Asian Theology亞洲神學

General Information 一般信息

Long ago, missionaries in Asia attempted to introduce and develop Christianity in a form familiar in America but very unpalatable on the Asian continent.很久以前,傳教士在亞洲試圖引進和發展基督教在熟悉的一種形式,但在美國非常不快的亞洲大陸。 They generally found minimal success.他們普遍認為最低限度的成功。

Some recent efforts have attempted to first understand Eastern culture and belief systems.最近的一些努力,試圖先了解東方文化和信仰系統。 With this foundation, it has been possible to develop deeper communication with the residents there which has allowed mutual understanding.在此基礎上,有可能發展更深入的交流與當地居民,這使得相互理解。 This has allowed much greater effectiveness in the missionary efforts.這使得更大的效力傳教士的努力。

In order to understand Asian theology one must examine distinctions between Eastern and Western cultures.為了了解亞洲神學之一必須審查區分東歐和西歐的文化。 Since the end of World War II, Asian theologians have been seeking liberation from Western theologies in order to make the gospel more relevant to their own life situations.自從第二次世界大戰結束,亞洲神學家一直在尋求擺脫西方theologies為了使福音更切合自己的生活情況。

Historically, the development of Asian theology is closely related to the development of indigenization in the early twentieth century and to the recent development of the concept of contextualization in missions.從歷史上看,發展的亞洲神學密切相關,發展本土化在20世紀初和最近的發展概念的語境中任務。 The International Missionary Council in Jerusalem in 1930 stressed that the Christian message must be expressed in national and cultural patterns with liturgy, church music, dance, drama, and building structures accentuating national features.國際傳教理事會在耶路撒冷在1930年強調說,基督教的信息必須是對國家和文化模式與禮儀,教會音樂,舞蹈,戲劇,建築結構加劇民族特色。 This emphasis on using indigenous art forms and structures was carried over into the area of theology.這側重於利用本地的藝術形式和結構是結轉到該地區的神學。

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The net effect is that the Christianity of the East has absorbed aspects of the local culture (and even some minor aspects of the dominant belief systems).淨效果是,基督教的地區已經吸附方面的地方文化(甚至一些小的方面佔主導地位的信仰體系) 。 Growth of Christianity in Asia has been spectacular in recent decades.生長在亞洲基督教一直壯觀近幾十年來。


Asian Theology亞洲神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

"Theological ideas are created on the European continent, corrected in England, corrupted in America, and crammed into Asia," said one theologian. “神學思想是建立在歐洲大陸,糾正在英國,美國的損壞,並塞進亞洲說, ”一個神學家。 Because of rising nationalism and reassertion of traditional values in Asia, shoving "the white man's Christianity" upon Asians is no longer advisable.由於增長的民族主義和重申傳統的價值觀在亞洲,推“的白人的基督教”應亞洲人不再是不可取的。

In order to understand Asian theology one must examine distinctions between Eastern and Western cultures.為了了解亞洲神學之一必須審查區分東歐和西歐的文化。 Since the end of World War II, Asian theologians have been seeking liberation from Western theologies in order to make the gospel more relevant to their own life situations.自從第二次世界大戰結束,亞洲神學家一直在尋求擺脫西方theologies為了使福音更切合自己的生活情況。

Historically, the development of Asian theology is closely related to the development of indigenization in the early twentieth century and to the recent development of the concept of contextualization in missions.從歷史上看,發展的亞洲神學密切相關,發展本土化在20世紀初和最近的發展概念的語境中任務。 The International Missionary Council in Jerusalem in 1930 stressed that the Christian message must be expressed in national and cultural patterns with liturgy, church music, dance, drama, and building structures accentuating national features.國際傳教理事會在耶路撒冷在1930年強調說,基督教的信息必須是對國家和文化模式與禮儀,教會音樂,舞蹈,戲劇,建築結構加劇民族特色。 This emphasis on using indigenous art forms and structures was carried over into the area of theology.這側重於利用本地的藝術形式和結構是結轉到該地區的神學。

