Baha'i巴哈

General Information 一般信息

Baha'i is a religious movement founded in the 19th century by the Persian Bahaullah.巴哈是一個宗教運動成立於19世紀由波斯巴哈阿拉。 It claims members in practically every country of the world.它要求成員在幾乎每一個國家的世界。 Objecting to polygamy, slavery of any kind, religious prejudices, and politicized religion, Baha'is call for world peace and harmony.反對一夫多妻制,奴隸制任何區別,宗教偏見,和政治宗教,教徒呼籲世界和平與和諧。 The ideals of a world federalist government and a new world language are also a part of their teachings.理想的世界聯邦制政府和一個新的世界語言也有一部分的教義。 Recognition of the common ground of all religions is seen as fostering this move toward global unity; Krishna, Buddha, Moses, Zarathustra, Jesus, and Muhammad are all recognized as divine manifestations, a series of prophets culminating in Bahaullah.識別的共同點所有宗教都被看作是促進這個走向全球統一;克里希納,佛陀,摩西,查拉圖斯特拉,耶穌,穆罕默德都承認為神聖的表現,一系列的先知最終巴哈阿拉。 Nonresistance, respect for persons, and legal recognition of the equal rights of both sexes constitute additional aspects of Baha'i teaching.不抵抗,尊重人,在法律上承認的平等權利,構成男女雙方其他方面的巴哈教學。

By the time of Bahaullah's death in 1892, the Baha'i faith had won adherents throughout the Middle East.的時候巴哈阿拉逝世於1892年,巴哈教派信徒贏得整個中東地區。 Under his son Abbas Effendi (or Abdul Baha, 1844 - 1921), who succeeded him as the movement's leader, it spread to Europe and the United States. Abbas Effendi was succeeded by his grandson, Shoghi Effendi (1897 - 1957).根據他的兒子阿巴斯埃芬迪(或阿卜杜勒巴哈, 1844至1921年) ,誰接任該運動的領導人,它蔓延到歐洲和美國。阿巴斯埃芬迪是接替他的孫子, Shoghi埃芬迪( 1897至1957年) 。 Since Shoghi Effendi's death, the Baha'is have been governed by elected leaders.自Shoghi埃芬迪死亡,巴哈已經由選舉產生的領導人。 Divided into more than 130 national assemblies and more than 26,000 local assemblies, they are estimated to number about 2 million worldwide.分成130多個國家議會和超過2.60萬地方議會,他們估計人數約200萬世界各地。 Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, the discrimination to which Baha'is have always been subjected in the country of their origin has escalated into outright persecution.自成立以來,伊朗伊斯蘭共和國在1979年,歧視的教徒一直受到該國的原產地已升級為徹底的迫害。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
W Hatcher and JD Martin, The Baha'i Faith (1985); WM Miller, The Baha'i Faith: Its History and Teachings (1974); P Smith, The Babi and Baha'i Religions (1987). W海切爾和JD馬丁,巴哈教派( 1985年) ;西醫結合米勒,巴哈教派:它的歷史和教義( 1974年) ; P史密斯,在巴比和巴哈教( 1987年) 。


Baha'i巴哈

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Baha'i faith aims at a universal community of the human race; unity of all religions; and peace; for the whole world.巴哈教派的目的是社會的一個普遍的人類;統一所有的宗教;與和平;整個世界。 Its founder was Baha'u'llah, lived in Persia in the latter half of the nineteenth century.其創始人是巴哈歐拉,住在波斯下半年十九世紀。 He and his followers believe in the teachings of Moses and Jesus, Krishna and Buddha, Zoroaster, Muhammed, and the other major religious figures of history. All are considered correct and are to be reconciled into a comprehensive world religion for all men.他和他的追隨者相信教義摩西和耶穌,克里希納和佛像, Zoroaster ,穆罕默德,以及其他主要的宗教人物的歷史。所有被認為是正確的,是調和成一個全面的世界宗教的所有男性。

Each of the planet's six inhabited continents has one Temple. Each has unique architecture, but all have nine - symmetry, with nine identical entry doors so that members of each of the nine major religions of the world are welcomed.每一個星球的六個有人居住的大陸有一個廟。每個都有其獨特的結構,但所有的有9個-對稱,有9個相同的進入大門,使每個成員的9個主要宗教的世界受到歡迎。 Services are weekly with meditation available between.服務是每週可與冥想之間。 The services include readings from scriptures of the world's religions.這些服務包括讀經文的世界宗教。

