Arianism

General Information 一般信息

Arianism was a 4th-century Christian heresy named for Arius (c.250-c.336), a priest in Alexandria. Arius denied the full deity of the preexistent Son of God who became incarnate in Jesus Christ. He held that the Son, while divine and like God ("of like substance"), was created by God as the agent through whom he created the universe. Arius said of the Son, "there was a time when he was not." Arianism became so widespread in the Christian church and resulted in such disunity that the emperor Constantine convoked a church council at Nicaea in 325 (see Councils of Nicaea). Arianism是第四世紀的基督教異端命名為阿里烏斯( c.250 - c.336 ) ,一名牧師在亞歷山德里亞。 阿里烏斯不能充分神的preexistent上帝之子誰成為體現在耶穌基督。他認為,兒子,而象神和上帝( “的樣物質” ) ,是由上帝創造出來的代理人通過他創造了宇宙。 阿里烏斯說的兒子, “有一段時間,他沒有。 ” Arianism成為非常普遍的基督教教堂,造成這種分裂的皇帝君士坦丁召集的一個教堂理事會在尼西亞在325 (見安理會尼西亞) 。

Led by Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, the council condemned Arianism and stated that the Son was consubstantial (of one and the same substance or being) and coeternal with the Father, a belief formulated as homoousios ("of one substance") against the Arian position of homoiousios ("of like substance"). Nonetheless, the conflict continued, aided by the conflicting politics of the empire after the death of Constantine (337). 由亞他那修,主教亞歷山德里亞,安理會譴責Arianism ,並指出,兒子是同質(對同一種物質或正在)和coeternal的父親,一個信念制訂homoousios ( “一個實質” )對阿里安立場homoiousios ( “的樣物質” ) 。儘管如此,衝突繼續下去,幫助衝突的政治帝國去世後,康斯坦丁( 337 ) 。

Three types of Arianism emerged: radical Arianism, which asserted that the Son was "dissimilar" to the Father; homoeanism, which held that the Son was similar to the Father; and semi-Arianism, which shaded off into orthodoxy and held that the Son was similar yet distinct from the Father.三種類型的Arianism出現了: 激進Arianism ,其中聲稱,兒子是“異種”的父親; homoeanism ,認為兒子是類似的父親; Arianism ,其中納入了陰影,並舉行了正統的兒子類似但不同於神父。

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After an initial victory of the homoean party in 357, the semi-Arians joined the ranks of orthodoxy, which finally triumphed except in Teutonic Christianity, where Arianism survived until after the conversion (496) of the Franks. Although much of the dispute about Arianism seems a battle over words (Edward Gibbon scornfully observed that Christianity was split over a single iota, the difference between homoousios and homoiousios), a fundamental issue involving the integrity of the Gospel was at stake: whether God was really in Christ reconciling the world to himself.經初步勝利homoean黨在357人,半Arians加入了正統,最終取得勝利除了在日爾曼基督教,其中Arianism之後倖存下來的轉換( 496 )的弗蘭克斯。儘管許多爭議Arianism似乎是一個爭字(愛德華吉本輕蔑地指出,基督教的分歧絲毫一個單一的,區別homoousios和homoiousios ) ,一個根本性的問題涉及到完整的福音是在股份:上帝是否真的在基督調和世界本人。

Reginald H. Fuller雷小時富勒

Bibliography 目錄
Gregg, RC, ed., Arianism: Historical and Theological Reassessments (1987); Gwatkin, HM, Studies of Arianism, 2d ed.波波維奇,鋼筋混凝土,編輯。 , Arianism :歷史和神學重新評估( 1987年) ; Gwatkin ,陛下,研究Arianism ,二維版。 (1900); Newman, John Henry, The Arians of the Fourth Century (1833; repr. 1968). ( 1900年) ;紐曼,約翰亨利,該Arians第四世紀( 1833年; repr 。 1968年) 。


Arianism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The birth date for Arius, the North African priest who gave his name to one of Christianity's most troublesome schisms, is uncertain.出生日期為阿里烏斯,北非司鐸是誰給他的名字之一,基督教的最棘手的分裂,是不確定的。 He seems to have been born in Libya.他似乎已經出生於利比亞。 He was in all probability a pupil of Lucien of Antioch.他是在所有的概率學生的呂西安安提阿的。 During the bishopric of Peter of Alexandria (300-311) Arius was made a deacon in that city and began the stormy pastoral career which is known to history.在主教彼得亞歷山大( 300-311 )阿里烏斯了執事在這個城市並開始了風風雨雨牧區的職業,是眾所周知的歷史。 He was in rapid succession excommunicated for his association with the Melitians, restored by Achillas, Bishop of Alexandria (311-12), and given priestly orders and the church of Baucalis.他在繼承迅速逐出教會,他聯同Melitians ,恢復Achillas ,主教亞歷山德里亞( 311-12 ) ,並給予祭司的訂單和教會的Baucalis 。 Sometime between 318 and 323 Arius came into conflict with Bishop Alexander over the nature of Christ.有時之間的318和323阿里烏斯生效衝突,亞歷山大主教的性質基督。 In a confusing series of synods a truce was attempted between adherents of Alexander and followers of Arius; in March of 324 Alexander convened a provincial synod which acknowledged the truce but anathematized Arius. Arius responded with his publication of Thalia (which exists only as it is quoted in refutation by Athanasius) and by repudiating the truce.在一個混亂的一系列synods停火是企圖信徒之間的亞歷山大和追隨者的阿里烏斯;在3月的324亞歷山大召開了省級主教承認停火協議,但anathematized阿里烏斯。阿里烏斯回答他出版塔莉亞(其中只存在因為它是引用駁斥了他那修)和批判了停火協議。 In February, 325, Arius was then condemned at a synod in Antioch.今年2月, 325 ,阿里烏斯當時在譴責在安提阿主教。 The Emperor Constantine was intervening by this time, and it was he who called the first ecumenical council, the Council of Nicaea.皇帝君士坦丁是介入這個時候,這是誰,他所謂的第一次基督教,安理會尼西亞。 This council met on May 20, 325, and subsequently condemned Arius and his teaching.本局會見了5月20日, 325 ,和隨後譴責阿里烏斯和他的教學。 Present in the entourage of Alexander at this council was Athanasius.目前在亞歷山大一行在本局是亞他那修。 He took little part in the affairs of the Council of Nicaea, but when he became Bishop of Alexandria in 328, he was to become the unremitting foe of Arius and Arianism and the unflagging champion of the Nicene formula.他很少參與了安理會的事務尼西亞,但是當他成為主教亞歷山大在328 ,他將成為敵人的不懈阿里烏斯和Arianism和不懈的冠軍尼西亞公式。

Following his condemnation Arius was banished to to Illyricum.之後,他譴責阿里烏斯被放逐到以伊利裡庫姆。 There he continued to write, teach, and appeal to an ever broadening circle of political and ecclesiastical adherents of Arianism.在那裡,他繼續寫,教,並呼籲不斷擴大循環的政治和宗教的信徒Arianism 。 Around 332 or 333 Constantine opened direct contact with Arius, and in 335 the two met at Nicomedia.大約332或333君士坦丁開放直接接觸阿里烏斯和335兩個Nicomedia舉行。 There Arius presented a confession which Constantine considered sufficiently orthodox to allow for the reconsideration of Arius's case.有阿里烏斯提交了一份供詞康斯坦丁認為這充分正統,以便重新阿里烏斯的案件。 Therefore, following the dedication of the Church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem the Synod of Jerusalem declared for the readmittance of Arius to communion even as he lay dying in Constantiople.因此,下面的奉獻教會的復活在耶路撒冷的議會宣布耶路撒冷為接納的阿里烏斯共融甚至到他彌留之際的Constantiople 。 Since Arian views were being advanced by many active bishops and members of the court, and Arius himself had ceased to play a vital role in the controversy, his death in 335 or 336 did nothing to diminish the furor in the church.自阿里安意見被先進的許多積極的主教和成員的法院,阿里烏斯自己已不再發揮重要作用的爭論,在他去世335或336並沒有減少憤怒的教堂。 Instead of resolving the issues, the Council of Nicaea had launched an empire-wide Christological debate by its condemnation of Arius.不是解決問題,安理會尼西亞發起了一個帝國全基督的辯論,它譴責阿里烏斯。

