Bar Mitzvah or Bar Miẓwah Mitzvah酒吧或酒吧Miẓwah

General Information 一般信息

A bar mitzvah ("son of the commandment") is a male Jew who has reached his 13th birthday and is recognized as fully responsible for his own religious and moral actions.酒吧mitzvah ( “兒子誡” )是男性猶太人誰達到了他的13歲生日是公認的全面負責他自己的宗教和道德的行動。 A bat mitzvah is the corresponding female Jew.蝙蝠是mitzvah相應的女性猶。 A rite in the synagogue, which is also commonly referred to as bar mitzvah, marks the attainment of the status of bar mitzvah.阿儀式的猶太教堂,這也是通常被稱為酒吧mitzvah ,標誌著實現地位的酒吧mitzvah 。 In Conservative and Reform Judaism, a similar rite is used for the bat mitzvah as well. When reaching puberty, a young man or woman is called upon to read a prophetic passage from Scripture to the synagogue congregation.在保守與改革猶太教,一個類似的儀式是用於蝙蝠以及mitzvah 。達到青春期時,一名年輕男子或女子呼籲宣讀了一份由先知通過聖經的猶太教教徒。

Thereupon, he or she is recognized as a full member of the congregation, able to count as a member of the required quorum of ten.於是,他或她是公認的正式成員聚集,能指望的成員所需要的法定人數為10個。 On that occasion the parents say a blessing: "Blessed is God who has now freed me from bearing full responsibility for this person."在那次會議上說,父母祝福: “祝福是上帝誰現在已經釋放了我承擔全部責任的人。 ” In the 19th century, Reform Judaism created the rite of confirmation, either instead of, or in addition to, the bar mitzvah celebration. It is held on the festival of Shavuoth, or Pentecost, which marks the revelation of the Torah.在19世紀,猶太教改革創造了成年禮的確認,無論是不是,或除,酒吧mitzvah慶祝活動。這是舉行的節日Shavuoth或聖靈降臨節,這標誌著啟示的聖經。 This rite is now common in Reform and Conservative synagogues.這個儀式是現在常見的改革與保守的猶太教堂。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
AI Katsh, ed., Bar Mitzvah (1955); S Schoenfeld, et al., Bar Mitzvah (1985).大赦國際Katsh ,編輯。 ,酒吧Mitzvah ( 1955年) ;語舍恩菲爾德,等。 ,酒吧Mitzvah ( 1985年) 。


Bar Miẓwah酒吧Miẓwah

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Religious Maturity.宗教成熟。

Hebrew term applied to a boy on completing his thirteenth year, who has then reached the age of religious duty and responsibility.希伯來長期適用於一個男孩完成他的第十三屆一年,誰便達到成人年齡的宗教義務和責任。 The name "Bar Miẓwah" occurs in BM 96a, where it is applied to every grown Israelite; but in the sense now used it can not be clearly traced earlier than the fourteenth century, the older rabbinical term being "gadol" (adult) or "bar 'onshin" (son of punishment); that is, liable to punishment for his own misdoings; see Rashi Nid. 45b, on the word .名為“酒吧Miẓwah ”發生在骨髓96a ,在那裡它是適用於每一個成長以色列人;但在現在使用常識,不能清楚地追溯到早於14世紀,老猶太教長期被“加多” (成人)或“酒吧' onshin ” (兒子的懲罰) ,也就是說,應受到懲罰自己misdoings ;見Rashi安居。 45b ,關於這個詞。 The age of puberty being attained at about the fourteenth year, the boy that is over thirteen years of age has the power of making vows or of consecrating property to holy purposes (Nid. v. 6); he is held to account for his own sins, whereas a child before that age may die on account of his father's sins (Midrash Zuṭṭa, Ruth, ed. Buber, p. 47; Yalḳ., Ruth, 600); and, according to some, the father's merit confers benefits upon the son only until he has reached his "pereḳ"; that is, the age of maturity (Tosef., 'Eduy. i. 14).青春期沒有達到約14年,這名男童是超過十三歲以下的有權力作出承諾或鞏固財產神聖的宗旨( Nid.訴6 ) ;他是追究為自己罪過,而在此之前,兒童的年齡可能死於考慮到他父親的罪孽(米德拉士Zuṭṭa露絲,編輯。布伯,第47頁; Yalḳ 。露絲, 600 ) ; ,並根據某些人來說,父親的優點時賦予的好處唯一的兒子,直到他達到了他的“ pereḳ ” ,即年齡的成熟( Tosef. ' Eduy 。島14 ) 。

