Atheism無神論

General Information 一般信息

Atheism, from the Greek a ("without") and theos ("deity"), commonly and loosely refers to the theoretical or practical denial of the existence of a deity.無神論,來自希臘的( “不” )和神( “神” ) ,通常是指和鬆散的理論或實際否認存在的神像。 The concrete meaning of atheism has varied considerably in history: even the earliest Christians were labeled "atheists" because they denied the existence of the Roman deities. In Western culture, where monotheism has been the dominant mode of religious belief, atheism has generally referred to the denial of the existence of a transcendent, perfect, personal creator of the universe.的具體含義各不相同無神論在歷史上:即使是最早的基督教徒被標示為“無神論者” ,因為他們否認存在的羅馬神。在西方文化,在一神教一直佔主導地位的模式,宗教信仰,無神論,一般稱為否定存在一個至高無上的,完美的,個人創造的宇宙。 To be an atheist need not mean that one is nonreligious, for there are "high" religions, such as Buddhism and Taoism, that do not postulate the existence of a supernatural being. Atheism should be distinguished from Agnosticism, which means that one does not know whether or not a deity exists.是一個無神論者不一定意味著一個非宗教性,因為有“高”宗教,如佛教和道教,不假設存在一個神仙。 無神論應區別於不可知論,這意味著一個不知道或不存在的神。

Monotheism has been so basic to and compounded with Western moral and philosophical beliefs as well as political institutions that until recently atheism has been widely believed to be both immoral and dangerous to society.一神教已如此基本的和複雜化與西方的道德和哲學信仰和政治體制,直到最近無神論已被廣泛認為是不道德的,既對社會的危險。 Plato not only viewed atheism as irrational but argued that certain atheists deserved the death penalty.柏拉圖不僅無神論認為不合理,但認為某些無神論者當之無愧的死刑。 When Christianity finally became the dominant religion in the West, atheism and heresy were thought to be worthy of exile or death because, as Thomas Aquinas argued, it was a much more serious matter to corrupt the soul than to damage the body.當基督教終於成為佔主導地位的宗教在西方,無神論和異端被認為是值得的流亡或死亡,因為托馬斯阿奎那認為,這是一個更嚴重的腐敗問題的靈魂,而不是損害身體。 Atheism was also dangerous to the political authority of Western monarchies that claimed to rest upon divine right.無神論也是危險的政治權威,西方君主制聲稱有賴於神聖權利。

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Even during the Enlightenment when the divine right of kings was challenged and religious toleration defended, John Locke, a staunch advocate of toleration, denied free speech to atheists on the grounds that they undermined and destroyed religion.即使在啟蒙運動時,神權國王受到質疑和宗教寬容辯護,洛克,一個堅定的倡導者容忍,剝奪言論自由,以無神論者,理由是他們破壞和摧毀宗教。 It was not until 1869 that atheists were permitted to give evidence in an English court of law, largely as a result of the efforts of Charles Bradlaugh, who for a long time had not been permitted to take his seat in the House of Commons because of his beliefs.但直到1869年的無神論者被允許提供證據的英文法庭,這主要是由於所作的努力查爾斯Bradlaugh ,誰很長一段時間沒有被允許他的座位下議院,因為他的信念。

The believability of atheism seems directly proportionate to the growth of the sciences and the emergence of humanism since the Renaissance. In the 19th century the biological sciences seemed to make theological explanations of the origins of the universe and of the emergence of humankind unnecessary. 的可信度似乎無神論直接比例的增長,科學和人文精神的出現自文藝復興時期。在19世紀生物科學似乎使神學解釋宇宙起源和人類的出現不必要的。 Particularly important were the writings of David Hume and Immanuel Kant, which established that attempts to prove the existence of God from the world order were invalid.尤其重要的是著作的大衛休謨和康德,其中規定,試圖證明上帝存在的世界秩序是無效的。 In the mid 19th century, explicitly atheistic and humanistic systems of philosophy appeared.在十九世紀中葉,明確無神論與人文哲學體系的出現。 Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Arthur Schopenhauer, and Friedrich Nietzsche were not only atheists but also militant critics of religion generally and of Christianity particularly.路德維希費爾巴哈,馬克思,阿瑟叔本華,尼采,並不僅是無神論者,而且激進的批評和一般宗教的基督教特別。 In the 20th century there have been influential atheistic thinkers who were Marxists, existentialists, Freudians, and logical positivists, although one may be any of these and not necessarily also an atheist.在20世紀出現了有影響力的思想家無神論的馬克思主義者是誰, existentialists , Freudians ,和邏輯實證主義,儘管可能是所有這些,不一定也是一個無神論者。

Modern philosophical atheism is based on both theoretical and practical reasons.現代無神論的哲學基礎是理論和實踐的原因。 Theoretically, atheists argue either that there are no good arguments for believing in the existence of a personal deity, whether this deity be conceived of anthropomorphically or metaphysically, or that the statement God exists is incoherent or meaningless.從理論上說,無神論者認為無論有沒有好的理由相信存在一個個人神,無論神設想anthropomorphically或metaphysically ,或上帝存在的聲明是不連貫的或毫無意義的。 The last type of logical criticism of theism is characteristic of logical positivism and analytic and linguistic philosophy.最後類型的邏輯批判有神論的特點是邏輯實證主義和分析哲學和語言。 Practically, some atheists have argued, as did Nietzsche, that belief in a supernatural and supreme being requires a devaluation of this life; or, as Freud did, that the belief is an expression of infantile helplessness.實際上,一些無神論者認為,就像尼采,信仰超自然的和最高的需要貶值的這種生活; ,或作為弗洛伊德那樣,認為信仰是一種表達的嬰幼兒無助。