Arius was a thoroughgoing Greek rationalist.阿里烏斯是一個徹底的希臘理性。 He inherited the almost universally held Logos Christology of the East.他繼承了幾乎普遍舉行徽標基督的地區。 He labored in Alexandria, the center for Origenist teachings on the subordination of the Son to the Father.他在亞歷山德里亞的工人,該中心的Origenist教義的屈從,兒子的父親。 He blended this heritage into a rationalist Christology that lost the balance Origen had maintained in his subordinationist theology by his insistence on the eternal generation of the Son.他這一遺產混合成一個理性的基督失去平衡奧利一直保持在他的神學subordinationist他的堅持永恆的代子。

The guard against the error of Arius and the Arianism erected by the symbol and anathemas adopted by the Council of Nicaea serve as an outline of Arius's fundamental position.該警惕的錯誤,阿里烏斯和Arianism豎立的象徵和anathemas安理會通過的尼西亞充當大綱阿里烏斯的基本立場。

Nicaea's "in one Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, begotten of the Father, only-begotten, that is from the substance of the Father" was to offset Arius's central assertion that God was immutable, unique, unknowable, only one.尼西亞的“一主耶穌基督上帝的兒子,生的父親,僅生,這是從實質的父親”是為了抵消阿里烏斯的中央斷言,上帝是一成不變的,獨特的,不可知的,只有一個。 Therefore Arians felt no substance of God could in any way be communicated or shared with any other being.因此Arians認為沒有實質內容的上帝可以以任何方式傳遞或共享與任何其他福利。 The council's "true God from true God, begotten not made" set aside Arius's contention that, since God was immutable and unknowable, Christ had to be a created being, made out of nothing by God, first in the created order certainly, but of it.該局的“真正的上帝從真正的上帝,生沒有取得”擱置阿里烏斯的論點,因為上帝是永恆的和不可知的,基督必須是一個正在建立,取得了什麼是上帝,首先是在建立以肯定,但它。 This limited the concept of the preexistence of Christ even while adapting the dominant Logos Christology to Arianism.這種有限的概念前世基督甚至同時適應佔主導地位的標誌,以基督Arianism 。 The Logos, first born, created of God, was incarnate in the Christ but, asserted Arius, "there was when he was not."標識,首先出生,上帝創造的,是體現在基督,但聲稱阿里烏斯“ ,但當時他沒有這樣做。 ”

Nicaea's "of one substance with the Father" made the Greek term homoousios the catchword of the orthodox.尼西亞的“一個物質與父”的希臘作出長期的口號homoousios的正統。 Arianism developed two parties, one of which felt Christ was of a substance like the Father (homoiousios). Arianism發展兩黨,其中之一是認為基督的物質如父( homoiousios ) 。 A more extreme wing insisted that as a created being Christ was unlike the Father in substance (anomoios).一個更極端的右翼堅持認為,作為一個正在建立基督不同的是父親的實質內容( anomoios ) 。 Arius himself would have belonged to the first or more moderate party.阿里烏斯本人將屬於第一或較溫和的一方。

The council's anathemas were extended to all those who claimed "there was once when he was not"; "before his generation he was not"; "he was made out of nothing"; "the Son of God is of another subsistence or substance"; and "the Son of God [is] created or alterable or mutable." The last anathema attacked another Arian teaching.安理會的anathemas已擴大到所有這些誰聲稱“有一次,他沒有” ; “他這一代之前,他沒有” ; “他是做什麼” , “上帝的兒子是另一種生活或物質”和“上帝的兒子[是]建立或變或更改。 ”過去詛咒攻擊另一阿里安教學。 Arius and subsequent Arians had taught that Christ grew, changed, matured in his understanding of the divine plan according to the Scriptures, and therefore could not be part of the unchanging God.阿里烏斯和隨後Arians已經告訴我們,基督的增長,改變了,成熟,在他了解的神聖計劃,根據聖經,因此,不能部分不變的上帝。 He was not God the Son; rather, He was simply given the title Son of God as an honor.他是不是上帝的兒子,而他只是授予上帝之子作為一種榮譽。

An observer in that day might well have thought Arianism was going to triumph in the church.一位觀察員在這一天很可能以為Arianism要勝利的教堂。 Beginning with Constantius the court was often Arian.從君,法院往往是阿里安。 Five times Athanasius of Alexandria was driven into exile, interrupting his long episcopate. 5倍亞他那修的亞歷山大推動流亡,打斷他的長期主教。 A series of synods repudiated the Nicene symbol in various ways, Antioch in 341, Arles in 353; and in 355 Liberius of Rome and Ossius of Cordoba were exiled and a year later Hilary of Poitier was sent to Phrygia.一系列的synods否定尼西亞符號以不同的方式,在341安提阿,阿爾勒在353和355 Liberius在羅馬和Ossius科爾多瓦被流放一年後希拉里的尼鮑迪被送往Phrygia 。 In 360 in Constantinople all earlier creeds were disavowed and the term substance (ousia) was outlawed.在360君士坦丁堡所有先前已否認信條和長期物質(實體)被取締。 The Son was simply declared to be "like the Father who begot him."兒子只是宣布為“像父親誰begot他。 ”

The orthodox counterattack on Arianism pointed out that the Arian theology reduced Christ to a demigod and in effect reintroduced polytheism into Christianity, since Christ was worshiped among Arians as among the orthodox.正統的Arianism反擊指出,阿里安基督神學減少了神,實際上重新多神教到基督教,因為基督被崇拜的Arians屬於正統。 But in the long run the most telling argument against Arianism was Athanasius's constant soteriological battle cry that only God, very God, truly God Incarnate could reconcile and redeem fallen man to holy God.但是從長期來看,最有說服力的論據反對Arianism是亞他那修的不斷soteriological口號,只有上帝,非常的上帝,真正的天主降生可以調和和贖回下降男子神聖的上帝。 It was the thorough work of the Cappadocian Fathers, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, which brought the final resolution that proved theologically acceptable to the church.這是徹底的工作,卡帕多細亞的父親,巴茲爾大,格雷戈里的果樹,格雷戈里的高利,使最後的決議,證明神學接受的教堂。 They divided the concept of substance (ousia) from the concept of person (hypostasis) and thus allowed the orthodox defenders of the original Nicene formula and the later moderate or semi-Arian party to unite in an understanding of God as one substance and three persons.他們的概念分為物質(實體)由概念的人(本質) ,從而使正統的捍衛者的原始尼西亞公式和後來中度或半阿里安黨團結起來,了解上帝的一個實質和3人。 Christ therefore was of one substance with the Father (homoousion) but a distinct person.因此,基督是一個物質與父( homoousion ) ,但一個獨特的人。 With this understanding the Council of Constantinople in 381 was able to reaffirm the Nicene Creed.基於這一理解,安理會在君士坦丁堡381能夠重申尼西亞信經。 The able Emperor Theodosius I threw himself on the side of orthodoxy and Arianism began to wane in the empire.能幹的皇帝狄奧多西一世把自己一方的正統和Arianism開始衰落的帝國。

The long struggle with Arianism was not over yet, however, for Ulfilas, famous missionary to the Germanic tribes, had accepted the Homoean statement of Constantinople of 360.在長期的鬥爭與Arianism是尚未結束,但是, Ulfilas ,著名的傳教士的日耳曼部落,已經接受了Homoean聲明君士坦丁堡360 。 Ulfilas taught the similarity of the Son to the Father and the total subordination of the Holy Spirit. Ulfilas教相似的兒子的父親和完全服從聖靈。 He taught the Visigoths north of the Danube, and they in turn carried this semi-Arianism back into Italy.他教的西哥特北部的多瑙河,他們又進行這個半Arianism回到意大利。 The Vandals were taught by Visigoth priests and in 409 carried the same semi-Arianism across the Pyrenees into Spain.在汪達爾教授的Visigoth神職人員和409進行相同的半Arianism跨越比利牛斯山進入西班牙。 It was not until the end of the seventh century that orthodoxy was to finally absorb Arianism.但直到結束的第七屆世紀,是正統,最終吸收Arianism 。 Yet Arianism has been reborn in the modern era in the form of extreme Unitarianism, and the Jehovah's Witnesses regard Arius as a forerunner of CT Russell.然而, Arianism已重生在當今時代的形式極端Unitarianism ,並耶和華見證會阿里烏斯方面作為先行者的CT羅素。