The solemnization of the attainment of the age of religious maturity takes place on the first Sabbath of the fourteenth year, when the Bar Miẓwah is called up (see 'Aliyah) to read a chapter from the weekly portion of the Law, either as one of the seven men or as the eighth, where it is customary to read the closing chapter and the Hafṭarah; and if he be unable to read, to recite at least the benediction before and after the reading, while the father offers silently the rather strange benediction: "Blessed be He who has taken the responsibility for this child's doing from me" (see Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, ccxxv. 2, note of Isserles, and "Magen Abraham," cclxxxii., note 18).該儀式的實現年齡的成熟宗教進行的第一個安息日第十四一年,當酒吧Miẓwah被稱為(見' Aliyah )改為一章,從每週的一部分的法律,無論是作為一個七名男子或作為第八屆,它是閱讀習慣的閉幕章和Hafṭarah ; ,如果他不能閱讀,背誦至少在祝福之前和之後的閱讀,而父親默默地提供的,而奇怪的祝福: “有福是誰,他已經採取了負責這個孩子做我的” (見Shulḥan ' Aruk , Oraḥ Ḥayyim , ccxxv 。 2 ,注意Isserles ,以及“馬根亞伯拉罕稱, ” cclxxxii 。注18 ) 。

Celebration of Event.慶祝活動。

This event is celebrated by joyous festivity, the Bar Miẓwah boy delivering on this occasion a learned discourse or oration at the table before the invited guests, who offer him presents, while the rabbi or teacher gives him his blessing, accompanying it at times with an address (see Solomon Luria, "Yam Shel Shelomoh" to B. Ḳ. vii. 37, and other authorities in "Magen Abraham," lc; Löw's "Lebensalter," pp. 210-217, 410-412).這一活動是慶祝節日的歡樂,律師提供Miẓwah男孩在此之際學術討論或演講上就座之前,特邀嘉賓,誰給他介紹,雖然拉比或教師給他的祝福,伴隨它有時與地址(見所羅門盧里亞“ ,任關佩英的謝Shelomoh ” ,以灣K表。七。 37歲,和其他當局在“馬根亞伯拉罕稱, ”立法會;低的“ Lebensalter , ”頁。 210-217 , 410-412 ) 。 Henceforth he is reckoned among the adults to fill the Minyan, or required number of ten (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, lv. 9 et seq.).此後,他估計之間的成年人,以填補燕,或所需數量的10 ( Shulḥan ' Aruk , Oraḥ Ḥayyim ,閭。 9起。 ) 。 Regarding the time when the boy's initiation into his religious duties is to commence, when he is to begin putting on the tefillin, or when to fast on the Day of Atonement, see Yoma 82a; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, xxxvii.至於當時孩子的開始他的宗教職責是開始,當他開始把對tefillin ,或當快速的贖罪日,見山脈82A條; Shulḥan ' Aruk , Oraḥ Ḥayyim ,三十七。 3, cxvi. 3 , cxvi 。 2). 2 ) 。 Leopold Löw (lc) has shown that the Bar Miẓwah rite had become a fixed custom only in the fourteenth century in Germany.利奧波德低(立法會)已經表明,酒吧Miẓwah儀式已成為一個固定的客戶不僅在14世紀在德國。