All races, nationalities, and creeds are welcomed into their fellowship, in recognition that we all originated from the same "tree."所有種族,民族,信仰,歡迎他們的研究,認識到我們都來自同一個“樹。 ” There is no ritual and no clergy.沒有儀式,也沒有神職人員。 "Teachers" and "pioneers" are unpaid assistance for students. “教師”和“先鋒”是無償援助的學生。 Marriage and funeral services are simple and flexible.婚姻和殯儀服務是簡單和靈活。 Virtually no buildings or assets are owned (except for the 6 Temples), so there is little emphasis on monetary or worldly concerns. Local meetings are generally in constituents' homes, with a few conventions for interspersal of knowledge.幾乎沒有任何建築物或國有資產(除6寺廟) ,因此沒有什麼重點放在貨幣或世俗的關注。當地的會議一般都在選民家中,也有一些公約interspersal知識。

Most religions look for differences in competing religions in order to criticize those believers as having wrong beliefs. Baha'i look for agreements with other religions in order to build common foundations for the eventual universal religion. 大多數宗教都尋求差異競爭的宗教,以批評那些信徒有錯誤的信念。巴哈尋找協定與其他宗教,以建立共同的基礎,最終獲得普遍的宗教。

Funds which are given to the Baha'i go almost exclusively to publishing a large assortment of writings (many written by Baha'u'llah) which generally emphasize the commonalities of beliefs of the world's religions.基金是考慮到巴哈去,幾乎全部用來出版了大量的著作(許多寫的巴哈歐拉) ,其中一般強調共性的信仰的世界宗教。 These writings have been translated into over 700 languages!這些作品已被翻譯成超過700種語言!

Principles原則

Several of these are amazing considering they were espoused about 150 years ago, at a time when, in America, slavery was common and women didn't have the vote.其中一些是驚人的考慮他們信奉約150年前,當時,在美國,奴隸制是共同的婦女沒有投票。

Some guiding principles are very strict.一些指導原則是非常嚴格的。 Smoking and drinking are absolutely banned.吸煙和飲酒是絕對禁止。 So are slavery, asceticism, monasticism. Idleness is condemned.因此,有奴隸制,禁慾,修道。無所事事的譴責。 Monogamy, strict obedience to one's government, and any works performed in the spirit of service are exalted.一夫一妻,嚴格服從自己的政府,並進行任何工程的精神,崇高的服務。


Baha'is巴哈

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Doctrines理論

Baha'is follow the teaching of Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (1817-1892) whose title is Baha Allah ('splendour of God').巴哈後續的教學米爾扎侯賽因阿里努裡( 1817年至1892年) ,其標題是巴哈安拉( '輝煌上帝' ) 。 Baha Allah believed himself to be the prophet foretold by Sayid Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the founder of the Babi movement. Baha Allah taught that God had become manifest in many different forms such as Abraham, Moses, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, the Bab and Baha Allah himself.巴哈安拉認為自己是先知預言的賽義德阿里穆罕默德Shirazi的,創始人巴比運動。巴哈伊教真主,上帝已成為體現在許多不同的形式,如亞伯拉罕,摩西, Zoroaster ,佛陀,耶穌,穆罕默德,在巴布和巴哈真主自己。 Baha Allah is not, however, the final and definitive manifestation of God.巴哈真主是沒有,不過,最後和徹底的表現上帝。 Other prophets will come, but not for at least 1000 years.其他先知會,但不是至少1000年。

There are no initiation rites, priesthood or sacraments in the Baha'i religion.沒有啟動儀式,神父或聖禮在巴哈的宗教。 Baha'is are required to pray every day; to meet at the first day of each Baha'i month for celebration; to fast from dawn to sunset during the month of 'Ala; to avoid drugs or alcohol; to avoid membership of political parties; and to observe particular holy days such as the birth of Baha Allah and the martyrdom of the Bab.教徒都必須祈禱每天開會的第一天,每月每個巴哈慶祝;快速從黎明到日落期間一個月的'阿拉; ,以避免藥物或酒精; ,以避免會員國的政黨;並遵守特別神聖的天,如出生巴哈真主和殉難的巴布。