VL Walter沃爾特的VL
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
J. Danielou and H. Marrou, The Christian Centuries, I, chs.學者Danielou和H. Marrou ,基督教世紀之交,我軟骨素。 18-19; JH Newman, The Arians of the Fourth Century; RC Gregg and DE Groh, Early Arianism; TA Kopecek, A History of Neo-Arianism, 2 vols.; HM Gwatkin, Studies in Arianism; E. Boularand, l'Heresie d'Arius et la foi de Nicee, 2 vols. 18-19 ;家紐曼,該Arians第四世紀;鋼筋混凝土波波維奇和德國Groh ,早Arianism ;局長Kopecek史新Arianism ,第2卷。 ;陛下Gwatkin ,研究Arianism ;體育Boularand報Heresie德阿里烏斯等法語真的德Nicee ,第2卷。


Semi-Arianism半Arianism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Semi-Arianism was the doctrine of Christ's sonship as held by fourth century theologians who were reluctant to accept either the strict Nicene definition or the extreme Arian position.半Arianism的理論是基督作為sonship舉行的第四世紀的神學誰不願意接受任何嚴格的定義或尼西亞的極端阿里安立場。 After the Council of Nicaea (AD 325) a single term came to identify each position.經過理事會的尼西亞(公元325 )單短期來確定每個職位。

Semi-Arians called Christ "Divine," but in effect denied that he is truly God, that he is "equal to the Father as touching his Godhead."半Arians所謂的基督“神” ,但實際上否認他是真正的上帝,他是“平等的父親是他的神體感人。 ”

Some students of the controversy have argued that the term "Semi-Arianism" is an unfair term, associating the movement too closely with Arianism, and that "Semi-Nicene" might better represent the movement's tendency toward orthodoxy.一些學生的爭議,主張,即“半Arianism ”是一種不公平的,贊同該運動過於密切配合Arianism ,以及“半尼西亞”可能更好地代表運動的傾向正統。 The term "Ante-Nicene" has been used as often, however, because Semi-Arians did, in fact, deny that Christ was fully one with the Father.術語“前廳尼西亞”已被用作往往然而,由於半Arians沒有,事實上,否認耶穌是一個完全的父親。

The Semi-Arian position arose at the Council of Nicaea, called by Emperor Constantine to deal with the Arian question, which had raised enough controversy to threaten the unity of the church.半阿里安的立場出現在尼西亞會議,要求由皇帝君士坦丁處理阿里安問題,提出了足夠的爭議威脅統一的教堂。 All but two of the bishops present at the council signed the orthodox statement, though many did so with reservations.所有,但兩個主教出席了理事會簽署了正統的聲明,但許多這樣做的保留。 Semi-Arians also came to be called "Eusebians" after Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia and later patriarch of Constantinople.半Arians也被稱為“ Eusebians ”優西比烏後,主教Nicomedia ,後來家長君士坦丁堡。 As a young man Eusebius had studied with Arius.作為一個年輕的男子優西比烏研究了與阿里烏斯。 Though he signed the creed at the Council of Nicaea, he later became a key leader in the reaction against it.雖然他簽署了信仰在安理會尼西亞,他後來成為一個關鍵的領導者的反應反對。

The most prominent leader of the Semi-Arians at the Council, however, was Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, the early church historian.最突出的領袖半Arians在安理會然而,優西比烏,撒利亞主教,教會的早期歷史。 Following the council the Semi-Arian position remained prominent, but a resugence of the Old Arians, seeking to reinstate the original heresy, led to the disintegration of Semi-Arian support.之後,安理會半阿里安狀況仍然突出,但resugence老Arians ,尋求恢復原來的異端邪說,導致解體的半阿里安支持。 In August 357, a small but important synod met at Sirmium in Illyricum.在8月357 ,一個小但重要的主教舉行米烏姆在伊利裡庫姆。 The creed that emerged from the synod condemned the term ousia in any form and clearly subordinated the Son to the Father.在信仰出現的主教譴責長期實體以任何形式,並明確隸屬的兒子的父親。 This creed split the opponents of Nicaea so decisively that it turned sentiment in favor of the orthodox view.這信條分裂對手尼西亞如此果斷,它變成有利於情緒的正統觀點。 Many bishops renounced their errors and subscribed to the Nicene Creed.許多主教放棄其錯誤,並訂閱了尼西亞信經。 After this point Semi-Arians never existed in significant numbers.在這一點半Arians根本不存在大量。 Some became Arian and many reaffirmed orthodoxy at the Council of Constantinople in 381.一些成為阿里安和許多正統重申安理會在君士坦丁堡在381 。

BL Shelley基本法雪萊
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
ER Hardy, ed., Christology of the Later Fathers; JND Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines; GL Prestige, Fathers and Heretics.雌代編。 ,基督之後的父親; JND凱利,早期基督教教義;吉爾威望,父親和異教徒。


Arianism

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A heresy which arose in the fourth century, and denied the Divinity of Jesus Christ.邪教產生的第四世紀,否認神耶穌基督。

DOCTRINE主義

First among the doctrinal disputes which troubled Christians after Constantine had recognized the Church in AD 313, and the parent of many more during some three centuries, Arianism occupies a large place in ecclesiastical history.首先是理論上的爭端困擾基督徒後,君士坦丁承認教會在公元313 ,和父母有更多的在一些三個世紀, Arianism佔據了大量發生在教會的歷史。 It is not a modern form of unbelief, and therefore will appear strange in modern eyes.這不是一個現代形式的不信教的,因此會出現在現代奇怪的眼睛。 But we shall better grasp its meaning if we term it an Eastern attempt to rationalize the creed by stripping it of mystery so far as the relation of Christ to God was concerned.但是,我們應更好地把握其含義,如果我們來看,東部企圖合理化的信條剝離它的神秘迄今為止的關係,基督是上帝有關。 In the New Testament and in Church teaching Jesus of Nazareth appears as the Son of God.在新約聖經和教會教學拿撒勒的耶穌似乎上帝的兒子。 This name He took to Himself (Matthew 11:27; John 10:36), while the Fourth Gospel declares Him to be the Word (Logos), Who in the beginning was with God and was God, by Whom all things were made.這個名字他自己(馬太11:27 ;約翰10:36 ) ,而第四個福音宣布將他的Word (標誌) ,是誰在一開始是與上帝和上帝,誰所有的事情發了言。 A similar doctrine is laid down by St. Paul, in his undoubtedly genuine Epistles to the Ephesians, Colossians, and Philippians.類似的學說所規定的聖保羅,他毫無疑問,真正的書信的以弗所書,歌羅西書,和腓利。 It is reiterated in the Letters of Ignatius, and accounts for Pliny's observation that Christians in their assemblies chanted a hymn to Christ as God.這是重申了伊格內修書,並佔普利尼的看法,基督徒在其議會高喊一讚美詩,以基督為上帝。 But the question how the Son was related to the Father (Himself acknowledged on all hands to be the one Supreme Deity), gave rise, between the years AD 60 and 200, to a number of Theosophic systems, called generally Gnosticism, and having for their authors Basilides, Valentinus, Tatian, and other Greek speculators.但是,這個問題如何兒子與父(本人承認所有的手是一個大神) ,引起之間,公元60年和200 ,對一些Theosophic系統,稱為一般諾斯替主義,並為作者巴希理,瓦倫廷,他提安,希臘和其他投機者。 Though all of these visited Rome, they had no following in the West, which remained free from controversies of an abstract nature, and was faithful to the creed of its baptism.儘管所有這些訪問羅馬,他們沒有下列在西方,它仍然不受爭議的一個抽象的性質,是忠於信仰的洗禮。