Van A Harvey凡甲哈維

Bibliography: 參考書目:
D Berman, A History of Atheism in Britain (1987); MJ Buckley, At the Origins of Modern Atheism (1987); L Feuerbach, The Essence of Christianity (1957); A Flew, God and Philosophy (1966); S Freud, The Future of an Illusion (1964); F Nietzsche, The Gay Science (1974); J Turner, Without God, Without Creed: the Origins of Unbelief in America (1986). D伯曼史無神論在英國( 1987年) ;麻將巴克利,在現代的起源無神論( 1987年) ; L費爾巴哈,本質基督教( 1957年) ;阿弗盧,上帝與哲學( 1966年) ;語弗洛伊德,未來的一種幻想( 1964年) ,女尼采,科學的蓋伊( 1974年) ; J特納,如果沒有上帝,沒有信條:在不信教的起源在美國( 1986年) 。


Atheism無神論

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Greek word atheos, "without God," is found only once in the NT (Eph. 2:12).希臘字atheos , “沒有上帝, ”是發現,只有一次在新台幣(以弗所書2時12分) 。 There it is used in the plural form to designate the condition of being without the true God.人們用它的複數形式指定條件,沒有真正的上帝。 It refers to the deepest state of heathen misery (cf. Rom. 1:28).它指的是最深切的狀態異教徒的苦難(參見光碟。 1時28分) 。 It is not found in either the LXX or the Apocrypha.這是沒有發現無論是LXX或偽經。 Both the OT and NT begin with or assume the reality of God, not as some speculative premise, but as universally manifest in nature, man's reason and conscience, and divine revelation.無論是催產素和NT開始或承擔現實的上帝,而不是一些投機的前提,但普遍表現在自然,人的理智和良知,和神聖的啟示。 The normal human state includes the knowledge of God; atheism is thus viewed as abnormal.正常人狀態包括知識的上帝;無神論,因此被視為異常。 Hebrew has no equivalent word for atheism.希伯來文沒有等效詞無神論。 In the OT the form of atheism that one encounters is practical atheism, human conduct that is carried out without consideration of God (Pss. 10:4; 14;1; 53:1; cf. Isa. 31:1; Jer. 2:13, 17 - 18; 5:12; 18:13 - 15).在加時賽的形式,無神論,一個是實際遇到的無神論,人力的行為進行了不考慮上帝的( Pss. 10時04分; 14 ; 1 ; 53:1 ;比照。伊薩。 31:1 ;哲。第2 : 13 , 17 -1 8; 5時1 2分; 1 8:13- 15 )。

The Greeks used "atheism" in three senses: (1) impious or godless; (2) without supernatural help; (3) not believing in any god or the Greek conception of god.希臘人用“無神論”的三種含義: ( 1 ) impious或godless ; ( 2 )沒有超自然的幫助; ( 3 )不相信任何神或希臘的神的概念。 Because Christians denied the popular gods of the day, they were often accused of atheism by the pagans. Protestants at times have been called atheists because of their refusal to deify Mary and to worship saints.由於基督教徒否認流行的神的時候,他們常常指責無神論的異教徒。新教徒,有時被稱為無神論者,因為他們拒絕神化瑪麗和崇拜的聖人。 More and more in speculative circles the term came to mean a denial of God or the negation of the spiritual idea.越來越多的投機界的任期來意味著剝奪了上帝或否定的精神的想法。

Just as the first century introduced a devotion to theism unique in its scope and depth, so the twentieth century has produced a somewhat parallel commitment to atheism.正如二十一世紀介紹了獻身於有神論獨特的廣度和深度,因此,二十世紀產生了一定的平行無神論的承諾。 This century has seen the development of communism with its devotion to atheism, as well as the establishment in 1925 of the American Association for the Advancement of Atheism.本世紀看到了發展的共產主義與無神論的奉獻,以及建立於1925年的美國促進協會無神論。 The latter organization was formed to attack all religions through the distribution of atheistic literature.後者成立組織攻擊所有宗教通過分發無神論的文獻。 In 1929 its successor was formed, the League of Militant Atheists, with goals of the undermining of the religious foundations of Western society, the establishment of centers for atheistic lectures, the placement of atheistic professors, and the sponsorship of lectureships. 1929年其前身是成立的,聯盟的激進的無神論者,與目標的破壞宗教基礎的西方社會,建立中心的無神論的講座,把無神論的教授和講師的贊助。 By 1932 this organization claimed a membership of five and a half million.到1932年這個組織的成員聲稱的五年半萬美元。

