Secularism, Secular Humanism世俗,世俗人文主義

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A way of life and thought that is pursued without reference to God or religion.一種生活方式,並認為是追求沒有提到上帝或宗教。 The Latin root saeculum referred to a generation or an age. "Secular" came to mean "belonging to this age, worldly."拉丁根saeculum提到了一代人或一個時代。 “世俗”來指“屬於這個年齡段的,世俗的。 ” In general terms, secularism involves an affirmation of immanent, this-wordly realities, along with a denial or exclusion of transcendent, other-wordly realities.從總體上看,世俗涉及內在的肯定,這- wordly的現實,同時拒絕或排斥的超然,其他- wordly現實。 It is a world view and life style oriented to the profane rather than the sacred, the natural rather than the supernatural.這是一個世界觀和生活方式面向世俗的,而不是神聖的,自然,而不是超自然的。 Secularism is a nonreligious approach to individual and social life.世俗化,是一個辦法,個人和社會生活。

Historically, "secularization" first referred to the process of transferring property from ecclesiastical jurisdiction to that of the state or other nonecclesiastical authority.從歷史上看, “世俗”第一次提到的過程中轉移財產,教會管轄的國家或其他nonecclesiastical權威。 In this institutional sense, "secularization" still means the reduction of formal religious authority (eg, in education).在這種體制意義上講, “世俗化”仍然是指減少正式宗教權威(例如,在教育) 。 Institutional secularization has been fueled by the breakdown of a unified Christendom since the Reformation, on the one hand, and by the increasing rationalization of society and culture from the Enlightenment to modern technological society, on the other.世俗制度已刺激了崩潰的一個統一的基督教改革以來,一方面,與日益增加的合理化的社會和文化的啟示,以現代科技社會的問題。 Some analysts prefer the term "laicization" to describe this institutional secularization of society, that is, the replacement of official religious control by nonecclesiastical authority.一些分析家傾向於“一詞laicization ”來形容這種體制世俗化的社會,就是更換的官方宗教的控制nonecclesiastical權威。

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A second sense in which secularization is to be understood has to do with a shift in ways of thinking and living, away from God and toward this world.第二個意義上的世俗化是可以理解的,與轉變思維方式和生活,遠離上帝和對這個世界。 Renaissance humanism, Enlightenment rationalism, the rising power and influence of science, the breakdown of traditional structures (eg, the family, the church, the neighborhood), the technicization of society, and the competition offered by nationalism, evolutionism, and Marxism have all contributed to what Max Weber termed the "disenchantment" of the modern world.文藝復興時期的人文主義,理性的啟示,增加力量和影響力的科學,細分的傳統結構(例如,家庭,教堂,街道)中, technicization的社會,競爭所提供的民族主義,進化論和馬克思主義都貢獻什麼馬克斯韋伯稱為“魅”的現代世界。

While institutional secularization and ideological secularization have proceeded simultaneously over the past few centuries, the relationship between the two is not causally exact or necessary.雖然世俗化的體制和意識形態的世俗化已經開始同時在過去數百年來,兩者之間的關係是不準確的因果關係或必要的。 Thus, even in a medieval, Constantinian setting, formally religious in character, men and women were not immune from having their life, thought, and work shaped by secular, this-worldly considerations.因此,即使在中世紀,君士坦丁設置,正式宗教性質,男人和女人是不能避免他們的生活,思想,工作和所形成的世俗,這現世的考慮。 Likewise, in an institutionally secular (laicized) society it is possible for individuals and groups to live, think, and work in ways that are motivated and guided by God and religious considerations.同樣,在一個世俗體制( laicized )社會有可能為個人和群體的生活,想和工作方式的動機和指導上帝和宗教因素。

