Summa Theologiae神學大全

Saint Thomas Aquinas聖托馬斯阿奎那

General Information 一般信息

In his Summa Theologiae (1267-73) Saint Thomas Aquinas presented a synthesis of Aristotelian logic and Christian theology that was to become the basis of Roman Catholic doctrine on a wide variety of subjects.在他的神學大全( 1267年至1273年)聖托馬斯阿奎那提出了合成亞里士多德的邏輯和基督教神學是成為根據羅馬天主教教義的各種各樣的問題。 Thomas divided his work into three parts, the first dealing with the existence and nature of God and the universe he created, the second with human activity and ethics, and the third with Christ and the sacraments.托馬斯的工作劃分為三個部分,第一部分處理的存在和性質上帝和他創造的宇宙,第二與人類活動和職業道德,第三個與基督和聖禮。 Each part is made up of a series of open questions, in answer to which he presents his opponents' arguments as well as his own before refuting the former.每一部分是由一系列公開的問題,在回答他提出了他的對手的觀點以及他自己的面前,駁斥前。 Demonstrated throughout is Thomas's conviction that there can be no contradiction between the truths of faith, based on divine revelation, and those of human reason.整個展示是托馬斯的信念,就不可能有矛盾的真理的信仰的基礎上,神聖的啟示,這些人的理由。

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Summa Theologiae神學大全

General Information 一般信息

Introduction導言

Saint Thomas Aquinas is sometimes called the Angelic Doctor and the Prince of Scholastics (1225-1274).聖托馬斯阿奎那是有時被稱為天使博士和王子Scholastics ( 1225年至1274年) 。 He was an Italian philosopher and theologian, whose works have made him the most important figure in Scholastic philosophy and one of the leading Roman Catholic theologians.他是一個意大利哲學家和神學家,其作品已使他成為最重要的人物,士林哲學的領導者之一,羅馬天主教神學家。

Aquinas was born of a noble family in Roccasecca, near Aquino, and was educated at the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino and at the University of Naples.阿奎那生於一個貴族家庭中Roccasecca ,靠近阿基諾,是受過教育的本篤會修道院的Monte稼軒和大學的那不勒斯。 He joined the Dominican order while still an undergraduate in 1243, the year of his father's death.他加入了多米尼加秩序仍然是一個本科生在1243年,父親的去世。 His mother, opposed to Thomas's affiliation with a mendicant order, confined him to the family castle for more than a year in a vain attempt to make him abandon his chosen course.他的母親反對托馬斯的從屬關係,以行乞的命令,將他的家庭城堡了一年多,妄圖使他放棄他的當然選擇。 She released him in 1245, and Aquinas then journeyed to Paris to continue his studies.她釋放了他在1245年和阿奎那journeyed然後到巴黎,繼續他的學業。 He studied under the German Scholastic philosopher Albertus Magnus, following him to Cologne in 1248.他研究的德國哲學家學術阿爾貝馬格努斯後,他在1248年科隆。 Because Aquinas was heavyset and taciturn, his fellow novices called him Dumb Ox, but Albertus Magnus is said to have predicted that "this ox will one day fill the world with his bellowing."由於阿奎那是連和沉默寡言他的同胞新手叫他啞巴牛年,但阿爾貝馬格努斯據說預言說: “這牛總有一天會填補他的世界bellowing 。 ”

Early Years初年

Aquinas was ordained a priest about 1250, and he began to teach at the University of Paris in 1252.阿奎那被任命一名神父約1250 ,他開始教書,巴黎大學在1252年。 His first writings, primarily summaries and amplifications of his lectures, appeared two years later.他的第一著作,主要是總結和擴增的講座,似乎兩年後。 His first major work was Scripta Super Libros Sententiarum (Writings on the Books of the Sentences, 1256?), which consisted of commentaries on an influential work concerning the sacraments of the church, known as the Sententiarum Libri Quatuor (Four Books of Sentences), by the Italian theologian Peter Lombard.他的第一個主要工作是龜超級Libros Sententiarum (寫作的書句, 1256 ? ) ,其中包括評注的一個有影響力的工作有關聖禮的教堂,被稱為Sententiarum利布里四重奏(四書句) ,由意大利倫巴第神學家彼得。

In 1256 Aquinas was awarded a doctorate in theology and appointed professor of philosophy at the University of Paris.阿奎那在1256年被授予博士學位,並任命神學的哲學教授在巴黎大學。 Pope Alexander IV (reigned 1254-1261) summoned him to Rome in 1259, where he acted as adviser and lecturer to the papal court.教皇亞歷山大四世( 1254年至1261年在位)傳喚他在1259年羅馬,在那裡他擔任顧問和講師的教皇法庭。 Returning to Paris in 1268, Aquinas immediately became involved in a controversy with the French philosopher Siger de Brabant and other followers of the Islamic philosopher Averroës.回到巴黎在1268年,阿奎那立即成為參與了爭議的法國哲學家Siger的布拉邦和其他信徒的伊斯蘭哲學家阿威羅伊。