Twentieth century atheism may be contrasted with older forms in two ways.二十世紀無神論可對比舊形式有兩種方式。 (1) Today atheism is claimed to be the logical consequence of a rational system that accounts for all human experience without the need to appeal to God. ( 1 )今天,無神論是聲稱是合乎邏輯的一個合理的制度,佔所有人類的經驗,而不需要呼籲上帝。 Communism is such an organized and integrated system.共產主義是一個有組織和綜合系統。 At its heart is a materialistic view of history and the complete secularization of life.它的核心是唯物主義歷史觀和徹底世俗化的生活。 (2) Earlier atheists were thought to be vulgar and depraved. ( 2 )早些時候無神論者被認為是庸俗和墮落。 Today many serve on the faculties of the most prestigious universities, and more often than not the theist seems to be the obscurantist.今天,許多擔任院系的最負盛名的大學,往往不是有神論者看來是愚昧的。

Thus, in modern usage four senses of "atheism" may be identified: (1) Classical atheism.因此,在現代使用四個感官的“無神論”可以發現: ( 1 )古典無神論。 This is not a general denial of God's existence but the rejection of the god of a particular nation. Christians were repeatedly called atheists in this sense because they refused to acknowledge heathen gods.這不是一般的否定上帝的存在,但拒絕神的某一特定國家。基督徒被一再呼籲無神論者從這個意義上講,因為他們拒絕承認異教徒的神。 It was also in this sense that Cicero called Socrates and Diagoras of Athens atheists. (2) Philosophical atheism.也有人在這個意義上,西塞羅所謂的蘇格拉底和雅典Diagoras無神論者。 ( 2 )哲學無神論。 This position may be contrasted with theism, which affirms a personal, self conscious deity (not a principle, first cause, or force).這一立場可能會與有神論的對比,確認個人的,自我意識的神(而不是一個原則,第一個原因,或武力) 。 (3) Dogmatic atheism. ( 3 )教條主義無神論。 This is the absolute denial of God's existence.這是絕對否定上帝的存在。 This position is more rare than one might think, as people have more often declared themselves agnostics or secularists.這一立場是較罕見的比人們可能認為,人們有更多的往往宣布自己不可知論者或世俗。 There have, however, been those who claimed to hold this view (the eighteenth century French atheists). (4) Practical atheism.有,但是,這些人誰持有這種看法(十八世紀法國無神論者) 。 ( 4 )實用無神論。 While God is not denied, life is lived as if there is no God.雖然上帝是不否認,生活居住,如果沒有上帝。 There is complete indifference to his claims, and often there is outspoken and defiant wickedness (Ps. 14:1).有完整的冷漠他的說法,而且往往是直言不諱和蔑視邪惡(詩篇14時01分) 。 This form of atheism is widely prevalent, as can be seen from the Scriptures cited above.這種形式的無神論是廣泛流行,可以看出從上述聖經。

Numerous arguments for atheism have been given.許多無神論的論點得到。 Some of the more important are: (1) The onus of proof is on the theist, since atheism is prima facie a more reasonable position.一些更重要的是: ( 1 )舉證責任的有神論者,因為無神論是表面更合理的立場。 (2) Closely related is the belief that theistic proofs are inadequate. ( 2 )密切相關的是相信,有神論的證據是不夠的。 (3) Theism is harmful to society, as it leads to intolerance and persecution. (4) With the advances in modern science there is no need for God as an explanatory hypothesis. ( 3 )有神論是有害於社會,因為它導致的不容忍和迫害。 ( 4 )在進步,現代科學就沒有必要為上帝作為一個解釋性的假設。 The supernatural is unneeded.超自然是不必要的。 (5) Belief in God is psychologically explainable. ( 5 )對上帝的信仰是心理上解釋。 (6) The logical positivists argue that theism is neither true nor false because it is unverifiable (eg, nothing counts for or against it) by public sense experience. ( 6 )邏輯實證主義認為,有神論既不是真正的也不假,因為它是核實(例如,什麼罪狀支持或反對它)的公共意義的經驗。 (7) Classical theism is logically contradictory or incoherent. ( 7 )古典有神論是邏輯矛盾或不一致。

For instance, it has been claimed that the notion of necessary existence is incoherent and that the existence of an omnipotent, perfectly good God is inconsistent with the presence of evil in the world.例如,它一直聲稱的概念是必要的存在不連貫,而且存在著一個無所不能的,不錯的上帝是不符合的存在邪惡的世界。 Finally, objections have been raised to atheism in its theoretical form: (1) It is against reason.最後,反對已提高到無神論其理論形式: ( 1 )它是反對的理由。 The existence of something rather than nothing requires God.存在的東西,而不是什麼需要上帝。 (2) It is contrary to human experience, where some knowledge of God, no matter how suppressed and distorted, has universally existed. ( 2 )這是違背人類的經驗,一些知識的上帝,不管多麼壓抑,扭曲,普遍的存在。 (3) Atheism cannot account for design, order, and regularity in the universe. (4) It cannot explain the existence of man and mind. ( 3 )無神論不能賬戶的設計,秩序和規律在宇宙中。 ( 4 )無法解釋的存在,男子和銘記。