Intellectual centres were chiefly Alexandria and Antioch, Egyptian or Syrian, and speculation was carried on in Greek.知識產權中心,主要是亞歷山大和安提阿,埃及和敘利亞,並進行投機活動是在希臘。 The Roman Church held steadfastly by tradition.羅馬教會舉行堅定不移的傳統。 Under these circumstances, when Gnostic schools had passed away with their "conjugations" of Divine powers, and "emanations" from the Supreme unknowable God (the "Deep" and the "Silence") all speculation was thrown into the form of an inquiry touching the "likeness" of the Son to His Father and "sameness" of His Essence.在這種情況下,諾斯底學校時,已經去世的“ conjugations ”的神聖權力,和“ emanations ”從最高法院不可知的上帝(以下簡稱“深”和“沉默” )所有的猜測被扔進的形式進行調查動人的“肖像”的兒子他的父親和“同一性” ,他的本質。 Catholics had always maintained that Christ was truly the Son, and truly God.天主教會一直堅持認為,耶穌是一個真正的兒子,真正的上帝。 They worshipped Him with divine honours; they would never consent to separate Him, in idea or reality, from the Father, Whose Word, Reason, Mind, He was, and in Whose Heart He abode from eternity.他們崇拜他的神聖的榮譽,他們決不會同意單獨他在想法或現實,從父,誰的字,理性,心靈,他是和誰的心,他從永恆居留權。 But the technical terms of doctrine were not fully defined; and even in Greek words like essence (ousia), substance (hypostasis), nature (physis), person (hyposopon) bore a variety of meanings drawn from the pre-Christian sects of philosophers, which could not but entail misunderstandings until they were cleared up.但是,技術術語的理論沒有得到充分界定; ,甚至在希臘的話像本質(實體) ,實質(本質) ,性質(物理) ,人( hyposopon )承擔各種各樣的含義取自前基督教宗派的哲學家,這不能不引起誤解,直到他們清理。 The adaptation of a vocabulary employed by Plato and Aristotle to Christian truth was a matter of time; it could not be done in a day; and when accomplished for the Greek it had to be undertaken for the Latin, which did not lend itself readily to necessary yet subtle distinctions.為了適應一個詞彙僱用的柏拉圖,亞里士多德到基督教真理是時間的問題,它不能做一天;以及何時完成希臘已經進行的拉美,這本身並不能容易必要時尚未微妙的區別。 That disputes should spring up even among the orthodox who all held one faith, was inevitable.這一爭端應該湧現即使是正統誰所有舉行了一次信念,是不可避免的。 And of these wranglings the rationalist would take advantage in order to substitute for the ancient creed his own inventions.和這些爭吵的理性將採取的好處,以取代古老的信仰自己的發明。 The drift of all he advanced was this: to deny that in any true sense God could have a Son; as Mohammed tersely said afterwards, "God neither begets, nor is He begotten" (Koran, 112).漂移的所有先進的,他是這樣的:否認,在任何真正意義上上帝可以有一個兒子;作為穆罕默德簡潔地說,之後, “上帝既不產生,也不是他生” (古蘭經, 112 ) 。 We have learned to call that denial Unitarianism.我們了解到呼籲,拒絕Unitarianism 。 It was the ultimate scope of Arian opposition to what Christians had always believed.這是最終範圍阿里安反對什麼基督徒一直認為。 But the Arian, though he did not come straight down from the Gnostic, pursued a line of argument and taught a view which the speculations of the Gnostic had made familiar.但是,阿里安,但他並沒有直接從諾斯底,追求的論點和教導,以期該猜測的諾斯底熟悉了。 He described the Son as a second, or inferior God, standing midway between the First Cause and creatures; as Himself made out of nothing, yet as making all things else; as existing before the worlds of the ages; and as arrayed in all divine perfections except the one which was their stay and foundation.他描述了兒子作為第二或低劣的上帝,站在中間的第一原因及動物;為自己做什麼,但是使其他一切事物;現有的前世界的年齡;和排列所有神聖除完善的一個這是他們住宿和基礎。 God alone was without beginning, unoriginate; the Son was originated, and once had not existed.只有上帝是沒有開始, unoriginate ;的兒子是源於,一旦不存在。 For all that has origin must begin to be.對於所有已原籍國必須開始。

Such is the genuine doctrine of Arius.這是真正的理論阿里烏斯。 Using Greek terms, it denies that the Son is of one essence, nature, or substance with God; He is not consubstantial (homoousios) with the Father, and therefore not like Him, or equal in dignity, or co-eternal, or within the real sphere of Deity.用希臘而言,否認兒子是一個本質,性質,或物質與上帝;他不是同質( homoousios )的父親,因此不喜歡他,或享有平等的尊嚴,或共同永恆的,或在真正的領域的神。 The Logos which St. John exalts is an attribute, Reason, belonging to the Divine nature, not a person distinct from another, and therefore is a Son merely in figure of speech.該徽標的聖約翰exalts是一個屬性,理性,屬於神聖的性質,而不是一個人從另一個獨特的,因此是一個兒子只是在數字的講話。 These consequences follow upon the principle which Arius maintains in his letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia, that the Son "is no part of the Ingenerate."這些後果後續的原則,阿里烏斯保持在信中的優西比烏Nicomedia認為兒子“是沒有的一部分, Ingenerate 。 ” Hence the Arian sectaries who reasoned logically were styled Anomoeans: they said that the Son was "unlike" the Father.因此,阿里安sectaries誰在邏輯上是合理的風格Anomoeans :他們說,兒子是“不像”父親。 And they defined God as simply the Unoriginate. They are also termed the Exucontians (ex ouk onton), because they held the creation of the Son to be out of nothing.他們界定為上帝只是Unoriginate 。他們也稱為Exucontians (前旭onton ) ,因為他們舉行成立了兒子是無中生有。