Study of Aristotle and the Averroists亞里士多德的研究和Averroists

To understand the crucial importance of this controversy for Western thought, it is necessary to consider the context in which it occurred. Before the time of Aquinas, Western thought had been dominated by the philosophy of St. Augustine, the Western church's great Father and Doctor of the 4th and 5th centuries, who taught that in the search for truth people must depend upon sense experience.為了了解具有十分重要的意義這場爭論的西方思想,有必要考慮的背景,它發生。之前的時間阿奎那,西方思想一直佔主導地位的是哲學的聖奧古斯丁,西方教會的偉大父親和醫生在第4和第5世紀,誰告訴我們,在尋求真理的人必須取決於意義的經驗。 Early in the 13th century the major works of Aristotle were made available in a Latin translation, accompanied by the commentaries of Averroës and other Islamic scholars.早在13世紀的重大工程亞里士多德提供了在拉丁美洲翻譯的陪同下,評注的阿威羅伊和其他伊斯蘭學者。 The vigor, clarity, and authority of Aristotle's teachings restored confidence in empirical knowledge and gave rise to a school of philosophers known as Averroists.的活力,明確起見,和權威的亞里士多德的教誨恢復信心,知識和經驗引起了學校的哲學家稱為Averroists 。 Under the leadership of Siger de Brabant, the Averroists asserted that philosophy was independent of revelation.的領導下,由布拉邦Siger的Averroists斷言,哲學是獨立的啟示。

Averroism threatened the integrity and supremacy of Roman Catholic doctrine and filled orthodox thinkers with alarm. Averroism威脅的完整性和至高無上的羅馬天主教教義和正統的思想家填補震驚。 To ignore Aristotle, as interpreted by the Averroists, was impossible; to condemn his teachings was ineffectual.忽視亞里士多德,解釋的Averroists ,是不可能的;譴責他的教誨是無效的。 He had to be reckoned with.他有不可忽視的。 Albertus Magnus and other scholars had attempted to deal with Averroism, but with little success.阿爾貝Magnus和其他學者曾試圖處理Averroism ,但收效甚微。 Aquinas succeeded brilliantly.阿奎那成功出色的表現。

Reconciling the Augustinian emphasis upon the human spiritual principle with the Averroist claim of autonomy for knowledge derived from the senses, Aquinas insisted that the truths of faith and those of sense experience, as presented by Aristotle, are fully compatible and complementary.調和奧古斯丁強調人的精神與原則Averroist要求自治的知識來自感官,阿奎那堅持真理的信仰和意義的經驗,提出亞里士多德,完全兼容和互補性。 Some truths, such as that of the mystery of the incarnation, can be known only through revelation, and others, such as that of the composition of material things, only through experience; still others, such as that of the existence of God, are known through both equally.有些道理,如神秘的化身,可以被稱為只有通過啟示,和其他人,如組成的物質的東西,只有通過經驗;還有一些,如上帝存在,是眾所周知通過平等。 All knowledge, Aquinas held, originates in sensation, but sense data can be made intelligible only by the action of the intellect, which elevates thought toward the apprehension of such immaterial realities as the human soul, the angels, and God.所有的知識,阿奎那舉行,起源於感覺,但意義上的數據可以理解的不僅是行動的智慧,這對提升思想逮捕這些無關緊要的現實作為人類靈魂的天使,和上帝。 To reach understanding of the highest truths, those with which religion is concerned, the aid of revelation is needed.達成諒解的最高真理,那些與宗教而言,援助的啟示是必要的。 Aquinas's moderate realism placed the universals firmly in the mind, in opposition to extreme realism, which posited their independence of human thought.阿奎那的溫和現實主義的共性放在堅定地解放思想,反對極端現實主義,這假定其獨立的人類思想。 He admitted a foundation for universals in existing things, however, in opposition to nominalism and conceptualism.他承認的基礎,在現有的共性的東西,但是,反對唯名論和概念。

Later Years晚年

Aquinas first suggested his mature position in the treatise De Unitate Intellectus Contra Averroistas (1270; trans. The Trinity and the Unicity of the Intellect,1946).阿奎那首次提出了成熟的地位,論文德Unitate Intellectus魂斗羅Averroistas ( 1270年;轉運。三位一體的單一性的智力, 1946年) 。 This work turned the tide against his opponents, who were condemned by the church.這項工作的浪潮把對他的對手,誰被譴責的教堂。

