Apostolic Succession使徒繼承

General Information 一般信息

In its strict sense, apostolic succession refers to the doctrine by which the validity and authority of the Christian ministry is derived from the Apostles.在其嚴格意義上說,使徒的繼承是指該理論的有效性和權威性,省基督教源自使徒。 Churches of the Catholic tradition hold that bishops form the necessary link in an unbroken chain of successors to the office of the apostles.教會傳統的天主教主教認為必要的形式鏈接在一個完整鏈條接班人的辦公室使徒。 The outward sign by which this connection is both symbolized and effected is the laying on of hands by the Bishop at ordination.對外簽署的,其中這方面,既象徵著和影響是倒在手的主教在祝聖。

In its broader sense, apostolic succession refers to the relationship between the Christian church today and the apostolic church of New Testament times.在更廣泛的意義上說,使徒的繼承是指之間的關係,基督教教堂今天和使徒教會的新約全書倍。 Thus, apostolic succession refers to the whole church insofar as it is faithful to the word, the witness, and the service of the apostolic communities.因此,使徒的繼承是指整個教堂,因為它是忠實於這個詞,證人,並服務於使徒的社區。 Understood in this way, the church is not simply a collectivity of individual churches; instead, it is a communion of churches whose validity is derived from the apostolic message that it professes and from the apostolic witness that it lives.理解這種方式,教會不單純是一個集體的個別教會,相反,它是一個教會共融的有效性來自使徒的信息,它聲稱,從使徒的見證,它的生命。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Richard P. Mcbrien理查德頁Mcbrien

Bibliography 目錄
Ehrhardt, Arnold, The Apostolic Succession in the First Two Centuries of the Church (1953); Kung, Hans, Papal Ministry in the Church (1971) and ed., Apostolic Succession (1968). Ehrhardt ,阿諾德,繼承的使徒在第一兩個世紀的教堂( 1953年) ;西貢,漢斯,教皇部在教會( 1971年)和ED 。 ,使徒繼承( 1968年) 。


Apostolic Succession使徒繼承

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This theory of ministry in the church did not arise before AD 170-200.這個理論部在教堂裡並沒有出現在公元170-200 。 The Gnostics claimed to possess a secret tradition handed down to them form the apostles.該Gnostics聲稱擁有一個秘密的傳統傳給他們形成了使徒。 As a counterclaim the Catholic church pointed to each bishop as a true successor to the apostle who had founded the see and therefore to the truth the apostles taught.作為一個反天主教會指出,每個主教作為一個真正的繼承使徒誰成立了見,因此,對使徒真理的教導。 The bishop, as an authoritative teacher, preserved the apostolic tradition. He was also a guardian of the apostolic Scriptures and the creed.主教,作為一個權威的老師,保留了使徒的傳統。他還監護人的宗座聖經和信仰。 In a generation when the last links with the apostles were fast dying out this emphasis on apostolic teaching and practice was natural.在這一代當最後與使徒正在迅速消亡這一重點放在使徒的教學和實踐是很自然。 In the third century the emphasis changed from the open successors of the apostles.在第三個世紀的重點從開放的繼任者的使徒。 This development owed much to the advocacy of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage (248-58).這種發展很大程度上要歸功於宣傳塞浦路斯,迦太基主教( 248-58 ) 。 Harnack regards this as a perversion rather than a development.哈納克認為這是一種變態,而不是發展。

The terminology is not found in the NT.術語是沒有發現新台幣。 Diadoche ("succession") is absent from the NT and the LXX. Diadoche ( “繼承” )是不在新台幣和LXX 。 There is little evidence for the idea in the NT (cf. II Tim. 2:2).沒有證據的想法在新台幣(參見二蒂姆。 2時02分) 。 All early succession lists were compiled late in the second century.所有早期繼承名單彙編下旬在第二世紀。

There is also a difference between the Roman-and Anglo-Catholic viewpoint.還有一個區別,羅馬和盎格魯天主教的觀點。 The former is a centralized autocracy with a papal succession traced back to Peter.前者是一個集中的專制與教皇的繼承追溯到彼得。 The Tractarian teaches that all bishops alike, however insignificant the see, have equal power in a corporation.該Tractarian教導我們,所有的主教一樣,但是看到微不足道的,都享有平等權力的公司。 Thus an apostle transmitted to a bishop, through "the laying on of hands" and prayer, the authority which Christ had conferred on him.因此,一個使徒轉交給主教,通過“關於鋪設的手”和祈禱的權威,基督已授予他。 This theory of sacramental grace is a barrier to reunion in the Reformed churches, since the nonepiscopal bodies are regarded as defective in their ministry.這一理論的聖禮寬限期是一個障礙,團聚在歸正教會,因為nonepiscopal機構被視為缺陷,其部。

