Saint Athanasius聖亞他那修

General Information 一般信息

Athanasius, bc295, d.亞他那修, bc295 , d. 373, was bishop of Alexandria and a defender of the Christian faith during the 4th-century crisis of Arianism. 373 ,是亞歷山大主教和一名後衛的基督教信仰在第四世紀的危機Arianism 。 He received a classical and theological education in Alexandria, where he was also ordained deacon and appointed secretary to Bishop Alexander.他收到了古典和神學教育在亞歷山大,在那裡他還祝執事,並任命主教秘書亞歷山大。 As a theological expert at the Council of Nicaea, which gathered in 325 to condemn the Arian rejection of Christ's divinity, Athanasius defended the unity of Christ as both God and man (see Councils of Nicaea).作為一個神學專家尼西亞會議,其中325名聚集在譴責阿里安拒絕基督的神,他那修維護團結的基督作為上帝和人類(見安理會尼西亞) 。 In 328 he succeeded Alexander as bishop of the see over which he was to preside for 45 years.在328他成功地亞歷山大的主教看到了他主持的45歲。 Seventeen of them were spent in exile, imposed on him on five separate occasions between 335 and 366, largely through the maneuverings of the Arianizing party. 17人在流亡中度過,對他的五個不同場合之間的335和366 ,主要是通過maneuverings的Arianizing黨。

Athanasius vigorously opposed the views of his Arian opponents in his writings in defense of Nicene orthodoxy. These were written for the most part between 336 and 359 and include three Discourses Against the Arians (c.358). 亞他那修堅決反對的意見,他的對手阿里安在他的著作在國防的尼西亞正統。這些都是書面的大部分之間的336和359 ,並包括三個話語對Arians ( c.358 ) 。 An earlier work, On the Incarnation of the Word (c.318), brought to its fullest expression the orthodox doctrine of redemption.早先的工作,在道成肉身的Word ( c.318 ) ,提請其充分地表達正統學說的贖回。 His Life of St. Antony (c.356) is an important source for early Monasticism.他的生活聖安東尼( c.356 )是一個重要來源,早日修。 After his final restoration to office, Athanasius spent his last years in peace and died in 373.在他的最後恢復辦公,亞他那修生前最後幾年住在和平與死亡373 。 His feast day is May 2.他的盛宴一天是5月2日。

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In reaction to those who denied both the full humanity and full divinity of Jesus Christ, Athanasius explained how the Logos, the Word of God, was united with human nature and how his death and resurrection overcame death and sin. He worked out the implications of biblical passages on the Incarnation and asserted the unity of the Logos and the human nature in Christ. He held that if Christ were not one in being (homoousios, "having the same being") with God the Father, then Salvation could not be possible; and if Christ were not fully man, then human nature could not be saved. 在這些反應都誰否認人類的全面和充分的神耶穌基督,亞他那修解釋如何標識,天主的聖言,是團結人的本性和他的死和復活戰勝死亡和罪惡。他制定的影響聖經段落的化身,並斷言統一的標誌和人類的本性在基督。 他認為,如果基督沒有一個被( homoousios “ ,具有相同的” )與聖父,然後救國會是不可能的; ,如果基督沒有得到充分的人,那麼人類的本性無法儲存。

Ross Mackenzie羅斯麥肯齊

Bibliography 目錄
Cross, FL, The Study of St. Athanasius (1945).紅十字會,美國佛羅里達,研究聖亞他那修( 1945年) 。


Saint Athanasius聖亞他那修

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(ca. 296-373) (約公元296-373 )

Bishop of Alexandria from 328 to 373.主教亞歷山大由328至373 。 An uncompromising foe of Arianism, Athanasius was particularly instrumental in bringing about its condemnation at the Council of Nicaea.不妥協的敵人Arianism ,亞他那修特別有助於實現其譴責在安理會尼西亞。 He is regarded as the greatest theologian of his time.他被看作是最偉大的神學家,他的時間。

Athanasius grew up within the order of the imperial church, an institution to which he held fast throughout his life.亞他那修內長大秩序的帝國教堂,一個機構,他堅守一生。 Of his early years little is known.他早年所知甚少。 It is said that he was the son of well-to-do parents, but in later years he made it clear that he was a poor man.這是說,他的兒子小康的父母,但在晚年,他明確表示,他是一個可憐的人。 As a youth he attracted the notice of Alexander, who presided over the see of Alexandria.作為一個青年,他吸引了通知,亞歷山大,誰主持見亞歷山大。 At an early age Athanasius was taken into the household of the bishop and was provided the best training that the times could afford.在幼年亞他那修是考慮到家庭的主教,並提供了最好的訓練時間可以承擔的。 His education was essentially Greek; he was a "classicist" and never seems to have acquired any knowledge of Hebrew.他的教育主要是希臘,他是一個“古典派”和似乎永遠不會獲得任何知識的希伯來文。 He demonstrated, of course, the influence both of his patron, Alexander, and of the earlier Alexandrian thinker, Origen.他證明,當然,既影響他的贊助人,亞歷山大,和以前的亞歷山大思想家,奧利。 He numbered among his earlier acquaintances and tutors some who had suffered in the great persecutions, and he no doubt drew some of the intensity of his belief from the fervency engendered in those crucial years.他有他以前的熟人和導師的一些誰在遭受迫害的偉大,他毫無疑問提請一些強度,他認為從產生fervency在這些關鍵年。 Not long after he turned twenty, Athanasius plunged into writing and produced theological works of lasting importance.不久之後,他變成第二十三,亞他那修陷入寫作和製作的神學作品的持久重要性。 One was the Contra Gentiles, a defense of Christianity against paganism; another was the De incarnatione, an attempt to explain the doctrine of redemption.其中之一是魂斗羅外邦人,國防基督教對異教;另一個是德incarnatione ,企圖解釋理論的贖回。

During this period of writing Athanasius was acting as the secretary and confidant of his bishop, by whom he was personally made deacon.在此期間,撰寫他那修是作為秘書和知己,他的主教,由他親自作出執事。 It was in this capacity that he attended the first general council held in Nicaea in 325.正是在這種能力,他出席了第一次總理事會舉行尼西亞的325 。 At the council the anti-Arian party led by Bishop Alexander won a resounding victory over Arian subordinationism.在理事會的反阿里安黨領導的主教亞歷山大贏得了響亮的勝利阿里安subordinationism 。 The council affirmed that the Son of God was "of one substance with the Father," which means that both share alike in the fundamental nature of deity.理事會重申,上帝的兒子是“一個物質的父親, ”這意味著雙方都在分享的基本性質神。 After the council concluded, Athanasius returned with his bishop to Alexandria and continued to work with him in establishing the faith that had been defined at Nicaea.在理事會結束,返回他那修與他的主教亞歷山德里亞,並繼續與他共事,建立信心,確定了在尼西亞。 In 328 Alexander died and Athanasius succeeded him in the see.亞歷山大在328死亡,亞他那修成功了他的見。

The tenure of Athanasius as Bishop of Alexandria was marked by five periods of exile.任期內他那修的主教亞歷山德里亞的特點是五個時期的流亡生活。 His vigorous defense of the Nicene formula caused him to be a target for the supporters of Arius, who rallied after the council.他積極防禦的尼西亞公式使他成為一個目標,阿里烏斯的支持者,誰反彈後,理事會。 However, during his forty-six years as bishop there were enough years of relative peace in the empire and the church for Athanasius to accomplish much as a theologian.然而,在他四十六年的主教有足夠多年的相對和平的帝國和教會的亞他那修來完成許多作為一個神學家。 Admittedly he was a churchman and a pastor rather than a systematic or speculative theologian.無可否認他是一名牧師和一名牧師,而不是一個系統或投機神學。 However, this does not mean that his thought is not cogent, but that his work developed in response to the needs of each moment rather than on the basis of the requirements of a system.然而,這並不意味著他的思想並不令人信服,但他的工作在發達國家這方面的需要每一時刻,而不是根據要求的系統。 His works are pastoral, exegetical, polemical, and even biographical; there is no single treatise that attempts to present the totality of his theology. Nevertheless, for Athanasius the truth or falsity of a doctrine is to be judged on the basis of the degree in which it expresses two basic principles of the Christian faith: monotheism and the doctrine of salvation.他的作品是牧區,訓詁,論戰,甚至簡歷;不存在單一的論文,試圖目前他的全部神學。然而,他那修的真理或謬誤的理論來判斷的基礎上學位它表示兩個基本原則的基督教信仰:一神論和理論的救贖。 These are the foci for his theological reflection.這些病灶的神學思考。

In Contra Gentiles, Athanasius discusses the means by which God can be known.在魂斗羅外邦人,亞他那修討論以何種方式可上帝知道。 These are principally two: the soul and nature.這些主要是兩個:靈魂和性質。 God may be known through the human soul, for "although God Himself is above all, the road which leads to Him is not far, nor even outside ourselves, but is within us, and it is possible to find it by ourselves" (30.1).上帝可能會通過被稱為人類靈魂的“ ,但上帝是最重要的是,道路,導致他的不遠處,甚至自己以外,但在我們來說,有可能找到它的自己” ( 30.1 ) 。 That is to say, by studying the soul we may infer something about the nature of God.這就是說,學習的靈魂,我們可以推斷一些性質的上帝。 The soul is invisible and immortal; therefore, the true God must be invisible and immortal.靈魂是無形的,不朽的,因此,真正的上帝必須是無形的,不朽的。 To be sure, sin prevents the soul from perfectly attaining the vision of God, but the soul was made according to the divine image and it was intended to be like a mirror in which that image, which is the Word of God, would shine.可以肯定的是,防止罪惡的靈魂從完全實現的理想上帝,但靈魂是根據神聖的形象和它的用意是像鏡子中的形象,這是天主的聖言,將光澤。 This is a Platonic theme that had become part of the Alexandrian tradition since Origen.這是一個柏拉圖式的主題,已成為部分亞歷山大的傳統,因為奧利。