Emphasis is placed on the unity of humanity and the absolute equality of men and women.重點放在統一的人類和絕對平等的男子和婦女。 Baha'is see themselves working towards the establishment of a world government which will eradicate extremes of wealth and poverty.巴哈看到自己努力建立一個世界政府將根除極端的財富和貧窮。 There is no single Baha'i sacred text.沒有單一的巴哈神聖的文字。 The writings of Baha Allah are, however, treated as sacred.該著作的巴哈安拉然而,被視為神聖的。 The most important of these are: The Most Holy Book, The Book of Certitude, The Hidden Words, The Seven Valleys, and Epistle to the Son of the Wolf.其中最重要的是:最神聖的書,這本書的肯定,隱藏的詞,七個流域,以及書的兒子沃爾夫。

History歷史

Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri was converted as a young man to the teachings of the Babi.米爾扎侯賽因阿里裡轉化為一名年輕男子的教誨的巴比。 In 1852 he was thrown into Tehran prison during the first wave of persecution against the Babis.在1852年,他被扔進監獄在德黑蘭的第一波迫害Babis 。 On his release in January 1853 he went to Baghdad where he became the de facto head of the Babi community there.在他的釋放1853年1月,他前往巴格達,他成為事實上的負責人巴比社會存在。 In 1863 he proclaimed himself to be the messiah foretold by the Bab.在1863年,他自封為救世主預言的巴布。 Such was his influence that the Ottoman authorities decided to move him from Baghdad to Istanbul and from there to Edirne (in Turkey).這些是他的影響,奧斯曼當局決定將他從巴格達到伊斯坦布爾,從那裡埃迪爾內(土耳其) 。 In 1868 Husayn Ali and many followers were exiled to Acre in Palestine where Husayn Ali was imprisoned for nine years in the fortress in Acre.在1868年阿里和侯賽因眾多的追隨者被流放到阿克里在巴勒斯坦阿里侯賽因在被關押了9年的堡壘中英畝。 Shortly after his release he went to live in Bahji, near Haifa, where he remained until his death in 1892.不久被釋放後,他去住在Bahji ,海法附近,在那裡他直到他去世於1892年。

On the death of Baha Allah, the movement came under the leadership of his eldest son 'Abbas Effendi (1844-1921), who acquired the title 'Abd al-Baha ("servant of the glory of God").在死亡的巴哈安拉,來到運動的領導下,他的長子'阿巴斯埃芬迪( 1844年至1921年) ,誰獲得了冠軍'阿卜德巴哈( “公僕的光榮上帝” ) 。 After a spell in prison under the Ottoman Turks he undertook three missionary journeys: to Egypt (1910), to Europe (1911), and to the United States and Europe (1912-1913). Lecturing to large audiences, he both consolidated Baha'ism in these parts of the world and systematised his father's teachings.後在監獄中拼寫下的奧斯曼土耳其人,他進行了三次傳教士旅行:埃及( 1910年) ,歐洲( 1911年) ,以及美國和歐洲( 1912至1913年) 。講授給廣大觀眾,他既鞏固巴哈伊教主義在這些地區的世界和systematised他父親的教誨。

'Abbas Effendi was succeeded by his grandson, Shoghi Effendi (1897-1957), who directed his energies into developing the Baha'i communities in Europe and North America. '阿巴斯埃芬迪是接替他的孫子, Shoghi埃芬迪( 1897年至1957年) ,誰指示他的精力來發展社區的巴哈在歐洲和北美。 Under his leadership the Baha'i community came to be organised within a system based on local and national assemblies.在他的領導下巴哈社會來舉辦一個系統為基礎的地方和全國議會。 When he died in 1957 he left no heirs, and the movement's organisation was placed under the jurisdiction of a body known as the Council of the Hands of the Cause.當他於1957年去世,他沒有留下後代,以及該運動的組織放在管轄下的一個機構,稱為理事會手中的原因。 In 1962 the International House of Justice was established in Haifa.在1962年國際眾議院司法成立於海法。 This body is reelected every five years.這個機構是連任每五年舉行一次。

Today Baha'i communities can be found in almost every country in the world.今天巴哈社區中可以找到幾乎每一個國家在世界上。 In Iran they continue to represent the largest minority religious group, and have suffered particularly during the period of the Iranian revolution.在伊朗,他們繼續代表最大的少數民族宗教組,尤其是遭受期間,伊朗伊斯蘭革命。