PD Feinberg帕金森病范伯格
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
E Borne, Atheism; A Flew, God and Philosophy and The Presumption of Atheism; J Lacroix, Meaning of Modern Atheism; A MacIntyre and P Ricoeur, Religious Significance of Atheism; I Lepp, Atheism in Our Time; C Fabro, God in Exile. é傳,無神論,一個飛越,上帝與哲學和無神論的推定; J拉克魯瓦,現代意義的無神論;阿麥金太爾和P利科,宗教無神論的意義,我Lepp ,無神論在我們的時代; ç Fabro ,上帝放逐。


Atheism無神論

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(a privative, and theos, God, ie without God). (一privative和上帝,上帝,即沒有上帝) 。

Atheism is that system of thought which is formally opposed to theism.無神論是,系統的思想是正式反對有神論。 Since its first coming into use the term atheism has been very vaguely employed, generally as an epithet of accusation against any system that called in question the popular gods of the day.自第一次進入使用的術語無神論一直非常含糊就業,一般作為一個形容詞的指控系統,任何質疑全民神的一天。 Thus while Socrates was accused of atheism (Plato, Apol., 26,c.) and Diagoras called an atheist by Cicero (Nat. Deor., I, 23), Democritus and Epicurus were styled in the same sense impious (without respect for the gods) on account of their trend of their new atomistic philosophy.因此,雖然蘇格拉底被控無神論(柏拉圖, Apol 。 , 26歲,角)和Diagoras所謂無神論者的西塞羅( Nat. Deor 。 ,我23歲) ,德謨克利特和伊壁鳩魯的風格在同樣的意義impious (不尊重神)對到他們的趨勢,其新的原子論哲學。 In this sense too, the early Christians were known to the pagans as atheists, because they denied the heathen gods; while, from time to time, various religious and philisophical systems have, for similar reasons, been deemed atheistic.從這個意義上講也是早期基督徒被稱為向異教徒的無神論者,因為他們否認神的異教徒;同時,不時,各種宗教和哲學體系,為類似的原因,被認為是無神論的。

Though atheism, historically considered, has meant no more in the past critical or sceptical denial of the theology of those who have employed the term as one of reproach, and has consquently no one strict philisophical meaning; though there is no one consistent system in the exposition of which it has a definite place; yet, if we consider it in its broad meaning as merely the opposite of theism, we will be able to frame such divisions as will make possible a grouping of definite systems under this head.雖然無神論,在歷史上考慮,這意味著沒有在過去的關鍵或懷疑否定神學的人誰也採用了作為一個長期的責備,並已consquently沒有一個嚴格的哲學意義,雖然沒有一個一致的系統闡述了它具有一定的地方;然而,如果我們考慮其廣泛的含義,只是相反的有神論,我們將能夠幀等部門也將成為可能分組明確系統根據本頭。 And in so doing so we shall at once be adopting both the historical and the philosophical view.並在這樣做,所以我們應立即將通過雙方的歷史和哲學觀點。 For the common basis of all systems of theism as well as the cardinal tenet of all popular religion at the present day is indubitably a belief in the existence of a personal God, and to deny this tenet is to invite the popular reproach of atheism.為了共同的基礎上的所有系統的有神論,以及基本宗旨,所有流行的宗教在當今無疑是相信存在著個人的上帝,並否認這一宗旨是邀請受歡迎的責備無神論。 The need of some such definition as this was felt by Mr. Gladstone when he wrote (Contemporary Review, June 1876):需要一些這樣的定義,因為這是感受到斯通先生時,他寫道(當代審查, 1876年6月) :

By the Atheist I understand the man who not only holds off, like the sceptic, from the affirmative, but who drives himself, or is driven, to the negative assertion in regard to the whole unseen, or to the existence of God.由無神論者我明白誰該男子不僅擁有了一樣,懷疑論者,從肯定的,但誰驅動本人,還是驅動的,負面說法是關於整個看不見的,或存在的上帝。

Moreover, the breadth of comprehension in such a use of the term admits of divisions and cross-divisions being framed under it; and at the same time limits the number of systems of thought to which, with any propriety, it might otherwise be extended.此外,廣度理解在這樣一個使用這個詞承認的部門和跨部門正在根據該框架,並在同一時間限制了一些制度,認為這與任何正當性,它可能被延長。 Also, if the term is thus taken, in strict contradistinction to theism, and a plan of its possible modes of acceptance made, these systems of thought will naturally appear in clearer proportion and relationship.此外,如果長期這樣,採取嚴格的對比有神論,並計劃在其可能的方式接受了,這些系統的思想自然會出現在明確的比例和關係。

Thus, defined as a doctrine, or theory, or philosophy formally opposed to theism, atheism can only signify the teaching of those schools, whether cosmological or moral, which do not include God either as a principle or as a conclusion of their reasoning.因此,界定為一種理論,或理論,或哲學正式反對有神論,無神論只能意味著教學中的這些學校,不論是宇宙或道義上的,其中不包括上帝,作為一項原則或結論的推理。