But a view so unlike tradition found little favour; it required softening or palliation, even at the cost of logic; and the school which supplanted Arianism from an early date affirmed the likeness, either without adjunct, or in all things, or in substance, of the Son to the Father, while denying His co-equal dignity and co-eternal existence.但是,以期使不同的傳統,很少發現有利於它需要軟化或減輕,甚至不惜邏輯;和學校,取代從Arianism早日肯定了肖像,或者沒有兼職,或在所有的事情,或在實質內容,子的父親,而拒絕他的同事平等的尊嚴和共同永恆的存在。 These men of the Via Media were named Semi-Arians.這些男子通過媒體被命名為半Arians 。 They approached, in strict argument, to the heretical extreme; but many of them held the orthodox faith, however inconsistently; their difficulties turned upon language or local prejudice, and no small number submitted at length to Catholic teaching.他們走近,嚴格論證,以極端的邪教,但其中許多人舉行了正統的信仰,但是不一致;他們的困難後變成當地的語言或偏見,和不小的數目提交長度天主教教學。 The Semi-Arians attempted for years to invent a compromise between irreconcilable views, and their shifting creeds, tumultuous councils, and worldly devices tell us how mixed and motley a crowd was collected under their banner.半Arians多年來試圖發明一種折衷調和的意見,他們把信仰,動盪的政局,以及世俗的設備告訴我們如何混合和雜色的人群,收集他們的旗幟下。 The point to be kept in remembrance is that, while they affirmed the Word of God to be everlasting, they imagined Him as having become the Son to create the worlds and redeem mankind.這一點被關在悼念的是,雖然他們肯定了天主的聖言是永恆的,他們想到了他的兒子成為創造世界和人類的贖回。 Among the ante-Nicene writers, a certain ambiguity of expression may be detected, outside the school of Alexandria, touching this last head of doctrine.在宰前尼西亞作家,一定模棱兩可的表達可能會發現,學校內外的亞歷山德里亞,觸摸這最後負責人理論。 While Catholic teachers held the Monarchia, viz.雖然天主教教師舉行了Monarchia ,即。 that there was only one God; and the Trinity, that this Absolute One existed in three distinct subsistences; and the Circuminession, that Father, Word, and Spirit could not be separated, in fact or in thought, from one another; yet an opening was left for discussion as regarded the term "Son," and the period of His "generation" (gennesis).只有一個上帝;和三一,這絕對一個存在於三個不同的subsistences ;和Circuminession ,即父親, Word和精神不能分離,在認定事實上或者在思想,從彼此;尚未開幕留給討論認為的“兒子” ,期間和他的“下一代” ( gennesis ) 。 Five ante-Nicene Fathers are especially quoted: Athenagoras, Tatian, Theophilus of Antioch, Hippolytus, and Novatian, whose language appears to involve a peculiar notion of Sonship, as though It did not come into being or were not perfect until the dawn of creation.五宰前尼西亞教父特別報導:亞山那哥拉,塔蒂安,提阿安提阿的,西波呂,並Novatian ,其語言似乎涉及一種特殊的概念Sonship ,好像它沒有形成或不完美的,直到黎明的創造。 To these may be added Tertullian and Methodius.這些可能會增加良和迪烏斯。 Cardinal Newman held that their view, which is found clearly in Tertullian, of the Son existing after the Word, is connected as an antecedent with Arianism.紅衣主教紐曼認為,他們認為,這是找到明確的良,子後,現有的Word ,是連接作為一個先行與Arianism 。 Petavius construed the same expressions in a reprehensible sense; but the Anglican Bishop Bull defended them as orthodox, not without difficulty. Petavius解釋同樣表達了譴責的意義,但英國聖公會主教紅牛捍衛其作為正統的,並非沒有困難。 Even if metaphorical, such language might give shelter to unfair disputants; but we are not answerable for the slips of teachers who failed to perceive all the consequences of doctrinal truths really held by them.即使隱喻,這種語言可能給住房不公平的糾紛;但我們不負責的纜教師誰沒有認識到的一切後果真理論的真理了他們。 From these doubtful theorizings Rome and Alexandria kept aloof.從這些疑問theorizings羅馬和亞歷山大保持冷漠。 Origen himself, whose unadvised speculations were charged with the guilt of Arianism, and who employed terms like "the second God," concerning the Logos, which were never adopted by the Church -- this very Origen taught the eternal Sonship of the Word, and was not a Semi-Arian.奧利本人,他unadvised猜測被指控有罪的Arianism ,誰僱用條款,如“第二上帝, ”關於商標,這是從來沒有通過的教堂-這個非常奧里教授的永恆S onship的W ord,並不是一個半阿里安。 To him the Logos, the Son, and Jesus of Nazareth were one ever-subsisting Divine Person, begotten of the Father, and, in this way, "subordinate" to the source of His being.他的標識,子,和拿撒勒的耶穌是一個不斷續的神人,生的父親,並以這種方式, “服從”的來源,他的福祉。 He comes forth from God as the creative Word, and so is a ministering Agent, or, from a different point of view, is the First-born of creation.他是上帝提出的創造性的詞,所以是一個ministering代理,或從不同的角度來看,是第一出生的創造。 Dionysius of Alexandria (260) was even denounced at Rome for calling the Son a work or creature of God; but he explained himself to the pope on orthodox principles, and confessed the Homoousian Creed.狄奧尼修斯的亞歷山大( 260 ) ,甚至譴責在羅馬召開的兒子的工作或上帝的產物,但他解釋自己的教皇正統原則,並供認了Homoousian信條。

HISTORY歷史

Paul of Samosata, who was contemporary with Dionysius, and Bishop of Antioch, may be judged the true ancestor of those heresies which relegated Christ beyond the Divine sphere, whatever epithets of deity they allowed Him.保羅薩莫薩塔,誰是當代的狄奧尼修斯,並安提阿主教,可判斷的真正祖先的異端邪說而降級的基督以外的神聖領域,無論稱呼的神,他們允許他。 The man Jesus, said Paul, was distinct from the Logos, and, in Milton's later language, by merit was made the Son of God.該名男子耶穌,保羅表示,有別於標識,並在彌爾頓的語言後,由優點是上帝的兒子。 The Supreme is one in Person as in Essence.最高法院是一個人的本質。 Three councils held at Antioch (264-268, or 269) condemned and excommunicated the Samosatene.三理事會舉行安提阿( 264-268或269 )譴責並逐出教會的Samosatene 。 But these Fathers would not accept the Homoousian formula, dreading lest it be taken to signify one material or abstract substance, according to the usage of the heathen philosophies.但是,這些父親不會接受Homoousian公式,怕以免它採取意味著一個物質或抽象的內容,根據使用異教徒的哲學。 Associated with Paul, and for years cut off from the Catholic communion, we find the well-known Lucian, who edited the Septuagint and became at last a martyr.與保羅,以及多年來切斷天主教共融,我們發現眾所周知的盧西安,誰編輯的譯本,並在去年成為一名烈士。 From this learned man the school of Antioch drew its inspiration.從這個教訓男子學校的安提阿提請其靈感。 Eusebius the historian, Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Arius himself, all came under Lucian's influence.優西比烏的歷史學家,優西比烏的Nicomedia ,並阿里烏斯本人,都是根據盧西安的影響。 Not, therefore, to Egypt and its mystical teaching, but to Syria, where Aristotle flourished with his logic and its tendency to Rationalism, should we look for the home of an aberration which had it finally triumphed, would have anticipated Islam, reducing the Eternal Son to the rank of a prophet, and thus undoing the Christian revelation.因此,埃及和其神秘的教學,但敘利亞,亞里士多德在他的蓬勃發展的邏輯和理性的趨勢,我們應該尋找回家的畸變了最終勝利,預計將有伊斯蘭教,減少永恆兒子級的先知,從而消除基督教的啟示。