Symbols符號

Baha'is believe that God's greatest name is Baha (glory, splendour).巴哈認為,上帝的偉大的名字是巴哈(光榮,輝煌) 。 The name is used by Baha'is when they are addressing one another, and is often found on rings or wall hangings.這個名稱所使用的巴哈當他們正在處理彼此,而且常常發現戒指或壁掛。 A second expression, Ya Baha 'u' -l Abha (O Thou the Glory of the All-Glorious), is represented in the form of calligraphy.第二個表達,亞巴哈吾'一l艾卜哈(海外你的榮耀全光輝) ,派代表參加的形式,書法。

The number 9 is regarded as possessing important mystical properties and is sometimes used for decoration. 9日的數量被視為神秘的藏有重要的性能和有時是用於裝飾。 The Baha'i place of worship is called in Arabic the mashriq al-adhkar (which means the "place where the uttering of the name of God arises at dawn").巴哈禮拜場所,被稱為阿拉伯文的東方基地, adhkar (這意味著“地方發出的以上帝的名義出現在黎明” ) 。 The mashriq is a nine sided building in keeping with the mystical qualities of the number 9.在東方是一種片面的九個建設符合素質神秘的數目9 。

Adherents遺民

There are Baha'i communities in most countries of the world.有巴哈社區在世界上大多數國家。 It is estimated that there are between 3 to 4 million Baha'is in the world today (Harris et al 1994, 30).據估計,有3至4百萬教徒在當今世界上(哈里斯等人1994年, 30歲) 。 The largest Baha'i community is in India with about 1 million members.最大的巴哈社會在印度大約有100萬成員。 In Iran the Baha'is remain the largest minority group with about 300,000 adherents (ibid.).在伊朗的教徒仍然是最大的少數族裔約300000信徒(同上) 。

Headquarters / Main Centre總部/主要中心

The international Baha'i centre is located in Haifa, Israel. JIMcGrath國際巴哈中心設在以色列海法。 JIMcGrath
Overview of World Religions Project綜述世界宗教項目


Bahaullah巴哈阿拉

General Information 一般信息

Bahaullah ("Splendor of God") is the title assumed around 1866 by the Iranian religious leader Mirza Husayn Ali, b.巴哈阿拉( “榮耀上帝” )是在假設冠軍1866年由伊朗宗教領袖米爾扎侯賽因阿里灣 Nov. 12, 1817. 1817年11月12日。 He proclaimed himself to be the person announced by the Bab as the one who would bring his work to completion.他宣布自己是人宣布了巴布作為一個誰將他的工作完成。 The Baha'i movement, which arose from Bahaullah's teaching, spread as far as Europe and the United States during the time of Abbas Effendi, the son and successor of Bahaullah.巴哈運動,這是由巴哈阿拉的教學,傳播而言,歐洲和美國的這段時間阿巴斯埃芬迪的兒子和繼承者巴哈阿拉。 The latter died, while in exile in Acre, Palestine, on May 29, 1897.後者死亡,而流亡在英畝,巴勒斯坦,在1897年5月29日。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
S Effendi, The World Order of Baha'u'llah (1974); WM Miller, The Baha'i Faith: Its History and Teachings (1974).這是一種為了滿足埃芬迪,世界秩序巴哈歐拉( 1974年) ;西醫結合米勒,巴哈教派:它的歷史和教義( 1974年) 。


Babism

General Information 一般信息

Babism is a religious movement founded by Mirza Ali Muhammad of Shiraz (Iran), who announced his divine election as the Bab in 1844. Babism是一個宗教運動創辦的阿里穆罕默德米爾扎設拉子(伊朗) ,誰宣布,他當選為神聖的巴布在1844年。 This title, meaning "doorway to knowledge," was understood by many to imply that Muhammad of Shiraz claimed to have received a divine manifestation surpassing in significance the revelation granted to the prophet Muhammed, and that his book of revelation, the Bayan, overshadowed the Koran.此標題,意思是“知識的大門” ,是理解的許多暗示,設拉子穆罕默德聲稱收到了神聖的超越表現在意義的啟示給先知穆罕默德,他的書的啟示,在巴彥,掩蓋了可蘭經。