It is also possible to know God through his creation, which, "as though in written characters, declares in a loud voice, by its order and harmony, its own Lord and Creator" (Contra Gentiles, 34.4).也有可能知道上帝通過他的創作,其中, “好像在文字,宣告了響亮的聲音,其秩序和和諧,自己的上帝和造物主” (魂斗羅外邦人, 3440 ) 。 But the order of the universe shows not only that there is a God but also that he is one.但是,為了對宇宙的節目不僅有一個上帝,而且,他是其中之一。 If there were more than one God, the unity of purpose that can be perceived throughout the cosmos would be impossible.如果有一個以上的上帝,統一的目的,可以視為整個宇宙是不可能的。 Moreover, the order and reason within nature show that God has created it and rules it through his Word.此外,為了和理智的性質表明,上帝創造了它和規則,通過自己的諾言。 For Athanasius, the Word of God who rules the world is the living Logos of God, that is, the Word who is God himself.對於亞他那修,天主的聖言誰屬世界的生活是上帝的標誌,這就是Word中誰是上帝本人。 This view of God indicates that Athanasius, even before becoming involved in the Arian conflict, had developed an understanding of the Word that was different, not only from the Arians, but also from that view held by many earlier theologians.這種觀點上帝表明,亞他那修,甚至在捲入衝突的阿里安,制定了一項諒解的Word是不同的,不僅從Arians ,但也從這一觀點舉行的許多早期的神學家。 Before Athanasius there was a tendency to establish the distinction between the Father and the Word on the basis of the contrast between the absolute God and a subordinate deity.在他那修有一種趨勢是建立之間的區別父親和Word的基礎上,對比絕對上帝和下屬神。 This was, Athanasius insisted, incompatible with Christian monotheism.這是亞他那修堅持,不符合基督教一神論。

The other pillar of Athanasius's theology was soteriology.其他支柱亞他那修的神學是soteriology 。 The salvation of which humanity stands in need is continuous with creation, for it is in fact a re-creation of fallen humanity.拯救人類隨時在需要的是持續不斷的創造,它實際上是一個再創造人類的下降。 In sin, man abandoned the image of God; an element of disintegration was introduced within creation through sin.在罪,被遺棄的人的形象,上帝;一個組成部分解體內介紹了通過建立罪孽。 It can be expelled only through a new work of creation.它可以被驅逐,只有通過一個新的工作機會。 Consequently, the core of Athanasius's doctrine of redemption is that only God himself can save mankind.因此,核心的亞他那修的理論,贖回的是,只有上帝可以拯救人類。 If the salvation that we need is really a new creation, only the Creator can bring it. This requires the Savior to be God, for only God can grant an existence similar to his.如果得救,我們必須確實是一個新的創造,只有創造才能使。這就需要救世主的上帝,對上帝是唯一可以給予存在類似他。

The principles of monotheism and the doctrine of redemption influenced Athanasius in his formulation of arguments against the Arians.原則一神論和理論的贖回影響亞他那修在他制定的論點對Arians 。 Whereas they usually appealed to logical analysis and subtle distinctions, Athanasius constantly referred to the two great pillars of his faith. In this sense, the importance of Athanasius lies not so much in his writings themselves as in the things he defended and preserved in a life full of tension and disturbance.雖然他們通常呼籲邏輯分析和微妙的區別,他那修不斷提到了兩個偉大的支柱,他的信仰。從這個意義上來說,其重要性不在於他那修這麼多在他的著作作為自己的事情,他捍衛和維護生命充滿緊張和干擾。 In a critical moment in the church's history he maintained the essential character of Christianity in his struggles with Arians and emperors.在一個關鍵時刻,教堂的歷史,他保持了本質特徵的基督教在他的鬥爭和與Arians皇帝。 But for him, Harnack has said (History of Dogma, II), the church would probably have fallen into the hands of the Arians.但是,他說,哈納克(史的教條,二) ,教會可能會落入手中的Arians 。

JF Johnson櫻約翰遜
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary規矩福音詞典

Bibliography 目錄
H. von Campenhausen, The Fathers of the Greek Church; JWC Wand, Doctors and Councils; FL Cross, The Study of Athanasius.閣下馮Campenhausen ,父親希臘教會; JWC魔杖,醫生和議會;佛羅里達州紅十字會,研究亞他那修。


St. Athanasius聖亞他那修

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Bishop of Alexandria; Confessor and Doctor of the Church; born c.主教亞歷山德里亞;懺悔和醫生的教會;出生的角 296; died 2 May, 373. 296 ; 5月2日死亡, 373 。 Athanasius was the greatest champion of Catholic belief on the subject of the Incarnation that the Church has ever known and in his lifetime earned the characteristic title of "Father of Orthodoxy", by which he has been distinguished every since.亞他那修是最偉大的冠軍,天主教信仰問題上的體現,教會迄今所知,並在他有生之年獲得冠軍的特點之父“正統” ,其中他一直以來都尊敬。 While the chronology of his career still remains for the most part a hopelessly involved problem, the fullest material for an account of the main achievements of his life will be found in his collected writings and in the contemporary records of his time.雖然年表他的職業生涯仍然是最絕望部分涉及的問題,充分材料的一個帳戶的主要成就他的生命將在他身上收集到的著作和在當代記錄的時間。 He was born, it would seem, in Alexandria, most probably between the years 296 and 298.他出生,看來,在亞歷山德里亞,最有可能在幾年之間296和298 。 An earlier date, 293, is sometimes assigned as the more certain year of his birth; and it is supported apparently by the authority of the "Coptic Fragment" (published by Dr. O. von Lemm among the Mémoires de l'académie impériale des sciences de S. Péterbourg, 1888) and corroborated by the undoubted maturity of judgement revealed in the two treatises "Contra Gentes" and "De Incarnatione", which were admittedly written about the year 318 before Arianism as a movement had begun to make itself felt.一個較早的日期, 293 ,有時是指定為某一年多的他的出生地,它顯然是支持由權威的“科普特片段” (出版了我國博士馮藻之間的Mémoires法國皇家學院萬由美國科學Péterbourg , 1888年) ,並證實了不容置疑的成熟的判斷顯示在兩個論文“魂斗羅Gentes ”和“德Incarnatione ” ,這是無可否認的書面大約318年前Arianism作為一個運動的開始,使自己覺得。 It must be remembered, however, that in two distinct passages of his writings (Hist. Ar., lxiv, and De Syn., xviii) Athanasius shrinks from speaking as a witness at first hand of the persecution which had broken out under Maximian in 303; for in referring to the events of this period he makes no direct appeal to his own personal recollections, but falls back, rather, on tradition.必須記住的是,在兩個不同的段落他的著作( Hist.氬。 , lxiv ,和德同步。 ,十八)亞他那修縮小發言作為證人第一手的迫害,爆發了中下瑪西緬303 ;中提到的事件此期間,他並沒有直接呼籲他個人的回憶,但後退,而是對傳統。 Such reserve would scarcely be intelligible, if, on the hypothesis of the earlier date, the Saint had been then a boy fully ten years old.這種準備金將幾乎是可以理解的,如果對假說的較早日期,聖已然後一名男孩完全10歲。 Besides, there must have been some semblance of a foundation in fact for the charge brought against him by his accusers in after-life (Index to the Festal Letters) that at the times of his consecration to the episcopate in 328 he had not yet attained the canonical age of thirty years.此外,還必須有一些起碼的基礎,事實上的收費對他提出指控,他在隨後的生活(索引節日字母) ,在時間,他奉獻給主教在328他還沒有實現典型年齡30歲。 These considerations, therefore, even if they are found to be not entirely convincing, would seem to make it likely that he was born not earlier than 296 nor later than 298.這些因素,因此,即使它們被發現並不完全令人信服,似乎使它有可能,他出生在不早於296或不遲於298 。

It is impossible to speak more than conjecturally of his family.這是不可能的發言超過conjecturally他的家人。 Of the claim that it was both prominent and well-to-do, we can only observe that the tradition to the effect is not contradicted by such scanty details as can be gleaned from the saint's writings.索賠,這是兩個突出和小康,我們只能看到,傳統的影響並不矛盾,例如缺乏細節,可以收集來自聖盧西亞的著作。 Those writings undoubtedly betray evidences of the sort of education that was given, for the most part, only to children and youths of a better class.毫無疑問,這些著作背叛證據的那種教育,是,在大多數情況下,只有以兒童和青少年更好的類。 It began with grammar, went on to rhetoric, and received its final touches under some one of the more fashionable lecturers in the philosophic schools.它始於語法,接著言論,並收到了最後潤色下一個更時髦的講師,在哲學的學校。 It is possible, of course, that he owed his remarkable training in letters to his saintly predecessor's favour, if not to his personal care.這是可能的,當然,他欠了顯著的培訓,給他的聖潔的前任贊成,如果不是他個人的護理。 But Athanasius was one of those rare personalities that derive incomparably more from their own native gifts of intellect and character than from the fortuitousness of descent or environment.但他那修是一個罕見的人士產生無比更從自己的母語的饋贈的智慧和性格不是從fortuitousness的血統或環境。 His career almost personifies a crisis in the history of Christianity; and he may be said rather to have shaped the events in which he took part than to have been shaped by them.他的職業生涯幾乎象徵危機歷史上的基督教; ,他可能會說,而是要塑造的事件,他參加了比已經形成的他們。 Yet it would be misleading to urge that he was in no notable sense a debtor to the time and place of his birth.然而,它會起到誤導作用,敦促他在沒有顯著的意義債務人的時間和地點他出生。 The Alexandria of his boyhood was an epitome, intellectually, morally, and politically, of that ethnically many-coloured Graeco-Roman world, over which the Church of the fourth and fifth centuries was beginning at last, with undismayed consciousness, after nearly three hundred years of unwearying propagandism, to realize its supremacy.亞歷山大他的童年是一個縮影,思想上,道德上和政治上的種族許多黃色的希臘羅馬世界中,超過該教堂的第四次和第五次百年開始了,與undismayed意識,經過近300多年的unwearying propagandism ,以實現其霸權。 It was, moreover, the most important centre of trade in the whole empire; and its primacy as an emporium of ideas was more commanding than that of Rome or Constantinople, Antioch or Marseilles.有人此外,最重要的貿易中心,在整個帝國,其首要的一個商場的想法更指揮比羅馬或君士坦丁堡,安提阿或馬賽。 Already, in obedience to an instinct of which one can scarcely determine the full significance without studying the subsequent development of Catholicism, its famous "Catechetical School", while sacrificing no jot or tittle or that passion for orthodoxy which it had imbibed from Pantænus, Clement, and Origen, had begun to take on an almost secular character in the comprehensiveness of its interests, and had counted pagans of influence among its serious auditors (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., VI, xix).目前,在服從的本能其中一個可以幾乎確定的全部意義,不研究後來的發展天主教,其著名的“教義問答學校” ,而沒有記犧牲或tittle ,或激情的正統它從Pantænus吸脹,克萊門特,和奧利,已開始採取幾乎世俗性質的全面性,它的利益,並已計入異教徒的影響力之間的嚴重審計員(優西比烏,組織胺。傳道書。 ,六,十九) 。