The weakness of the argument of The Apostolic Ministry (ed. KE Kirk) was its failure to explain the absence of the idea in the first two centuries of the Christian era.疲軟的論點使徒部(編輯柯科克)是它未能解釋缺乏的想法在兩百年前的公元。 Ehrhardt does not supply the defect by postulating a priestly succession derived from the Judaizing church of Jerusalem as it laid stress on the new Isreal and the continuity of its priesthood. Ehrhardt沒有供應的缺陷通過假定一祭司繼承來自猶太化的耶路撒冷教會,因為它強調了以色列和新的連續性,其神職人員。 The idea was in the air in the second century.當時的想法是空氣中的第二個世紀。

Bishop Drury affirms that the apostles left behind them three things: their writings; the churches which they founded, instructed, and regulated; and the various orders of ministers for the ordering of these churches.主教特魯裡申明,使徒留下了三件事:他們的著作;教會他們成立後,指示和規範;和各種訂單部長訂購這些教堂。 There could be no more apostles in the original sense of that word.不可能有更多的使徒在原來意義上的字。 The real successor to the apostolate is the NT itself, since it continues their ministry within the church of God.真正的繼承者牧靈是新台幣本身,因為它繼續在其部上帝的教會。 Their office was incommunicable.他們的辦公室是incommunicable 。 Three kinds of succession are possible: ecclesiastical, a church which has continued from the beginning; doctrinal, the same teaching has continued throughout; episcopal, a line of bishops can be traced unbroken from early times.三種可能繼承:教會,教堂有繼續從一開始;教義,同樣的教學繼續進行;主教,一條線主教可以追溯到不間斷從早期倍。 This does not necessarily mean that the episcopal office is the same as the apostolic.這並不一定意味著該主教辦公室是一樣的使徒。

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
A Erhardt, The Apostolic Succession in the First Two Centuries of the Church; CH Turner, "Apostolic Succession," in Essays on the Early History of the Church, ed.阿Erhardt ,繼承的使徒在第一兩個世紀的教會;的CH特納, “使徒的繼承, ”在散文的早期歷史的教會,編輯。 HB Swete; C. Gore, The Ministry of the Christian Church; H. Bettenson, Documents of the Christian Church.正面Swete ;角戈爾,該部的基督教教會閣下; Bettenson ,文件的基督教教會。


Apostolic Succession使徒繼承

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Apostolicity as a note of the true Church being dealt with elsewhere, the object of the present article is to show: Apostolicity作為注意到真正的教會正在處理的其他地方,則對象的規定是為了表明:

That Apostolic succession is found in the Catholic Church.這是使徒繼承中發現的天主教會。

That none of the separate Churches have any valid claim to it.沒有單獨的教會有任何有效索賠它。

That the Anglican Church, in particular, has broken away from Apostolic unity.這聖公會教堂,尤其是已脫離使徒的團結。

ROMAN CLAIM羅曼索賠

The principle underlying the Roman claim is contained in the idea of succession. "To succeed" is to be the successor of, especially to be the heir of, or to occupy an official position just after, as Victoria succeeded William IV.這一原則的基本要求是羅馬中所載的思想的繼承。 “成功”將是繼任者,尤其是被繼承人的,或者佔有的正式立場後,維多利亞成功威廉四世。 Now the Roman Pontiffs come immediately after, occupy the position, and perform the functions of St. Peter; they are, therefore, his successors.現在羅馬Pontiffs後立即來,佔領陣地,並履行其職能的聖彼得大教堂;他們,因此,他的繼任者。 We must prove我們必須證明

that St. Peter came to Rome, and ended there his pontificate;這聖彼得來到羅馬,他的名額有教皇;

that the Bishops of Rome who came after him held his official position in the Church.該主教羅馬誰後,他來到了他的官方立場的教會。

As soon as the problem of St. Peter's coming to Rome passed from theologians writing pro domo suâ into the hands of unprejudiced historians, ie within the last half century, it received a solution which no scholar now dares to contradict; the researches of German professors like A. Harnack and Weizsaecker, of the Anglican Bishop Lightfoot, and those of archaeologists like De Rossi and Lanciani, of Duchesne and Barnes, have all come to the same conclusion: St. Peter did reside and die in Rome.盡快的問題聖彼得來到羅馬通過了由神學家撰寫多摩它的親落入偏見的歷史學家,即在過去的半個世紀中,它收到一個解決辦法,現在沒有學者敢於矛盾;研究的德國教授像字母a.哈納克和魏茨澤克,英國聖公會主教娜萊,這些考古學家一樣德羅西和Lanciani的杜申和Barnes ,都得出相同的結論:聖彼得沒有居住和死在羅馬舉行。 Beginning with the middle of the second century, there exists a universal consensus as to Peter's martyrdom in Rome;從中間的第二個世紀,存在著一個普遍的共識,以彼得在羅馬殉道;

Dionysius of Corinth speaks for Greece,狄奧尼修斯的科林斯說,希臘,

Irenaeus for Gaul,愛任紐的高盧人,

Clement and Origen for Alexandria,克萊門特和奧利的亞歷山大,

Tertullian for Africa.良非洲。

In the third century the popes claim authority from the fact that they are St. Peter's successors, and no one objects to this claim, no one raises a counter-claim.在第三個世紀,教皇權力索賠的事實,他們是聖彼得的繼任者,也沒有人反對這種說法,沒有人提出了反訴。

