem 。 Clement Reyner (England), b.克萊門特Reyner (英格蘭) ,灣 1589, d. 1589年, d. 1651; a monk at Dieulouard (1610); Abbot of Lamspring (1643). 1651年,一個和尚在Dieulouard (一千六百十) ;住持Lamspring ( 1643 ) 。 Augustine Baker (England), b. 1575; d.奧古斯丁貝克爾(英格蘭) ,灣1575 ; d. 1641; a monk of Dieulouard and author of "Sancta Sophia". 1641年,一個和尚的Dieulouard和作者的“聖索菲亞” 。 Augustine Calmet (France), b.奧古斯丁卡爾梅特(法國) ,灣 1672, d. 1672年, d. 1757; Abbot of Senones-en-Vosges; best known for his "Dictionary of the Bible". 1757 ;住持Senones恩,孚日;最有名的“字典聖經” 。 Carolus Meichelbeck (Bavaria), b.卡羅勒斯Meichelbeck (巴伐利亞州) ,灣 1669; d. 1669 ; d. 1734; librarian and historian of Benediktbeuern. 1734 ;館員和歷史學家伯尼蒂克。 Magnoald Ziegelbauer (Germany), 1689, d. Magnoald Ziegelbauer (德國) , 1689年, d. 1750; author of a literary history of the Order of St. Benedict. 1750年,作者的文學史秩序的聖本篤。 Marquard Herrgott (Germany), b. Marquard Herrgott (德國) ,灣 1694, d. 1694年, d. 1762; a monk of St.-Blasien. 1762年,一個和尚的聖Blasien 。 Suitbert Baumer (Germany), b. Suitbert Baumer (德國) ,灣 1845, d. 1845年, d. 1894; a monk of Beuron. 1894年,一個和尚的Beuron 。 Luigi Tosti (Italy), b.路易吉托斯蒂(意大利) ,灣 1811, d. 1897; abbot; Vice-Archivist to the Holy See. 1811年, d. 1897年;住持;副主席檔案的羅馬教廷。 JBF Pitra (France), b. JBF羅弗(法國) ,灣 1812, d. 1812年, d. 1889; a monk of Solesmes; Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati (1863); librarian of the Holy Roman Church. 1889年,一個和尚的索雷姆;樞機主教弗拉斯卡蒂( 1863年) ;館員的羅馬教會。 Francis Aidan Gasquet (England), b.弗朗西斯艾丹加斯凱(英格蘭) ,灣 1846; a monk of Downside and Abbot-President of the English Benedictine congregation. 1846年,一個和尚的下跌和艾博特總統的英文本篤教會。 Fernand Cabrol (France), b.弗爾南多Cabrol (法國) ,灣 1855; Abbot of Farnborough (Gallican congregation). 1855年,阿博特的範堡羅(高盧聖教會) 。 Jean Besse (France), b.讓貝塞(法國) ,灣 1861; a monk of Ligugé. 1861年,一個和尚的Ligugé 。 Germain Morin, of the Beuronese congregation, b.日爾曼莫林,在Beuronese教會灣 1861. 1861年。 John Chapman, of the Beuronese congregation, b.約翰查普曼的Beuronese教會灣 1865. Edward Cuthbert Butler (England), b. 1865年。愛德華卡斯伯特巴特勒(英格蘭) ,灣 1858; Abbot of Downside (1906). 1858年,阿博特的下跌( 1906年) 。

The Congregation of St.-Maur聖座聖莫爾

The following are some of the chief writers of this congregation: Adrien Langlois, d.以下是一些主要作家這一眾:阿德里安彰, d. 1627; one of the first Maurists. 1627 ;的第一個Maurists 。 Nicolas Menard, b.尼古拉默納德灣 1585, d. 1585年, d. 1644. Gregoire Tarrisse, b. 1644年。葛瑞格爾巴西塔灣 1575, d. 1575年, d. 1648; first Superior General of the congregation. Luc d'Achery, b. 1648年,第一次大會上的聚集。呂克德Achery灣 1609, d. 1609年, d. 1685. 1685 。 Antoine-Joseph Mege, b.安托萬約瑟夫Mege灣 1625, d. 1625年, d. 1691. 1691 。 Louis Bulteau, b.路易Bulteau灣 1625, d. 1625年, d. 1693. 1693 。 Michel Germain, b.米歇爾日爾曼灣 1645, d. 1645年, d. 1694; a companion of Mabillon. 1694 ;同伴的Mabillon 。 Claude Martin, b.克勞德馬丁灣 1619, d. 1619年, d. 1707; the greatest of the Maurists. 1707 ;的最大Maurists 。 Thierry Ruinart, b.亨利Ruinart灣 1657, d. 1657年, d. 1709; a companion and biographer of Mabillon. 1709 ;同伴和傳記的Mabillon 。 François Lamy, b.弗朗索瓦拉米灣 1636, d. 1636年, d. 1711. 1711 。 Pierre Coustant, b.皮埃爾Coustant灣 1654, d. 1654年, d. 1721. 1721 。 Denis de Sainte-Marthe, b.丹尼斯德聖瑪爾特灣 1650, d. 1650年, d. 1725. 1725 。 Julien Garnier, b.朱利安卡尼爾灣 1670, d. 1670年, d. 1725. 1725 。 Edmond Martène, b.愛德蒙Martène灣 1654, d. 1654年, d. 1739. 1739年。 Ursin Durand, b. Ursin杜蘭德灣 1682, d. 1682年, d. 1773. 1773 。 Bernard de Montefaucon, b.貝爾納的Montefaucon灣 1655, d. 1655年, d. 1741. 1741 。 René-Prosper Tassin, d.勒內,普羅斯珀Tassin , d. 1777. 1777 。