Arius, a Libyan by descent, brought up at Antioch and a school-fellow of Eusebius, afterwards Bishop of Nicomedia, took part (306) in the obscure Meletian schism, was made presbyter of the church called "Baucalis," at Alexandria, and opposed the Sabellians, themselves committed to a view of the Trinity which denied all real distinctions in the Supreme.阿里烏斯,利比亞的後裔,提出了在安提阿和學校的優西比烏同胞,隨後主教Nicomedia ,參加了( 306 )在掩蓋Meletian分裂,是長老教會所謂的“ Baucalis ” ,在亞歷山德里亞,並反對Sabellians ,自己的承諾,以期在三一其中否認了所有的真正的區別在最高法院。 Epiphanius describes the heresiarch as tall, grave, and winning; no aspersion on his moral character has been sustained; but there is some possibility of personal differences having led to his quarrel with the patriarch Alexander whom, in public synod, he accused of teaching that the Son was identical with the Father (319).埃皮法尼烏斯介紹heresiarch一樣高,嚴重的,並贏得;沒有中傷他的品德一直持續,但有一些可能有個人的分歧導致他的爭吵與家長亞歷山大人,在公共主教,他被控犯有教學子是相同的父( 319 ) 。 The actual circumstances of this dispute are obscure; but Alexander condemned Arius in a great assembly, and the latter found a refuge with Eusebius, the Church historian, at Caesarea.實際情況,這一爭端被掩蓋,但亞歷山大譴責阿里烏斯的一個偉大集會,後者找到了避難的優西比烏,教會歷史學家,在該撒利亞。 Political or party motives embittered the strife.黨的政治動機或心懷怨恨的紛爭。 Many bishops of Asia Minor and Syria took up the defence of their "fellow-Lucianist," as Arius did not hesitate to call himself.許多主教小亞細亞和敘利亞討論了捍衛自己的“同胞Lucianist , ”作為阿里烏斯毫不猶豫地要求自己。 Synods in Palestine and Bithynia were opposed to synods in Egypt. Synods在巴勒斯坦和螺反對synods在埃及。 During several years the argument raged; but when, by his defeat of Licinius (324), Constantine became master of the Roman world, he determined on restoring ecclesiastical order in the East, as already in the West he had undertaken to put down the Donatists at the Council of Arles.在幾年的激烈爭論,但當時,他的失敗Licinius ( 324 ) ,君士坦丁成為主人的羅馬世界,他決心恢復宗教秩序的地區,已經在西方,他已著手放下多納徒派在安理會的阿爾勒。 Arius, in a letter to the Nicomedian prelate, had boldly rejected the Catholic faith. But Constantine, tutored by this worldly-minded man, sent from Nicomedia to Alexander a famous letter, in which he treated the controversy as an idle dispute about words and enlarged on the blessings of peace.阿里烏斯,在信中向Nicomedian主教,曾大膽地拒絕了天主教信仰。但是,君士坦丁,輔導這個世俗的想法的人,發出Nicomedia亞歷山大著名的信,他在處理爭議的閒置爭議的話,並擴大對和平的祝福。 The emperor, we should call to mind, was only a catechumen, imperfectly acquainted with Greek, much more incompetent in theology, and yet ambitious to exercise over the Catholic Church a dominion resembling that which, as Pontifex Maximus, he wielded over the pagan worship.皇帝,我們應該想到,只是一個初學者,完全熟悉希臘語,更不稱職的神學,但是雄心勃勃行使的天主教教會一自治領相似的,如Pontifex馬克西穆斯,他揮舞的異教崇拜。 From this Byzantine conception (labelled in modern terms Erastianism) we must derive the calamities which during many hundreds of years set their mark on the development of Christian dogma. Alexander could not give way in a matter so vitally important.從這個概念拜占庭(標籤在現代條件Erastianism ) ,我們必須獲得災難,在許多數百年來確定其商標發展的基督教教條。亞歷山大無法提供的方式問題如此重要。 Arius and his supporters would not yield.阿里烏斯和他的支持者不會產生。 A council was, therefore, assembled in Nicaea, in Bithynia, which has ever been counted the first ecumenical, and which held its sittings from the middle of June, 325.一個理事會,因此,聚集在尼西亞,在螺,它曾經算第一基督教,並舉行了開庭從6月中旬, 325 。 (See FIRST COUNCIL OF NICAEA). (見第一屆理事會尼西亞) 。 It is commonly said that Hosius of Cordova presided.人們普遍表示, Hosius的科爾多瓦主持。 The Pope, St. Silvester, was represented by his legates, and 318 Fathers attended, almost all from the East. Unfortunately, the acts of the Council are not preserved.教宗,聖西爾維斯特,派他legates ,和318名父親出席,幾乎所有從東。不幸的是,行為的安理會不被保存。 The emperor, who was present, paid religious deference to a gathering which displayed the authority of Christian teaching in a manner so remarkable.皇帝,誰在場,支付尊重宗教集會而顯示的權威,基督教教學的方式,以便顯著。 From the first it was evident that Arius could not reckon upon a large number of patrons among the bishops. Alexander was accompanied by his youthful deacon, the ever-memorable Athanasius who engaged in discussion with the heresiarch himself, and from that moment became the leader of the Catholics during well-nigh fifty years.從一開始很明顯,阿里烏斯不能算經大量的顧客之間的主教。亞歷山大的同時,他年輕的執事,不斷難忘的亞他那修誰參與了討論, heresiarch自己,從那個時候成為領導者的天主教徒以及在幾乎50年。 The Fathers appealed to tradition against the innovators, and were passionately orthodox; while a letter was received from Eusebius of Nicomedia, declaring openly that he would never allow Christ to be of one substance with God.父親呼籲對傳統的創新,並熱情地正統,而信收到的優西比烏Nicomedia ,公開宣布,他將永遠不會允許基督是一個物質與上帝。 This avowal suggested a means of discriminating between true believers and all those who, under that pretext, did not hold the Faith handed down.這avowal建議的手段,區別對待真正的信徒以及所有那些誰,根據這一藉口,沒有信仰擱置下來。 A creed was drawn up on behalf of the Arian party by Eusebius of Caesarea in which every term of honour and dignity, except the oneness of substance, was attributed to Our Lord.阿信仰制定了代表阿里安黨的優西比烏的愷撒在每個任期為榮譽和尊嚴,除了一體的實質,是由於我們的主。 Clearly, then, no other test save the Homoousion would prove a match for the subtle ambiguities of language that, then as always, were eagerly adopted by dissidents from the mind of the Church.顯然,當時,沒有其他試驗保存Homoousion將被證明為一場比賽的微妙含糊不清的語言,然後一如既往地熱切通過的持不同政見者從心靈的教會。 A formula had been discovered which would serve as a test, though not simply to be found in Scripture, yet summing up the doctrine of St. John, St. Paul, and Christ Himself, "I and the Father are one".公式已經發現,作為一個測試,但並不僅僅是聖經中找到,但總結的理論,聖約翰,聖保羅,和基督本人, “我的父親是一個” 。 Heresy, as St. Ambrose remarks, had furnished from its own scabbard a weapon to cut off its head.異端,因為聖劉漢銓發言,提供了從自己的劍鞘武器,切斷其頭。 The "consubstantial" was accepted, only thirteen bishops dissenting, and these were speedily reduced to seven.在“同質”是公認的,只有13主教反對,這些人迅速減少到7個。 Hosius drew out the conciliar statements, to which anathemas were subjoined against those who should affirm that the Son once did not exist, or that before He was begotten He was not, or that He was made out of nothing, or that He was of a different substance or essence from the Father, or was created or changeable. Hosius提請了conciliar報表,其中有anathemas對那些subjoined誰應該申明,一旦兒子不存在,或者說在他生他沒有,或者說他是做什麼,或者說他是一個不同的物質或本質從父,或創建或複雜多變。 Every bishop made this declaration except six, of whom four at length gave way.每個主教作出這一聲明除6人,其中4個長度讓位。 Eusebius of Nicomedia withdrew his opposition to the Nicene term, but would not sign the condemnation of Arius.優西比烏的Nicomedia撤回其反對尼西亞任期,但不會簽署譴責阿里烏斯。 By the emperor, who considered heresy as rebellion, the alternative proposed was subscription or banishment; and, on political grounds, the Bishop of Nicomedia was exiled not long after the council, involving Arius in his ruin. The heresiarch and his followers underwent their sentence in Illyria.由皇帝,誰視為異端的叛亂,替代提議訂閱或流放; ,並以政治理由,主教Nicomedia被放逐後不久安理會,涉及阿里烏斯在他的毀滅。的heresiarch和他的追隨者接受服刑在伊利里亞。 But these incidents, which might seem to close the chapter, proved a beginning of strife, and led on to the most complicated proceedings of which we read in the fourth century.但是,這些事件,這似乎密切的一章,證明是一個開始的衝突,並導致上最複雜的法律程序,我們改為在第四世紀。 While the plain Arian creed was defended by few, those political prelates who sided with Eusebius carried on a double warfare against the term "consubstantial", and its champion, Athanasius.雖然平原阿里安信條是捍衛幾年,這些政治主教誰站在優西比烏進行雙重戰的“同質” ,它的冠軍,亞他那修。 This greatest of the Eastern Fathers had succeeded Alexander in the Egyptian patriarchate (326).這最大的東歐父親已成功亞歷山大在埃及東正教( 326 ) 。 He was not more than thirty years of age; but his published writings, antecedent to the Council, display, in thought and precision, a mastery of the issues involved which no Catholic teacher could surpass.他不超過三十歲; ,但他發表的著作,先行向安理會,顯示,在思想和精度,掌握所涉及的問題沒有天主教老師可能超過。 His unblemished life, considerate temper, and loyalty to his friends made him by no means easy to attack.他的清白的生活,體貼的脾氣,和忠誠,他的朋友,他絕非容易受到攻擊。 But the wiles of Eusebius, who in 328 recovered Constantine's favour, were seconded by Asiatic intrigues, and a period of Arian reaction set in. Eustathius of Antioch was deposed on a charge of Sabellianism (331), and the Emperor sent his command that Athanasius should receive Arius back into communion.但是,懷爾斯的優西比烏,誰在回收328君士坦丁的贊成票,被借調亞洲陰謀,以及一個時期的阿里安反應一套英寸Eustathius安提阿的被廢黜的負責撒伯流主義( 331 ) ,以及皇帝派他的命令,亞他那修應該得到阿里烏斯回到共融。 The saint firmly declined.在聖堅決拒絕。 In 325 the heresiarch was absolved by two councils, at Tyre and Jerusalem, the former of which deposed Athanasius on false and shameful grounds of personal misconduct.在325的heresiarch被赦免的兩個市政局,在提爾和耶路撒冷,其中前廢黜他那修的虛假和可恥的理由是個人的不當行為。 He was banished to Trier, and his sojourn of eighteen months in those parts cemented Alexandria more closely to Rome and the Catholic West.他被放逐到特里爾,他逗留18個月在這些地區水泥亞歷山大更密切的羅馬天主教和西方。 Meanwhile, Constantia, the Emperor's sister, had recommended Arius, whom she thought an injured man, to Constantine's leniency.與此同時, Constantia ,皇帝的妹妹,曾建議阿里烏斯,她認為其中一名受傷男子,以君士坦丁的從寬處理。 Her dying words affected him, and he recalled the Lybian, extracted from him a solemn adhesion to the Nicene faith, and ordered Alexander, Bishop of the Imperial City, to give him Communion in his own church (336).她死去的話影響他,他回顧了利比亞,從他莊嚴的粘附尼西亞信仰,並下令亞歷山大主教的皇城,給他共融在自己的教堂( 336 ) 。 Arius openly triumphed; but as he went about in parade, the evening before this event was to take place, he expired from a sudden disorder, which Catholics could not help regarding as a judgment of heaven, due to the bishop's prayers.阿里烏斯公開取得勝利;但他對在遊行,晚上在這一事件發生,他過期突然紊亂,其中天主教徒不能幫助就作為判決的天堂,由於主教的祈禱。 His death, however, did not stay the plague.他的逝世,但沒有住宿鼠疫。 Constantine now favoured none but Arians; he was baptized in his last moments by the shifty prelate of Nicomedia; and he bequeathed to his three sons (337) an empire torn by dissensions which his ignorance and weakness had aggravated.康斯坦丁現在沒有,但贊成Arians ;的洗禮,他在他最後時刻的腥主教的Nicomedia ; ,他留給他的三個兒子( 337 )帝國的分裂破壞他的無知和弱點加重了。

