Anti - Semitism反-主義

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The term was introduced in 1879 by Wilhelm Marr, a German political agitator.這個詞是在1879年由德國馬爾,德國的政治攪拌器。 At the time it designated anti Jewish campaigns in Europe. Soon, however, it came to be applied to the hostility and hatred directed toward Jews since before the Christian era.當時它在指定的反猶太人運動在歐洲。不久,但是,它適用於敵視和仇恨針對猶太人,因為面前的公元。

Long and painful best describes the history of anti Semitism.漫長和痛苦的最恰當地描述了歷史上的反反猶主義。 Among Jews, the tragic facts about anti Semitism are well known, for it occupies a major portion of Jewish history.在猶太人的悲慘事實,反主義是眾所周知的,因為它佔據了主要部分猶太人的歷史。 Today, after more than two millennia, this seemingly ubiquitous evil continues to exist. Hence, sensitivity to the wiles of the would be anti Semite is never far from the collective conscience of world Jewry.今天,在超過兩千年,這似乎無處不在邪惡繼續存在。因此,敏感性懷爾斯的將是反閃米特人是從來沒有遠離集體良知的世界猶太人。 In Christian circles, however, the story of anti Semitism, often sordid and self indicting, remains generally untold.在基督教界,然而,故事的反主義,往往骯髒和自我起訴,仍普遍無窮。 This is the case, it would seem, because the history of the church is about as long as the history of anti Semitism, if not in the overt acts of Christians, certainly in their guilty silence.這種情況,看來,由於歷史的教堂是,只要歷史上的反主義,如果不是在公開的基督教徒的行為,當然在其有罪的沉默。

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In the ancient world the first major example of anti Semitism occured during the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175 - 163 BC). This Seleucid ruler's attempt to hellenize Jews of his day met with stiff opposition.在古代世界的第一個主要的例子發生的反猶太人統治期間的安四伊皮法尼斯( 175 -1 63年) 。這項塞琉統治者的企圖希臘化猶太人,他每天會見了強烈反對。 Jews were monotheists and thus, for the most part, aloof from their Gentile neighbors.猶太人被monotheists ,因此,在大多數情況下,遠離他們的詹蒂萊的鄰居。 Gentiles viewed Sabbath rest as congenital idleness and adherence to dietary laws as gross superstition.外邦人認為安息日休息先天性懶散和遵守法律的飲食總值迷信。 Antiochus's attack on Jewish religion resulted in the desecration of the temple.安襲擊猶太宗教導致褻瀆寺院。 A swine was sacrificed on the altar and its blood sprinkled upon Jewish scrolls.豬是祭壇上的犧牲品和血液撒上後猶太博物館。 Jews were regarded by the Syrian rulers as nomadic wanderers, a homeless people worthy of destruction.猶太人被視為敘利亞統治者的游牧流浪,一個無家可歸的人值得破壞。 Jews found the idolatry of the Greek world abhorrent and later, under the Romans, rejected emperor worship.猶太人發現了偶像崇拜的希臘世界可惡,後來,在羅馬,拒絕皇帝崇拜。 Thus, Jews were viewed as the great dissenters of the Mediterranean world.因此,猶太人被視為偉大的持不同政見的地中海世界。 To pagans they became personae non gratae, victims of discrimination and contempt.為了異教徒他們成為不受歡迎的人,遭受歧視和蔑視。

The destruction of the temple in 70 AD marked a widespread dispersion of the Jews.破壞的寺廟70公元標誌著一個廣泛分散的猶太人。 In the second century the Roman emperor Hadrian 117 - 38) issued edicts forbidding the practice of Judaism. About this time the great Rabbi Akiba was tortured to death by the Romans by having his flesh stripped from his body with iron combs.在第二個世紀的羅馬皇帝哈德良117 -3 8)發布法令禁止的做法,猶太教。大約在這個時候偉大的拉比秋葉被折磨致死的羅馬人通過他的肉體剝奪他的身體從鐵梳子。

In 321 Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman state.在取得321君士坦丁基督教我國的官方宗教羅馬狀態。 Jews were forbidden to make converts, serve in the military, and hold any high office.猶太人被禁止進行轉換,服兵役,並持有任何高級職務。 Several centuries later, under Justinian, Jews were barred from celebrating Passover until after Easter.幾個世紀後,查士丁尼下,猶太人被禁止慶祝逾越節復活節之後。