Secularization, then, is itself a fact of history and a mixed blessing.世俗化,那麼,本身就是一個歷史事實和喜憂參半。 Secularism, however, as a comprehensive philosophy of life expresses an unqualified enthusiasm for the process of secularization in all spheres of life.世俗主義,但是,作為一個綜合性的人生哲學對不合格的熱情,世俗化進程在生活的所有領域。 Secularism is fatally flawed by its reductionist view of reality, denying and excluding God and the supernatural in a myopic fixation on the immanent and the natural.世俗致命的缺陷是其還原鑑於現實,否認和排除上帝和超自然的近視固定的內在和自然。 In contemporary discussion, secularism and humanism are often seen in tandem as secular humanism, an approach to life and thought, individual and society, which glorifies the creature and rejects the Creator.在當代的討論中,世俗主義和人文主義往往被一併世俗人文主義,一個辦法,生活和思想,個人和社會,美化動物和反對造物主。 As such, secularism constitutes a rival to Christianity.因此,世俗的競爭對手構成了基督教。

Christian theologians and philosophers have grappled in various ways with the meaning and impact of secularization.基督教神學家和哲學家忙於各種方式的意義和影響的世俗化。 Friedrich Schleiermacher was the first theologian to attempt a radical restatement of Christianity in terms of the Renaissance and Enlightenment humanist and rationalist motifs.弗里德里希施是第一個神學家,試圖從根本上重新基督教而言,文藝復興時期的人文主義和啟蒙運動和理性的圖案。 While his efforts were brilliant and extremely influential in the development of theology, critics charged that rather than salvaging Christianity, Schleiermacher betrayed crucial aspects of the faith in his redefinition of religion in terms of the human feeling of dependence.雖然他的努力,輝煌和極具影響力的發展神學,批評指責,而不是拯救基督教,施背叛關鍵問題的信念在他的重新界定宗教方面的人類感情的依賴。

No contemporary discussion of Christianity and secularism can escape dealing with the provocative Letters and Papers from Prison penned by Dietrich Bonhoeffer.沒有現代的討論基督教和世俗可以逃避處理的挑釁信件和論文從監獄寫的迪特里希潘霍華。 Primarily because the work is fragmentary and incomplete, Bonhoeffer's concepts such as "Christian worldliness," "man-come-of-age," the world's arrival at "adulthood," and the need for a "non-religious interpretation of Biblical terminology" have been subject to heated debate about their meaning and implication.這主要是因為工作是零碎和不完整的,潘霍華的概念,如“基督教世俗” , “人來的年齡, ”世界上到達“長大成人” ,並需要有一個“非宗教的解釋聖經術語”經過激烈的辯論對他們的意義和影響。 Friedrich Gogarten (The Reality of Faith, 1959), Paul van Buren (The Secular Meaning of the Gospel, 1963), Harvey Cox (The Secular City, 1965), Ronald Gregor Smith (Secular Christianity, 1966), and the "death-of-God" theologians are examples of those who have pursued one possible course by restating Christianity in terms of a secular world. Kenneth Hamilton (Life in One's Stride, 1968) denies that this is the best way to interpret Bonhoeffer and argues that the German theologian never wavered in his basic, orthodox stance.弗里德里希Gogarten (現實的信仰, 1959年) ,保羅範布倫(世俗意義的福音, 1963年) ,哈維考克斯(世俗市, 1965年) ,羅納德格雷戈史密斯(基督教世俗, 1966年)和“死亡的上帝“的神學家的例子是誰一直奉行一個可能的課程重申基督教方面的一個世俗的世界。肯尼思漢密爾頓(生活在其中的跨越, 1968年)否認這是最好的方式來解釋和潘霍華認為,德國神學從未動搖過他的基本的,正統的立場。

While discussions among theologians during the 1950s and 1960s tended to focus on adapting Christian theology to secularization, the 1970s and 1980s saw a vigorous new resistance to secularism in many quarters. Jacques Ellul (The New Demons, 1975) was among several voices arguing that secularism was itself a form of religion and was antagonistic both to Christianity and to a true Christian humanism.雖然神學家之間的討論在1950和1960年代往往側重於適應基督教神學,以世俗化, 70年代和80年代看到了新的有力抵抗世俗主義在許多宿舍。雅克埃呂爾(新的惡魔, 1975年)是幾個聲音主張政教分離本身就是一種形式的宗教和對立的雙方是基督教和一個真正的基督教人文主義。 Francis A. Schaeffer (How Should We Then Live? 1976) and other fundamentalists and conservative evangelicals attacked secular humanism as the great contemporary enemy of Christian faith.弗朗西斯字母a.謝弗(我們應該如何接著生活? 1976年)和其他原教旨主義者和保守的福音派攻擊世俗人文主義作為當代偉大的敵人的基督教信仰。