Bishops, Monks, Martyrs, etc.主教,僧侶,烈士等

St. Laurence (Italy), d.聖勞倫斯(意大利) , d. 619; came to England with St. Augustine (597), whom he succeeded as Archbishop of Canterbury (604). 619 ;來到英格蘭與聖奧古斯丁( 597 ) ,他成功地為坎特伯雷大主教( 604 ) 。 St. Mellitus (Italy), d.聖糖尿病(意大利) , d. 624; a Roman abbot, sent to England with other monks to assist St. Augustine (601); founder of St. Paul's, London, and first Bishop of London (604); Archbishop of Canterbury (619). 624 ;羅馬住持,發送到英格蘭與其他僧人,以協助聖奧古斯丁( 601 ) ;創始人聖保羅,倫敦,第一次在倫敦主教( 604 ) ;坎特伯雷大主教( 619 ) 。 St. Justus (Italy), d.聖賈斯特斯(意大利) , d. 627; came to England (601); first Bishop of Rochester (604) and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury (624). 627 ;來到英格蘭( 601 ) ;第一主教羅切斯特( 604 )及以後坎特伯雷大主教( 624 ) 。 St. Paulinus of York (Italy), d.聖Paulinus約克(意大利) , d. 644; came to England (601); first Bishop of York (625); Bishop of Rochester (633). 644 ;來到英格蘭( 601 ) ;第一主教紐約( 625 ) ;主教羅切斯特( 633 ) 。 St. Odo (England), d.聖Odo (英格蘭) , d. 961; Archbishop of Canterbury. 961 ;坎特伯雷大主教。 St. Elphege or Aelfheah (England), d.聖Elphege或Aelfheah (英格蘭) , d. 1012; Archbishop of Canterbury (1006); killed by the Danes. 1012 ;坎特伯雷大主教( 1010 ) ;殺害了丹麥。 St. Oswald (England), d.聖奧斯瓦爾德(英格蘭) , d. 992; nephew of St. Odo of Canterbury; Bishop of Worcester (959); Archbishop of York (972). 992 ;侄子街Odo坎特伯雷;伍斯特主教( 959 ) ;約克大主教( 972 ) 。 St. Bertin (France), b.聖貝爾坦(法國) ,灣 597, d. 597 , d. 709; Abbot of Saint-Omer. 709 ;住持聖歐麥。 St. Botolph (England), d.聖Botolph (英格蘭) , d. 655; abbot. 655 ;住持。 St. Wilfrid, born c.聖威爾弗里德,生於角 634, d. 634 , d. 709; Bishop of York. 709 ;紐約教區主教。 St. Cuthbert, d.聖庫斯伯特, d. 687; Bishop of Landisfarne. 687 ;主教Landisfarne 。 St. John of Beverley, d.聖約翰的貝弗利, d. 721; Bishop of Hexham. 721 ;主教赫克瑟姆。 St. Swithin, d.聖斯韋辛, d. 862; Bishop of Winchester. 862 ;溫徹斯特主教。 St. Ethelwold, d.聖Ethelwold , d. 984; Bishop of Winchester. 984 ;溫徹斯特主教。 St. Wulfstan, d.聖Wulfstan , d. 1095; Bishop of Worcester. 1095 ;伍斯特主教。 St. Ælred, b.聖Ælred灣 1109, d. 1166; Abbot of Rievaulx, Yorkshire. 1109年, d. 1166 ;住持Rievaulx ,約克夏。 St. Thomas of Canterbury or Thomas Becket, born c.聖托馬斯的坎特伯雷或托馬斯貝克特,生於角 1117, martyred 1170; Chancellor of England (1155); Archbishop of Canterbury (1162). 1117年, 1170年犧牲;校長英格蘭( 1155 ) ;坎特伯雷大主教( 1162 ) 。 St. Edmund Rich, d.聖埃德蒙豐富, d. 1240; Archbishop of Canterbury (1234); died in exile. 1240 ;坎特伯雷大主教( 1234 ) ;死於流亡。 Suger (France), b.糖(法國) ,灣 1081, d. 1081年, d. 1151; Abbot of St. Denis and Regent of France. 1151 ;住持聖丹尼斯和法國的攝政王。 Bl.天麻。 Richard Whiting, abbot of Glastonbury, Bl.理查德懷,住持格拉斯頓伯里,天麻。 Roger James, and Bl. John Thorn, monks of Glastonbury; Bl.羅傑詹姆斯,與BL 。約翰索恩,僧侶的格拉斯頓伯里;天麻。 Hugh Faringdon, Abbot of Reading, Bl. William Eynon, and Bl.休法林登,艾博特的讀,天麻。威廉艾農,與BL 。 John Rugg, monks of Reading; and Bl.約翰拉格,僧侶閱讀;與BL 。 John Beche, Abbot of Colchester; all executed (1539) for denying the supremacy of Henry VIII in ecclesiastical matters.約翰貝歇,艾博特的科爾切斯特;所有處決( 1539 )否認至高無上的亨利八世在教會的問題。 John de Feckenham (or Howman), d.約翰德薩蘭Feckenham (或Howman ) , d. 1585; last Abbot of Westminster; died in prison. 1585 ;去年艾博特威斯敏斯特;在監獄中死亡。 Sigebert Buckley, born c. Sigebert巴克利,生於角 1517, d. 1517年, d. 1610; a monk of Westminster; the link between the old and new English congregations. 