To have been born and brought up in such an atmosphere of philosophizing Christianity was, in spite of the dangers it involved, the timeliest and most liberal of educations; and there is, as we have intimated, abundant evidence in the saint's writings to testify to the ready response which all the better influences of the place must have found in the heart and mind of the growing boy.已出生和長大,在這樣的氣氛中哲思基督教的,儘管它涉及的危險,得到最及時和最自由的教育;和存在,正如我們已經暗示,大量證據表明在聖的著作,以證明隨時應對所有更好的影響,必須有地方發現的心臟和頭腦中越來越多的男孩。 Athanasius seems to have been brought early in life under the immediate supervision of the ecclesiastical authorities of his native city.亞他那修似乎已經提前帶來了生活中的直接監督下的教會當局對他的城市。 Whether his long intimacy with Bishop Alexander began in childhood, we have no means of judging; but a story which pretends to describe the circumstances of his first introduction to that prelate has been preserved for us by Rufinus (Hist. Eccl., I, xiv).無論是他的長期親密關係亞歷山大主教在童年開始,我們已經沒有辦法判斷,但其中一個故事假裝來形容這種情況下,他首先介紹了該主教一直保存我們的Rufinus ( Hist.傳道書。 ,我十四) 。 The bishop, so the tale runs, had invited a number of brother prelates to meet him at breakfast after a great religious function on the anniversary of the martyrdom of St. Peter, a recent predecessor in the See of Alexandria.主教,所以運行的故事,已邀請了一些兄弟主教,以滿足他在早餐後,一個偉大的宗教功能週年紀念殉難的聖彼得大教堂,最近前任見亞歷山大。 While Alexander was waiting for his guests to arrive, he stood by a window, watching a group of boys at play on the seashore below the house.雖然亞歷山大正在等待他的客人到來,他站在窗口,看著一群男孩在打下面的海邊房子。 He had not observed them long before he discovered that they were imitating, evidently with no thought of irreverence, the elaborate ritual of Christian baptism.他沒有看到他們很久以前就發現,他們模仿,顯然沒有思想的不敬,複雜的儀式基督教的洗禮。 (Cf. Bunsen's "Christianity and Mankind", London, 1854, VI, 465; Denzinger, "Ritus Orientalium" in verb.; Butler's "Ancient Coptic Churches", II, 268 et sqq.; "Bapteme chez les Coptes", "Dict. Theol. Cath.", Col. 244, 245). (參見本生的“基督教與人類” ,倫敦, 1854年,六, 465 ; Denzinger , “禮儀Orientalium ”的動詞。 ;巴特勒的“古代科普特基督教協進會” ,二, 268等sqq 。 “ Bapteme桑切斯萊Coptes ” , “快譯通。 Theol 。蛋白酶。 “上校244 , 245 ) 。 He therefore sent for the children and had them brought into his presence.因此,他發出的子女和他們帶進他的存在。 In the investigation that followed it was discovered that one of the boys, who was no other than the future Primate of Alexandria, had acted the part of the bishop, and in that character had actually baptized several of his companions in the course of their play.在調查後發現,其中一個男孩,沒有誰比其他靈長類動物的未來亞歷山大採取了行動的一部分,主教,並在這性質實際上已受洗的幾個同伴的過程中他們的發揮。 Alexander, who seems to have been unaccountably puzzled over the answers he received to his inquiries, determined to recognize the make-believe baptisms as genuine; and decided that Athanasius and his playfellows should go into training in order to fit themselves for a clerical career.亞歷山大,誰似乎已經被莫名其妙的困惑,他得到的回答他的詢問,決心承認化妝認為作為真正的洗禮; ,並決定他那修和他的playfellows應進入培訓,以適合自己的職業生涯辦事員。 The Bollandists deal gravely with this story; and writers as difficult to satisfy as Archdeacon Farrar and the late Dean Stanley are ready to accept it as bearing on its face "every indication of truth" (Farrar, "Lives of the Fathers", I, 337; Stanley, "East. Ch." 264).在處理嚴重Bollandists與這個故事;和作家難以滿足作為吏法拉和已故院長斯坦利準備接受它作為事關其面子“種種跡象表明真相” (法勒“ ,生活的父親” ,我337 ;赤柱, “東。膽固醇。 ” 264頁) 。 But whether in its present form, or in the modified version to be found in Socrates (I, xv), who omits all reference to the baptism and says that the game was "an imitation of the priesthood and the order of consecrated persons", the tale raises a number of chronological difficulties and suggests even graver questions.但是,無論是在目前的形式,或在修改後的版本中可以找到蘇格拉底(一,十五) ,誰忽略了所有提及的洗禮和說,比賽是一個“模仿鐸和秩序的神聖者” ,的故事引起了一些時間的困難和建議更加嚴重的問題。

Perhaps a not impossible explanation of its origin may be found in the theory that it was one of the many floating myths set in movement by popular imagination to account for the marked bias towards an ecclesiastical career which seems to have characterized the early boyhood of the future champion of the Faith.也許是不可能的解釋其來源可能會發現的理論,這是一個漂浮的許多神話中設置的民眾運動想像力佔明顯偏向一個教會的職業生涯似乎已經提前特點兒時的未來冠軍的信念。 Sozomen speaks of his "fitness for the priesthood", and calls attention to the significant circumstance that he was "from his tenderest years practically self-taught". Sozomen談到他的“健身的神父” ,並要求注意的重大情況,他是“從他的tenderest幾年幾乎自學成才的” 。 "Not long after this," adds the same authority, the Bishop Alexander "invited Athanasius to be his commensal and secretary. He had been well educated, and was versed in grammar and rhetoric, and had already, while still a young man, and before reaching the episcopate, given proof to those who dwelt with him of his wisdom and acumen" (Soz., II, xvii). “不久,補充說: ”同樣的權力,亞歷山大主教“邀請他那修是他的共生和秘書。他曾受過良好的教育,並精通語法,修辭,並已,而仍然是一個年輕男子,並才到達主教,證明那些誰與他談到他的智慧和敏銳“ ( Soz. ,二,十七) 。 That "wisdom and acumen" manifested themselves in a various environment.這種“智慧和敏銳”表現出來的各種環境。 While still a levite under Alexander's care, he seems to have been brought for a while into close relations with some of the solitaries of the Egyptian desert, and in particular with the great St. Anthony, whose life he is said to have written. The evidence both of the intimacy and for the authorship of the life in question has been challenged, chiefly by non-Catholic writers, on the ground that the famous "Vita" shows signs of interpolation.雖然仍然是一個利未按照亞歷山大的照顧,他似乎已經帶來了一段時間的密切關係到的一些solitaries的埃及沙漠,特別是與偉大的聖安東尼,他的生命,他說,已經寫信。的證據表明雙方的親密關係和作者的生活問題一直受到質疑,主要由非天主教作家,理由是著名的“簡歷”有跡象顯示插值。 Whatever we may think of the arguments on the subject, it is impossible to deny that the monastic idea appealed powerfully to the young cleric's temperament, and that he himself in after years was not only at home when duty or accident threw him among the solitaries, but was so monastically self-disciplined in his habits as to be spoken of as an "ascetic" (Apol. c. Arian., vi).不管我們可能認為的論點就這個問題,就不可能否認該寺院的想法呼籲有力的年輕神職人員的氣質,以及他本人在多年後,不僅在家裡或工作地點時,意外把他的solitaries ,但這樣monastically自律的習慣要談到的“苦行僧” ( Apol.角阿里安。 ,六) 。 In fourth-century usage the word would have a definiteness of connotation not easily determinable today. (See ASCETICISM).在四世紀一詞的使用將有定性的內涵不容易確定的今天。 (見禁慾主義) 。