Understandably, serious tensions arose, and the Bab was executed (1850).可以理解,產生嚴重的緊張局勢,以及巴布被處決( 1850 ) 。 When an attempt to assassinate the Shah failed in 1852, the persecution of the Babis intensified.當一個企圖暗殺國王未能於1852年,迫害Babis加強。 The Bab's successor fled to Baghdad with his half brother Mirza Husayn Ali, who was later on recognized by most followers as the Bahaullah ("Splendor of God").在巴布的繼任者逃到巴格達與他的同父異母兄弟米爾扎侯賽因阿里,誰後來被公認的大多數追隨者的巴哈阿拉( “榮耀上帝” ) 。 The religious movement led by the Bahaullah became known as Baha'i.宗教運動的領導下巴哈阿拉被稱為巴哈。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
HM Balyuzi, The Bab (1973); WM Miller, The Baha'i Faith: Its History and Teachings (1974); P Smith, The Babi and Baha'i Religions (1987).陛下Balyuzi ,在巴布( 1973年) ;西醫結合米勒,巴哈教派:它的歷史和教義( 1974年) ; P史密斯,在巴比和巴哈教( 1987年) 。


Babis

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Doctrines理論

The Babis follow the teaching of Sayyid 'Ali Muhammad Shirazi (1819-50), who is known as the Bab (the "gate"). Babis後續的教學賽義德阿里穆罕默德希拉茲( 1819至1850年) ,誰被稱為巴布(以下簡稱“門” ) 。 He was regarded by his followers as the "Gate of God" and later as the Hidden Imam who would bring to an end Islamic law and inau gurate a new prophetic cycle.他認為他的追隨者的“上帝之門” ,後來成為隱藏伊瑪目誰將結束伊斯蘭法和inau gurate預言一個新的週期。 Prior to his death the Bab prophesied the coming of a messianic figure whom he called 'Him whom God shall make manifest'.在去世前的巴布預言未來的救世主數字他所謂的'上帝上帝其中應體現' 。 The holy book of the Babis is the Bayan (Declaration).聖書的Babis是巴彥(宣言) 。

History歷史

The Babis emerged in a period of great millenarian expectations, for the year 1844 was to mark the 1000th anniversary of the disappearance of the twelfth Imam.該Babis出現了一段偉大的千禧年的期望,為一年1844年是紀念1000週年之際失踪的第十二伊瑪目。 In this year Sayyid 'Ali Muhammad Shirazi claimed himself to be the Gate to the Hidden Imam.在這一年賽義德阿里穆罕默德Shirazi的自稱是門隱藏伊瑪目。 Later, he actually identified himself as the Hidden Imam, and gained many followers.後來,他實際上自稱為隱藏伊瑪目,並獲得眾多的追隨者。 A series of violent insurrections by the Bab's followers led to his arrest in 1845 and execution in 1850.一連串的暴力叛亂的巴布的追隨者導致他於1845年逮捕和執行於1850年。 The movement itself was violently persecuted, with its followers either exiled to Baghdad or imprisoned and executed.這個運動本身就是暴力的迫害,其追隨者要么流放到巴格達或監禁和處決。 Among those exiled was Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri, who in 1864 proclaimed himself to be the prophet foretold by the movement's founder.在這些流亡是米爾扎侯賽因阿里裡,誰在1864年宣布自己是先知預言的運動的創始人。 The movement then split between those who accepted Mirza Husayn's claim (later known as Baha'is) and the minority (the Azalis) who continued to follow the then leader Subh-i Azal.運動然後平分這些誰接受米爾扎侯賽因的說法(後來被稱為巴哈)和少數民族(在Azalis )誰繼續按照當時的領導人Subh一Azal 。 Since the 19th century the movement has declined in strength and today perhaps only a few hundred Babis remain.自十九世紀以來的流動有所下降的力量和今天也許只有幾百Babis依然存在。

Symbols符號

The number 19 assumed an important symbolic value within the Babi tradition, providing the basis upon which communal organization and the Babi calendar is based. 19日的數目承擔了重要的象徵意義的巴比傳統,提供了依據社區組織和巴比日曆的基礎。 Babis also wear talismans and engraved stones around their necks or ringstones in order to protect them from misfortune. Babis還穿護身符並刻在石頭脖子或ringstones ,以保護他們免遭不幸。

Adherents遺民

There are very few Babis today, perhaps only a few hundred.很少有Babis今天,也許只有幾百。

Headquarters / Main Centre總部/主要中心

The movement has no headquarters as such.這個運動沒有總部等。 Its adherents are dotted around Iran.其信徒的點綴著伊朗。

JIMcGrath
Overview of World Religions Project綜述世界宗教項目


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在