For example, Kanzo Uchimura, founder of a noted Non Church Movement in Japan, emphasized a Japanese theology: "If Christianity is literally just one, then what a monotonous religion it is."例如,寬三內村,創辦一個非教會指出運動在日本,強調日本神學: “如果基督教實際上是只有一個,那麼單調這是宗教。 ” He stated that just as there are German, English, Dutch, and American theologies, Japan should have a Japanese theology.他指出,正如有德文,英文,荷蘭文,和美國theologies ,日本應該有一個日本神學。 He wanted Christianity expressed from the viewpoint of the Japanese; he wanted a Japanese Christianity.他想表達基督教的觀點,日本; ,他希望日本基督教。

In the early 1970s the Theological Education Fund introduced a new term, "contextualization," during the Third Mandate Period (1972 - 77).在1970年代初期的神學教育基金推出一個新名詞, “語境” ,在第三個任務期間( 1972至77年) 。 The concept of indigenization was taken one step further by applying it in the area of mission, theological approach, and educational method and structure.的概念,採取本土化更進一步運用它在該地區的任務,神學的方法,教育方法和結構。 Contextualization takes into account the processes of secularity, technology, and the struggles for human justice which characterize the history of nations in Asia. Asian theologians, therefore, have used the concepts of indigenization and contextualization to justify the development of Asian theologies.語境考慮到進程的世俗,技術和鬥爭為人類正義的歷史特點的國家在亞洲。亞洲神學家,因此,利用本土化的概念和語境來證明發展的亞洲theologies 。

Many theologians argue that God's revelation came to us in the Scriptures through a specific cultural form, such as in the NT when God used the Jewish and hellenistic cultures to record his revelation.許多神學家認為,上帝的啟示來我們在聖經通過具體的文化形式,如在上帝台幣使用時,猶太人和希臘文化的記錄他的啟示。 Therefore the gospel must also be translated today into the particular forms of Asian cultures, and consequently numerous Asian theologies claim to represent Asian cultural forms: pain of God theology (Japan), water buffalo theology (Thailand), third eye theology (for the Chinese), minjung theology (Korea), theology of change (Taiwan), and a score of other national theologies such as Indian theology, Burmese theology, and Sri Lanka theology.因此,福音也必須翻譯成今天的特殊形式的亞洲文化,因此,許多亞洲theologies聲稱代表亞洲文化形式:痛苦的上帝神學(日本) ,水牛神學(泰國) ,第三只眼睛神學(為中國) , minjung神學(韓國) ,神學的變化(台灣) ,以及評分的其他國家theologies如印度神學,神學緬甸,斯里蘭卡和神學。 The proliferation of Asian theologies has escalated markedly since the 1960s and will continue to multiply in the future.擴散的亞洲theologies升級顯著自1960年代以來,並將繼續成倍的未來。 This will undoubtedly produce enormous impact on as well as conflict and confusion in theological institutions and Christian churches in Asia.這無疑將產生巨大的影響,以及衝突和混亂,神體制和基督教教會在亞洲。

The major proponents of Asian theology have been liberal theologians of mainline denominational seminaries.主要倡導者的亞洲神學已經自由神學教會的神幹線。 An increasing number of evangelical theologians have sharply reacted against the concept of Asian theology.越來越多的福音派神學急劇反應,對這一概念的亞洲神學。 Other evangelicals are insisting on the necessity of it.其他福音派則堅持認為有必要的。

Due to the existence of very divergent religious cultures in Asia, the content of Asian theology is also diversified.由於存在著非常不同的宗教文化在亞洲,亞洲的內容神學也是多樣化的。 It can be classified in four main areas: (1) syncretistic theology, (2) accommodation theology, (3) situational theology, and (4) biblical theology which is relevant to Asian needs.它可分為四個主要方面: ( 1 )融神學, ( 2 )住宿神學, ( 3 )情境神學,和( 4 )聖經的神學這是有關亞洲的需求。

Syncretistic Theology融神學

Some Christian theologians and other religious thinkers have tried to syncretize Christianity with a national religion (Hinduism, Buddhism, or Islam) in an attempt to contextualize theology into the national situation.一些基督教神學家和其他宗教思想家都試圖融合基督教與一個國家的宗教(印度教,佛教或伊斯蘭教) ,企圖神學背景的國家的情況。 The Programme Unit on Faith and Witness of the World Council of Churches (WCC) has sponsored a number of religious dialogues with the leaders of other living religions.該方案股的信仰和見證世界基督教協進會(基督教協進會)主辦了一些宗教對話與其他領導人的宗教生活。 Many of these dialogues have resulted in a mutual acceptance of each other's beliefs.許多這些對話,造成了相互接受對方的信仰。