The roots of theological anti Semitism derive from certain teachings which arose from the early Christian centuries.根的神學反主義源自某些教義的起因是早期基督教百年。 The Jewish revolt of 66 - 70 AD resulted in the death, exile, or slavey of thousands of Jews.猶太人起義的66 -7 0公元導致死亡,流放,或s lavey成千上萬的猶太人。 Such hardship was thought by the rapidly expanding Gentile church to be chastisement, proof of divine rejection.這種困難是思想的迅速擴大詹蒂萊教堂被責罰,證明了神聖的拒絕。 Gradually the church saw itself as superseding Judaism, a "dead" and "legalistic" faith.漸漸地教會了自己作為取代猶太教, “死”和“法律”的信念。 Triumphantly, the church now stood over the synagogue as the new Israel of God, heir to the covenant promises.勝利,教會站在現在的猶太教堂作為新以色列的上帝,繼承人該公約的承諾。 But Jews, as a people, still chafed under the Roman yoke.但是,猶太人,作為一個人,仍然感到惱火的羅馬枷鎖。 They failed to understand messianic redemption in terms of a suffering servant; they refused to believe that God had forever cast away his chosen.他們無法理解的救世主贖回條款的痛苦的僕人,他們拒絕相信上帝永遠拋棄他的選擇。

The writings of several church fathers reflect a theological invective directed toward Jews.該著作的幾個教堂的父親反映了神學謾罵針對猶太人。 John Chrysostom, the "golden mouthe," is a noted example.金口, “金mouthe , ”是一個注意到的例子。 He taught that "the synagogue is a brothel and a theater,. . . a den for unclean animals. . . Never has a Jew prayer to God. . . They are all possessed by the devil."他告訴說: “猶太教堂是一家妓院和一個影院, 。 。 。一登為不潔的動物。 。 。從來沒有一個猶太人向上帝祈禱。 。 。他們都走火入魔。 ”

In the Middle Ages, Jews were largely excluded from medieval Christian culture.在中世紀,猶太人基本上排除從中世紀基督教文化。 They sought to avoid social, economic, and ecclesiastical pressures by living behind ghetto walls.他們試圖避免的社會,經濟和宗教生活壓力的背後貧民區牆壁。 They were, however, permitted to practice usury.然而,他們的做法允許高利貸。 This led Christians to accuse them of being a pariah people.這導致基督教徒指責他們被遺棄的人。 Jews were required to wear a distinctive hat or patch sewn on their clothing.猶太人必須佩戴獨特的帽子或修補縫製的衣服。 They were accused of having a peculiar smell, in contrast to the "odor of sanctity." Jews were also maligned as "Christ - killers," desecraters of the host, murderers of Christian infants, spreaders of the black plague, poisoners of wells and sucklers of sows.他們被指控有異味,與此相反的“氣味的神聖。 ”猶太人還誣衊為“基督-殺手” d esecraters東道國,殺人犯的基督教嬰兒,傳播者黑死病, p oisoners水井和sucklers的母豬。 The First Crusade (1096) resulted in numerous mass suicides as Jews sought to avoid forced baptism.第一次十字軍東征( 1096年) ,造成眾多群眾的自殺猶太人設法避免被迫洗禮。 Toward the close of the Middle Ages many Jews became homeless wanderers.對密切中世紀許多猶太人成為無家可歸的流浪者。 They were expelled from England in 1290, from France in 1306, and from cities in Spain, Germany, and Austria in the following years.他們被逐出英格蘭1290 ,由法國在1306年,從城市在西班牙,德國和奧地利在隨後的歲月。

The Spanish Inquisition and expulsion of 1492 resulted in thousands of torturings, burnings at the stake, and forced conversions.西班牙宗教裁判所和驅逐1492年導致數以千計的torturings ,在焚燒的股份,並強迫轉換。 In Germany, one generation later, Luther issued a series of vitriolic pamphlets attacking Jews.在德國,一個世代後,路德發出了一系列的尖刻攻擊猶太人的小冊子。 Of Jews he wrote, "Let us drive them out of the country for all time."猶太人,他寫道: “讓我們把他們從該國的所有時間。 ”

Toward the start of the modern ages a bloody revolt against the Cossacks occurred in Poland (1648 - 58).為起點的現代歲的血腥反抗哥薩克發生在波蘭( 1648年至1658年) 。 Caught in the middle, about half a million Jews were killed.夾在中間,大約50萬猶太人被殺害。 In other European countries at the time Jews continued to be persecuted or, at best, viewed with suspicion or contempt.在其他歐洲國家在當時的猶太人繼續受到迫害,或最好的,持懷疑或蔑視。