No city boasts the tomb of the Apostle but Rome.沒有歷史名城,擁有悠久的陵墓使徒,但羅馬。

There he died, there he left his inheritance; the fact is never questioned in the controversies between East and West.在那裡,他死了,還有離開他繼承;事實是從來沒有質疑的爭議東方與西方之間。 This argument, however, has a weak point: it leaves about one hundred years for the formation of historical legends, of which Peter's presence in Rome may be one just as much as his conflict with Simon Magus.這一論點,但是,一個薄弱點:它留下的百年形成的歷史傳說,其中彼得在羅馬舉行的存在可能是一樣的衝突,西蒙空氣。 We have then to go farther back into antiquity.我們有那麼走得更遠回到古代。

About 150 the Roman presbyter Caius offers to show to the heretic Procius the trophies of the Apostles: "If you will got the Vatican, and to the Via Ostiensis, you will find the monuments of those who have founded this Church." Can Caius and the Romans for whom he speaks have been in error on a point so vital to their Church?大約150名羅馬長老凱厄斯提供了展示的邪教Procius獎杯的使徒: “如果你將得到了梵蒂岡,並通過Ostiensis ,你會發現在這些紀念碑誰建立了這個教會。 ”難道凱厄斯和羅馬人對他講了錯誤的程序問題非常重要的教會?

Next we come to Papias (c. 138-150).下一步我們來這裡是為了帕皮亞(角138-150 ) 。 From him we only get a faint indication that he places Peter's preaching in Rome, for he states that Mark wrote down what Peter preached, and he makes him write in Rome.我們從他只獲得微弱的跡象表明,他的地方彼得在羅馬傳教,他指出,馬克寫下彼得鼓吹什麼,他讓他寫在羅馬舉行。 Weizsaecker himself holds that this inference from Papias has some weight in the cumulative argument we are constructing.魏茨澤克本人認為,這個推論從帕皮亞有一定重量的累積的論點,我們正在建設。

Earlier than Papias is Ignatius Martyr (before 117), who, on his way to martyrdom, writes to the Romans: "I do not command you as did Peter and Paul; they were Apostles, I am a disciple", words which according to Lightfoot have no sense if Ignatius did not believe Peter and Paul to have been preaching in Rome.早於帕皮亞是伊格內修斯丁(前117 ) ,誰,途中犧牲,寫信給羅馬人說: “我不命令你一樣彼得和保羅;他們是使徒,我是一個信徒” ,話而根據萊特富特已沒有任何意義,如果伊格內修不相信彼得和保羅已經鼓吹在羅馬舉行。

Earlier still is Clement of Rome writing to the Corinthians, probably in 96, certainly before the end of the first century.早些時候仍然是克萊門特的羅馬書面形式向科林蒂安,很可能在96 ,當然在年底前一世紀。 He cites Peter's and Paul's martyrdom as an example of the sad fruits of fanaticism and envy.他引用彼得和保羅的殉道作為一個例子,可悲的成果,狂熱主義和羨慕。 They have suffered "amongst us" he says, and Weizsaecker rightly sees here another proof for our thesis.他們遭受了“在我們中間” ,他說,正確和魏茨澤克認為,在這裡再次證明我們的論斷。

The Gospel of St. John, written about the same time as the letter Clement to the Corinthians, also contains a clear allusion to the martyrdom by crucifixion of St. Peter, without, however, locating it (John 21:18, 19). The very oldest evidence comes from St. Peter himself, if he be the author of the First Epistle of Peter, of if not, from a writer nearly of his own time: "The Church that is in Babylon saluteth you, and so doth my son Mark" (1 Peter 5:13).福音的聖約翰,寫的同時,克萊門特的信的科林蒂安,還載有一個明確的暗示了殉教的十字架的聖彼得大教堂,但不設(約翰21:18 , 19 ) 。非常古老的證據來自聖彼得本人,如果他是作者的第一使徒彼得,如果不是的,從近一個作家自己的時間: “教會是在巴比倫saluteth你,所以我doth兒子馬克“ (彼得前書5點13分) 。 That Babylon stands for Rome, as usual amongst pious Jews, and not for the real Babylon, then without Christians, is admitted by common consent (cf. FJA Hort, "Judaistic Christianity", London, 1895, 155).這巴比倫代表羅馬,像往常一樣虔誠的猶太人中間,而不是真正的古巴比倫,然後沒有基督徒,承認共同的同意(見FJA園藝“ , Judaistic基督教” ,倫敦, 1895年, 155 ) 。