1610年,一個和尚威斯敏斯特;之間的聯繫,老的和新的英語聚會。 Ven.文。 John Roberts, born c.約翰羅伯茨,生於角 1575, martyred 1610; founder of St. Gregory's, Douai. 1575年, 1610年犧牲;創辦的聖格雷戈里的,杜埃。 William Gabriel Gifford, b.威廉加布里埃爾吉福德灣 1554, d. 1554年, d. 1629; professor of theology at Reims (1582); Dean of Lille (1597); a monk at Dieulouard (1609); Archbishop of Reims (1622). Leander of St. Martin (John Jones), b. 1629 ;神學教授蘭斯( 1582 ) ;院長里爾( 1597 ) ;一名僧人在Dieulouard ( 1609年) ;大主教蘭斯( 1622 ) 。利安德的聖馬丁(約翰瓊斯) ,灣 1575, d. 1575年, d. 1635; President of the English congregation and Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai. 1635 ;主席的英文和前聚集的聖格雷戈里的,杜埃。 Philip Ellis, b.菲利普埃利斯灣 1653, d. 1653年, d. 1726; Vicar Apostolic of the Western District (1688); transferred to Segni, Italy (1708). 1726 ;牧師使徒西區( 1688 ) ;轉移到塞尼,意大利( 1708 ) 。 Charles Walmesley, b.查爾斯Walmesley灣 1722, d. 1722 , d. 1797; Vicar Apostolic of the Western District (1764); a Doctor of the Sorbonne and FRS William Placid Morris, b. 1794, d. 1797 ;牧師使徒西區( 1764 ) ;博士的索邦大學和威廉普萊西德的FRS莫里斯灣1794 , d. 1872; a monk of Downside; Vicar Apostolic of Mauritius (1832). 1872年,一個和尚的下跌;牧師使徒毛里求斯( 1832 ) 。 John Bede Polding, b.約翰比德Polding灣 1794, d. 1794年, d. 1877; a monk of Downside; Vicar Apostolic in Australia (1834); first Archbishop of Sydney (1851). 1877年,一個和尚的下跌;牧師使徒在澳大利亞( 1834年) ;第一大主教悉尼( 1851年) 。 William Bernard Ullathorne, b.威廉伯納德Ullathorne灣 1806, d. 1806年, d. 1889; a monk of Downside; Vicar Apostolic of the Western District (1846); transferred to Birmingham (1850); resigned (1888). 1889年,一個和尚的下跌;牧師使徒西區( 1846年) ;轉移到伯明翰( 1850 ) ;辭職( 1888 ) 。 Roger Bede Vaughan, b.羅傑比德漢灣 1834, d. 1834年, d. 1883; a monk of Downside; Cathedral Prior of Belmont (1863); coadjutor to Archbishop Polding (1872); succeeded as Archbishop of Sydney (1877). 1883年,一個和尚的下跌;大教堂前的貝爾蒙( 1863年) ;幫手,以大主教Polding ( 1872年) ;成功的大主教悉尼( 1877年) 。 Cardinal Sanfelice (Italy), b.紅衣主教Sanfelice (意大利) ,灣 1834, d. 1834年, d. 1897; Archbishop of Naples; formerly Abbot of La Cava. 1897年;大主教那不勒斯;原住持拉卡瓦。 Joseph Pothier (France), b.約瑟夫波蒂埃(法國) ,灣 1835; inaugurator of the Solesmes school of plain-chant; Abbot of Fontanelle (1898). 1835年; inaugurator的索雷姆學校的純詠;住持囟( 1898年) 。 Andre Mocquereau (France), b.安德烈Mocquereau (法國) ,灣 1849; Prior of Solesmes and successor to Dom Pothier as leader of the school. 1849年;之前的索雷姆和繼承大教堂波蒂埃領導人的學校。 John Cuthbert Hedley, b.約翰卡斯伯特赫德利灣 1837; a monk of Ampleforth; consecrated Coadjutor Bishop of Newport (1873); succeeded as Bishop (1881). 1837年,一個和尚的Ampleforth ;神聖助理主教新港( 1873年) ;成功的主教( 1881年) 。 Benedetto Bonazzi (Italy), b.貝尼Bonazzi (意大利) ,灣 1840; Abbot of La Cava (1894); Archbishop of Benevento (1902). 1840年,阿博特的拉卡瓦( 1894 ) ;大主教貝內文托( 1902 ) 。 Domenico Serafini (Italy), b.多塞拉菲尼(意大利) ,灣 1852; Abbot General of the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance (1886); Archbishop of Spoleto (1900). 1852年,阿博特秘書長Cassinese原始教會遵守( 1886年) ;大主教斯波萊托( 1900 ) 。 Hildebrand de Hemptinne (Belgium), b.希爾德布蘭的Hemptinne (比利時) ,灣 1849; Abbot Primate of the order; Abbot of Maredsous (1890); nominated Abbot Primate by Leo XIII (1893). 1849年;住持靈長類動物的秩序;住持Maredsous ( 1890 ) ;提名住持靈長類動物的利奧十三世( 1893年) 。