How It Originated.如何起源。

Nevertheless there are many indications, overlooked by Löw, that its origin must be sought in remote antiquity.然而有許多跡象表明,忽視了低,它的原產地必須尋求遠古。 Samuel ha-Kaṭan, at the close of the first century, gives in his saying on the Ages of Man in the Baraita attached to Abot v. 21 (see Maḥzor Vitry, p. 549) the completion of the thirteenth year as the age for the commandments ("le-miẓwot"); and the commentary to the passage refers to Levi, the son of Jacob, who, at thirteen, is called "ish" (= man; Gen. xxxiv. 25).塞繆爾公頃,珥結束時的第一個世紀,讓他說對人的年齡在Baraita重視Abot訴21 (見Maḥzor維特里,第549頁)完成了第十三屆一年,年齡為的誡命( “勒miẓwot ” ) ;和評注的通道是指列維的兒子,雅各,誰在13 ,被稱為“英語” ( =人;將軍三十四。 25 ) 。 Simon Ẓemaḥ Duran, in his "Magen Abot" to the Baraita, quotes a Midrash interpreting the Hebrew word (= "this") in Isa.西蒙Ẓemaḥ杜蘭,在他的“馬根Abot ”的Baraita ,援引米德拉士解釋希伯來字( = “本” )在伊薩。 xliii. 21-"This people have I formed for myself, they shall pronounce [AV "set forth"] my praise"-as referring by its numerical value to those that have reached the age of thirteen.四十三。 21 -“這個人,我為自己形成的,它們應宣告[視聽”規定“ ]我的讚美” ,是指其數值那些已達到1 3歲。 This seems to imply that at the time the Midrash was composed the Bar Miẓwah publicly pronounced a benediction on the occasion of his entrance upon maturity.這似乎暗示,當時米德拉士組成律師Miẓwah公開宣判一祝福之際,他進入後成熟。 This is confirmed by the Midrash Hashkem (see Grünhut's "Sefer ha-Liḳḳuṭim," i. 3a): "The heathen when he begets a son consecrates him to idolatrous practises; the Israelite has his son circumcised and the rite of 'pidyon ha-ben' performed; and as soon as he becomes of age he brings him into the synagogue and school ('bet ha-keneset' and 'bet ha-midrash'),in order that henceforth he may praise the name of God, reciting the 'Bareku' (Benediction) preceding the reading from the Law."已經證實了這一點米德拉士Hashkem (見Grünhut的“之書公頃, Liḳḳuṭim , ”島3A條)說: “異教徒,他帶來一個兒子尊崇他盲目崇拜的習俗;的以色列人了他的兒子割禮和成年禮的' pidyon公頃本'執行;和盡快成為他的年齡,他帶來了他的猶太教堂和學校( '賭公頃, keneset '和'賭公頃,米特拉斯' ) ,以便今後可能會讚揚他以上帝的名義,背誦' Bareku ' (祝福)前讀法。 “ Masseket Soferim xviii. Masseket Soferim十八。 5 is even more explicit: "In Jerusalem they are accustomed to initiate their children to fast on the Atonement Day, a year or two before their maturity; and then, when the age has arrived, to bring the Bar Miẓwah before the priest or elder for blessing, encouragement, and prayer, that he may be granted a portion in the Law and in the doing of good works. Whosoever is of superiority in the town is expected to pray for him as he bows down to him to receive his blessing."五是更加明確: “在耶路撒冷,他們已經習慣於開始自己的孩子快的贖罪日,一年或兩年之前,他們的成熟度;然後,當時代已經到來,使酒吧Miẓwah前神父或長者的祝福,鼓勵和祈禱,他可給予部分在法律和做的好作品。任何人的優勢是在該鎮預計為他祈禱,他的弓箭,以他收到他的祝福。 “