In the latter part of the nineteenth century the largest Jewish population in the world (6 million) was in czarist Russia.在後者的一部分, 19世紀最大的猶太世界上人口( 600萬美元)是在沙俄。 There Jews experienced a series of vicious pogroms which left thousands dead.有猶太人經歷了一系列惡性大屠殺,造成數千人死亡。 Others, joining Jews from different European lands, fled to America.其他人,加入猶太人從不同的歐洲土地,逃到美國。 In this country they hoped to find a place earlier described by George Washington as offering "to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance."在這個國家,他們希望找到一個位置早先所描述的喬治華盛頓提供“的偏見沒有制裁,迫害任何援助。 ” Between 1880 and 1910 more than two million Jews immigrated to America through New York City. 1880年至1910年有200多萬猶太人移民到美國通過紐約市。 During this time the celebrated Dreyfus Affair in France (1894) drew the problem of aniti Semitism to world attention.在此期間的慶祝德雷福斯事件在法國( 1894年)提請的問題aniti主義為世界所矚目。

Rooted in the soil of Germany, the Holocaust of the 20th century stand as a unparalleled event.紮根在土壤中,德國納粹大屠殺是20世紀作為一種無與倫比的事件。 Nazi propaganda stated that the human race must be "purified" by ridding it of Jews.納粹宣傳指出,人類必須“淨化”的消除它的猶太人。 The "final solution" to the Jewish "problem" was camps, gas chambers, and crematoria. “最後解決”猶太人“問題”是營地,毒氣室和火葬場。 Between 1933, when Hitler came to power, and the end of World War II some 6 million Jewish lives were destroyed.至1933年,當希特勒上台後,與第二次世界大戰結束大約600萬猶太人的生命被摧毀。 Today in Jerusalem the Yad Vashem (the name is taken from Isa. 56:5) stands as a memorial to Holocaust victims and as an institution for research and documentation.今天在耶路撒冷該紀念館(名稱取自伊薩。 56:5 )站作為一個紀念大屠殺受害者和作為一個機構的研究和文件。

At present anti Semitism persists wherever Jews are found.目前存在主義的反猶太人的地方被發現。 Jews of Russia and France have been especially oppressed.猶太人的俄羅斯和法國一直是被壓迫的。 In European countries and in the United States recent anti Semitic incidents have included synagogue smearings and bombings, desecration of gravestones, vicious graffiti, Nazi pamphlets, and grotesque Jewish sterotypes in the press.在歐洲國家和美國最近的反猶太人事件,包括猶太教堂smearings和轟炸,褻瀆墓碑,惡毒的標語,納粹傳單,而荒唐的猶太人sterotypes在報刊上。 At other times the so called polite variety of anti Semitism is found, namely discrimination and / or antipathy displayed toward Jews in the social, educational, and economic realms.在其他時候所謂的禮貌各種反猶太人被發現,即歧視和/或反感顯示對猶太人在社會,教育和經濟領域。 The Anti Defamation League and other Jewish agencies continue to make slow but steady progress in seeking to promote understanding among peoples of different races and religions.反誹謗聯盟和其他猶太機構繼續進行緩慢但穩步的進展,尋求促進各國人民之間的理解不同種族和宗教。

MR Wilson韋敬
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography: 參考書目:
AT Davies, ed., Anti Semitism and the Foundations of Christianity; EJ, III; EH Flannery, The Anguish of the Jews; RE Gade, A Historical Survey of Anti Semitism; C Klein, Anti Judism in Christian Theology; R Ruether, Faith and Fratricide; S Sandmel, Anti Semitism in the NT.在戴維斯版。 ,反主義和基督教的基礎;伯克利分校,三;高血壓弗蘭納裡,痛苦的猶太人;稀土蓋德,歷史考察抗主義; ç克萊因,反Judism在基督教神學; R Ruether ,信仰和自相殘殺;語Sandmel ,反猶太人的新台幣。


Also, if you are studying Islamic or Arab subjects, see:此外,如果你在學習伊斯蘭或阿拉伯科目,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 古蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 信仰支柱
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-從圖書的聖訓1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-從圖書的聖訓2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-從圖書的聖訓3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-從圖書的聖訓1 0布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書2 0布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 西遊記(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書2 6布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書5 2布哈里
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Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 克爾白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派穆斯林
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 阿伊莎
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 穆斯林的日曆互動


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