From the perspective of biblical Christian theology, secularism is guilty for having "exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator" (Rom. 1:25).從聖經的角度看基督教神學,世俗是犯了“交換的真相上帝的謊言,敬拜和服務的動物,而不是造物主” (羅馬書1時25分) 。 Having excluded the transcendent God as the absolute and the object of worship, the secularist inexorably makes the world of man and nature absolute and the object of worship.在排除了至高無上的神的絕對和對象的崇拜,對世俗不可避免地使世界上的人與自然的絕對和對象的崇拜。 In biblical terms, the supernatural God has created the world and sustains its existence.在聖經的角度來看,超自然的上帝創造了世界和維持它的存在。 This world (the saeculum) has value because God has created it, continues to preserve it, and has acted to redeem it.這個世界(的saeculum )的價值,因為上帝創造了它,繼續保留,並已經採取措施來挽救它。 While God is Lord of history and the universe, he is not identifiable with either (pantheism).雖然上帝是上帝的歷史和宇宙的,他是無法識別的任何(泛神論) 。 Men and women exist in freedom and responsibility before God and for the world. Stewardship and partnership define man's relationship to God and the world.男性和女性存在的自由和責任,並在上帝面前的世界。管理和夥伴關係的界定人的關係,對上帝和世界。

The sacral, theocratic character of ancient Israel is modified with the coming of Christ.骶,神權性質的古代以色列正在修改與今後的基督。 With the work of Christ, the city and the nation are secularized (desacralized), and the church as the temple of the Holy Spirit is what is now sacralized.隨著工作的基督,城市和國家的世俗化( desacralized ) ,以及教堂廟宇聖靈就是現在sacralized 。 The relationship of the church to the society around it is not defined in terms of a mission to resacralize it by imposing ecclesiastical rule upon it.的關係教堂周圍的社會是沒有界定的任務resacralize它的實施細則教會它。 The relationship is one of loving service and witness, proclamation and healing.的關係是一個愛好服務和證人,宣布和癒合。 In this sense, then, secularization of society is a Christian calling.從這個意義上講,那麼,世俗化的社會是一個基督教要求。 That is, society must not be divinized or absolutized, but viewed as something historical and relative.這就是說,社會絕不能divinized或絕對化,而是看作某種歷史的,也是相對的。 Only God is finally sacred and absolute.只有上帝終於神聖和絕對的。 Reestablishing the sacredness of God will, however, imply the proper, relative valuation of this world.重建的神聖上帝的意願,但是,意味著正確的,相對估值的這個世界。

In no sense, of course, is the distinction between the sacred and the secular an unbridgeable gap.在任何意義上說,當然,這之間的區別的神聖和世俗的一個不可逾越的鴻溝。 In the same way that God speaks and acts in the saeculum, Christians must speak and act creatively and redemptively.以同樣的方式,上帝說話和行為的saeculum ,基督徒必須發言和行事創造性和redemptively 。 This means that the secular world must not be abandoned to secularism.這意味著,世俗絕不能拋棄世俗。 In all cases, Christian life in the secular world is to be carried out under the Lordship of Jesus Christ and in obedience to the will of God rather than the will of the world.在所有情況下,基督徒的生活中的世俗世界是開展貴族身份的耶穌基督和服從上帝的意志,而不是將世界各地。 And in situations, such as the United States, where the general populace is enfranchised and invited to have a voice in public policy, public education, social services, and so on, Christians may work to ensure that the Word of God is heard and is given room among the many other voices which will constitute the heterogenous whole.在情況下,如美國,一般民眾是enfranchised並邀請有發言權的公共政策,公共教育,社會服務等等,基督徒可能會工作,以確保天主的聖言是聽取和由於房間之間的許多其他的聲音這將構成異質性的整體。 To insist that the Word of God be imposed on all without exception is to fall once again into an unbiblical authoritarianism.要堅持天主的聖言是對所有無例外地是屬於再次成為一個unbiblical專制主義。 To fail to articulate the Word of God in the saeculum, however, is to acquiesce in a secularism which, by excluding the Creator, can lead only to death.失敗闡明天主的聖言在saeculum然而,默許了政教分離,它通過排除造物主,只能導致死亡。