The most trenchant form which atheism could take would be the positive and dogmatic denial existence of any spiritual and extra-mundane First Cause.最刻薄的形式可採取無神論將是積極的和教條式否定存在任何精神和課外平凡的第一個原因。 This is sometimes known as dogmatic, or positive theoretic, atheism; though it may be doubted whether such a system has ever been, or could ever possibly be seriously maintained.這有時也被稱為教條,或積極的理論,無神論;雖然它可能會懷疑這種系統是否曾經或可能以往任何時候都可能受到嚴重保留。 Certainly Bacon and Dr. Arnold voice the common judgment of thinking men when they express a doubt as to the existence of an atheist belonging to such a school.當然,培根和阿諾德博士的共同聲音判斷男女的思維時,他們表示懷疑,存在一個無神論者屬於這類學校。 Still, there are certain advanced phases of materialistic philosophy that, perhaps, should rightly be included under this head. Materialism, which professes to find in matter its own cause and explanation, may go farther, and positively exclude the existence of any spiritual cause. That such a dogmatic assertion is both unreasonable and illogical needs no demonstration, for it is an inference not warranted by the facts nor justified by the laws of thought.儘管如此,有一些先進的階段的唯物主義哲學,也許,理應列入本頭。唯物主義,其中自稱在事發現自己的事業和解釋,可能會走得更遠,積極排除存在任何精神的事業。這種教條式的主張是不合理的,不合邏輯的需求沒有示範,因為它是一個沒有必要推理的事實,也沒有合理的法律思想。 But the fact that certain individuals have left the sphere of exact scientific observation for speculation, and have thus dogmatized negatively, calls for their inclusion in this specific type.但事實上,某些個人已經離開了準確領域的科學觀察投機,從而教條不利,要求將其列入這一特定類型。 Materialism is the one dogmatic explanation of the universe which could in any sense justify an atheistic position.唯物主義是一個教條的解釋宇宙可能在任何意義上證明了無神論的立場。 But even materialism, however its advocated might dogmatize, could do no more than provide an inadequate theoretic basis for a negative form of atheism.但是,即使唯物論,但其主張可能會獨斷,可以做不超過提供了理論依據不足的消極形式的無神論。 Pantheism, which must not be confused with materialism, in some of its forms can be placed also in this division, as categorically denying the existence of a spiritual First Cause above or outside the world.泛神論,這絕不能混淆唯物主義,在某些形式可以放置在這個師,如斷然否認存在著一種精神的原因首先以上或以外的世界。

A second form in which atheism may be held and taught, as indeed it has been, is based either upon the lack of physical data for theism or upon the limited nature of the intelligence of man.第二個形式,無神論可能被追究和教授,事實上它已經是基於各國都缺乏物理數據的有神論或有限的性質情報的人。 This second form may be described as a negative theoretic atheism; and may be furthur viewed as cosmological or psychological, according as it is motived, on the one hand, by a consideration of the paucity of actual data available for the arguments proving the existence of a super-sensible and spiritual God, or, what amounts to the same thing, the attributing of all cosmic change and development to the self-contained potentialities of an eternal matter; or, on the other hand, by an empiric or theoretic estimate of the powers of reason working upon the data furnished by sense-perception.這第二種形式可以被描述為一種消極的理論無神論; ,可furthur看作是宇宙或心理,根據它motived ,一方面,通過審議,缺乏實際的數據可用於證明論點的存在一個超級明智的和精神的上帝,或者數額是多少,以同樣的事,該歸於宇宙的所有變化和發展自我潛力,載一個永恆的問題,或者在另一方面,由經驗或理論估計權力的理由工作時所提供的數據意義的看法。 From whichever cause this negative form of atheism proceeds, it issues in agnosticism or materialism; although the agnostic is, perhaps, better classed under this head than the materialist.從哪個造成這種消極形式的無神論的收益,但問題的不可知論或唯物主義;雖然是不可知的,也許,更好地歸類根據本頭比唯物主義者。 For the former, professing a state of nescience, more properly belongs to a category under which those are placed who neglect, rather than explain, nature without a God.對於前者,信奉的狀態nescience ,更恰當地屬於一個類別,這些放在誰忽視,而不是解釋,性質沒有上帝。 Moreover, the agnostic may be a theist, if he admits the existence of a being behind and beyond nature, even while he asserts that such a being is both unprovable and unknowable.此外,不可知的可能是一個有神論者,如果他承認存在的落後和被超越的性質,儘管他聲稱,這種正在既是unprovable和不可知的。 The materialist belongs to this type so long as he merely neglects, and does not exclude from his system, the existence of God.的唯物主義者是屬於這種類型,只要他只是忽略,不排除他的系統,存在的上帝。 So, too, does the positivist, regarding theological and metaphysical speculation as mere passing stages of thought through which the human mind has been journeying towards positive, or related empirical, knowledge.所以,也沒有實證,關於神學和形而上學的猜測僅僅是通過階段的思想通過這些人的頭腦一直朝著積極的journeying ,或相關經驗,知識。 Indeed, any system of thought or school of philosophy that simply omits the existence of God from the sum total of natural knowledge, whether the individual as a matter of fact believes in Him or not, can be classed in this division of atheism, in which, strictly speaking, no positive assertion or denial is made as to the ultimate fact of His being. There are two systems of practical or moral atheism which call for attention. They are based upon the theoretic systems just expounded.事實上,任何系統的思想或學校的哲學,簡單地忽略了上帝存在的總和,自然知識,無論是個人,事實上他相信與否,可以被歸類在這個分工的無神論,其中嚴格地說,沒有任何積極的斷言或剝奪了作為最終的事實他的福祉。有兩個系統的實際或道義上的無神論的規定,其中要求注意。他們所依據的理論系統闡述了公正。 One system of positive moral atheism, in which human actions would neither be right nor wrong, good nor evil, with reference to God, would naturally follow from the profession of positive theoretic atheism; and it is significant of those to whom such a form of theoretic atheism is sometimes attributed, that for the sanctions of moral actions they introduce such abstract ideas as those of duty, the social instinct, or humanity.一個系統的正面的道德無神論,其中人的行動既不是正確的,也沒有錯,好事也不是邪惡的,並提及上帝,自然會按照從專業理論的積極無神論,它是重要的那些人這種形式的理論有時是無神論的原因,該制裁的道德行為,他們提出這些抽象的概念那些工作地點,社會的本能,或人類。 There seems to be no particular reason why they should have recourse to such sanctions, since the morality of an action can hardly be derived from its performance as a duty, which in turn can be called and known as a "duty" only because it refers to an action that is morally good.人們似乎沒有特別的原因,他們應訴諸制裁,因為道德的行動難以來自其業績作為一種責任,這反過來又可以稱為和被稱為“義務”不僅是因為它是指一個行動,在道義上是好的。 Indeed an analysis of the idea of duty leads to a refutation of the principle in whose support it is invoked, and points to the necessity of a theisitic interpretation of nature for its own justification.實際上分析的思想工作地點導致了反駁的原則的支持是引用,並指出,有必要theisitic性質的解釋為自己的理由。