The scope of Hinduism and Buddhism is large enough to accommodate all other religions including Christianity.的範圍,印度教和佛教是大到足以容納所有其他宗教,包括基督教。 Sri Ramakrishna, founder of the Ramakrishna Mission, meditated on Christ, recognized Christ's divinity as an avatar (incarnation) of the Supreme like Krishna and Buddha, and encourages his disciples to worship Christ.斯里蘭卡羅摩克里希納的創始人羅摩克里希納團,沉思的基督,認識到基督的神作為一個化身(化身)最高法院像克里希納和佛像,並鼓勵他的弟子朝拜基督。

The idea of the cosmic Christ which was emphasized during the WCC Assembly in New Delhi in 1961 has become prominent among liberal theologians in India.的想法宇宙基督強調這是在世界基督教協進會大會在新德里舉行的1961年已經成為突出的自由派神學家在印度。 Raymond Panikkar in his book The Unknown Christ of Hinduism stresses that Christ already indwells the heart of a Hindu and that the mission of the church is not to bring Christ to the Hindu but to bring Christ out of him.雷蒙德潘尼迦在他的書中未知的基督印度教強調,基督已經indwells的核心印度教,他們的使命教會不是把基督印度教,但基督帶來了他。

Klaus Klostermaier, a Roman Catholic theologian from German, visited Vrindaban, one of the Hindu sacred places in India, to have dialogue with Hindu gurus.克勞斯Klostermaier ,一個羅馬天主教神學家來自德國,訪問Vrindaban ,一個印度教聖地在印度,有對話,印度教大師。 After his spiritual experiences with Hindu scholars he testified, "The more I learned of Hinduism, the more surprised I grew that our theology does not offer anything essentially new to the Hindu."經過他的精神的經驗,印度教學者,他作證說: “我學到更多的印度教,更驚訝我長大,我們的神學不提供任何基本上是新印度教。 ”

MM Thomas, a prominent church leader both in India and in the WCC, expanded the cosmic Christ into a form of secular humanism. He interpreted salvation as man finding his true humanness so that it is no longer suppressed by social injustice, war, and poverty. Thomas said, "I cannot see any difference between the accepted missionary goal of a Christian Church expressing Christ in terms of the contemporary Hindu thought and life patterns and a Christcentered Hindu Church of Christ which transforms Hindu thought and life patterns within."莫斯利托馬斯,一個突出的教會領導人都在印度和世界基督教協進會,擴大了宇宙基督成一種世俗的人文主義。得救,他的解釋是男子找到了他真實的人性,使之不再是抑制了社會的不公正,戰爭和貧窮。托馬斯說, “我也看不出有任何區別接受傳教士目標是建立一個基督教教會表示基督在當代印度教的思想和生活模式和Christcentered印度教基督教會的變換印度教的思想和生活模式內。 ”

Accommodation Theology住宿神學

Accommodation is another subtle attempt to contextualize theology in Asia.住宿是另一個微妙的企圖背景神學在亞洲。 Just as a hotel or a family accommodates a guest, so theological accommodation considers prevailing customs and religious practices of another culture and accommodates good ideas from other religions.正如一家酒店或家庭照顧客人,使神學住宿普遍認為,海關和宗教習俗的另一種文化和照顧好主意來自其他宗教。 Christian attempts to accommodate other religious ideas are observable particularly in Buddhist countries.基督教企圖以容納其他宗教思想是看得見特別是在佛教國家。

The Thailand Bible Society selected the word dharma (law, duty, virtue, teaching, gospel) for the word Logos in John 1:1, because the dharma in Thai Buddhist culture is as meaningful as the Logos in the hellenistic world of NT times.泰國聖經協會選定字法(法律,工作地點,美德,教學,福音)的字標識在約翰1:1 ,因為佛法在泰國佛教文化是有意義的標識在希臘世界新台幣倍。 In the same way Matteo Ricci, Roman Catholic Jesuit missionary to China in the sixteenth century, chose the words Tien Chu (Heavenly Lord) as the name for God because that was the popular Chinese Buddhist concept of God.以同樣的方式利瑪竇,羅馬天主教耶穌會的傳教士到中國在16世紀選擇的話天廚(天上的上帝) ,作為對上帝的名字,因為這是流行的中國佛教概念的上帝。