Nuns修女

St. Scholastica, died c.聖Scholastica ,死亡角 543; sister to St. Benedict. 543 ;妹妹聖本篤。 Among English Benedictine nuns, the most celebrated are: St. Etheldreda, d.在英文本篤會修女,最著名的有:聖Etheldreda , d. 679; Abbess of Ely. 679 ;住持的伊利。 St. Ethelburga, died c.聖Ethelburga ,死亡角 670; Abbess of Barking. 670 ;住持的門口。 St. Hilda, d.聖希爾達, d. 680; Abbess of Whitby. St. 680 ;住持的惠特。街 Werburgh, d. Werburgh , d. 699; Abbess of Chester. 699 ;住持的切斯特。 St. Mildred, seventh century; Abbess in Thanet.聖米爾德里德,七世紀;住持在薩尼特。 St. Walburga, d.聖Walburga , d. 779; a nun of Wimborne; sister to Sts. 779 ;尼姑的Wimborne ;妹妹街。 Willibald and Winnibald; went to Germany with Sts. Willibald和Winnibald ;前往德國與街。 Lioba and Thecla to assist St. Boniface c. 740. Lioba和Thecla ,以協助聖博尼法斯角740 。 St. Thecla, eighth century; a nun of Wimborne; Abbess of Kitzingen; died in Germany.聖Thecla ,第八世紀;尼姑的Wimborne ;住持的Kitzingen ;死在德國。 St. Lioba, d.聖Lioba , d. 779; a nun of Wimborne; cousin to St. Boniface; Abbess of Bischofsheim; died in Germany. 779 ;尼姑的Wimborne ;表弟聖博尼費;住持的Bischofsheim ;死在德國。 Among other Benedictine saints are: St. Hildegard (Germany), b.在其他篤聖人是:聖希爾德(德國) ,灣 1098, d. 1098年, d. 1178; Abbess of Mount St. Rupert; St. Gertrude the Great (Germany), d. 1178 ;山住持聖魯珀特;街格特魯德大(德國) , d. 1292; Abbess of Eisleben in Saxony (1251). 1292 ;住持的艾斯勒本在薩克森州( 1251 ) 。 St. Mechtilde, sister to St. Gertrude and nun at Eisleben.聖Mechtilde ,姐姐聖格特魯德和尼姑在艾斯勒本。 St. Frances of Rome, b.聖弗朗西斯的羅馬,灣 1384, d. 1384年, d. 1440; widow; founded order of Oblates (Collatines) in 1425. 1440年;寡婦;成立秩序的獻主會( Collatines )在1425年。

VI.六。 FOUNDATIONS ORIGINATING FROM OR BASED UPON THE BENEDICTINE ORDER來自基礎或依據本篤秩序

It has already been shown in the first part of this article how the reaction which followed the many relaxations and mitigations that had crept into the Benedictine Order produced, from the tenth century onwards, a number of reforms and independent congregations, in each of which a return to the strict letter of St.它已被證明的第一部分本條的反應如何遵循許多鬆弛和減輕已悄悄進入本篤訂單生產,從10世紀起,進行一系列改革和獨立的教會,在每一個有回到嚴格的信中街 Benedict's Rule was attempted, with certain variations of ideal and differences of external organization.本篤的規則嘗試,與某些變化的理想和不同的外部組織。 That of Cluny was the first, and it was followed, from time to time, by others, all of which are deal with in separate articles.這對克呂尼是第一次,這是其次,不時他人,所有這些都是處理在單獨的條款。

St. Chrodegang聖Chrodegang

Besides those communities which professedly adhered to the Benedictine Rule in all its strictness, there were others founded for some special work or purpose, which, while not claiming to be Benedictine, took that Rule as the basis upon which to ground their own particular legislation.除了那些社區的表面加入了本篤規則的所有從嚴治黨,還有其他創辦的一些特殊的工作或目的,它雖然不自稱是本篤,認為這規則作為基礎,以地面自己特定的立法。 The earliest example of this was instituted by St. Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz, who in the year 760 brought together his cathedral clergy into a kind of community life and drew up for their guidance a code of rules, based upon that of St. Benedict.最早的例子是建立由聖Chrodegang ,梅斯隊的主教,誰在今年匯聚了760他的教堂神職人員使之成為一種社會生活,並提請了他們的指導守則的規則,依據的聖本篤。 These were the first "regular canons", and the idea thus started spread very rapidly to almost every cathedral of France, Germany, and Italy, as well as to some in England.這是第一個“經常大砲” ,並因此開始的想法非常迅速蔓延到幾乎每一個大教堂,法國,德國和意大利,以及一些在英格蘭。 In the latter country, however, it was not an entirely new idea, for we learn from Bede's "Ecclesiastical History" (I, xxvii) that even in St. Augustine's time some sort of "common life" was in vogue amongst the bishops and their clergy. St.在後者的國家,但是,它並非是一個全新的理念,為我們學習,比德的“教會史” (一,二十七) ,即使在聖奧古斯丁的時間某種“共同生活”的流行之間的主教和他們的神職人員。街 Chrodegang's institute and its imitations prevailed almost universally in the cathedral and collegiate churches until ousted by the introduction of the Austin Canons. Chrodegang的研究所和其仿製品幾乎普遍盛行的大教堂和教堂,直到大學前引進奧斯汀規。

Carthusians

A word must here be said as to the Carthusian Order, which some writers have classed amongst those founded on the Benedictine rule.文字必須在這裡說向Carthusian秩序,一些作家之間的那些歸類基礎上的本篤規則。 This supposition is based chiefly on the fact that they have retained the name of St. Benedict in their Confiteor, but this was more probably done out of recognition of that saint's position as the Patriarch of Western Monasticism than from any idea that the order was a filiation from the older body.這種假設主要是基於這一事實,即保留他們的名字聖本篤在其Confiteor ,但這是可能做更多的認識到這一點聖的地位主教西方修比任何想法,即是為了親子關係從老的機構。 Confusion may also have arisen on account of the founder of the Carthusians, St. Bruno, being mistaken for another of the same name, who was Abbot of Monte Cassino in the twelfth century and therefore a Benedictine.混亂也可能出現對帳戶的創始人Carthusians ,聖布魯諾,被誤認為是另一種相同的名字,誰是住持的Monte稼軒在12世紀,因此本篤。