The second system of negative practical or moral atheism may be referred to the second type of theoretic atheism.第二個系統的負面實際或道義上的無神論可以稱為第二類的理論無神論。 It is like the first in not relating human actions to an extra-mundane, spiritual, and personal lawgiver; but that, not because such a lawgiver does not exist, but because the human intelligence is incapable of so relating them.這就像第一次在沒有人類活動有關的課外平凡,精神,和個人的立法者;但是,不能因為這樣的立法者並不存在,而是因為人類的智慧是無法使他們有關。 It must not be forgotten, however, that either negative theoretic atheism or negative practical atheism is, as a system, strictly speaking compatible with belief in a God; and much confusion is often caused by the inaccurate use of the terms, belief, knowledge, opinion, etc. Lastly, a third type is generally, though perhaps wrongly, included in moral atheism.不應忘記,然而,無論理論無神論的負面或消極的實際無神論是作為一個系統,從嚴格意義上講符合信仰的上帝;和許多混亂往往是因為使用了不準確的術語,信仰,知識,意見,等等最後,第三類是一般,但也許是錯誤的,包括在道義上的無神論。 "Practical atheism is not a kind of thought or opinion, but a mode of life" (R. Flint, Anti-theisitc Theories, Lect. I). “實用無神論是不是一個樣的思想或見解,而是一個模式的生活” (河弗林特,反theisitc理論, Lect 。一) 。 This is more correctly called, as it is described, godlessness in conduct, quite irrespective of any theory of philosophy, or morals, or of religious faith.這就是所謂的更準確,因為它是描述, godlessness行為,相當不論任何理論的哲學,或道德或他人的宗教信仰。 It will be noticed that, although we have included agnosticism, materialism, and pantheism, among the types of atheism, strictly speaking this latter does not necessarily include any one of the former.這將是注意到,雖然我們已經列入不可知論,唯物主義和泛神論,各類型的無神論,嚴格地說這後者並不一定包括任何一個前。 A man may be an agnostic simply, or an agnostic who is also an atheist.一名男子可能是一個不可知的簡單,或不可知誰也是一個無神論者。 He may be a scientific materialist and no more, or he may combine atheism with his materialism.他可能是一個科學的唯物主義者,沒有更多的,否則他可能會結合他的無神論與唯物論。 It does not necessarilly follow, because the natural cognoscibility of a personal First Cause is denied, that His existence is called in question: nor, when matter is called upon to explain itself, that God is critically denied.它並不necessarilly後續,因為自然cognoscibility了個人第一個原因被拒絕,他的存在是所謂的問題:沒有,當此事被要求解釋本身而言,上帝是極其否認。 On the other hand, pantheism, while destroying the extra-mundane character of God, does not necessarily deny the existence of a supreme entity, but rather affirms such as the sum of all existence and the cause of all phenomena whether of thought or of matter.另一方面,泛神論,同時摧毀了課外世俗性質的上帝,不一定否認存在一個最高實體,而是申明,如總和生存和事業的現象,是否所有的思想或事物。 Consequently, while it would be unjust to class agnostics, materialists, or pantheists as necessarily also atheists, it cannot be denied that atheism is clearly perceived to be implied in certain phases of all these systems.因此,雖然這將是不公正的階級不可知論者,唯物論者,或者作為一定pantheists也無神論者,但不能否認,無神論顯然是被認為是暗示在某些階段,所有這些系統。 There are so many shades and gradations of thought by which one form of a philosophy merges into another, so much that is opinionative and personal woven into the various individual expositions of systems, that, to be impartially fair, each individual must be classed by himself as atheist or theist.有這麼多色彩和層次的思想,其中一種形式的哲學融合成另一種,這麼多是opinionative和個人編入各個系統的論述,指出,要公正公平,每個人必須歸入自己作為無神論或有神論者。 Indeed, more upon his own assertion or direct teaching than by reason of any supposed implication in the system he advocated must this classification be made.事實上,根據他自己的說法,或直接教學比因任何假定的意義系統中的他主張必須這個分類作。 And if it is correct to consider the subject from this point of view, it is surprising to find to what an exceedingly small number the supposed atheistic ranks dwindle.如果它是正確的考慮這個問題從這個角度來看,這是令人吃驚找到什麼極其少量假定無神論的隊伍萎縮。 In company with Socrates, nearly all the reputed Greek atheists strenuously repudiated the charge of teaching that there were no gods.在公司與蘇格拉底,幾乎所有的著名希臘無神論者極力否認負責教學,有沒有神。 Even Bion, who, according to Diogenes Laertius (Life of Aristippus, XIII, Bohn's tr.), adopted the scandalous moral teaching of the atheist Theodorus, turned again to the gods whom he had insulted, and when he came to die demonstrated in practice what he had denied in theory.即使比昂,誰,根據第歐根尼Laertius (壽命的阿瑞斯提普斯,十三,博恩的文。 ) ,通過了可恥的道德教學的無神論者西奧多,再次把神他侮辱了,當他來到死在實踐中證明他否認在理論上。 As Laertius says in his "Life of Bion", he "who never once said, `I have sinned but spare me --作為Laertius說,在他的“生命比昂” ,他“誰從來沒有說過,我已經犯過罪,但備件箱-