It is not surprising that one who was called to fill so large a place in the history of his time should have impressed the very form and feature of his personality, so to say, upon the imagination of his contemporaries.這並不奇怪,一個被稱為誰填補這麼大一個地方在歷史的時間應該有非常深刻的印象形式和特點,他的個性,所以說,根據他的想像力的同時代人。 St. Gregory Nazianzen is not the only writer who has described him for us (Orat. xxi, 8).聖格雷戈里Nazianzen不是唯一的作家誰描述了他對我們( Orat. 21 , 8 ) 。 A contemptuous phrase of the Emperor Julian's (Epist., li) serves unintentionally to corroborate the picture drawn by kindlier observers.阿輕蔑的詞語皇帝朱利安( Epist. ,麗)擔任無意中證實的圖片提請kindlier觀察員出席了會議。 He was slightly below the middle height, spare in build, but well-knit, and intensely energetic.他稍低於中等高度,在建立備件,但嚴謹,精力充沛和緊張。 He had a finely shaped head, set off with a thin growth of auburn hair, a small but sensitively mobile mouth, an aquiline nose, and eyes of intense but kindly brilliancy.他有很好形頭,抵銷了薄增長赤褐色的頭髮,一個規模雖小但口敏感的移動,一個鷹鼻子,和眼睛的緊張,但懇請輝煌。 He had a ready wit, was quick in intuition, easy and affable in manner, pleasant in conversation, keen, and, perhaps, somewhat too unsparing in debate.他有一個現成的智慧,很快在直觀,方便,和藹可親的方式,愉快的交談中,渴望,以及,或許有點過於優厚的辯論。 (Besides the references already cited, see the detailed description given in the January Menaion quotes in the Bollandist life. Julian the Apostate, in the letter alluded to above sneers at the diminutiveness of his person -- mede aner, all anthropiokos euteles, he writes.) In addition to these qualities, he was conspicuous for two others to which even his enemies bore unwilling testimony. (除了已經提到引用,請給予詳細說明在1月Menaion報價在Bollandist生活。朱利安的叛教者,在信中提到了上述嘲笑diminutiveness在他的人-m edea ner,所有a nthropiokose uteles,他寫道。 )除了這些品質,他是突出兩個他人,甚至他的敵人膛不願作證。 He was endowed with a sense of humour that could be as mordant -- we had almost said as sardonic -- as it seems to have been spontaneous and unfailing; and his courage was of the sort that never falters, even in the most disheartening hour of defeat.他被賦予了幽默感,可為媒-我們幾乎已經表示,苦笑-因為它似乎已經自發的和始終如一的;和他的勇氣的那種永遠不會終結,即使是在最沮喪小時失敗的。 There is one other note in this highly gifted and many-sided personality to which everything else in his nature literally ministered, and which must be kept steadily in view, if we would possess the key to his character and writing and understand the extraordinary significance of his career in the history of the Christian Church.有一個在其他注意到這一高度天賦和許多片面的個性,這一切在他的字面ministered性質,並必須保持穩步認為,如果我們將擁有的關鍵,他的性格和寫作和理解的特殊意義他的職業生涯歷史上的基督教教會。 He was by instinct neither a liberal nor a conservative in theology.他本能既不是自由的,也不是保守的神學。 Indeed the terms have a singular inappropriateness as applied to a temperament like his.事實上,條件有一個獨特的不適當的適用於像他的氣質。 From first to last he cared greatly for one thing and one thing only; the integrity of his Catholic creed.從第一次到最後,他關心大大的一件事只;的完整性,他的天主教信仰。 The religion it engendered in him was obviously -- considering the traits by which we have tried to depict him -- of a passionate and consuming sort.它的宗教對他產生明顯-考慮到性狀,使我們試圖描繪他-一個充滿激情和消費排序。 It began and ended in devotion to the Divinity of Jesus Christ.它開始和結束的獻身精神神耶穌基督。 He was scarcely out of his teens, and certainly not in more than deacon's orders, when he published two treatises, in which his mind seemed to strike the keynote of all its riper after-utterances on the subject of the Catholic Faith.他幾乎從他十幾歲,而且肯定不會超過執事的命令,當他出版了兩本論文,在他心裡看來主旨罷工的所有成熟後話語的議題信仰天主教。 The "Contra Gentes" and the "Oratio de Incarnatione" -- to give them the Latin appellations by which they are more commonly cited -- were written some time between the years 318 and 323.在“魂斗羅Gentes ”和“ Oratio德Incarnatione ” -給他們拉丁美洲的稱謂,他們更常見的是引-寫一些時間來之間的3 1 8和3 2 3。 St. Jerome (De Viris Illust.) refers to them under a common title, as "Adversum Gentes Duo Libri", thus leaving his readers to gather the impression which an analysis of the contents of both books certainly seems to justify, that the two treatises are in reality one.聖杰羅姆(德Viris Illust 。 )提到他們的一個共同的名稱,如“ Adversum Gentes鐸利布里” ,從而使他的讀者,收集其中的印象進行分析的內容,當然兩本書似乎合理的理由,這兩個論文是一個在現實中。

As a plea for the Christian position, addressed chiefly to both Gentiles and Jews, the young deacon's apology, while undoubtedly reminiscential in methods and ideas of Origen and the earlier Alexandrians, is, nevertheless, strongly individual and almost pietistic in tone.作為一個認罪的基督教立場,主要涉及兩個外邦人和猶太人,年輕的執事的道歉,雖然reminiscential毫無疑問,在方法和思想的奧利和早期Alexandrians ,然而,強烈的個人和幾乎pietistic在基調。 Though it deals with the Incarnation, it is silent on most of those ulterior problems in defence of which Athanasius was soon to be summoned by the force of events and the fervour of his own faith to devote the best energies of his life.儘管它涉及的化身,這是沉默的大多數人別有用心的問題,在國防,其中亞他那修很快被傳喚的武力事件的熱情和他自己的信念把最好的精力,他的生活。 The work contains no explicit discussion of the nature of the Word's Sonship, for instance; no attempt to draw out the character of Our Lord's relation to the Father; nothing, in short, of those Christological questions upon which he was to speak with such splendid and courageous clearness in time of shifting formularies and undetermined views.這項工作沒有明確討論的性質Word的Sonship ,例如;沒有試圖總結出的特點我們的主的關係父;什麼,總之,這些基督的問題時,他說這樣燦爛和勇敢的清晰在時間上的轉變formularies和未定的意見。 Yet those ideas must have been in the air (Soz., I, xv) for, some time between the years 318 and 320, Arius, a native of Libya (Epiph., Haer., lxix) and priest of the Alexandrian Church, who had already fallen under censure for his part in the Meletian troubles which broke out during the episcopate of St. Peter, and whose teachings had succeeded in making dangerous headway, even among "the consecrated virgins" of St. Mark's see (Epiph. Haer., lxix; Soc., Hist. Eccl., I, vi), accused Bishop Alexander of Sabellianism.然而,這些想法必須已在空中( Soz. ,我十五)的,一段時間來的318和320 ,阿里烏斯是一個土生土長的利比亞( Epiph. , Haer 。 , lxix )和神父的亞歷山大教會,誰已經下降譴責下,他參加了Meletian麻煩發生在主教的聖彼得大教堂,其教義已成功地使危險的進展,甚至在“處女的神聖”的聖馬克見( Epiph. Haer 。 , lxix ;朔。 ,組織胺。傳道書。 ,我六) ,被告主教亞歷山大撒伯流主義。 Arius, who seems to have presumed on the charitable tolerance of the primate, was at length deposed (Apol. c. Ar., vi) in a synod consisting of more than one hundred bishops of Egypt and Libya (Depositio Ar., 3).阿里烏斯,誰似乎已推定的慈善寬容的靈長類動物,是在長度廢黜( Apol.角氬。 ,六)在主教組成的一百多個主教埃及和利比亞( Depositio氬。 , 3 ) 。 The condemned heresiarch withdrew first to Palestine and afterwards to Bithynia, where, under the protection of Eusebius of Nicomedia and his other "Collucianists", he was able to increase his already remarkable influence, while his friends were endeavouring to prepare a way for his forcible reinstatement as priest of the Alexandrian Church.該譴責heresiarch撤回首次對巴勒斯坦和後來螺,那裡的保護下的優西比烏Nicomedia和他的其他“ Collucianists ” ,他能夠提高他已經顯著影響,而他的朋友們正在努力準備他的方式強行作為牧師復職的亞歷山大教會。 Athanasius, though only in deacon's order, must have taken no subordinate part in these events.亞他那修,但只有在執事的命令,必須採取任何從屬參與這些活動。 He was the trusted secretary and advisor of Alexander, and his name appears in the list of those who signed the encyclical letter subsequently issued by the primate and his colleagues to offset the growing prestige of the new teaching, and the momentum it was beginning to acquire from the ostentatious patronage extended to the deposed Arius by the Eusebian faction.他是值得信賴的秘書和顧問亞歷山大,他的名字出現在名單誰簽署了通信隨後發表的靈長類動物和他的同事們,以抵消日益增長的聲望,新的教學,它的勢頭已開始收購從豪華的贊助擴展到廢黜阿里烏斯的Eusebian派別。 Indeed, it is to this party and to the leverage it was able to exercise at the emperor's court that the subsequent importance of Arianism as a political, rather than a religious, movement seems primarily to be due.事實上,這是這個黨和利用它能夠在行使皇帝的法院,隨後的重要性Arianism作為一個政治,而不是一個宗教,運動似乎主要是由於。

The heresy, of course, had its supposedly philosophic basis, which has been ascribed by authors, ancient and modern, to the most opposite sources.的異端邪說,當然,理應有其哲學基礎,這已屬於作者,古老和現代的,最對面的來源。 St. Epiphanius characterizes it as a king of revived Aristoteleanism (Haer., lxvii and lxxvi); and the same view is practically held by Socrates (Hist. Eccl., II, xxxv), Theodoret (Haer. Fab., IV, iii), and St. Basil (Adv. Eunom., I, ix).聖埃皮法尼烏斯的特點它作為國王恢復Aristoteleanism ( Haer. , lxvii和lxxvi ) ;和相同的看法實際上是由蘇格拉底( Hist.傳道書。 ,二,三十五) , Theodoret ( Haer.工廠。 ,四,三) ,和聖巴西爾( Adv. Eunom 。 ,我九) 。 On the other hand, a theologian as broadly read as Petavius (De Trin., I, viii, 2) has no hesitation in deriving it from Platonism; Newman in turn (Arians of the Fourth Cent., 4 ed., 109) sees in it the influence of Jewish prejudices rationalized by the aid of Aristotelean ideas; while Robertson (Sel. Writ. and Let. of Ath. Proleg., 27) observes that the "common theology", which was invariably opposed to it, "borrowed its philosophical principles and method from the Platonists."另一方面,一個神學廣泛改為Petavius (德草。 ,我,八, 2 )毫不遲疑地從產生柏拉圖;紐曼反過來( Arians第四次以上。 ,第4版。 , 109 )認為,在它的影響,猶太人的偏見合理化的援助Aristotelean的想法,而羅伯遜( Sel.令狀。並讓。的阿特。前腳。 , 27歲)指出, “共同神學” ,這是必然反對的, “借來的其哲學的原則和方法從Platonists 。 “ These apparently conflicting statements could, no doubt, be easily adjusted; but the truth is that the prestige of Arianism never lay in its ideas.這些顯然是相互矛盾的聲明可能,毫無疑問,很容易調整,但事實真相是,威望Arianism從來沒有在於其思想。 From whatever school it may have been logically derived, the sect, as a sect, was cradled and nurtured in intrigue.無論從學校,可能已被邏輯推導的節,作為一個節,是一樓和培育的陰謀。 Save in some few instances, which can be accounted for on quite other grounds, its prophets relied more upon curial influence than upon piety, or Scriptural knowledge, or dialectics.保存在某些少數情況下,可以就佔了相當的其他理由,它更依賴先知後curial影響時比虔誠,或聖經知識,或辯證法。 That must be borne constantly in mind, if we would not move distractedly through the bewildering maze of events that make up the life of Athanasius for the next half-century to come.這一點必須不斷地承擔一點,如果我們將不會通過distractedly迷宮撲朔迷離的事件,彌補生活的亞他那修為下一世紀上半葉來。 It is his peculiar merit that he not only saw the drift of things from the very beginning, but was confident of the issue down to the last (Apol. c. Ar., c.).這是他獨特的優點,他不僅看到了漂移的事情從一開始,但相信這個問題到最後( Apol.角氬。角) 。 His insight and courage proved almost as efficient a bulwark to the Christian Church in the world as did his singularly lucid grasp of traditional Catholic belief.他的遠見和勇氣證明了有效的一個堡壘的基督教教會在世界上沒有他的奇異清晰的把握傳統的天主教信仰。 His opportunity came in the year 325, when the Emperor Constantine, in the hope of putting an end to the scandalous debates that were disturbing the peace of the Church, met the prelates of the entire Catholic world in council at Nicaea.他的機會出現在325年,當皇帝君士坦丁,希望結束了可恥的辯論,一些令人不安的和平教會,會見了主教對整個天主教世界理事會在尼西亞。