Constantius, who nominally governed the East, was himself the puppet of his empress and the palace-ministers.君,誰名義上的管轄地區,是自己的傀儡,他皇后和宮部長。 He obeyed the Eusebian faction; his spiritual director, Valens, Bishop of Mursa, did what in him lay to infect Italy and the West with Arian dogmas.他服從Eusebian派系;他的精神董事,瓦倫斯,主教Mursa ,做了什麼,他躺在感染意大利和西方與阿里安教條。 The term "like in substance", Homoiousion, which had been employed merely to get rid of the Nicene formula, became a watchword.術語“的實質一樣” , Homoiousion已僱用只是擺脫尼西亞公式,成為一個口號。 But as many as fourteen councils, held between 341 and 360, in which every shade of heretical subterfuge found expression, bore decisive witness to the need and efficacy of the Catholic touchstone which they all rejected.但是,有多達14個議會,舉行了341和360 ,其中每一個樹蔭下發現邪教花招表達,證人負有決定性的必要性和有效性天主教的試金石,他們均遭到拒絕。 About 340, an Alexandrian gathering had defended its archbishop in an epistle to Pope Julius. On the death of Constantine, and by the influence of that emperor's son and namesake, he had been restored to his people.約340名,是亞歷山大收集了捍衛其主教在一個書信,教皇朱利葉斯。論死亡的君士坦丁,並影響該皇帝的兒子同名,他已經恢復到他的人民。 But the young prince passed away, and in 341 the celebrated Antiochene Council of the Dedication a second time degraded Athanasius, who now took refuge in Rome.但是,年輕的公爵逝世,並在341名著名Antiochene理事會奉獻第二次退化的亞他那修,現在誰避難在羅馬舉行。 There he spent three years. Gibbon quotes and adopts "a judicious observation" of Wetstein which deserves to be kept always in mind.在那裡,他花了三年時間。長臂猿報價,並採用“一個明智的觀察”的Wetstein值得保持始終銘記。 From the fourth century onwards, remarks the German scholar, when the Eastern Churches were almost equally divided in eloquence and ability between contending sections, that party which sought to overcome made its appearance in the Vatican, cultivated the Papal majesty, conquered and established the orthodox creed by the help of the Latin bishops.從四世紀起,言論的德國學者,當東方教會幾乎相等的口才和能力部分之間的對立,即黨試圖克服了其在梵蒂岡教皇耕地陛下,征服,並設立了正統信仰的幫助下,拉丁美洲主教。 Therefore it was that Athanasius repaired to Rome.因此,有人認為他那修修復羅馬。 A stranger, Gregory, usurped his place. The Roman Council proclaimed his innocence.一個陌生人,格雷戈里,篡奪了他的位置。羅馬安理會宣布他是無辜的。 In 343, Constans, who ruled over the West from Illyria to Britain, summoned the bishops to meet at Sardica in Pannonia.在343名,常數,誰統治西方伊利里亞英國,傳喚的主教,以滿足在Sardica在潘諾尼亞。 Ninety-four Latin, seventy Greek or Eastern, prelates began the debates; but they could not come to terms, and the Asiatics withdrew, holding a separate and hostile session at Philippopolis in Thrace. 94個拉丁美洲,第七十一希臘或東歐,主教開始的辯論,但他們不能來計算,和Asiatics退席,舉行一個單獨的和敵對會議上Philippopolis色雷斯。 It has been justly said that the Council of Sardica reveals the first symptoms of discord which, later on, produced the unhappy schism of East and West.這是公正說,安理會的Sardica第一次揭示了不和諧的症狀,其中,後來,產生了不愉快的分裂東方和西方。 But to the Latins this meeting, which allowed of appeals to Pope Julius, or the Roman Church, seemed an epilogue which completed the Nicene legislation, and to this effect it was quoted by Innocent I in his correspondence with the bishops of Africa.但是,在拉丁人本次會議上,允許申訴,教皇朱利葉斯,或羅馬教會,似乎是尾聲完成尼西亞立法,並在這方面是無辜的引述我在他的書信與非洲的主教。