This chain of documentary evidence, having its first link in Scripture itself, and broken nowhere, puts the sojourn of St. Peter in Rome among the best-ascertained facts in history.這一連串的書面證據,在其第一環節聖經本身,並沒有打破,使滯留的聖彼得在羅馬之間的最佳查明事實的歷史。 It is further strengthened by a similar chain of monumental evidence, which Lanciani, the prince of Roman topographers, sums up as follows: "For the archaeologist the presence and execution of Sts. Peter and Paul in Rome are facts established beyond a shadow of doubt, by purely monumental evidence!"這是進一步加強了類似的不朽鏈的證據,這Lanciani ,王子羅馬topographers ,總結如下: “對於考古學家的存在和執行街。彼得和保羅在羅馬的事實成立以後毫無疑問由純粹的不朽的證據! “ (Pagan and Christian Rome, 123). (異教和基督教的羅馬, 123 ) 。

ST.意法半導體。 PETER'S SUCCESSORS IN OFFICE彼得的職位繼任

St. Peter's successors carried on his office, the importance of which grew with the growth of the Church.聖彼得的繼任者進行了他的辦公室,其重要性增長與增長的教會。 In 97 serious dissensions troubled the Church of Corinth.在97個嚴重糾紛困擾教會的科林斯。 The Roman Bishop, Clement, unbidden, wrote an authoritative letter to restore peace.羅馬主教,克萊門特, unbidden ,寫了權威性的信,以恢復和平。 St. John was still living at Ephesus, yet neither he nor his interfered with Corinth.聖約翰仍住在以弗所,但沒有他和他的干擾科林斯。 Before 117 St. Ignatius of Antioch addresses the Roman Church as the one which "presides over charity . . . which has never deceived any one, which has taught others."在聖伊格內修117安提處理羅馬教會作為一個“主持慈善機構。 。 。從來沒有欺騙任何人,這給了別人。 ” St. Irenæus (180-200) states the theory and practice of doctrinal unity as follows:聖愛任紐( 180-200 )規定的理論和實踐統一的理論如下:

With this Church [of Rome] because of its more powerful principality, every Church must agree, that is the faithful everywhere, in this [ie in communion with the Roman Church] the tradition of the Apostles has ever been preserved by those on every side.與此教會[羅馬] ,因為它更強大的公國,每一個教會必須同意,這是世界各地的信徒,在這[即在與羅馬教會]傳統的使徒曾經保存了每個人的副作用。 (Adv. Haereses, III) ( Adv. Haereses ,三)

The heretic Marcion, the Montanists from Phrygia, Praxeas from Asia, come to Rome to gain the countenance of its bishops; St. Victor, Bishop of Rome, threatens to excommunicate the Asian Churches; St. Stephen refuses to receive St.邪教馬吉安的Montanists從Phrygia , Praxeas來自亞洲,來到羅馬獲得贊同其主教;聖維克多,羅馬主教,威脅到破門的亞洲教會;聖士提反拒絕接收街 Cyprian's deputation, and separates himself from various Churches of the East; Fortunatus and Felix, deposed by Cyprian, have recourse to Rome; Basilides, deposed in Spain, betakes himself to Rome; the presbyters of Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, complain of his doctrine to Dionysius, Bishop of Rome; the latter expostulates with him, and he explains.塞浦路斯的派遣,和自己分開來自不同教會的東福圖納圖斯和費利克斯,廢黜了塞浦路斯,訴諸於羅馬;巴西里德,廢黜在西班牙, betakes自己的羅馬;的長老的狄奧尼修,主教亞歷山德里亞,抱怨他的學說以修斯,羅馬主教; expostulates後者與他,他解釋說。 The fact is indisputable: the Bishops of Rome took over Peter's Chair and Peter's office of continuing the work of Christ [Duchesne, "The Roman Church before Constantine", Catholic Univ.事實是不容置疑的:在羅馬主教接管彼得的主席和彼得的辦公室繼續工作的基督[杜申, “羅馬之前,君士坦丁教會” ,天主教大學。 Bulletin (October, 1904) X, 429-450].公告( 10月, 1904年)第十429-450 ] 。 To be in continuity with the Church founded by Christ affiliation to the See of Peter is necessary, for, as a matter of history, there is no other Church linked to any other Apostle by an unbroken chain of successors.要在連續性與教會創辦的基督教派別的見彼得是必要的,因為作為一個歷史問題,沒有任何其他教會與任何其他使徒的完整鏈條的繼任者。 Antioch, once the see and centre of St. Peter's labours, fell into the hands of Monophysite patriarchs under the Emperors Zeno and Anastasius at the end of the fifth century.安提阿,一旦看到和中部的聖彼得的辛勤勞動,落入手中Monophysite始祖皇帝下達西芝諾和結束時的5世紀。 The Church of Alexandria in Egypt was founded by St. Mark the Evangelist, the mandatory of St. Peter.教會埃及亞歷山大是由聖馬克的傳播者,強制性的聖彼得。 It flourished exceedingly until the Arian and Monophysite heresies took root among its people and gradually led to its extinction.它非常蓬勃發展,直到阿里安和Monophysite邪說,植根人民,並逐步導致其滅絕。 The shortest-lived Apostolic Church is that of Jerusalem.最短壽命使徒教會是耶路撒冷。 In 130 the Holy City was destroyed by Hadrian, and a new town, Ælia Capitolina, erected on its site.在130個聖城被摧毀的哈德良,新城鎮, Ælia Capitolina ,豎立在其網站上。 The new Church of Ælia Capitolina was subjected to Caesarea; the very name of Jerusalem fell out of use till after the Council of Nice (325).新的教會Ælia Capitolina受到愷撒;非常名稱耶路撒冷下跌的使用後,直到安理會尼斯( 325 ) 。 The Greek Schism now claims its allegiance.希臘分裂現在聲稱效忠。 Whatever of Apostolicity remains in these Churches founded by the Apostles is owing to the fact that Rome picked up the broken succession and linked anew to the See of Peter.無論對Apostolicity仍然在這些教會創辦的使徒是由於這一事實,即羅馬拿起打破繼承和重新掛鉤的見彼得。 The Greek Church, embracing all the Eastern Churches involved in the schism of Photius and Michael Caerularius, and the Russian Church can lay no claim to Apostolic succession either direct or indirect, ie through Rome, because they are, by their own fact and will, separated from the Roman Communion.希臘教會,包括所有的東歐教會參與了分裂的Photius和邁克爾Caerularius和俄羅斯教會才能奠定沒有人聲稱對使徒繼承直接或間接的,即通過羅馬,因為他們是通過自己的事實,並將脫離羅馬共融。 During the four hundred and sixty-four between the accession of Constantine (323) and the Seventh General Council (787), the whole or part of the Eastern episcopate lived in schism for no less than two hundred and three years: namely from the Council of Sardica (343) to St.在464之間的加入君士坦丁( 323 )和總理事會第七( 787 ) ,全部或部分東歐主教住在分裂為不低於二零三年:即從安理會的Sardica ( 343 )聖 John Chrysostom (389), 55 years; owing to Chrysostom's condemnation (404-415), 11 years; owing to Acadius and the Henoticon edict (484-519), 35 years; total, 203 years (Duchesne).金口( 389 ) , 55歲;由於金口的譴責( 404-415 ) , 11歲;由於Acadius和Henoticon法令( 484-519 ) , 35歲;總數, 203年(杜申) 。 They do, however, claim doctrinal connection with the Apostles, sufficient to their mind to stamp them with the mark of Apostolicity.然而,它們的索賠理論與使徒,足夠他們牢記,杜絕他們的標誌Apostolicity 。