Independent Benedictine Congregations獨立篤教會

The various reforms, beginning with Cluny in the tenth century and extending to the Olivetans of the fourteenth, have been enumerated in the first part of this article and are described in greater detail in separate articles, under their respective titles.各項改革的開始,克魯尼在10世紀和延伸到Olivetans第十四,已列舉的第一部分和本文中描述的更詳細的單獨條款,根據各自的冠軍。 To these must be added the Order of the Humiliati, founded in the twelfth century by certain nobles of Lombardy who, having rebelled against the Emperor Henry VI, were taken captive by him into Germany.這些必須加上秩序的Humiliati ,成立於12世紀的某些貴族的倫巴第大區誰,在反抗皇帝亨利六世,俘虜被帶到了他進入德國。 There they commenced the practice of works of piety and penance, and were for their "humility" allowed to return to Lombardy.他們在那裡開始了實踐工作的虔誠和懺悔,並為他們的“謙遜”獲准返回倫巴第大區。 The order was definitely established in 1134 under the guidance of St. Bernard, who placed it under the Benedictine rule.這項命令是絕對成立於1134年的指導下,聖伯納德,誰把它的本篤規則。 It flourished for some centuries and had ninety-four monasteries, but through popularity and prosperity corruption and irregularities crept in, and after an ineffectual attempt at reformation, Pope Pius V suppressed the order in 1571.它蓬勃發展的世紀之交,一些有94寺廟,而是通過普及和繁榮的腐敗和違規行為悄悄在後,是無效的改革嘗試,庇護V抑制秩序1571 。 Mention must also be made of the more modern Armenian Benedictine congregation (known as Mechitarists), founded by Mechitar de Petro in the eighteenth century, in communion with the Holy See; this is now reckoned amongst the non-federated congregations of the order.還必須提及的更現代的亞美尼亞篤教會(稱為Mechitarists ) ,成立Mechitar的石油在18世紀,在與聖座共融,這是目前不可忽視其中的非聯合教會的秩序。 (See HUMILIATI, MECHITARISTS.) (見HUMILIATI , MECHITARISTS 。 )

Quasi-Benedictine Foundations準篤基金會

(1) Military Orders ( 1 )軍事命令

Hélyot enumerates several military orders as having been based upon that of St. Benedict or in some way originating from it. Hélyot列舉了幾個軍令已被根據的聖本篤,或以某種方式來自它。 Though founded especially for military objects, as for instance the defence of the holy places at Jerusalem, when not so engaged, these knights lived a kind of a religious life in commanderies or preceptories, established on the estates belonging to their order.雖然成立特別是軍事目標,例如捍衛聖地耶路撒冷,當時並非如此進行,這些騎士生活的一種宗教生活commanderies或preceptories ,建立了屋屬於他們的秩序。 They were not in any sense clerics, but they usually took vows of poverty and obedience, and sometimes also of chastity.他們沒有在任何意義上教士,但他們通常採取誓言貧窮和服從,有時還貞潔。 In some of the Spanish orders, permission to marry was granted in the seventeenth century.在一些西班牙命令,允許結婚獲得在十七世紀。 The knights practised many of the customary monastic austerities, such as fasting and silence, and they adopted a religious habit with the tunic shortened somewhat for convenience on horseback.騎士實行的許多僧侶austerities習慣,如禁食和沉默,他們通過了一項宗教習慣的外衣有點縮短為方便在馬背上。 Each order was governed by a Grand Master who had jurisdiction over the whole order, and under him were the commanders who ruled over the various houses.每一個命令是由一個大師誰有管轄權的整個秩序,根據他的指揮官誰統治的各種房屋。 The following were the military orders connected with the Benedictine Order, but for fuller details the reader is referred to separate articles.以下是軍令與本篤秩序,而是為了更充分的細節,讀者是指單獨條款。 (a) The Knights Templars, founded in 1118. (一)聖殿騎士團,成立於1118年。 St. Bernard of Clairvaux drew up their rule, and they always regarded the Cistercians as their brethren. For this reason they adopted a white dress, to which they added a red cross.聖伯納德的伯爾納制定了自己的統治,他們總是把熙作為其兄弟。出於這個原因,他們通過了一個白色連衣裙,它們增加了紅十字會。 The order was suppressed in 1312.這項命令是在1312年鎮壓。 In Spain there were: (b) The Knights of Calatrava founded in 1158 to assist in protecting Spain against the Moorish invasions.在西班牙有: ( b )在騎士卡拉特拉瓦成立於1158年,以協助保護西班牙的摩爾人入侵。 The Knights of Calatrava owed their origin to the abbot and monks of the Cistercian monastery of Fitero.騎士的卡拉特拉瓦欠他們的原籍和僧侶住持的修道院修道院Fitero 。 The general chapter of Cîteaux drew up a rule of life and exercised a general supervision over them.一般的一章Cîteaux制定了一個規則的生活和行使一般監督。 The black hood and short scapular which they wore denoted their connexion with Cîteaux.黑罩和短肩胛骨,他們穿著指他們的聯繫與Cîteaux 。 The order possessed fifty-six commanderies, chiefly in Andalusia.為了擁有的56 commanderies ,主要是在安達盧西亞。 The Nuns of Calatrava were established c.修女們的卡拉特拉瓦設立了角 1219. 1219 。 They were cloistered, observing the rule of the Cistercian nuns and wearing a similar habit, but they were under the jurisdiction of the Grand Master of the knights.他們與世隔絕,遵守規則的修道院修女和戴了類似的習慣,但他們管轄下的大師的騎士。 (c) Knights of Alcantara, or of San Julian del Pereyro, in Castille, founded about the same time and for the same purpose as the Knights of Calatrava. (三)騎士阿爾坎塔拉,或聖朱利安刪除Pereyro ,在卡斯蒂利亞,成立大約在同一時間和同一目的的騎士卡拉特拉瓦。 They adopted a mitigated form of St. Benedict's Rule, to which certain observances borrowed from Calatrava were added.他們通過了一項減輕形式的聖本篤的規則,其中某些紀念活動借用卡拉特拉瓦增加。 They also used the black hood and abbreviated scapular.他們還利用黑罩和略肩胛骨。 It was at one time proposed to unite this order with that of Calatrava, but the scheme failed of execution.這是一次團結提出這項命令與卡拉特拉瓦,但該計劃未能執行。 They possessed thirty-seven commanderies.他們擁有37 commanderies 。 (d) Knights of Montesa, founded 1316, an offshoot from Calatrava, instituted by ten knights of that order who placed themselves under the abbot of Cîteaux instead of their own Grand Master. (四)騎士Montesa ,成立1316年,一個分支從卡拉特拉瓦,建立了10騎士的命令誰把自己的住持Cîteaux不是自己的大師。 (e) Knights of St. George of Alfama, founded in 1201; united to the Order of Montesa in 1399. (戊)騎士聖喬治的阿法瑪,成立於1201年,聯合國的命令Montesa在1399年。