Then did this atheist shrink and give his neck然後這樣做無神論者收縮並給予他的脖子

To an old woman to hang charms upon;一個老婦懸垂的魅力,以對;

And bound his arms with magic amulets;和他的懷裡約束與魔法護身符;

With laurel branches blocked his doors and windows,同月桂樹樹枝阻擋他的門和窗戶,

Ready to do and venture anything準備做什麼和合資企業

Rather than die."而不是死。 “

Epicurus, the founder of that school of physics which limited all causes to purely natural ones and consequently implied, if he did not actually assert, atheism, is spoken of as a man whose "piety towards the gods and (whose) affection for his country was quite unspeakable" (ib., Life of Epicurus, V).伊壁鳩魯的創始人,學校的物理限制所有的原因,純粹是自然的,因此暗示,如果他實際上並沒有斷言,無神論,是談到了作為一個男人的“孝道對神和(其)愛他的國家很難以形容“ ( ib. ,生活伊壁鳩魯,五) 。 And though Lucretius Carus speaks of the downfall of popular religion which he wished to bring about (De Rerum natura, I, 79-80), yet, in his own letter to Henaeceus (Laert., Life of Epicurus, XXVII), he states plainly a true theistic position: "For there are gods: for our knowledge of them is indistinct. But they are not of the character which people in general attribute to them."雖然路克勒丟思卡魯斯談到垮台流行的宗教,他希望使(德自然事物,我, 79-80 ) ,然而,在他自己的信Henaeceus ( Laert. ,生活伊壁鳩魯, XXVII )號決議,他指出顯然一個真正的有神論的立場: “對於有神:我們的知識,他們是模糊的。但是他們沒有的性質,人們一般歸因於他們。 ” Indeed, this one citation perfectly illustrates the fundamental historic meaning of the term, atheism.事實上,這完全是引文說明了基本的歷史一詞的含義,無神論。

The naturalistic pantheism of the Italian Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) comes near to, if it is not actually a profession of, atheism; while Tomaso Campanella (1568-1639), on the contrary, in his nature-philosophy finds in atheism the one impossibility of thought, Spinoza (1632-77), while defending the doctrine that God certainly exists, so identifies Him with finite existence that it is difficult to see how he can be defended against the charge of atheism even of the first type.自然泛神論的意大利布魯諾( 1548年至1600年)是附近的,如果它實際上不是專業的,無神論;而馬索內拉( 1568年至1639年) ,相反,在他的自然哲學認為無神論的一個不可能的思想,斯賓諾莎( 1632年至1677年) ,而衛冕的理論,上帝確實存在,所以確定了他的有限存在,這是很難看他如何才能捍衛對收費甚至無神論的第一種類型。 In the eighteenth century, and especially in France, the doctrines of materialism were spread broadcast by the Encyclopedists.早在十八世紀,特別是在法國,唯物主義理論是傳播廣播的Encyclopedists 。 La Mettrie, Holbach, Fererbach, and Fleurens are usually classed among the foremost materialistic atheists of the period.拉美特利,霍爾巴赫, Fererbach ,並Fleurens通常歸類之間的最主要的唯物主義無神論者的時期。 Voltaire, on the contrary, while undoubtedly helping on the cause of practical atheism, distinctly held its theoretic contrary.伏爾泰,相反,同時幫助無疑對事業的實際無神論,舉行了顯著的理論相反。 He, as well as Rousseau, was a deist.他,以及盧梭,是一個自然神論者。 Comte, it will be remembered, refused to be called an atheist.孔德,人們將會記得,拒絕被稱為無神論者。 In the last century Thomas Huxley, Charles Darwin, and Herbert Spencer, with others of the evolutionistic school of philosophy, were, quite erroneously, charged with positive atheism.在上個世紀的托馬斯赫胥黎,查爾斯達爾文和斯賓塞,與他人的evolutionistic學校的哲學,是相當錯誤的,罪名是積極的無神論。 It is a charge which can in no way be substantiated; and the invention andonism of Ernst Hackel, goes far towards forming an atheistic system of philosophy.這是一個負責這絕不可能得到證實;和發明andonism的恩斯特海克爾,遠遠爭取形成了無神論的哲學體系。 But even the last named admits that there may be a God, though so limited and so foreign to the deity of theists that his admission can hardly remove the system from the first category of theoretic atheism.但是,即使最後命名承認,可能有一個上帝,但十分有限,因此外國的神的有神論者,他承認很難消除系統從第一類的理論無神論。