The great council convoked at this juncture was something more than a pivotal event in the history of Christianity.偉大的理事會召集在這個時刻有點超過了關鍵的事件歷史上的基督教。 Its sudden, and, in one sense, almost unpremeditated adoption of a quasi-philosophic and non-Scriptural term -- homoousion -- to express the character of orthodox belief in the Person of the historic Christ, by defining Him to be identical in substance, or co-essential, with the Father, together with its confident appeal to the emperor to lend the sanction of his authority to the decrees and pronouncements by which it hoped to safeguard this more explicit profession of the ancient Faith, had consequences of the gravest import, not only to the world of ideas, but to the world of politics as well.突然,而且在某種意義上,幾乎過失通過一個準哲學和非聖經術語-h omoousion-表示性質的正統信仰的人的歷史性的基督,確定他是在實質相同,或共同必不可少的,與父親,連同其信心呼籲皇帝給予制裁的權力,法令和聲明它希望來保障這一行業更加明確的古老的信仰,有後果嚴重進口,不僅對世界的想法,但對世界政治以及。 By the official promulgation to the term homoöusion, theological speculation received a fresh but subtle impetus which made itself felt long after Athanasius and his supporters had passed away; while the appeal to the secular arm inaugurated a policy which endured practically without change of scope down to the publication of the Vatican decrees in our own time.到正式頒布的長期homoöusion ,神學的猜測得到了新的微妙的動力,但使自己覺得很久之後他那修和他的支持者已經去世;同時呼籲世俗的手臂落成的政策經歷幾乎沒有變化的範圍,以出版法令,梵蒂岡在我們自己的時間。 In one sense, and that a very deep and vital one, both the definition and the policy were inevitable.在某種意義上,而且非常深刻和重要的一個定義和政策是不可避免的。 It was inevitable in the order of religious ideas that any break in logical continuity should be met by inquiry and protest.這是不可避免的順序排列的宗教思想,任何打破邏輯連續性應該滿足了調查和抗議。 It was just as inevitable that the protest, to be effective, should receive some countenance from a power which up to that moment had affected to regulate all the graver circumstances of life (cf. Harnack, Hist. Dog., III, 146, note; Buchanan's tr.). As Newman has remarked: "The Church could not meet together in one, without entering into a sort of negotiation with the power that be; who jealousy it is the duty of Christians, both as individuals and as a body, if possible, to dispel" (Arians of the Fourth Cent., 4 ed., 241).這是剛才不可避免的抗議,是有效的,應該得到一些面容從權力到這個時刻已經影響到管理的所有嚴重的情況下的生活(參見哈納克,組織胺。狗。 ,三, 146注;布坎南的文。 ) 。正如紐曼所說: “教會不能滿足集中在一個沒有進入一種談判的權力,是,誰嫉妒它的責任是基督徒,作為個人和作為一個機構如果可能的話,以消除“ ( Arians第四次以上。 ,第4版。 , 241 ) 。 Athanasius, though not yet in priest's orders, accompanied Alexander to the council in the character of secretary and theological adviser.亞他那修,但尚未在牧師的命令,陪同亞歷山大在安理會的性質書記和神學顧問。 He was not, of course, the originator of the famous homoösion.他沒有,當然,發端著名的homoösion 。 The term had been proposed in a non-obvious and illegitimate sense by Paul of Samosata to the Father at Antioch, and had been rejected by them as savouring of materialistic conceptions of the Godhead (cf. Athan., "De Syn.," xliii; Newman, "Arians of the Fourth Cent.," 4 ed., 184-196; Petav. "De Trin.," IV, v, sect. 3; Robertson, "Sel. Writ. and Let. Athan. Proleg.", 30 sqq.).任期中提出了一個非顯而易見的和非法的意義薩莫薩塔保羅的父親在安提阿,並已拒絕了他們品嚐的唯物主義觀念的神體(參見Athan 。 “德同步。 ”四十三;紐曼, “ Arians第四次以上。 ”第4版。 , 184-196 ; Petav 。 “德草。 ”四,五節。 3 ;羅伯遜, “自我。令狀。並讓。 Athan 。前腳。 “ , 30 sqq 。 ) 。

It may even be questioned whether, if left to his own logical instincts, Athanasius would have suggested an orthodox revival of the term at all ("De Decretis", 19; "Orat. c. Ar.", ii, 32; "Ad Monachos", 2).它甚至有可能質疑,如果離開自己的合乎邏輯的本能,他那修將建議恢復正統的任期在所有( “德Decretis ” , 19 “ ; Orat 。角氬氣。 ”二,第32條; “廣告Monachos “ , 2 ) 。 His writings, composed during the forty-six critical years of his episcopate, show a very sparing use of the word; and though, as Newman (Arians of the Fourth Cent., 4 ed., 236) reminds us, "the authentic account of the proceedings" that took place is not extant, there is nevertheless abundant evidence in support of the common view that it had been unexpectedly forced upon the notice of the bishops, Arian and orthodox, in the great synod by Constantine's proposal to account the creed submitted by Eusebius of Caesarea, with the addition of the homoösion, as a safeguard against possible vagueness.他的作品組成,在46多年的關鍵他的主教,顯示一個非常節約使用這個詞;雖然,作為紐曼( Arians第四次以上。 ,第4版。 , 236 )提醒我們, “真正的帳戶訴訟“發生的不是現存的,但仍然是大量的證據,以支持共同的看法,它一直強加意外的通知主教,阿里安和正統,在偉大的君士坦丁主教的建議,到信仰提交的優西比烏的愷撒,並增加了homoösion ,作為一項防範可能含糊不清。 The suggestion had in all probability come from Hosius (cf. "Epist. Eusebii.", in the appendix to the "De Decretis", sect. 4; Soc., "Hist. Eccl.", I, viii; III, vii; Theod. "Hist. Eccl.", I, Athan.; "Arians of the Fourth Cent.", 6, n. 42; outos ten en Nikaia pistin exetheto, says the saint, quoting his opponents); but Athanasius, in common with the leaders of the orthodox party, loyally accepted the term as expressive of the traditional sense in which the Church had always held Jesus Christ to be the Son of God.建議在所有的概率來自Hosius (參見“ Epist 。 Eusebii 。 ”附錄中的“德Decretis ”節。 4 ;學會。 “組織胺。傳道書。 ”我,八,三,七; Theod 。 “組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,我Athan 。 “ Arians第四次以上。 ” , 6 ,注42 ; outos 10恩Nikaia pistin exetheto說,聖引述他的對手) ,但他那修,在共同的領導人,正統黨,忠實地接受了任期表現的傳統意義上的教會一直在耶穌基督是神的兒子。 The conspicuous abilities displayed in the Nicaean debates and the character for courage and sincerity he won on all sides made the youthful cleric henceforth a marked man (St. Greg. Naz., Orat., 21).突出能力顯示在Nicaean辯論和性質的勇氣和誠意,他就贏得了各方的年輕神職人員從此顯著男子(聖格雷格。納茲。 , Orat 。 , 21 ) 。 His life could not be lived in a corner.他的生活不能生活在一個角落裡。 Five months after the close of the council the Primate of Alexandria died; and Athanasius, quite as much in recognition of his talent, it would appear, as in deference to the deathbed wishes of the deceased prelate, was chosen to succeed him. 5個月結束後,安理會的靈長類動物的亞歷山大去世;和亞他那修,相當多的認識到他的天賦,看來,在服從臨終願望死者主教,被選為接替他。 His election, in spite of his extreme youth and the opposition of a remnant of the Arian and Meletian factions in the Alexandrian Church, was welcomed by all classes among the laity ("Apol. c. Arian", vi; Soz., "Hist. Eccl.", II, xvii, xxi, xxii).他的當選,儘管他極端的青年和反對派殘餘的阿里安和Meletian各派在亞歷山大教會,歡迎各階層之間的俗人( “ Apol 。角阿里安” ,六;丁索茲。 “組織胺。傳道書。 “ ,二,十七,二十一,二十二) 。

The opening years of the saint's rule were occupied with the wonted episcopal routine of a fourth-century Egyptian bishop.開幕年份的聖的統治被佔領的慣例例行的主教,第四世紀埃及的主教。 Episcopal visitations, synods, pastoral correspondence, preaching and the yearly round of church functions consumed the bulk of his time.聖公會visitations , synods ,畜牧信函,鼓吹和每年一輪的教堂職能消耗大量的時間。 The only noteworthy events of which antiquity furnishes at least probable data are connected with the successful efforts which he made to provide a hierarchy for the newly planted church in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in the person of St. Frumentius (Rufinus I, ix; Soc. I, xix; Soz., II, xxiv), and the friendship which appears to have begun about this time between himself and the monks of St. Pachomius. The only noteworthy events of which antiquity furnishes at least probable data are connected with the successful efforts which he made to provide a hierarchy for the newly planted church in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in the person of St. Frumentius (Rufinus I, ix; Soc.一,十九;丁索茲。 ,二,二十四) ,和友誼似乎已經開始對這一時間自己與僧侶聖帕科謬斯。 But the seeds of disaster which the saint's piety had unflinchingly planted at Nicaea were beginning to bear a disquieting crop at last.但是,災難的種子的聖的虔誠堅定不移地種植了上尼西亞人開始產生一種令人不安的作物上。 Already events were happening at Constantinople which were soon to make him the most important figure of his time.事件已經發生了君士坦丁堡很快讓他最重要的人物,他的時間。 Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had fallen into disgrace and been banished by the Emperor Constantine for his part in the earlier Arian controversies, had been recalled from exile.優西比烏的Nicomedia ,誰已陷入恥辱和被流放的皇帝君士坦丁,他參加了前阿里安爭議,回顧了從流亡。 After an adroit campaign of intrigue, carried on chiefly through the instrumentality of the ladies of the imperial household, this smooth-mannered prelate so far prevailed over Constantine as to induce him to order the recall of Arius likewise from exile.經過巧妙運動的陰謀,進行了主要是通過媒介的各位的皇室,這順利舉止主教迄今壓倒君士坦丁,以誘使他為了回顧阿里烏斯同樣來自流亡海外。 He himself sent a characteristic letter to the youthful Primate of Alexandria, in which he bespoke his favour for the condemned heresiarch, who was described as a man whose opinions had been misrepresented. These events must have happened some time about the close of the year 330. Finally the emperor himself was persuaded to write to Athanasius, urging that all those who were ready to submit to the definitions of Nicaea should be re-admitted to ecclesiastical communion.他本人發出的一個特點給年輕的靈長類動物的亞歷山大,他在他的贊成票定做的譴責heresiarch ,誰被形容為一個人的意見已經被曲解。這些活動必須有一段時間發生的密切的一年330 。最後的皇帝是說服寫信給他那修,並敦促所有這些誰願意向尼西亞的定義應該重新接納為教會的共融。 This Athanasius stoutly refused to do, alleging that there could be no fellowship between the Church and the one who denied the Divinity of Christ.這亞他那修堅決拒絕這樣做,聲稱不可能有金教會與政府之間一個誰剝奪了神的基督。