In Portugal there were three orders, also founded for purposes of defence against the Moors:- (f) The Knights of Aviz, founded 1147; they observed the Benedictine Rule, under the direction of the abbots of Cîteaux and Clairvaux, and had forty commanderies.在葡萄牙有三個訂單,還成立了用於防禦的摩爾: -( f )在騎士阿維什, 1 147年成立,他們觀察到本篤規則的指導下,在a bbots的C îteaux和伯爾納,並已第四十三c ommanderies 。 (g) The Knights of St. Michael's Wing, founded 1167; the name was taken in honour of the archangel whose visible assistance secured a victory against the Moors for King Alphonso I of Portugal. ( g )在騎士的聖邁克爾的翅膀, 1167年成立;的名稱是在榮譽的天使,其明顯的援助獲得了戰勝摩爾國王阿方索一世。 The rule was drawn up by the Cistercian Abbot of Alcobaza.這一規則制定了修道院的阿博特的Alcobaza 。 They were never very numerous, and the order did not long survive the king in whose reign it was founded.他們從未非常眾多,而且以沒有長期生存的國王在其統治它成立。 (h) The Order of Christ, reared upon the ruins of the Templars about 1317; it became very numerous and wealthy. ( h )在基督的命令,飼養後的廢墟上聖殿約1317年,它非常很多,而且富有。 It adopted the Rule of St. Benedict and the constitutions of Cîteaux, and possessed 450 commanderies.它通過法治的聖本篤和憲法Cîteaux ,並擁有450 commanderies 。 In 1550 the office of grand master of this order, as well as that of Aviz, was united to the crown.在1550年的辦公室特級大師的這項命令,以及阿維什,是團結的王冠。 (I) The Monks of the Order of Christ. (一)僧侶的命令基督。 In 1567, a stricter life was instituted in the convent of Thomar, the principal house of the Order of Christ, under this title, where the full monastic life was observed, with a habit and vows similar to those of the Cistercians, though the monks were under the jurisdiction of the grand master of the Knights.在1567年,更嚴格的生活是建立在修道院的Thomar ,主要的房子秩序的基督,此標題下,在充分寺院生活與會者指出,同一種習慣和發誓類似於熙,但僧侶被管轄下的特級大師的武士。 This order now exists as one of the noble orders of knighthood, similar to those of the Garter, Bath, etc., in England.這項命令現在存在著一個崇高的命令,騎士,類似於嘉德,洗浴等,在英格蘭。 In Savoy there were the two orders: (k) the Knights of St. Maurice, and (l) those of St. Lazarus, which were united in 1572.在薩伏伊有兩個命令: ( k )對聖武士莫里斯,以及( l )是聖拉撒路,這是聯合國在1572年。 They observed the Cistercian rule and the object of their existence was the defence of the Catholic Faith against the inroads of the Protestant Reformation.他們觀察到修道院的規則和客體的存在是捍衛信仰天主教反對進軍的新教改革。 They had many commanderies and their two principal houses were at Turin and Nice.他們有許多commanderies和他們的兩個主要的房屋在都靈和尼斯。 In Switzerland also the Abbots of St. Gall at one time supported (m) the military Order of the Bear, which Frederick II had instituted in 1213.在瑞士還Abbots聖加爾在同一時間支持(米)的軍事秩序的熊,這弗雷德里克二世曾在1213年設立。

(2) Hospitallers ( 2 ) Hospitallers

The Order of the Brothers Hospitallers of Burgos originated in a hospital attached to a convent of Cistercian nuns in that town.該命令的兄弟Hospitallers布爾戈斯起源於附屬醫院修道院的修道院修女在該城。 There were a dozen Cistercian lay brothers who assisted the nuns in the care of the hospital, and these, in 1474, formed themselves into a new order intended to be independent of Cîteaux.有十幾個修道院奠定兄弟誰協助修女照顧的醫院,而這些,在1474年,形成自己進入了一個新秩序打算獨立Cîteaux 。 They met with much opposition, and, irregularities having crept in, they were reformed in 1587 and placed under the abbess of the convent.他們會見了很多人反對,並已悄悄的違規行為中,他們在1587年改革和置於住持的修道院。