THE ANGLICAN CONTINUITY CLAIM英國聖公會的連續性索賠

The continuity claim is brought forward by all sects, a fact showing how essential a note of the true Church Apostolicity is.索賠的連續性提出的所有教派,這個事實說明重要說明真正的教會是Apostolicity 。 The Anglican High-Church party asserts its continuity with the pre-Reformation Church in England, and through it with the Catholic Church of Christ.英國聖公會高教會黨聲稱其連續性與前改革教會在英格蘭,並通過它與天主教基督教會。 "At the Reformation we but washed our face" is a favourite Anglican saying; we have to show that in reality they washed off their head, and have been a truncated Church ever since.他說: “改造我們,但我們面臨洗”是一個最喜歡的英國聖公會說,我們必須表明,在現實中,他們洗掉他們的頭,被截斷的教會至今。

Etymologically, "to continue" means "to hold together". Etymologically , “繼續”是指“維繫” 。 Continuity, therefore, denotes a successive existence without constitutional change, an advance in time of a thing in itself steady.連續性,因此,指連續存在未經修改憲法,事先在時間上的事情本身就是穩定。 Steady, not stationary, for the nature of a thing may be to grow, to develop on constitutional lines, thus constantly changing yet always the selfsame.穩態,而不是靜止的性質的東西可能會增長,發展對憲法線,從而不斷變化的尚未總是同一。 This applies to all organisms starting from a germ, to all organizations starting from a few constitutional principles; it also applies to religious belief, which as Newman says, changes in order to remain the same.這適用於所有生物體從細菌,所有組織起幾個憲法原則,它也適用於宗教信仰,而作為紐曼說,改變,以保持不變。 On the other hand, we speak of a "breach of continuity" whenever a constitutional change takes place.另一方面,我們講的是“違反連續性”每當有修改憲法舉行。 A Church enjoys continuity when it develops along the lines of its original constitution; it changes when it alters its constitution either social or doctrinal.教會享有連續性的發展時,按照原來的憲法,它的變化時,改變其憲法或者社會或理論。 But what is the constitution of the Church of Christ?但什麼是憲法的基督教會? The answer is as varied as the sects calling themselves Christian.答案是各種不同的教派自稱為基督徒。 Being persuaded that continuity with Christ is essential to their legitimate status, they have devised theories of the essentials of Christianity, and of a Christian Church, exactly suiting their own denomination.正在說服與基督的連續性是至關重要的合法地位,他們已制定理論的要點基督教,基督教教堂,正好適合自己的面額。 Most of the repudiatae Apostolic succession as a mark of the true Church; they glory in their separation.大多數repudiatae使徒繼承作為一個標誌,真正的教會,他們在其輝煌分離。 Our present controversy is not with such, but with the Anglicans who do pretend to continuity.我們目前的爭論不是這樣,但隨著聖公會誰做假裝的連續性。 We have points of contact only with the High-Churchmen, whose leanings toward antiquity and Catholicism place them midway between the Catholic and the Protestant pure and simple.我們有聯絡點的只有高教會,其傾向對文物和天主教使他們中間的天主教和新教純粹和簡單。