Kosume Koyama, a former Japanese missionary professor at Thailand Theological Seminary, in his Waterbuffalo Theology opposes syncretism for not doing justice to both parties. Kosume小山,前日本傳教教授在泰國神學院,他Waterbuffalo神學反對合一的正義不是這樣做對雙方都。 He advocates accommodation instead.他主張住宿代替。 Koyama believes that one cannot mix Aristotelian pepper with Buddhist salt in the North Thailand theological "kitchen."小山認為,人們不能混合亞里士多德與佛教胡椒鹽在北泰國神學“廚房” 。 One must, therefore, emphasize good "neighborology" rather than mere Christology, because Koyama believes that every religion has positive as well as negative points and that Thai Christians must accept the positive elements of Buddhism in Thailand in order to change their life style.一位因此,必須強調好“ neighborology ” ,而不是僅僅是基督,因為小山認為,每一種宗教的積極和消極的分和,泰國的基督信徒必須接受這樣的積極因素,佛教在泰國,以改變他們的生活方式。

Song Choan - Seng of Taiwan stresses a "third dimensional theology" as seen from an Asian perspective in his book Third Eye Theology. He says, for example, that just as the Holy Spirit works in a Westerner's consciousness to bring about Christian conversion, so he works in the Zen Buddhists of Japan to bring about satori (enlightenment of the mind).宋宋泉-恆生強調台灣的“第三維神學”作為從亞洲的視角在他的書中第三只眼神學。他說,例如,就像聖靈的作品在西方人的意識,使基督教的轉換,所以他的作品曾在日本佛教徒帶來佐鳥(啟迪心靈) 。 Since the same Spirit is working in both religions, the objective of Christian missions should not be evangelization, but rather the interaction of Christian spirituality with Asian spirituality.因為同樣的精神是工作在宗教,基督教的目標任務不應該福音,而是相互作用的基督教精神與亞洲靈性。

Two noted theologians in Sri Lanka have had a similar interest in accommodating Buddhist terminologies and ideas to Christian theology.兩名指出神學在斯里蘭卡也有類似的興趣,可容納佛教術語和想法,基督教神學。 DT Niles, one of the key leaders in the East Asia Christian Conference (now Christian Conference of Asia), did not hesitate to use word such as dharma and sangha to describe Christian "doctrines" and the "body of Christ" in his Buddhism and the Claims of Christ.藥物療法奈爾斯,其中一個主要領導人在東亞基督教會議(現在的基督教會議的亞洲) ,毫不猶豫地使用字,如佛法和桑加來描述基督教“理論”和“基督的奧體”在他的佛教和索賠的基督。 Lyn de Siva, a Methodist minister in Sri Lanka, believes that the teaching of earlier Buddhism on the three basic characteristics of existence, anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering), and anatta (no - self), provides comprehensive analysis of the human predicament that can become a basis for Christian theology.林恩的濕婆,一個衛部長在斯里蘭卡,認為教學的早期佛教的三個基本特徵的存在, anicca (無常) ,苦(痛苦) ,以及無我(無-自我) ,提供了全面的分析,人類困境,可以成為一個基礎的基督教神學。 Anicca affirms the status of constant change of all conditional things; dukkha affirms that attachment is the cause for human suffering; and anatta affirms no soul or any permanent entity in man. Anicca申明的地位不斷變化的一切有條件的東西;苦申明,查封的原因是對人類的苦難;和無我肯定沒有靈魂或任何永久性的實體的人。 The concepts of anicca and dukkha can be easily accommodated into Christian theology, but anatta proves more difficult due to the biblical concept of immortality.的概念和苦anicca可以很容易地安置到基督教神學,但無我更加難以證明由於聖經永生的概念。