(3) Oblates ( 3 )獻主會

The Oblates of St. Frances of Rome, called also Collatines, were a congregation of pious women, founded in 1425 and approved as an order in 1433.獻主會士聖弗朗西斯的羅馬,所謂的還Collatines ,是一個虔誠的教徒的婦女,成立於1425年批准作為秩序1433 。 They first observed the rule of the Franciscan Tertiaries, but this was soon changed for that of St. Benedict.他們首先觀察到的規則濟Tertiaries ,但很快被改變的聖本篤。 The order consisted chiefly of noble Roman ladies, who lived a semi-religious life and devoted themselves to works of piety and charity.該命令主要包括崇高羅馬女士們,誰住一個半宗教生活和投身工作的虔誠和慈善事業。 They made no solemn vows, neither were they strictly enclosed, nor forbidden to enjoy the use of their possessions.他們沒有莊嚴的誓言,他們既沒有嚴格封閉的,也不得享有使用自己的財產。 They were at first under the direction of the Olivetan Benedictines, but after the death of their foundress, in 1440, they became independent.他們首先指導下的歐利夫坦篤,但去世後,其foundress ,在1440 ,他們成為獨立。

(4) Orders of Canonesses ( 4 )命令Canonesses

Information is but scanty concerning the chapters of noble canonesses, which were fairly numerous in Lorraine, Flanders, and Germany in medieval times.信息是微薄的,但有關章節的崇高canonesses ,這是相當多的洛林,佛蘭德斯,德國在中世紀時代。 It seems certain, however, that many of them were originally communities of Benedictine nuns, which, for one reason or another, renounced their solemn vows and assumed the state of canonesses, whilst still observing some form of the Benedictine Rule.這似乎可以肯定,然而,他們中許多人原先社區的本篤會修女,其中,由於某種原因,放棄了其莊嚴的誓言,並承擔了國家canonesses ,同時還觀測了某種形式的本篤規則。 The membership of almost all these chapters was restricted to women of noble, and in some cases of royal, descent.的成員幾乎所有這些章節僅限於婦女的崇高,在某些情況下王室,血統。 In many also, whilst the canonesses were merely seculars, that is, not under vows of religious, and therefore free to leave and marry, the abbesses retained the character and state of religious superiors, and as such were solemnly professed as Benedictine nuns. The following list of houses is taken from Mabillon and Hélyot, but all had ceased to exist by the end of the eighteenth century:-In Lorraine: Remiremont; founded 620; members became canonesses in 1515; Epinal, 983; Pouzay, Bouxières-aux-Dames, and Metz, of the eleventh or twelfth century.在許多還,而canonesses只是seculars ,也就是說,沒有誓言的宗教,因此,自由地離開並結婚, abbesses保留的性質和國家的宗教上級,因此,鄭重宣稱的本篤會修女。的下面列出的房子是從Mabillon和Hélyot ,但所有已不復存在了十八世紀末: ,在洛林: Remiremont ;成立620 ;成為canonesses成員在1515年;埃皮納勒, 983 ; Pouzay , Bouxières歐洛- Dames ,並梅斯,第十一屆或12世紀。 In Germany: Cologne, 689; Homburg and Strasburg, of the seventh century; Lindau, Buchau, and Andlau of the eighth century; Obermunster, Niedermunster, and Essen of the ninth century.在德國:科隆, 689 ;洪堡和斯特拉斯堡,第七世紀;林, Buchau ,並Andlau第八世紀; Obermunster , Niedermunster ,並埃森第九世紀。 In Flanders: Nivelles, Mons, Andenne, Maubeuge, and Belisie of the seventh century; and Denain, 764.在佛蘭德: Nivelles ,蒙斯, Andenne , Maubeuge ,並Belisie第七屆世紀;和德南, 764 。 The members of the following houses in Germany having renounced their solemn vows and become canonesses in the sixteenth century, abandoned also the Catholic Faith and accepted the Protestant religion: Gandersheim, Herford, Quedlinburg, Gernrode.成員以下的房屋,德國放棄了莊嚴的誓言,並成為canonesses在十六世紀,被遺棄的也信仰天主教和新教接受宗教:甘德斯海姆,爾福德,奎德林堡, Gernrode 。

Publication information Written by G. Cyprian Alston.出版信息撰稿,由G.塞浦路斯阿爾斯通。 Transcribed by Susan Birkenseer.轉錄的蘇珊Birkenseer 。 Dedicated to Sr. Monica Marie (PJ Kamplain), OSB The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.致力於老莫尼卡瑪麗( PJ Kamplain ) ,定向結構刨花板的天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