Among the unscientific and unphilosophical there have from time to time been found dogmatic atheists of the first type.其中不科學的,有unphilosophical不時被發現教條無神論者的第一種類型。 Here again, however, many of those popularly styled atheists are more correctly described by some other title. There is a somewhat rare tract, "Atheism Refuted in a Discourse to prove the Existence of God by TP" -- British Museum Catalogue, "Tom Paine", who was at one time popularly called an atheist.在這裡,然而,許多人普遍稱為無神論者更正確地描述了其他一些冠軍。是有點罕見道, “無神論駁斥了話語來證明上帝的存在的茶多酚” -大英博物館目錄, “湯姆潘恩“ ,誰是一次普遍呼籲無神論者。 And perhaps, of the few who have upheld an indubitable form of positive theoretic atheism, none has been taken seriously enough to hav exerted any influence upon the trend of philosophic or scientific thought.也許,少數誰堅持一個不容置疑的形式積極的理論無神論,但已足以嚴重甲肝施加任何影響的趨勢,哲學或科學思想。 Robert Ingersoll might be instanced, but though popular speakers and writers of this type may create a certain amount of unlearned disturbance, they are not treated seriously by thinking men, and it is extremely doubtful whether they deserve a place in any historical or philosophical exposition of atheism.羅伯特可英格索蘭實例,但儘管流行的發言和作家的這種類型可能會造成一定數額的胸無點墨干擾,他們沒有認真對待男人的思想,這是非常令人懷疑他們是否應該有一個發生在任何歷史或哲學論述無神論。

Publication information Written by Francis Aveling.出版信息撰稿:弗朗西斯Aveling 。 Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.轉錄的貝絲聖瑪麗。天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

REIMMAN, Historia atheismi et atheorum . REIMMAN ,歷史atheismi等atheorum 。 . . (Hildesheim, 1725); TOUSSAINT in Dict. (希爾德斯海姆, 1725 ) ;圖在快譯通。 de theologie, sv ( a good bibliography); JANET AND SEAILLES, History of the Problems of Philosophy (tr.,London, 1902), II; HETTINGER, Natural Religion (tr., New York, 1890); FLINT, Anti-theistic Theories (New York, 1894); LILLY, The Great Enigma (New York, 1892); DAURELLE, L Atheisme devant la raison humaine (Paris, 1883); WARD, Naturalism and Agnosticism (New York, 1899); LADD, Philosophy of Religion (New York, 1905); II; BOEDDER, Natural Theologh (New York, 1891); BLACKIE, Natural History of Atheism (New York, 1878); The Catholic World, XXVII, 471: BARRY, The End of Atheism in the Catholic World, LX, 333; SHEA, Steps to Atheism in The Am, Cath.由神學,希沃特(一個很好的書目) ;珍妮特和SEAILLES ,歷史問題的哲學(編輯部,倫敦, 1902年) ,第二章;黑廷格,自然宗教(編輯部,紐約, 1890年) ;弗林特,反有神論理論(紐約, 1894年) ;禮,大之謎(紐約, 1892年) ;多雷勒, 1 Atheisme devant理性人類(巴黎, 1883年) ;區,自然主義和不可知論(紐約, 1899年) ;左房,哲學宗教(紐約, 1905年) ;二; BOEDDER ,自然Theologh (紐約, 1891年) ;布萊基,自然史無神論(紐約, 1878年) ;天主教世界,二十七, 471 :巴里,結束在無神論天主教世界,中心LX , 333 ;樹脂,無神論的步驟在上午蛋白酶。 Quart.夸脫。 Rev., 1879, 305; POHLE, lehrbuck d.牧師, 1879年, 305 ; POHLE , lehrbuck d. Dogmatik (Paderborn, 1907) I; BAUR in Kirchliches Handlexikon (Munich, 1907), sv See also bibliography under AGNOSTICISM, MATERIALISM, PANTHEISM, and THEISM. Dogmatik (帕德博恩, 1907年)我;鮑爾在Kirchliches Handlexikon (慕尼黑, 1907年) ,希亦見書目下不可知論,唯物主義,泛神論,和有神論。 For the refuation of ATHEISM see the article GOD.)對於refuation無神論見上帝的文章。 )


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