The accommodation of Asian religious terminologies and concepts such as dharma, Tien Chu, anicca, dukkha, and annatta into Christian theology can be accepted to a certain extent by many Christians as long as the biblical interpretation and meaning are added to such words and concepts.住宿的亞洲宗教術語和概念,如佛法,天廚, anicca ,苦,並annatta到基督教神學可以接受在一定程度上許多基督徒,只要聖經的解釋和含義被添加到這樣的話和概念。 Yet the question of where to draw the line between syncretism and accommodation depends on whether the person is willing to accept the unique revelation of God in Jesus Christ and in the Scriptures in his accommodation.然而,問題在哪裡劃清界線之間的融合和住宿取決於該人是否願意接受獨特的啟示上帝耶穌基督和聖經在他的住處。 A person's answer to a question such as "Do Buddhists need to be converted to Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of their sins?"一個人的回答問題,如“你的佛教徒必須改耶穌基督的寬恕他們的罪孽? ” will reveal whether or not he believes that Jesus Christ is the only way to God.將揭示與否,他相信耶穌基督是唯一的途徑上帝。

Situational Theology情境神學

Another type of Asian theology derives directly from a particular situation.另一種類型的亞洲神學直接來自某個特定的情況。 This situational theology may not be in agreement with the biblical and historical doctrines of the Christian church, and yet it speaks to concrete situations in Asia.這情景神學可能不同意聖經和歷史理論的基督教教堂,但它談到具體情況在亞洲。 Kazoh Kitamori's pain of God theology in Japan is an excellent illustration. Kazoh Kitamori的痛苦上帝的神學在日本是一個極好的例證。 He tried to demonstrate to the suffering people in Japan after their defeat in World War II that the God revealed in the Bible is the God of suffering and pain who could identify with the suffering Japanese.他試圖證明向遭受苦難的人民在日本戰敗後,在第二次世界大戰中的上帝發現在聖經是上帝的苦難和痛苦誰能夠確定與日本的苦難。

The minjung theology (theology of the mass of the people) is another typical illustration.該minjung神學(神學大眾的人)是另一個典型的例子。 The main thrust of ecumenical theology today in Asia is toward the liberation of persons from social injustice, economic exploitation, political oppression, and racial discrimination.主旨基督教神學今天在亞洲是對解放人從社會不公正,經濟剝削,政治壓迫和種族歧視。 The minjung theology is a Korean version of liberation theology and teaches that Jesus Christ is the liberator of these oppressed people. minjung神學的是韓文版的解放神學,並教導我們,耶穌是解放者這些被壓迫人民。 The major papers from a conference on the minjung theology, October 22, 1979, were edited by Yong - Bock Kim, director of the Christian Institute for the Study of Justice and Development in Seoul, and published as Minjung Theology: People as the Subjects of History.主要論文從一個會議上minjung神學, 79年10月22日,被編輯勇-伯克金主任基督教研究所的研究正義和發展在漢城,並出版M injung神學:人民的主體歷史。

Need for Biblically Oriented Asian Theology.聖經必須面向亞洲神學。 Theology in Asia has been taught by Western missionaries.神學在亞洲已講授的西方傳教士。 The West has its own theological formulations derived out of its own cultural background, Calvinism, Arminianism, death of God, etc. Yet in Asia the circumstances facing Christians differ from the West.西方國家有其自己的神學配方衍生出其自身的文化背景,加爾文主義,亞米紐斯主義,死亡,上帝,等等然而,在亞洲面臨的情況基督徒不同於西方。 Asian Christians must make their theologies relevant to their living situations in Asia.亞洲基督信徒必須盡theologies有關他們的生活情況在亞洲。 Some of the main issues which Christians in Asia are facing today are communism, poverty, suffering, war, idolatry, demon possession, bribery, and cheating.一些主要的問題在亞洲的基督徒今天所面臨的共產主義,貧困,苦難,戰爭,偶像崇拜,魔鬼藏,賄賂,欺騙。

Most evangelical theologians see the value of Asian theology in allowing Asians to express their theological thoughts within their own contexts.大多數福音派神學的價值亞洲神學,使亞洲人表達他們的神學思想在他們自己的背景。 Nevertheless, they are also very apprehensive of the danger of syncretism and of minimizing fundamental scriptural teachings during the process of contextualization.然而,他們也非常憂慮的危險性融合,並盡量減少基本聖經的教導過程中的語境。