ENGLAND AND ROME英格蘭隊和羅馬

Of all the Churches now separated from Rome, none has a more distinctly Roman origin than the Church of England.所有現在教會脫離羅馬,沒有一個更加明顯的羅馬起源於英格蘭教會。 It has often been claimed that St. Paul, or some other Apostle, evangelized the Britons.人們常常聲稱,聖保祿,或其他一些使徒, evangelized的英國人。 It is certain, however, that whenever Welsh annals mention the introduction of Christianity into the island, invariably they conduct the reader to Rome.這是肯定的,然而,每當提及威爾士史冊引進基督教到島上,他們的行為總是讀者羅馬。

In the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 136) we read that "Pope Eleutherius received a letter from Lucius, King of Britain, that he might be made a Christian by his orders."在“書Pontificalis ” (編輯杜申,我136 )我們讀到, “教皇Eleutherius收到了一封來自路,英國國王,他可能會成為一個基督教的他的命令。 ” The incident is told again and again by the Venerable Bede; it is found in the Book of Llandaff, as well as in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; it is accepted by French, Swiss, German chroniclers, together with the home authorities Fabius, Henry of Huntingdon, William of Malmesbury, and Giraldus Cambrensis.這起事件是對一次又一次的法師比德,這是發現的書蘭達夫,以及盎格魯撒克遜編年史,它是接受了法國,瑞士,德國的編年史,連同家裡當局法比尤斯,亨利對亨廷頓,馬姆斯伯里的威廉和Giraldus Cambrensis 。

The Saxon invasion swept the British Church out of existence wherever it penetrated, and drove the British Christians to the western borders of the island, or across the sea into Armorica, now French Brittany.撒克遜人入侵的席捲英國教會的存在而深入,並推動了英國的基督徒的西部邊界的島嶼,或隔海相望到Armorica ,現在法國布列塔尼。 No attempt at converting their conquerors was ever made by the conquered.任何企圖在轉換的征服者是以往所提出的征服。 Rome once more stepped in. The missionaries sent by Gregory the Great converted and baptized King Ethelbert of Kent, with thousands of his subjects.羅馬再次加強英寸的傳教士發出的格里高利大轉換和洗禮國王史濤肯特,有成千上萬的主題。 In 597 Augustine was made Primate over all England, and his successors, down to the Reformation, have ever received from Rome the pallium, the symbol of super-episcopal authority. The Anglo-Saxon hierarchy was thoroughly Roman in its origin, in its faith and practice, in its obedience and affection; witness every page in Bede's "Ecclesiastical History".在597奧古斯丁是靈長類動物的所有英格蘭,和他的繼任者,下降到改革,收到過來自羅馬的大腦皮層的象徵超主教的權威。盎格魯撒克遜體系被徹底羅馬在其原籍國,在其誠意和實踐,在服從和愛戴;證人的每一頁中比德的“教會史” 。 A like Roman spirit animated the nation.類似古羅馬精神的民族動畫。 Among the saints recognized by the Church are twenty-three kings and sixty queens, princes, or princesses of the different Anglo-Saxon dynasties, reckoned from the seventh to the eleventh century.其中公認的聖人,教會是2003年國王和王后60 ,王子,公主或不同的盎格魯撒克遜時期,估計從第七至第十一屆世紀。 Ten of the Saxon kings made the journey to the tomb of St. Peter, and his successor, in Rome. 10個撒克遜國王了旅程的陵墓聖彼得和他的繼任者,在羅馬舉行。 Anglo-Saxon pilgrims formed quite a colony in proximity to the Vatican, where the local topography (Borgo, Sassia, Vicus Saxonum) still recalls their memory.盎格魯撒克遜朝聖者形成相當的殖民地靠近梵蒂岡,那裡的當地地形(博爾戈, Sassia , Vicus Saxonum )還記得他們的記憶。 There was an English school in Rome, founded by King Ine of Wessex and Pope Gregory II (715-731), and supported by the Romescot, or Peter's-pence, paid yearly by every Wessex family.有一個英語學校在羅馬,成立由國王伊根的威塞克斯和教皇格雷戈里二( 715-731 ) ,並支持Romescot ,或Peter's便士,每年付給每個家庭韋塞克斯。 The Romescot was made obligatory by Edward the Confessor, on every monastery and household in possession of land or cattle to the yearly value of thirty pence.該Romescot是強制性的愛德華,在每個寺院和家庭擁有的土地或牲畜每年價值30便士。