The Bishop of Nicomedia thereupon brought various ecclesiastical and political charges against Athanasius, which, though unmistakably refuted at their first hearing, were afterwards refurbished and made to do service at nearly every stage of his subsequent trials.主教Nicomedia隨即帶來了各種宗教和政治指控他那修,雖然無誤地駁斥他們的第一次聽證會,隨後被翻新並作了這樣的服務幾乎每一個階段,他後來的審判。 Four of these were very definite, to wit: that he had not reached the canonical age at the time of his consecration; that he had imposed a linen tax upon the provinces; that his officers had, with his connivance and authority, profaned the Sacred Mysteries in the case of an alleged priest names Ischyras; and lastly that he had put one Arenius to death and afterwards dismembered the body for purposes of magic.其中有4個是非常明確的,即:說,他沒有達到標準年齡時,他奉獻; ,他已實行了亞麻稅的省份; ,他的警官,他的縱容和權力,褻瀆神聖神秘的情況下被指控的神父的名字Ischyras ;最後,他把一個Arenius死刑,隨後被肢解的屍體為目的的魔力。 The nature of the charges and the method of supporting them were vividly characteristic of the age.控罪的性質和方法,支持它們的特點是生動的年齡。 The curious student will find them set forth in picturesque detail in the second part of the Saint's "Apologia", or "Defense against the Arians", written long after the events themselves, about the year 350, when the retractation of Ursacius and Valens made their publication triumphantly opportune.好奇的學生將會發現他們中規定風景如畫的詳細的第二部分,聖的“縱容” ,或“國防部對Arians ” ,寫後不久,事件本身,約有350年,當前言取消的Ursacius和瓦倫斯發其出版勝利時機。 The whole unhappy story at this distance of time reads in parts more like a specimen of late Greek romance than the account of an inquisition gravely conducted by a synod of Christian prelates with the idea of getting at the truth of a series of odious accusations brought against one of their number.整個不愉快的故事在這個距離的時間閱讀的部分更像一個標本晚浪漫希臘比到嚴重的審問進行了主教的基督教主教的想法得到的真理了一系列令人髮指的指控提起他們的一個號碼。 Summoned by the emperor's order after protracted delays extended over a period of thirty months (Soz., II, xxv), Athanasius finally consented to meet the charges brought against him by appearing before a synod of prelates at Tyre in the year 335. Fifty of his suffragans went with him to vindicate his good name; but the complexion of the ruling party in the synod made it evident that justice to the accused was the last thing that was thought of.召見皇帝的命令後,長期拖延延長一個時期的30個月( Soz. ,二,二十五) ,亞他那修終於同意,以滿足對他的指控的出現在主教的主教在提爾在今年335 。 50他suffragans與他去證明他的好名聲;但膚色執政黨的主教了明顯的司法被告的最後一件事是想到的。 It can hardly be wondered at, that Athanasius should have refused to be tried by such a court.它幾乎不能在不知道,這亞他那修應拒絕審判的這樣一個法院。 He, therefore, suddenly withdrew from Tyre, escaping in a boat with some faithful friends who accompanied him to Byzantium, where he had made up his mind to present himself to the emperor.因此,他突然退出提爾,擺脫了船的一些忠實的朋友誰陪他到拜占庭,在那裡他已經決心向自己的皇帝。

The circumstances in which the saint and the great catechumen met were dramatic enough.在何種情況下聖和偉大的初學者會見了戲劇性不夠的。 Constantine was returning from a hunt, when Athanasius unexpectedly stepped into the middle of the road and demanded a hearing.康斯坦丁返回從狩獵,當他那修出人意料地走進中間的道路,並要求聽證。 The astonished emperor could hardly believe his eyes, and it needed the assurance of one of the attendants to convince him that the petitioner was not an impostor, but none other than the great Bishop of Alexandria himself.皇帝的驚訝難以相信自己的眼睛,它需要保證的一個服務員說服他請願不是一個騙子,但不是別人,正是偉大的主教亞歷山大本人。 "Give me", said the prelate, "a just tribunal, or allow me to meet my accusers face to face in your presence." “給我說, ”主教“ ,一個公正的法庭,或請允許我滿足我的原告面對面地在你的存在。 ” His request was granted.他的請求很快被批准。 An order was peremptorily sent to the bishops, who had tried Athanasius and, of course, condemned him in his absence, to repair at once to the imperial city.的命令,是斷然發送到主教,誰曾亞他那修,當然,譴責他的缺席,在修復後的皇城。 The command reached them while they were on their way to the great feast of the dedication of Constantine's new church at Jerusalem.該命令他們,而達到他們的道路上的偉大節日的奉獻君士坦丁的新教堂在耶路撒冷。 It naturally caused some consternation; but the more influential members of the Eusebian faction never lacked either courage or resourcefulness. The saint was taken at his word; and the old charges were renewed in the hearing of the emperor himself.這自然引起了一些驚恐,但更多的有影響力的成員從來沒有Eusebian派別都缺乏勇氣或機智。聖採取了自己的諾言;和舊的收費重新聽證的皇帝。 Athanasius was condemned to go into exile at Treves, where he was received with the utmost kindness by the saintly Bishop Maximinus and the emperor's eldest son, Constantine.亞他那修譴責流亡在特雷韋斯,在那裡他收到的最善良的聖潔的主教Maximinus和天皇的長子,君士坦丁。 He began his journey probably in the month of February, 336, and arrived on the banks of the Moselle in the late autumn of the same year.他開始了他的旅程可能在2月份, 336 ,和到達銀行的摩澤爾在深秋的同一年。 His exile lasted nearly two years and a half.他流亡歷時近兩年半的時間。 Public opinion in his own diocese remained loyal to him during all that time.公眾輿論在自己的教區仍忠於他在所有時間。 It was not the least eloquent testimony to the essential worth of his character that he could inspire such faith.這不是最雄辯地證明的基本價值,他的性格,他可以激發這種信念。 Constantine's treatment of Athanasius at this crisis in his fortunes has always been difficult to understand.君士坦丁的治療他那修在這場危機中他的命運一直很難理解。 Affecting, on the one hand, a show of indignation, as if he really believed in the political charge brought against the saint, he, on the other hand, refused to appoint a successor to the Alexandrian See, a thing which he might in consistency have been obliged to do had he taken seriously the condemnation proceedings carried through by the Eusebians at Tyre.影響,一方面表現出憤怒,因為如果他真的相信在政治指控對聖,他說,另一方面,拒絕任命接替亞歷山大見的事情,他可能在一致性不得不做了認真考慮,他譴責通過法律程序進行的Eusebians在提爾。

Meanwhile events of the greatest importance had taken place.與此同時事件最重要的已發生。 Arius had died amid startlingly dramatic circumstances at Constantinople in 336; and the death of Constantine himself had followed, on the 22nd of May the year after.阿里烏斯死於因驚人的戲劇性的情況下,在336君士坦丁堡;和死亡的君士坦丁本人也隨後,在5月22日的一年後。 Some three weeks later the younger Constantine invited the exiled primate to return to his see; and by the end of November of the same year Athanasius was once more established in his episcopal city.約三個星期後,年輕的君士坦丁邀請流亡靈長類有權返回他見;和年底同年11月他那修再次建立在他的主教城市。 His return was the occasion of great rejoicing.他的回報率為紀念偉大的歡樂。 The people, as he himself tells us, ran in crowds to see his face; the churches were given over to a kind of jubilee; thanksgivings were offered up everywhere; and clergy and laity accounted the day the happiest in their lives. But already trouble was brewing in a quarter from which the saint might reasonably have expected it.的人,因為他本人告訴我們,跑在人群中看到他的臉;教堂被交給一種週年; thanksgivings提供了世界各地;和神職人員和信徒佔一天中最快樂的生活。但已經麻煩正在醞釀一個季度的聖合理地期望它。 The Eusebian faction, who from this time forth loom large as the disturbers of his peace, managed to win over to their side the weak-minded Emperor Constantius to whom the East had been assigned in the division of the empire that followed on the death of Constantine.該Eusebian派別,誰在這個時候提出大型織機的disturbers他的和平,設法戰勝他們的一方弱君皇帝志同道合的人東被指派的分裂帝國,隨後死亡康斯坦丁。 The old charges were refurbished with a graver ecclesiastical accusation added by way of rider.舊的翻新費用與嚴重的指控說教會的方式騎手。 Athanasius had ignored the decision of a duly authorized synod.亞他那修忽視了決定,正式授權的主教。 He had returned to his see without the summons of ecclesiastical authority (Apol. c. Ar., loc. cit.).他回到他見沒有傳票的宗教權威( Apol.角氬。 ,同上。前。 ) 。 In the year 340, after the failure of the Eusebian malcontents to secure the appointment of an Arian candidate of dubious reputation names Pistus, the notorious Gregory of Cappadocia was forcibly intruded into the Alexandrian See, and Athanasius was obliged to go into hiding.在今年340之後,失敗的Eusebian不滿,以確保任命一名候選人阿里安可疑的名字Pistus聲譽,臭名昭著的格里高利的卡帕多西亞被強行闖入亞歷山大見,和他那修不得不躲藏起來。 Within a very few weeks he set out for Rome to lay his case before the Church at large.在極少數的幾個星期,他訂出的羅馬奠定他的案子之前,教會在逃。 He had made his appeal to Pope Julius, who took up his cause with a whole-heartedness that never wavered down to the day of that holy pontiff's death.他提出了他的上訴,教皇朱利葉斯,誰負責他的事業與誠心是從來沒有動搖過到一天的聖地教皇的死亡。 The pope summoned a synod of bishops to meet in Rome.教宗召集主教會議,以滿足在羅馬舉行。 After a careful and detailed examination of the entire case, the primate's innocence was proclaimed to the Christian world.經過認真和詳細的審查整個案件中,靈長類動物的無辜被宣布為基督教世界。