This then helps to illustrate the Midrash (Gen. R. lxiii.), which, in commenting upon the passage (Gen. xxv. 27), "and the boys grew," says: "Up to thirteen years Esau and Jacob went together to the primary school and back home; after the thirteen years were over, the one went to the bet ha-midrash for the study of the Law, the other to the house of idols. With reference to this, R. Eleazar remarks, 'Until the thirteenth year it is the father's duty to train his boy; after this he must say: "Blessed be He who has taken from me the responsibility [the punishment] for this boy!"'" "Why is the evil desire ('yeẓer hara'') personified as the great king? (Eccl. ix. 14). Because it is thirteen years older than the good desire ('yeẓer haṭob')."這就有助於說明米德拉士(將軍河lxiii 。 ) ,其中在評論時通過(將軍25 。 27 ) , “與男孩長大” ,說: “最多13年以掃和雅各一起去以小學和回國後的13年結束,一個去了賭注公頃,米特拉斯研究法,其他的房子的偶像。提及這一點,河埃萊亞薩言論, '直到今年第十三它是父親的責任,培養他的孩子後,他必須說: “有福是誰,他已經從我的責任[懲罰]這個孩子! ” ' “ ”為什麼是邪惡的願望( ' yeẓer原'' )人格化的偉大國王? ( Eccl.九。 14 ) 。由於這是13年以上的良好願望( ' yeẓer haṭob ' ) 。 “ That is to say, the latter comes only with the initiation into duty (Ab. RN, A. xvi., B. xxx.; Midr. Teh. ix. 2; Eccl. R. ix. 15).這就是說,後者僅是開始進入工作地點( Ab.考試,字母a.十六。灣xxx域名。 ; Midr 。的。九。 2 ;傳道書。河九。 15 ) 。 According to Pirḳe R. El.據薩爾瓦多Pirḳe河。 xxvi., Abraham rejected the idolatry of his father and became a worshiper of God when he was thirteen years old. 26 。亞伯拉罕拒絕盲目崇拜他的父親,並成為上帝的崇拜者時,他十三歲。 In the light of these facts the story related in Luke ii.鑑於這些事實相關的故事在盧克二。 42-49, as observed by the elder Lightfoot, Wetstein, and Holtzmann in their commentaries to the passage, finds its true significance: The child Jesus when only twelve years of age, having not yet attained the religious maturity, joined, of his own accord, the teachers of the Law, and astonished all by his understanding and his answers, being, as he said, concerned only about the things of his Father in heaven (, "Wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business?"). 42-49 ,觀察到老萊特富特, Wetstein ,並Holtzmann在其評論的通道,認為其真正的意義:耶穌的孩子只有12年的年齡,有沒有達到成熟的宗教,加入自己的按照協議,教師法,所有的驚訝他的理解,他的答案,目前,正如他所說的那樣,只關心的事情他的父親在天堂( “你們不是局部,我必須對我父親的事業? ” ) 。 Compare with this what Josephus writes of himself: "When I was a child about fourteen years old, I was commended by all for the love I had for learning, on which account the high priest and principal men of the city came to me in order to know my opinion regarding the accurate understanding of points of the Law" ("Vita," 2).與此對比約瑟夫寫什麼自己: “當我還是一個孩子的約14歲,我是讚揚了所有的愛我的學習,而到大祭司男子和主要的城市來找我,以便知道我的意見就準確地了解分法“ ( ”簡歷“ , 2 ) 。

