Theology神學

General Information 一般信息

The term theology is a compound of the Greek words theos ("god") and logos ("word," "discourse," "thought," "reason"). Theology may therefore be defined as reasoned discourse about God.神學一詞是一個大院的希臘字神( “上帝” )和標誌( “字” , “話語” , “思想” , “理由” ) 。神學可能因此被定義為理性話語的上帝。 In a strict sense theology considers only the existence and nature of divine being.在嚴格意義上的神學認為只存在和性質的神。 In its wider and more usual sense, however, it may encompass the full range of the divine's relationships to the world and to humanity as well as the full variety of human responses to the divine.在其更廣泛和更一般意義上說,但是,它可能包括全套的神的關係對世界和人類以及充分各種人類的答复神聖的。 Although used more commonly of Western religions, the term may be applied to the systematic study and presentation of any religion.雖然使用較為普遍的西方宗教,長期可用於系統研究和介紹任何宗教。

The first to use the term was apparently the Greek philosopher Plato, for whom theology meant a rational conception of the divine as opposed to poetic myths about the gods.首先使用這個詞顯然是希臘哲學家柏拉圖,他們的神學意味著一個合理的概念,神聖的,而不是詩意的神話的神。 The subsequent Greek tradition of rational theology survived well into Christian times, and aspects of it have been influential in shaping various Jewish, Christian, and Islamic theologies.隨後,希臘傳統的理性神學下來到基督教倍,這方面的影響力已經在塑造各種猶太教,基督教和伊斯蘭theologies 。

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In early Christianity, theology had a number of meanings.在早期基督教神學有一些意義。 It referred, for instance, to the whole mystery of God, to particular teachings about God (for example, the doctrine of the Trinity), or to a stage in the mystical knowledge of God.它提到,例如,整個神秘的上帝,對特定有關上帝教導(例如,理論三位一體) ,或一個階段的神秘知識的上帝。 In general, however, theology implied an understanding of God over and above simple belief in God.然而,總的來說,暗示神學的理解上帝超過簡單的信仰上帝。 Only in the medieval period did theology become an academic field, or "science," in somewhat the modern sense.只有在中世紀時期神學沒有成為一個學術領域,或“科學” ,在某種程度上現代意義。 With the rise of medieval universities, theological faculties began to emerge, and theology itself came to be defined as a science like other sciences in the medieval curriculum.隨著中世紀的大學,神學系開始出現,和神學本身來界定為一門科學與其他科學在中世紀的課程。 It proceeded from its own first principles, followed accepted canons of rational inquiry, and produced an organized body of knowledge in its own right. Since the Middle Ages theology has included both academic and nonacademic forms of religious inquiry, often in tension with each other.它開始從自己的第一原則,遵循公認的合理的調查,並製作了有組織的知識在其自身的權利。自中世紀的神學包括學術和nonacademic形式的宗教調查,往往是在緊張與對方。

In the course of its history theology has been subdivided according to various patterns.在其歷史神學細分已根據不同的模式。 One typical pattern distinguishes between historical, systematic, and philosophical theology.一個典型區分的歷史,系統,神學和哲學。 The first studies the content of a religious tradition; the second attempts comprehensive explanations and expositions of its doctrines; and the third investigates the philosophical presuppositions and implications of religious belief.第一研究內容的宗教傳統;第二次試圖全面的解釋和論述,其理論;和第三個調查的哲學前提和影響的宗教信仰。 Also important are moral theology, or ethics, which explores the moral dimensions of the religious life, and practical theology, which interprets the forms of worship, styles of organization, and modes of interpersonal relationship within religious communities.同樣重要的是道德神學,或道德,其中探討了道德層面的宗教生活和實際神學,這解釋形式的崇拜,作風,組織,模式內人際關係宗教社區。

Although different questions have preoccupied theologians at different times, certain topics have established themselves as basic to theological study.雖然不同的問題,全神貫注的神學在不同時期,某些議題已成為基本的神學研究。 These include the basis for humans' knowledge of God, the being and attributes of God, the relation of God to the world and of the world to God, the modes of divine governance of human affairs, the source and character of human alienation from the divine, the manner of humanity's restoration to God, and the ultimate destiny of humankind.這些問題包括基礎人類知識的上帝,正在和屬性的上帝,對上帝的關係對世界和世界的上帝,模式的神聖治理的人類事務,來源和性質的人類異化的神聖的方式人類的恢復上帝,並最終對人類的命運。 Such themes have been central throughout theology's history and continue to dominate theological reflection today.這樣的主題已經在整個中央神學的歷史和繼續主宰今天的神學思考。

William S Babcock威廉語巴布科克

Bibliography 目錄
Ferre, Frederick, Language, Logic, and God (1961; repr. 1977); Harvey, Van, A Handbook of Theological Terms (1964); Schleiermacher, Friedrich, Brief Outline on the Study of Theology, trans.費,檢,語言,邏輯,上帝( 1961年; repr 。 1977年) ;哈維,凡手冊神學條款( 1964年) ;施,弗里德里希,簡述研究的神學,反。 by Terrence N. Tice (1966); Smart, Ninian, Reasons and Faiths (1958).由泰倫斯北泰斯( 1966年) ;智能,尼尼安,原因及信仰( 1958年) 。


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