The Benedictine Order in General本篤秩序一般

-Montalembert, Monks of the West (London, 1896), Eng. -蒙塔朗貝爾,僧侶西(倫敦, 1896年) ,英。 Tr., new ed., with preface by Gasquet; Newman, Mission of St. Benedict and Benedictine Schools, in Historical Sketches (London, 1873); Gasquet, Sketch of the Life and Mission of St. Benedict (London, 1895); Maitland, The Dark Ages (London, 1845); Mabillon, Annales OSB (Paris, 1703-39); Id., Acta SS.文。新版。與序言加斯凱;紐曼,團的聖本篤和本篤學校,在歷史的素描(倫敦, 1873年) ;加斯凱,素描生活和團的聖本篤(倫敦, 1895年) ;梅特蘭,在黑暗時代(倫敦, 1845年) ; Mabillon ,年鑑定向結構刨花板(巴黎1703至1739年) ;同上。 ,學報黨衛軍。 OSB (Venice, 1733); Yepez, Chronicon generale Ord. SPN Benedicti (Cologne, 1603); Hélyot, Histoire des ordres religieux (Paris, 1792); Id., Dict.定向結構刨花板(威尼斯, 1733 ) ;耶佩斯, Chronicon通用條例。 Benedicti的SPN (科隆, 1603年) ; Hélyot ,史ordres宗教(巴黎, 1792年) ;同上。 ,快譯通。 Des ordres religieux (Paris, 1860); Mege, Commentaire sur la regle de S. Benoit (Paris, 1687); Calmet, Commentaire (Paris, 1734); Menard, Codex regularum (Paris, 1638); Besse, Le moine benedictin (Ligugé, 1898); Braunmuller in Kirchenlex., sv; Herzog, Realencyclopadie (Leipzig, 1897), sv; Heimbucher, Die Order und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche (Paderborn, 1896), I; Ziegelbauer, Hist.德ordres宗教(巴黎, 1860年) ; Mege ,評regle拉河畔的南伯努瓦(巴黎, 1687 ) ;卡爾梅特,評(巴黎, 1734 ) ;默納德,法典regularum (巴黎, 1638 ) ;貝塞樂moine benedictin ( Ligugé , 1898 ) ; Braunmuller在Kirchenlex 。 ,希沃特;赫爾佐格, Realencyclopadie (萊比錫, 1897年) ,希沃特; Heimbucher ,模具秩序和Kongregationen之katholischen教堂(帕德博恩, 1896年) ,我; Ziegelbauer ,組織胺。 Lit. 25,823 。 OSB (Augsburg, 1754); Album Benedictinum (St. Vincent's, Pennsylvania, 1880; Rome, 1905); Tanner, Notitia Monastica (London, 1744); Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, with Stevens's continuation (London, 1817-30); Gasquet, Henry VIII and the English Monasteries (London, 1899); Id., The Eve of the Reformation (London, 18990); Gairdner, Prefaces to Calendars of State Papers of Henry VIII; Taunton, English Black Monks of St. Benedict (London, 1897); Dudden, Gregory the Great (London, 1905), I; Eckenstein, Women under Monasticism (Cambridge, 1896); Hope, St. Boniface and the Conversion of Germany (London, 1872); Reyner, Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Anglia (Douai, 1626); Hind, Benedictines in Oxford in Ampleforth Journal, VI, 1901.定向結構刨花板(奧格斯堡, 1754 ) ;相冊Benedictinum (聖文森特的,賓夕法尼亞州, 1880年;羅馬, 1905年) ;唐納,通知書Monastica (倫敦, 1744 ) ;戴爾, Monasticon Anglicanum ,與史蒂文斯的延續(倫敦, 1817年至1830年) ;加斯凱,亨利八世和寺院的英文版(倫敦, 1899年) ;同上。前夕,宗教改革(倫敦, 18990 ) ;蓋爾德納,序,以日曆的國家論文的亨利八世;湯頓,英文黑色僧侶的聖本篤(倫敦, 1897 ) ; Dudden ,格里高利大(倫敦, 1905年) ,我; Eckenstein ,婦女下修(劍橋, 1896年) ;希望,聖博尼法斯和德國的轉換(倫敦, 1872年) ; Reyner , Apostolatus Benedictinorum在英吉利(杜埃, 1626 ) ;欣德,本篤在牛津Ampleforth雜誌,六, 1901年。

Special Congregations.特別公理。

-Duckett, Charters and Records of Cluni (Lewes, England, 1890); Sackur, Die Cluniacenser (Halle a S., 1892-94); Janauschek, Origines Cisterciensium (Vienna, 1877); Gaillardin, Les Trappistes (Paris, 1844); Guibert, Destruction de Grandmont (Paris, 1877); Salvado, Memorie Storiche (Rome, 1851); Berengier, La Nouvelle-Nursie (Paris, 1878); Brullee, Vie de P. Muard (Paris, 1855), tr. -達克特,章程和記錄Cluni (劉易斯,英國, 1890年) ; Sackur ,模具Cluniacenser (哈雷1號, 1892年至1894年) ; Janauschek ,起源Cisterciensium (維也納, 1877年) ; Gaillardin ,法國Trappistes (巴黎, 1844年) ;吉伯特,銷毀的Grandmont (巴黎, 1877年) ;薩爾瓦多, Memorie Storiche (羅馬, 1851年) ; Berengier ,香格里拉新, Nursie (巴黎, 1878年) ; Brullee ,人生的體育Muard (巴黎, 1855年) ,文。 Robot, 1882; Thompson, Life of P. Muard (London, 1886; de Broglie, Mabillon (Paris, 1888); Id., Montfaucon (Paris, 1891); Houtin, Dom Couturier (Angers, 1899); Van Galoen, Dom Maur Wolter et les origines de la cong. De Beuron (Bruges, 1891); Dolan, Succisa Virescit in Downside Review, I-IV.機器人, 1882年;湯普森,生活體育Muard (倫敦, 1886年;德布羅意, Mabillon (巴黎, 1888年) ;同上。 ,蒙福(巴黎, 1891年) ; Houtin ,大教堂Couturier (昂熱, 1899年) ;範Galoen ,大教堂莫爾沃爾特等萊起源德拉魯阿聰。德Beuron (布魯日, 1891年) ;蘭, Succisa Virescit在下方修改,一至四。


Saint Benedict Biscop聖本篤Biscop

Benedict Biscop, c.628-690, was a Northumbrian noble who left the service of King Oswy to become a Benedictine monk.篤Biscop , c.628 - 690 ,是一個崇高的諾森伯蘭誰離開了服務的國王Oswy成為本篤會僧侶。 He founded two monasteries, one at Wearmouth and the other at Jarrow.他創立兩個寺廟,一個在Wearmouth和其他在杰諾。 The books he collected in Rome and Gaul for the monastery libraries made possible the writings of the Venerable Bede, his pupil.在他收集的書籍在羅馬和高盧人的修道院圖書館得以著作的比德法師,他的學生。 Feast day: Jan. 12.盛宴一天: 1月12日。


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教訂單
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌
Cistercians
Trappists Trappists
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites Carmelites
Discalced Carmelites Discalced Carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟會

Monasticism
Nuns 修女
Friars 修士
Convent 修道院
Ministry
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 羅馬訂單


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