In Morocco the boy becomes Bar Miẓwah when he has passed the age of twelve years.在摩洛哥,男孩變成酒吧Miẓwah當他已經過去了歲的12年。 He usually learns one of the Talmudical treatises by heart, and after he has passed an examination, the rabbis and the parnasim of the congregation, together with his relatives and friends, are invited to a dinner the Wednesday before the Sabbath on which he is to be "called up" to the Law.他通常學習的一個Talmudical論文的心臟後,他已經通過了審查,猶太教和parnasim教會的,連同他的親屬和朋友,被邀請的晚宴之前的星期三的安息日,他是是“所謂的”法。 The following morning (Thursday), at the service which takes place in the boy's house, the chief rabbi puts the tefillin upon his arm, and his father those upon his head, while the choir accompanies the initiation rite with a hymn.第二天早晨(星期四) ,在服務,發生在男孩的房子,在首席拉比tefillin使他的胳膊,和他的父親是他的頭部,而伴隨著合唱團的啟動儀式的讚美詩。 He is then "called up" to the Law; and before the close of the service he delivers a discourse, partly in the vernacular, for the benefit of the women who are present.他是那麼“所謂的”法;和結束前的服務,他提供了一個話語,部分民居,以造福婦女誰是本。 The rabbis follow with a discussion, and the Bar Miẓwah is then blessed aloud by the whole assembly.拉比後續的討論,和律師Miẓwah然後大聲的祝福全體大會。 After this he goes around with his tefillinbag, and first the men, then the women, and finally his parents throw silver coins into the bag, which he then presents to his teacher.在此,他繞過他tefillinbag ,和第一的男子,然後婦女,最後他的父母扔銀幣入包裡的時候,他當時給他的老師。 A breakfast follows, in which all take part.早餐如下,所有參加會議。 On the next Sabbath, the Bar Miẓwah reads the "Hafṭarah."在下一個安息日,律師Miẓwah文的“ Hafṭarah 。 ” When he is called up to the Law, a piyyuṭ is recited, the text of which is given in the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums," 1839, p.當他正在打電話給法,一個是背誦piyyuṭ ,案文是在“匯報萬Judenthums , ” 1839年,第 278, whence the above account has been taken. See also Banquets. 278 ,何處上面已經考慮到。又見宴會。

Regarding a strange custom of cutting a boy's hair when he became Bar Miẓwah, see Abrahams' "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," p.關於一個奇怪的習慣,切割一個男孩的頭髮時,他成為律師Miẓwah ,看到亞伯拉罕“猶太人生活在中世紀, ”頁 144, note 2. 144 ,說明2 。 For Bar Miẓwah in modern times, see Confirmation.對於酒吧Miẓwah在近代,見確認。

Marcus Jastrow, Kaufmann Kohler馬庫斯賈斯特羅,考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Leopold Löw, Die Lebensalter, in Jüdische Literatur, pp.利奧波德低,模具Lebensalter ,在Jüdische文學,頁。 210-217, Szegedin, 1875; JCG Bodenschatz, Kirchliche Verfassung der Heutigen Juden, iv. 94, 95, Erlangen, 1748; Güdemann, Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur der Juden in Deutschland, p. 210-217 ,塞格丁, 1875年; JCG Bodenschatz , Kirchliche憲法之當代猶太人,四。 94 , 95 ,埃爾蘭根, 1748 ; Güdemann , Erziehungswesens史之培養與德國猶太人在德國,第 111, Vienna, 1888; idem, Quellenschriften zur Geschichte des Unterrichts und der Erziehung bei den Deutschen Juden, p. 111 ,維也納, 1888年;同上, Quellenschriften楚史Unterrichts與德國Erziehung北大街德國猶太人,第 143, Berlin, 1891, where R. Jair Ḥaim Bacharach's Rules of Study for the Bar Mizwah boy are given; Hamburger, RBT sv Miẓwah; Schürer, Gesch. 143 ,柏林, 1891年,在河睚珥哈伊姆巴哈拉赫規則的研究Mizwah男孩酒吧給出;漢堡,彩鈴希沃特Miẓwah ; Schürer , Gesch 。 des Jüdischen Volkes, ii.萬Jüdischen Volkes ,二。 426; Ch. 426 ;膽固醇。 Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers, 1897, pp.泰勒,熟語的猶太人父親, 1897年,頁。 97, 98; I. 97號, 98號;一 Abrahams, as above.J.亞伯拉罕,作為above.J 。 Sr. K.老光


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