Having won over Constans, who warmly took up his cause, the invincible Athanasius received from his Oriental and Semi-Arian sovereign three letters commanding, and at length entreating his return to Alexandria (349).在贏得了常數,誰熱烈討論了他的事業立於不敗之地的亞他那修收到他的東方和半主權阿里安三個字母的指揮,並在長度求他返回亞歷山德里亞( 349 ) 。 The factious bishops, Ursacius and Valens, retracted their charges against him in the hands of Pope Julius; and as he travelled home, by way of Thrace, Asia Minor, and Syria, the crowd of court-prelates did him abject homage.該factious主教, Ursacius和瓦倫斯,收回他們對他的指控手中的教皇朱利葉斯和他家走訪的形式,色雷斯,小亞細亞,敘利亞,人群法院主教絕對沒有他的敬意。 These men veered with every wind.這些人都轉向風。 Some, like Eusebius of Caesarea, held a Platonizing doctrine which they would not give up, though they declined the Arian blasphemies.有些人,像愷撒的優西比烏舉行了Platonizing學說,他們不會放棄,儘管他們拒絕阿里安斯褻瀆。 But many were time-servers, indifferent to dogma.但是,許多人的時間服務器,漠視教條。 And a new party had arisen, the strict and pious Homoiousians, not friends of Athanasius, nor willing to subscribe to the Nicene terms, yet slowly drawing nearer to the true creed and finally accepting it.和一個新的政黨出現,嚴格和虔誠Homoiousians ,而不是他那修的朋友,也願意訂閱尼西亞條件,但慢慢地越來越近,以真正的信仰並最終接受它。 In the councils which now follow these good men play their part.在安理會現在請按照下列步驟好人發揮它們的作用。 However, when Constans died (350), and his Semi-Arian brother was left supreme, the persecution of Athanasius redoubled in violence.然而,當常數死亡( 350 ) ,和他的半阿里安哥哥離開最高,迫害他那修加倍的暴力活動。 By a series of intrigues the Western bishops were persuaded to cast him off at Arles, Milan, Ariminum.通過一系列的陰謀詭計西方主教被說服演員送行在阿爾勒,米蘭, Ariminum 。 It was concerning this last council (359) that St. Jerome wrote, "the whole world groaned and marvelled to find itself Arian".這是關於這最後理事會( 359 ) ,聖杰羅姆寫道: “整個世界感到驚奇呻吟,並找到自己阿里安” 。 For the Latin bishops were driven by threats and chicanery to sign concessions which at no time represented their genuine views.對於拉丁美洲主教是由威脅和欺騙簽署讓步,在任何時候派他們真正的意見。 Councils were so frequent that their dates are still matter of controversy.安理會是如此頻繁,他們的日期仍然有爭議的問題。 Personal issues disguised the dogmatic importance of a struggle which had gone on for thirty years.變相的個人問題的教條式的重要性的鬥爭已持續了30年。 The Pope of the day, Liberius, brave at first, undoubtedly orthodox, but torn from his see and banished to the dreary solitude of Thrace, signed a creed, in tone Semi-Arian (compiled chiefly from one of Sirmium), renounced Athanasius, but made a stand against the so-called "Homoean" formulae of Ariminum.教皇的一天, Liberius ,勇敢在第一,毫無疑問,正統的,但是從他的蹂躪和流放見的淒涼孤獨的色雷斯,簽署了一份信念,在語氣半阿里安(彙編主要來自米烏姆之一) ,放棄了他那修,但發了立場,反對所謂的“ Homoean ”公式Ariminum 。 This new party was led by Acacius of Caesarea, an aspiring churchman who maintained that he, and not St. Cyril of Jerusalem, was metropolitan over Palestine.這是新黨為首的Acacius的愷撒,一個有抱負的牧師誰,他保持,而不是聖西里爾耶路撒冷是巴勒斯坦的首都。 The Homoeans, a sort of Protestants, would have no terms employed which were not found in Scripture, and thus evaded signing the "Consubstantial".該Homoeans ,一種新教徒,不會有任何條款聘用未發現聖經,從而迴避簽署了“同質” 。 A more extreme set, the "Anomoeans", followed Aëtius, were directed by Eunomius, held meetings at Antioch and Sirmium, declared the Son to be "unlike" the Father, and made themselves powerful in the last years of Constantius within the palace.一個更極端的設置, “ Anomoeans ” ,其次埃提烏斯,是針對由Eunomius分別召開了會議,在安提阿和米姆,宣布兒子是“不像”的父親,並提出自己的強大在過去多年的君內的宮殿。 George of Cappadocia persecuted the Alexandrian Catholics.喬治的卡帕多西亞的亞歷山大迫害天主教徒。 Athanasius retired into the desert among the solitaries.亞他那修退休到沙漠之間的solitaries 。 Hosius had been compelled by torture to subscribe a fashionable creed. Hosius被迫酷刑訂閱一個時髦的信條。 When the vacillating Emperor died (361), Julian, known as the Apostate, suffered all alike to return home who had been exiled on account of religion.當皇帝去世搖擺不定( 361 ) ,朱利安,稱為叛教者,都遭受了各種回國誰一直流亡考慮到宗教。 A momentous gathering, over which Athanasius presided, in 362, at Alexandria, united the orthodox Semi-Arians with himself and the West.一個重要的聚會,在這亞他那修主持,在362個,在亞歷山德里亞,團結正統半Arians與本人和西方。 Four years afterwards fifty-nine Macedonian, ie, hitherto anti-Nicene, prelates gave in their submission to Pope Liberius.四年後59馬其頓,即迄今為止的反尼西亞,主教給他們提交給教皇Liberius 。 But the Emperor Valens, a fierce heretic, still laid the Church waste.但是,皇帝瓦倫斯,激烈邪教,仍然奠定了教會的浪費。

However, the long battle was now turning decidedly in favour of Catholic tradition.然而,長期鬥爭,現在果斷地把有利於天主教的傳統。 Western bishops, like Hilary of Poitiers and Eusebius of Vercellae banished to Asia for holding the Nicene faith, were acting in unison with St. Basil, the two St. Gregories [of Nyssa and Nazianzus --Ed.], and the reconciled Semi-Arians.西方主教一樣,希拉里和普瓦提埃的優西比烏Vercellae放逐到亞洲舉行尼西亞信仰,是步調一致的聖巴西爾,兩街Gregories [的果樹和高利-埃德。 ] ,並核對半Arians 。 As an intellectual movement the heresy had spent its force. Theodosius, a Spaniards and a Catholic, governed the whole Empire.作為一項智力運動的異端花了它的力量。狄奧,一個西班牙人和一個天主教,管轄整個帝國。 Athanasius died in 373; but his cause triumphed at Constantinople, long an Arian city, first by the preaching of St. Gregory Nazianzen, then in the Second General Council (381), at the opening of which Meletius of Antioch presided.亞他那修死於373 ,但他的事業取得勝利的君士坦丁堡,長期的阿里安市第一所鼓吹的聖格雷戈里Nazianzen ,然後在第二次總理事會( 381 ) ,在開幕式的Meletius安提阿的主持。 This saintly man had been estranged from the Nicene champions during a long schism; but he made peace with Athanasius, and now, in company of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, represented a moderate influence which won the day.這聖潔的男子已遠離冠軍的尼西亞在長期分裂,但他作出了和平與亞他那修,而現在,在公司的聖西里爾耶路撒冷,代表了溫和的影響力獲得了一天。 No deputies appeared from the West.代表們似乎沒有任何來自西方。 Meletius died almost immediately. Meletius幾乎立即死亡。 St. Gregory Nazianzen, who took his place, very soon resigned.聖格雷戈里Nazianzen ,誰在自己的位置,很快辭職。 A creed embodying the Nicene was drawn up by St. Gregory of Nyssa, but it is not the one that is chanted at Mass, the latter being due, it is said, to St. Epiphanius and the Church of Jerusalem.阿信仰體現了尼西亞是由聖格雷戈里的果樹,但它並不是一個是在群眾高呼,後者是因為,這是說,聖埃皮法尼烏斯和教會的耶路撒冷。 The Council became ecumenical by acceptance of the Pope and the ever-orthodox Westerns.安理會成為基督教的接受教皇和以往的正統西部片。 From this moment Arianism in all its forms lost its place within the Empire.從這一時刻Arianism一切形式的失去了它發生在帝國。 Its developments among the barbarians were political rather than doctrinal.其發展之間的野蠻人是政治,而不是理論。 Ulphilas (311-388), who translated the Scriptures into Maeso-Gothic, taught the Goths across the Danube an Homoean theology; Arian kingdoms arose in Spain, Africa, Italy. Ulphilas ( 311-388 ) ,誰聖經翻譯成馬埃索,哥特式,哥特教導跨越多瑙河的Homoean神學;阿里安王國發生在西班牙,南非,意大利。 The Gepidae, Heruli, Vandals, Alans, and Lombards received a system which they were as little capable of understanding as they were of defending, and the Catholic bishops, the monks, the sword of Clovis, the action of the Papacy, made an end of it before the eighth century.該Gepidae , Heruli ,汪達爾人,阿蘭人,並收到了倫巴人制度,他們只有能夠理解因為他們的防守,和天主教的主教,僧侶,劍克洛維斯,所採取的行動教皇,作出了結束它在公元8世紀。 In the form which it took under Arius, Eusebius of Caesarea, and Eunomius, it has never been revived. Individuals, among them are Milton and Sir Isasc Newton, were perhaps tainted with it.在這種形式下了阿里烏斯,優西比烏的愷撒,並Eunomius ,它從來沒有得到恢復。個人,其中有米爾頓先生和Isasc牛頓,也許玷污它。 But the Socinian tendency out of which Unitarian doctrines have grown owes nothing to the school of Antioch or the councils which opposed Nicaea. Neither has any Arian leader stood forth in history with a character of heroic proportions.但Socinian趨勢而進行的統一理論的增長歸功於沒有學校的安提阿或議會反對尼西亞。也沒有任何阿里安領導人站在歷史中的英雄性質的比例。 In the whole story there is but one single hero -- the undaunted Athanasius -- whose mind was equal to the problems, as his great spirit to the vicissitudes, a question on which the future of Christianity depended.在整個故事只有一個單一的英雄-亞他那修的大無畏-銘記的是平等的問題,因為他的偉大精神的滄桑,這個問題上的未來取決於基督教。

Publication information Written by William Barry.出版信息撰稿威廉巴里。 Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.轉錄由安東尼基林。 AMDG The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907. AMDG的天主教百科全書,音量一1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年三月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Athanasius 亞他那修

Council of Nicaea 尼西亞


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