Meanwhile the Eusebian party had met at Antioch and passed a series of decrees framed for the sole purpose of preventing the saint's return to his see.與此同時, Eusebian黨會見了在安提阿和通過了一系列法令制定的唯一目的是防止聖回到他見。 Three years were passed at Rome, during which time the idea of the cenobitical life, as Athanasius had seen it practised in the deserts of Egypt, was preached to the clerics of the West (St. Jerome, Epistle cxxvii, 5).三年來通過在羅馬,在這段時間的想法cenobitical生活,他那修看到它實行的埃及沙漠,是鼓吹的神職人員西(聖杰羅姆,書信cxxvii , 5 ) 。 Two years after the Roman synod had published its decision, Athanasius was summoned to Milan by the Emperor Constans, who laid before him the plan which Constantius had formed for a great reunion of both the Eastern and Western Churches.兩年後,羅馬主教發表了其決定,他那修被傳喚到AC米蘭的皇帝常數,規定誰在他面前的計劃,其中君已形成一個大團圓的東方及西方基督教協進會。 Now began a time of extraordinary activity for the Saint.現在開始的時候特別活動的聖。 Early in the year 343 we find the undaunted exile in Gaul, whither he had gone to consult the saintly Hosius, the great champion of orthodoxy in the West.早在一年343我們找到了大無畏流亡在高盧,何處,他已經徵詢聖潔Hosius ,偉大的冠軍正統西方國家。 The two together set out for the Council of Sardica which had been summoned in deference to the Roman pontiff's wishes.兩者規定為安理會的Sardica已召見為了尊重羅馬教皇的願望。 At this great gathering of prelates the case of Athanasius was taken up once more; and once more was his innocence reaffirmed.在這個偉大的蒐集主教的情況下他那修被帶到了一次以上; ,並再次被重申自己的清白。 Two conciliar letters were prepared, one to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, and the other to the bishops of Egypt and Libya, in which the will of the Council was made known. Meanwhile the Eusebian party had gone to Philippopolis, where they issued an anathema against Athanasius and his supporters.兩個字母conciliar準備,一個牧師和教友們的亞歷山大,和其他的主教埃及和利比亞,其中安理會的意願是眾所周知的。與此同時, Eusebian黨去Philippopolis ,他們在那裡發表了一份詛咒對亞他那修和他的支持者。 The persecution against the orthodox party broke out with renewed vigour, and Constantius was induced to prepare drastic measures against Athanasius and the priests who were devoted to him.在迫害黨的正統爆發了新的活力,並誘導君準備採取嚴厲措施打擊他那修和牧師誰專門給他。 Orders were given that if the Saint attempted to re-enter his see, he should be put to death.得到訂單,如果聖試圖重新進入他看,他應該被處死。 Athanasius, accordingly, withdrew from Sardica to Naissus in Mysia, where he celebrated the Easter festival of the year 344.亞他那修,因此,退出Sardica以Naissus在Mysia ,他在那裡慶祝節日復活節,今年344 。 After that he set out for Aquileia in obedience to a friendly summons from Constans, to whom Italy had fallen in the division of the empire that followed on the death of Constantine.此後,他訂出的阿奎服從友好傳票從常數,意大利人已經下降的分裂帝國,隨後死亡的君士坦丁。 Meanwhile an unexpected event had taken place which made the return of Athanasius to his see less difficult than it had seemed for many months.另外一個意外的事件發生了,使他那修返回他看到那麼困難比它似乎很多個月。 Gregory of Cappadocia had died (probably of violence) in June, 345.格雷戈里的卡帕多西亞已經死亡(可能的暴力行為)在6月, 345 。 The embassy which had been sent by the bishops of Sardica to the Emperor Constantius, and which had at first met with the most insulting treatment, now received a favourable hearing.使館已經發出了主教Sardica皇帝君,並已在第一次見面的最侮辱的待遇,現在收到了有利的聽證會。 Constantius was induced to reconsider his decision, owing to a threatening letter from his brother Constans and the uncertain condition of affairs of the Persian border, and he accordingly made up his mind to yield.君誘導重新考慮他的決定,由於恐嚇信從他的弟弟常數和不確定的條件事務的波斯邊界,他因此提出了他心裡產生。 But three separate letters were needed to overcome the natural hesitation of Athanasius.但是,三個單獨的信件是需要克服自然毫不猶豫地對他那修。 He passed rapidly from Aquileia to Treves, from Treves to Rome, and from Rome by the northern route to Adrianople and Antioch, where he met Constantius.他通過迅速從阿奎以特雷韋斯,來自特雷韋斯羅馬,從羅馬北部的路線Adrianople和安提阿,他在那裡會見君。 He was accorded a gracious interview by the vacillating Emperor, and sent back to his see in triumph, where he began his memorable ten years' reign, which lasted down to the third exile, that of 356. These were full years in the life of the Bishop; but the intrigues of the Eusebian, or Court, party were soon renewed.他受到了熱情的採訪時優柔寡斷皇帝,並送回他看到勝利,他在那裡開始了他難忘的10年統治,持續下降到第三流亡,即356 。這些都是整年的生活主教;但陰謀的Eusebian ,或法院,當事人很快恢復。 Pope Julius had died in the month of April, 352, and Liberius had succeeded him as Sovereign Pontiff.教皇朱利葉斯死於4月份, 352 ,並已成功地Liberius他作為主權教宗。 For two years Liberius had been favourable to the cause of Athanasius; but driven at last into exile, he was induced to sign an ambiguous formula, from which the great Nicene test, the homoöusion, had been studiously omitted.兩年Liberius已有利的事業,他那修,但驅動上流亡,他被誘導簽署一項模棱兩可的公式,從尼西亞的偉大試驗, homoöusion ,已故意略去。 In 355 a council was held at Milan, where in spite of the vigorous opposition of a handful of loyal prelates among the Western bishops, a fourth condemnation of Athanasius was announced to the world.在355理事會是在米蘭舉行,在那裡,儘管極力反對一小撮忠實的主教西方之間的主教,第四譴責亞他那修是向全世界宣布。 With his friends scattered, the saintly Hosius in exile, the Pope Liberius denounced as acquiescing in Arian formularies, Athanasius could hardly hope to escape.與他的朋友們分散,在聖潔的Hosius流亡,教皇Liberius譴責默許阿里安formularies ,亞他那修難以逃脫的希望。 On the night of 8 February, 356, while engaged in services in the Church of St. Thomas, a band of armed men burst in to secure his arrest (Apol. de Fuga, 24).晚上2月8日, 356名,而從事服務業在教會的聖托馬斯,一群武裝人員爆發,以確保他的被捕( Apol.的風雅, 24 ) 。 It was the beginning of his third exile. Through the influence of the Eusebian faction at Constantinople, an Arian bishop, George of Cappadocia, was now appointed to rule the see of Alexandria. Athanasius, after remaining some days in the neighbourhood of the city, finally withdrew into the deserts of upper Egypt, where he remained for a period of six years, living the life of the monks and devoting himself in his enforced leisure to the composition of that group of writings of which we have the rest in the "Apology to Constantius", the "Apology for his Flight", the "Letter to the Monks", and the "History of the Arians".這是開始他的第三次流亡生活。通過影響Eusebian派別在君士坦丁堡,一個阿里安主教,喬治的卡帕多西亞,現在委任統治見亞歷山大。亞他那修後,剩下的一些天在附近的城市,終於撤回到沙漠上埃及,他在那裡停留的期限為6年,生活在生活的僧侶和投入本人在強迫休閒的組成該集團的著作中,我們有休息的“道歉以君“中, ”道歉,他的飛行“家書”的僧人“和”歷史的Arians “ 。 Legend has naturally been busy with this period of the Saint's career; and we may find in the "Life of Pachomius" a collection of tales brimful of incidents, and enlivened by the recital of "deathless 'scapes in the breach."傳說,自然一直忙於與此期間,聖的職業生涯,我們可能會發現在“生命的帕科謬斯”收集故事brimful的事件,生動的演奏的“不死' scapes在違約的情況下。 ” But by the close of the year 360 a change was apparent in the complexion of the anti-Nicene party.不過,截至收盤,今年360的變化是顯而易見的膚色反尼西亞黨。 The Arians no longer presented an unbroken front to their orthodox opponents.該Arians不再提交了一份完整的前面正統的對手。 The Emperor Constantius, who had been the cause of so much trouble, died 4 November, 361, and was succeeded by Julian.君皇帝,誰是事業的這麼多麻煩去世,享年11月4日, 361個,並成功地由朱利安。 The proclamation of the new prince's accession was the signal for a pagan outbreak against the still dominant Arian faction in Alexandria.宣布新的王子加入的信號是一個異教徒對疫情仍然佔主導地位派系阿里安在亞歷山德里亞。 George, the usurping Bishop, was flung into prison and murdered amid circumstances of great cruelty, 24 December (Hist. Aceph., VI).喬治,主教的侵占,是邊遠關進監獄和謀殺由於情況十分殘酷, 12月24日( Hist. Aceph 。 ,六) 。 An obscure presbyter of the name of Pistus was immediately chosen by the Arians to succeed him, when fresh news arrived that filled the orthodox party with hope.一個不起眼的發起人的名稱Pistus立即被選定的Arians接替他,當新的消息填寫抵達的正統黨的希望。 An edict had been put forth by Julian (Hist. Aceph., VIII) permitting the exiled bishops of the "Galileans" to return to their "towns and provinces".一項法令,已提出朱利安( Hist. Aceph 。 ,八) ,允許流亡國外的主教的“ Galileans ”回到自己的“城鎮和省” 。 Athanasius received a summons from his own flock, and he accordingly re-entered his episcopal capital 22 February, 362.亞他那修收到了傳票,從自己的羊群,他因此再次進入他的主教資本2月22日, 362 。 With characteristic energy he set to work to re-establish the somewhat shattered fortunes of the orthodox party and to purge the theological atmosphere of uncertainty.隨著能源的特點,他著手重新建立一些破碎的命運,黨和正統清除神學的氣氛中的不確定性。 To clear up the misunderstandings that had arisen in the course of the previous years, an attempt was made to determine still further the significance of the Nicene formularies.清理了誤解過程中出現的前幾年,有人企圖以確定進一步的意義尼西亞formularies 。 In the meanwhile, Julian, who seems to have become suddenly jealous of the influence that Athanasius was exercising at Alexandria, addressed an order to Ecdicius, the Prefect of Egypt, peremptorily commanding the expulsion of the restored primate, on the ground that he had never been included in the imperial act of clemency.同時,朱利安,誰似乎已經成為突然嫉妒的影響,是在行使他那修在亞歷山德里亞,處理一個,以Ecdicius的省長埃及,斷然指揮驅逐恢復靈長類,理由是他從來沒有被列入皇室行為的赦免。 The edict was communicated to the bishop by Pythicodorus Trico, who, though described in the "Chronicon Athanasianum" (xxxv) as a "philosopher", seems to have behaved with brutal insolence.該法令是傳達給主教的Pythicodorus Trico ,誰,但描述的“ Chronicon Athanasianum ” (三十五)作為“哲學家” ,似乎已經與野蠻的行為傲慢。 On 23 October the people gathered about the proscribed bishop to protest against the emperor's decree; but the saint urged them to submit, consoling them with the promise that his absence would be of short duration. 10月23日的人聚集的被禁主教抗議皇帝的法令;但聖敦促它們提交安慰他們的諾言,他的缺席將是短期的。 The prophecy was curiously fulfilled.預言是奇怪的履行。 Julian terminated his brief career 26 June, 363; and Athanasius returned in secret to Alexandria, where he soon received a document from the new emperor, Jovian, reinstating him once more in his episcopal functions.朱利安終止他的職業生涯短暫6月26日, 363 ;和亞他那修的秘密返回亞歷山大,在那裡他很快就收到了文件的新皇帝,木星,恢復他再一次在他的主教職務。 His first act was to convene a council which reaffirmed the terms of the Nicene Creed.他的第一個行動是召開一次理事會重申了條件尼西亞信經。 Early in September he set out for Antioch, bearing a synodal letter, in which the pronouncements of this council had been embodied. 9月初,他訂出的安提阿,有一個主教會議的信中,聲明本會已體現。 At Antioch he had an interview with the new emperor, who received him graciously and even asked him to prepare an exposition of the orthodox faith.在安提阿,他接受採訪的新皇帝,誰得到他慷慨,甚至問他準備闡述了正統的信仰。 But in the following February Jovian died; and in October, 364, Athanasius was once more an exile.但是,在下列2月木星死亡;和10月, 364 ,亞他那修再次流亡。