Aquinas left Paris in 1272 and proceeded to Naples, where he organized a new Dominican school.阿奎那離開巴黎在1272年,並著手那不勒斯,他在那裡舉辦了一個新的多米尼加學校。 In March 1274, while traveling to the Council of Lyon, to which he had been commissioned by Pope Gregory X, Aquinas fell ill.在1274年3月,而前往理事會的里昂,他已委託由教皇格雷戈里十,阿奎那病倒。 He died on March 7 at the Cistercian monastery of Fossanova.他死於3月7日在修道院修道院Fossanova 。

Aquinas was canonized by Pope John XXII in 1323 and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by Pope Pius V in 1567.阿奎那被冊封教皇約翰二十二在1323年和博士宣布了教會的庇護V在1567年。

Assessment估價

More successfully than any other theologian or philosopher, Aquinas organized the knowledge of his time in the service of his faith.更成功地比其他任何神學家或哲學家,阿奎那舉辦了知識的時間在服務自己的信仰。 In his effort to reconcile faith with intellect, he created a philosophical synthesis of the works and teachings of Aristotle and other classic sages; of Augustine and other church fathers; of Averroës, Avicenna, and other Islamic scholars; of Jewish thinkers such as Maimonides and Solomon ben Yehuda ibn Gabirol; and of his predecessors in the Scholastic tradition.在他的努力調和信仰與智慧,他創造了一個哲學的綜合工程和教誨,亞里士多德和其他經典的先賢;的其他奧古斯汀教堂和父親;的阿威羅伊,阿維森納,和其他伊斯蘭學者;的猶太思想家如邁蒙尼德和所羅門群島本耶胡達本Gabirol ;和他的前任的學術傳統。 This synthesis he brought into line with the Bible and Roman Catholic doctrine.這種合成他帶進符合聖經和羅馬天主教的教義。

Aquinas's accomplishment was immense; his work marks one of the few great culminations in the history of philosophy.阿奎那的成就是巨大的;他的作品標誌著一個偉大的culminations幾年的歷史哲學。 After Aquinas, Western philosophers could choose only between humbly following him and striking off in some altogether different direction.阿奎那後,西方哲學家可以選擇只有虛心以下他和剔除一些完全不同的方向發展。 In the centuries immediately following his death, the dominant tendency, even among Roman Catholic thinkers, was to adopt the second alternative. Interest in Thomist philosophy began to revive, however, toward the end of the 19th century.在數百年後他的死亡,佔主導地位的傾向,甚至在羅馬天主教思想家,是通過第二種選擇。興趣的托馬斯主義哲學開始復甦,然而,對19世紀末。 In the encyclical Aeterni Patris (Of the Eternal Father, 1879), Pope Leo XIII recommended that St. Thomas's philosophy be made the basis of instruction in all Roman Catholic schools.在通諭Aeterni祖國報(在永恆的父親, 1879年) ,教皇利奧十三世建議,聖托馬斯的哲學是根據指令在所有的羅馬天主教學校。 Pope Pius XII, in the encyclical Humani Generis (Of the Human Race, 1950), affirmed that the Thomist philosophy is the surest guide to Roman Catholic doctrine and discouraged all departures from it.庇護十二,在通諭人文類(人類, 1950年) ,申明,托馬斯主義哲學是最可靠的指南,羅馬天主教的教義和勸阻一切偏離它。 Thomism remains a leading school of contemporary thought. Thomism仍然是一個學校的領導當代思潮。

Among the thinkers, Roman Catholic and non-Roman Catholic alike, who have operated within the Thomist framework have been the French philosophers Jacques Maritain and Étienne Gilson.在思想家,羅馬天主教和非天主教徒一樣,誰的範圍內運作托馬斯主義框架一直是法國哲學家雅克馬里丹和艾蒂安吉爾森。

St. Thomas was an extremely prolific author, and about 80 works are ascribed to him.聖托馬斯是一個非常多產作家,以及大約80工程歸咎於他。 The two most important are Summa Contra Gentiles (1261-64; trans. On the Truth of the Catholic Faith,1956), a closely reasoned treatise intended to persuade intellectual Muslims of the truth of Christianity; and Summa Theologica (Summary Treatise of Theology, 1265-73), in three parts (on God, the moral life of man, and Christ), of which the last was left unfinished. Summa Theologica has been republished frequently in Latin and vernacular editions.這兩個最重要的是魂斗羅大全外邦人( 1261年至1264年;轉運。論真理的信仰天主教, 1956年) ,一個緊密的理由論文旨在說服穆斯林知識分子對真理的基督教和神學大全(綜述論文的神學, 1265年至1273年) ,分三個部分(關於上帝,道德生活的人,和基督) ,其中最後剩下完成。神學大全已再版經常在拉丁美洲和白話版。


Also, see:此外,見:
Thomism Thomism

Neo-Thomism 新Thomism


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