The Norman Conquest (1066) wrought no change in the religion of England.在諾曼征服( 1066 )造成沒有改變,英格蘭的宗教。 St. Anselm of Canterbury (1093-1109) testified to the supremacy of the Roman Pontiff in his writings (in Matthew 16) and by his acts.聖安瑟倫的坎特伯雷( 1093年至1109年)證實了至高無上的羅馬教皇在他的著作(馬太16 )和他的行為。 When pressed to surrender his right of appeal to Rome, he answered the king in court:當壓力,要交出其上訴的權利來羅馬,他回答國王在法庭上:

You wish me to swear never, on any account, to appeal in England to Blessed Peter or his Vicar; this, I say, ought not to be commanded by you, who are a Christian, for to swear this is to abjure Blessed Peter; he who abjures Blessed Peter undoubtedly abjures Christ, who made him Prince over his Church.你要我發誓從來沒有在任何帳戶,呼籲在英格蘭隊福彼得或他的牧師;這一點,我說,不應該指揮你,誰是一個基督徒,為宣誓,這是放棄有福彼得;他誰abjures有福彼得無疑abjures基督,誰使他王子,他教會。

St. Thomas Becket shed his blood in defence of the liberties of the Church against the encroachments of the Norman king (1170).聖托馬斯貝克特說明他的血液中捍衛自由的教會對侵占的諾曼國王( 1170 ) 。 Grosseteste, in the thirteenth century, writes more forcibly on the Pope's authority over the whole Church than any other ancient English bishop, although he resisted an ill-advised appointment to a canonry made by the Pope.格羅斯泰斯特,在13世紀,更強行寫上教皇的權威整個教會比其他任何古老的英文主教,但他拒絕了不明智任命為牧師所作的教宗。 In the fourteen century Duns Scotus teaches at Oxford "that they are excommunicated as heretics who teach or hold anything different from what the Roman Church holds or teaches." In 1411 the English bishops at the Synod of London condemn Wycliffe's proposition "that it is not of necessity to salvation to hold that the Roman Church is supreme among the Churches."在14世紀的鄧司各脫任教於牛津大學“ ,他們逐出教會為異端誰教或持有什麼不同於羅馬教會持有或任教。 ”在1411年的英文主教在世界主教會議譴責倫敦威克里夫的主張“ ,這不是必須拯救舉行的羅馬教會是最高權力機構之間的教會。 “ In 1535 Blessed John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, is put to death for upholding against Henry VIII the Pope's supremacy over the English Church.在1535年有福約翰費希爾,羅切斯特主教,是把堅持死刑對亨利八世教皇至高無上的英文教會。 The most striking piece of evidence is the working of the oath taken by archbishops before entering into office: "I, Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, from this hour forward, will be faithful and obedient to St. Peter, to the Holy Apostolic Roman Church, to my Lord Pope Celestine, and his successors canonically succeeding...I will, saving my order, give aid to defend and to maintain against every man the primacy of the Roman Church and the royalty of St. Peter. I will visit the threshold of the Apostles every three years, either in person or by my deputy, unless I be absolved by apostolic dispensation...So help me God and these holy Gospels."最明顯的證據是工作的誓言所採取的大主教之前進入辦公室: “我,羅伯特,坎特伯雷大主教,從這個小時的推進,將忠於和服從聖彼得大教堂,羅馬教廷羅馬教會,我的上帝教皇巴巴亞羅,以及他的繼任者canonically成功...我會的,我為了節省,提供援助,以維護和保持對每個人的首要羅馬教會和版稅的聖彼得。我會訪問閾值的使徒,每隔三年,親自或由我的副手,除非我免除了使徒的分配...所以上帝幫助我,這些神聖的福音。 “ (Wilkins, Concilia Angliae, II, 199). (威爾金斯, Concilia Angliae ,二, 199 ) 。