With the turn of circumstances that handed over to Valens the control of the East this article has nothing to do; but the accession of the emperor gave a fresh lease of life to the Arian party.隨著之交的情況下,移交給瓦倫斯控制的東本文無關,但加入的皇帝了新的生活的阿里安黨。 He issued a decree banishing the bishops who has been deposed by Constantius, but who had been permitted by Jovian to return to their sees.他頒布了一項法令,取締主教誰已經廢黜的君,但誰被允許的木星回到自己的認為。 The news created the greatest consternation in the city of Alexandria itself, and the prefect, in order to prevent a serious outbreak, gave public assurance that the very special case of Athanasius would be laid before the emperor.新聞創造了最大的驚愕中的城市亞歷山大本身,以及省,為了防止嚴重的疫情,保證了公眾的非常特殊的情況下他那修將提交給皇帝。 But the saint seems to have divined what was preparing in secret against him.但是,聖似乎已經猜到是什麼秘密準備對他。 He quietly withdrew from Alexandria, 5 October, and took up his abode in a country house outside the city.他悄悄地退出亞歷山大, 10月5日,並在他的住所在一個國家內部城外。 It was during this period that he is said to have spent four months in hiding in his father's tomb (Soz., "Hist. Eccl.", VI, xii; Doc., "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xii).這是在這一時期,據說他花了4個月躲藏在他父親的墓( Soz. , “組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,六,十二;文件。 “組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,四,十二) 。 Valens, who seems to have sincerely dreaded the possible consequences of a popular outbreak, gave order within a very few weeks for the return of Athanasius to his see.瓦倫斯,誰似乎已經可怕的真誠可能產生的後果流行爆發,為了給在非常幾週返回的亞他那修他看到的。 And now began that last period of comparative repose which unexpectedly terminated his strenuous and extraordinary career.現在開始最後階段的比較養神這意外終止他的艱辛和非凡的職業生涯。 He spent his remaining days, characteristically enough, in re-emphasizing the view of the Incarnation which had been defined at Nicaea and which has been substantially the faith of the Christian Church from its earliest pronouncement in Scripture down to its last utterance through the lips of Pius X in our own times.他度過了餘下的幾天,特點不夠,在再次強調的觀點,體現了界定尼西亞,並已大大信仰基督教會從最初宣布在聖經到最後通過言語的嘴唇皮烏斯十大在我們自己的時間。 "Let what was confessed by the Fathers of Nicaea prevail", he wrote to a philosopher-friend and correspondent in the closing years of his life (Epist. lxxi, ad Max.). “我們是什麼交待的教父尼西亞佔上風” ,他寫信給一位哲學家朋友和記者的最後幾年中他的生命( Epist. lxxi ,廣告最高。 ) 。 That that confession did at last prevail in the various Trinitarian formularies that followed upon that of Nicaea was due, humanly speaking, more to his laborious witness than to that of any other champion in the long teachers' roll of Catholicism.這也供認上普遍存在的各種三位一體formularies隨後根據該尼西亞是由於人類來說,他更艱苦的證人,而不是任何其他冠軍的長期教師名冊天主教。 By one of those inexplicable ironies that meet us everywhere in human history, this man, who had endured exile so often, and risked life itself in defence of what he believed to be the first and most essential truth of the Catholic creed, died not by violence or in hiding, but peacefully in his own bed, surrounded by his clergy and mourned by the faithful of the see he had served so well.由其中的一個令人費解的諷刺,以滿足我們無處不在人類歷史上,這名男子,誰經歷了如此經常流亡,並冒著生命本身在捍衛什麼,他認為首先和最重要的真理的信仰天主教,而不是死亡暴力或躲起來,但和平在自己的床上,他的包圍神職人員和哀悼的忠實的見他曾擔任這麼好。 His feast in the Roman Calendar is kept on the anniversary of his death.他的盛宴在羅馬日曆保存在紀念他的死亡。

[Note on his depiction in art: No accepted emblem has been assigned to him in the history of western art; and his career, in spite of its picturesque diversity and extraordinary wealth of detail, seems to have furnished little, if any, material for distinctive illustration. [注意他的描寫藝術:沒有公認的標誌已被指派給他的歷史,西方藝術;和他的職業生涯,儘管它風景如畫的多樣性和非凡的財富細節,似乎已經提供的,沒有什麼材料獨特的例證。 Mrs. Jameson tells us that according to the Greek formula, "he ought to be represented old, bald-headed, and with a long white beard" (Sacred and Legendary Art, I, 339).]詹姆森女士告訴我們,根據希臘的公式, “他應該出席歲,禿頭,和一個長長的白鬍子” (神聖與傳奇的藝術,我339 ) 。 ]

Publication information Written by Cornelius Clifford.出版信息撰稿科尼利厄斯克利福。 Transcribed by David Joyce. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.轉錄由大衛喬伊斯。天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

All the essential materials for the Saint's biography are to be found in his writings, especially in those written after the year 350, when the Apologia contra Arianos was composed.所有的基本材料,聖的傳記都在他的著作,特別是在那些寫在350年時,禁忌Arianos辯解組成。 Supplementary information will be found in ST. EPIPHANIUS, Hoer., loc.補充資料將在ST段。埃皮法尼烏斯, Hoer 。 ,同上。 cit.; in ST.前。 ;中秘。 GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS, Orat., xxi; also RUFINUS, SOCRATES, SOZMEN, and THEODORET.貴格利的高利, Orat 。 , 21 ;也RUFINUS ,蘇格拉底, SOZMEN ,並THEODORET 。 The Historia Acephala, or Maffeian Fragment (discovered by Maffei in 1738, and inserted by GALLANDI in Bibliotheca Patrum, 1769), and the Chronicon Athanasianum, or Index to the Festal Letters, give us data for the chronological problem. Acephala的歷史,或Maffeian片段(馬菲發現在1738年,並插入GALLANDI在Patrum圖書館, 1769年) ,以及Chronicon Athanasianum ,或指數的節日信函,給我們的數據順序的問題。 All the foregoing sources are included in MIGNE, PG and PL The great PAPEBROCH'S Life is in the Acta SS., May, I. The most important authorities in English are: NEWMAN, Arians of the Fourth Century, and Saint Athanasius; BRIGHT, Dictionary of Christian Biography; ROBERTSON, Life, in the Prolegomena to the Select Writings and Letters of Saint Athanasius (re-edited in Library of the Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers, New York, 1903); GWATKIN, Studies of Arianism (2d ed., Cambridge, 1900); MOHLER, Athanasius der Grosse; HERGENROTHER and HEFELE.所有上述來源中包括米涅, PG和光致發光的偉大PAPEBROCH的生命是在學報黨衛軍。 , 5月,一,當局最重要的英文是:紐曼, Arians第四世紀,聖亞他那修;明亮,詞典基督教傳記;羅伯遜生活,在緒論的選擇和文學創作的聖亞他那修(重新編輯在圖書館的尼西亞和後尼西亞教父,紐約, 1903年) ; GWATKIN ,研究Arianism ( 2版。 ,劍橋, 1900年) ; MOHLER ,亞他那修大帝; HERGENROTHER和HEFELE 。


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