At the Sixth Asia Theological Association Consultation in Seoul, Korea, 1982, some eighty evangelical theologians discussed Asian theology and jointly produced a twenty page Asian evangelical theologians' declaration, The Bible and Theology in Asia Today. Although there is no particular Asian theology with an evangelical label which is widely accepted by evangelical theologians, this joint evangelical declaration has laid down a few guiding principles for theology in different religious contexts of Asia.在第六屆亞洲神學協會協商,韓國漢城, 1982年,一些基督教神學80亞洲神學的討論,共同製作了一個21頁的亞洲福音派神學的宣言,聖經和神學在亞洲的今天。雖然沒有亞洲特別是與神學福音標籤被廣泛接受的福音派神學家,這一聯合宣言福音奠定了幾個指導原則的神學在不同宗教背景的亞洲。 (1) The authority of the Bible is reaffirmed as the only infallible, inerrant Word of God: "The Bible, not theologians, is to speak in our theology." ( 1 )權威的聖經重申作為唯一的萬無一失, inerrant天主的聖言: “聖經,而不是神學,是在我們說話的神學。 ” (2) Jesus Christ, the only incarnate Son of God, is unique. ( 2 )耶穌基督,唯一的化身上帝之子,是獨一無二的。 (3) Mission centered theology aiming to communicate the gospel to the lost is the best protection against syncretism. (4) Love should be the essential part of an Asian theology; only as Christians identify themselves with the needy do they contextualize the gospel. ( 3 )團為中心的神學旨在溝通福音損失的是最好的保護,防止合一。 ( 4 )愛應該是必不可少的組成部分亞洲神學;只作為基督徒認同有需要的,他們的背景福音。

Conclusion結論

The key issue in the whole argument around developing an Asian theology is whether in the process of contextualization the biblical and historical doctrines of the Christian church can be preserved without compromise.關鍵的問題在整個發展中國家的論點圍繞亞洲神學是過程中的語境聖經和歷史理論的基督教教堂可以保存毫不妥協。 An analogy can be made with carrying the ark of the covenant in the OT.類推,可攜帶的約櫃在加時賽。 In OT times the ark was carried by ox cart.在加時賽倍方舟進行的牛車。 Today in several Asian countries the ark would be carried by rickshaw, horse, motorcycle, or car.今天,在一些亞洲國家的方舟將進行的人力車,馬車,摩托車,或汽車。 Yet the meaning of the ark must not be changed.然而,意義方舟絕不能改變。 Many liberal theologians are trying to change the ark itself.許多自由派神學正試圖改變自己的方舟。

Asian Christians must listen to, evaluate, and be open minded to different Asian theological views on contextualization and yet, without compromise, be faithful to the gospel and proclaim it in love, as the apostle Paul exhorts: "Be on the alert, stand firm in the faith, act like men, be strong. Let all that you do be done in love" (1 Cor. 16:13 - 14).亞洲基督徒必須傾聽,評估,開放意識,以不同的亞洲神學的看法情景,然而,毫不妥協,忠於福音,並宣布它的愛,因為使徒保羅勸告: “必須提高警覺,立場堅定在信仰,行為像男人一樣,很強烈。讓所有,你要做的愛“ ( 1肺心病。 16:13 -1 4) 。

BR Ro溴魯明

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography: 參考書目:
GH Anderson, ed., Asian Voices in Christian Theology; DJ Elwood, ed., What Asian Christians Are Thinking; DJ Elwood and EP Nakpil, eds., The Human and the Holy; K Kitamori, Theology of the Pain of God; K Klostermaier, Hindu and Christian in Vrindaban; C Michalson, Japanese Contributions to Christian Theology.生長激素安德森版。 ,亞洲的聲音在基督教神學;的DJ埃爾伍德,編輯。 ,什麼亞洲基督徒的想法;的DJ埃爾伍德和EP Nakpil合編。 ,人權和羅馬; K Kitamori ,神學上帝的疼痛; K Klostermaier ,印度教和基督教在Vrindaban ; ç Michalson ,日本的會費,以基督教神學。


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