Chief Justice Bracton (1260) lays down the civil law of this country thus: "It is to be noted concerning the jurisdiction of superior and inferior courts, that in the first place as the Lord Pope has ordinary jurisdiction over all in spirituals, so the king has, in the realm, in temporals."終審法院首席法官布拉克頓( 1260 )奠定了民法這個國家因此: “這是應該指出的關於管轄權的上級法院和劣勢,這首先是因為上帝教宗普通管轄權都在spirituals ,所以國王,在境界,在temporals 。 “ The line of demarcation between things spiritual and temporal is in many cases blurred and uncertain; the two powers often overlap, and conflicts are unavoidable.分界線之間的事情的精神和時間是在許多情況下,模糊和不確定的;兩個權力往往重疊和衝突是不可避免的。 During five hundred years such conflicts were frequent.在五百年這種衝突經常發生。 Their very recurrence, however, proves that England acknowledged the papal supremacy, for it requires two to make a quarrel.他們非常復發,然而,證明英格蘭承認教皇至高無上的,因為它需要兩個作出爭吵。 The complaint of one side was always that the other encroached upon its rights.申訴的一方總是其他侵犯其權利。 Henry VIII himself, in 1533, still pleaded in the Roman Courts for a divorce.亨利八世本人在1533年,仍然懇求在羅馬法院離婚。 Had he succeeded, the supremacy of the Pope would not have found a more strenuous defender.如果他成功,至高無上的教皇不會已經找到了更艱苦的後衛。 It was only after his failure that he questioned the authority of the tribunal to which he had himself appealed.只是在他的失敗,他質疑權威的法庭,這是他本人提出上訴。 In 1534 he was, by Act of Parliament, made the Supreme Head of the English Church.在1534年,他通過議會法案,使最高元首的英文教會。 The bishops, instead of swearing allegiance to the Pope, now swore allegiance to the King, without any saving clause.主教,而不是宣誓效忠教皇,現在宣誓效忠國王,沒有任何保留條款。 Blessed John Fisher was the only bishop who refused to take the new oath; his martyrdom is the first witness to the breach of continuity between the old English and the new Anglican Church.有福約翰費希爾是唯一的主教誰拒絕採取新的誓言,他的犧牲是第一個證人違背之間的連續性歲的英語和新的聖公會教堂。 Heresy stepped in to widen the breach.異端加強在擴大違約行為。

The Thirty-nine Articles teach the Lutheran doctrine of justification by faith alone, deny purgatory, reduce the seven sacraments to two, insist on the fallibility of the Church, establish the king's supremacy, and deny the pope's jurisdiction in England.在39條教路德學說的信仰的理由,僅否認煉獄,減少了7個聖禮2 ,堅持犯錯的教會,建立國王的優勢,並否認教宗的管轄權在英格蘭。 Mass was abolished, and the Real Presence; the form of ordination was so altered to suit the new views on the priesthood that it became ineffective, and the succession of priests failed as well as the succession of bishops.大眾被廢除,實際存在;的形式協調是如此改變,以適應新的意見鐸,它是無效的,繼承牧師失敗以及繼承主教。 (See ANGLICAN ORDERS.) Is it possible to imagine that the framers of such vital alternations thought of "continuing" the existing Church? (見聖公會的訂單。 )是否有可能想像的制定等重要思想的變化“繼續”現有的教會? When the hierarchical framework is destroyed, when the doctrinal foundation is removed, when every stone of the edifice is freely rearranged to suit individual tastes, then there is no continuity, but collapse.當分級框架被摧毀,當時的理論基礎是刪除時,每一個石頭的自由大廈是重新安排,以適應個人的口味,那麼就沒有連續性,但崩潰。 The old façade of Battle Abbey still stands, also parts of the outer wall, and one faces a stately, newish, comfortable mansion; green lawns and shrubs hide old foundations of church and cloisters; the monks' scriptorium and storerooms still stand to sadden the visitor's mood.舊的正面戰鬥仍然修道院,也部分的外牆,一面臨著威嚴, newish ,舒適的豪宅;綠色的草坪和灌木掩蓋舊的基礎教堂和cloisters ;和尚'寫字間和庫房的立場仍然難過的訪客的情緒。 Of the abbey of 1538, the abbey of 1906 only keeps the mask, the diminished sculptures and the stones--a fitting image of the old Church and the new.在1538年修道院,修道院的1906年只保持遮罩,減少雕塑和石頭-一個適當的形象的老教堂和新問題。

PRESENT STAGE現階段

Dr. James Gairdner, whose "History of the English Church in the 16th Century" lays bare the essentially Protestant spirit of the English Reformation, in a letter on "Continuity" (reproduced in the Tablet, 20 January, 1906), shifts the controversy from historical to doctrinal ground.詹姆斯蓋爾德納博士,其“歷史的英文教會在16世紀”暴露了基本上是新教精神的英格蘭宗教改革的信中關於“連續性” (轉載於片, 06年1月20日) ,輪班爭議從歷史到理論地面。 "If the country," he says, "still contained a community of Christians--that is to say, of real believers in the great gospel of salvation, men who still accepted the old creeds, and had no doubt Christ died to save them--then the Church of England remained the same as before. The old system was preserved, in fact all that was really essential to it, and as regards doctrine nothing was taken away except some doubtful scholastic propositions." “如果國家, ”他說, “仍然包含了社會的基督徒-也就是說,真正的信徒在大福音得救,男子仍然接受誰的舊信條,並已毫無疑問,基督的死亡,拯救他們-那麼英格蘭教會仍然和以前一樣。舊的系統維護,實際上都非常重要,並就理論沒有被帶走除了一些可疑的學術命題。 “

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息書面由J.威廉。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄的唐納德J文。 Dedicated to the True Believers of Sandia Pueblo, New Mexico, USA The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.專為真正的信徒的桑迪亞人民,新墨西哥,美國的天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年三月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在