DW Gill德國之聲樂平
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
PL Berger, The Sacred Canopy; K. Hamilton, DCE, 609-10.特等伯傑,聖冠;光漢密爾頓,二氯乙烷, 609-10 。


Secularism世俗

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A term used for the first time about 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake to denote "a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life" (English Secularism, 60).術語首次用於1846年的喬治雅各布約克指“某種形式的意見,只關注自己的問題,這些問題的,可檢驗的經驗,這種生活” (英文世俗, 60 ) 。 More explicitly, "Secularism is that which seeks the development of the physical, moral, and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point, as the immediate duty of life - which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism, Theism or the Bible - which selects as its methods of procedure the promotion of human improvement by material means, and proposes these positive agreements as the common bond of union, to all who would regulate life by reason and ennoble it by service" (Principles of Secularism, 17).更明確, “世俗主義是尋求發展的身體,精神和智力性質的人可能的最高點,立即有責任的生活-這灌輸的實際自給自足的自然道德除了無神論,有神論或聖經-這選擇作為其方法的過程中,促進人權改善的物質手段,並提出了這些積極的協定,共同紐帶的工會,誰所有規範生活的理由和e nnoble它的服務“ (世俗主義的原則, 1 7 ) 。 And again, "Secularism is a code of duty pertaining to this life founded on considerations purely human, and intended mainly for those who find theology indefinite or inadequate, unreliable or unbelievable. Its essential principles are three:再次, “世俗主義是一種責任守則有關這一基礎上的生命考慮純粹的人,並打算主要是為那些誰找到神學無限期或不足,不可靠或令人難以置信。及其基本原則有三個:

The improvement of this life by material means.在改善這種生活的物質手段。

That science is the available Providence of man.科學是可以登斯的男子。

That it is good to do good.這是一件好事做好。 "Whether there be other good or not, the good of the present life is good, and it is good to seek that good" (English Secularism, 35). “不管有其他的好與否,良好的目前的生活是好的,這是件好事,尋求良好的” (英文世俗, 35 ) 。

I. HISTORY一,歷史

The origin of Secularism is associated especially with the names of Holyoake and Bradlaugh.起源的世俗尤其是相關的姓名,約克和Bradlaugh 。 George Jacob Holyoake (born at Birmingham, 13 April, 1817; died at Brighton, 22 January, 1906) met Robert Owen in 1837, became his friend, and began to lecture and write articles advocating socialism or co-operation.喬治雅各布約克(出生在伯明翰, 1817年四月13日;死在布賴頓, 06年一月二十二日)會見了羅伯特歐文在1837年,成為他的朋友,並開始演講和撰寫文章,倡導社會主義的共同行動。 In 1841, with Southwell, Ryall, and Chilton, he founded a magazine called "The Oracle of which was succeeded by "The Movement" (1843), and by "The Reasoner" (1846). In 1861 the publication of the latter was discontinued, and Holyoake founded "The Counsellor" which later on, was merged with Bradlaugh's "National Reformer". Owing to differences between Bradlaugh and Holyoake, the latter withdrew from "The National Reformer," started the publication of "The Secular World and Social Economist" (1862-64), and in 1883 of "The Present Day". Among the political and economical agitations in which Holyoake took a leading part may be mentioned those for the repeal of the law prohibiting the use of unstamped paper for periodical publications, for the abolition of all oaths required by law, for the secularization of education in the public schools, for the disestablishment of the Church, for the promotion of the co-operative movement among the working classes, etc.在1841年,與Southwell ,賴亞爾和奇爾頓,他創辦了一家雜誌稱為“甲骨文是成功的”運動“ ( 1843年) ,並同時發表的”理性“ ( 1846年) 。於1861年出版了後者中斷,約克成立“參贊”這以後,合併Bradlaugh的“全國改革者” 。由於分歧Bradlaugh和約克,後者退出“全國改革者, ”開始出版的“世俗世界和社會經濟學家“ ( 1862年至1864年) ,並在1883年的”當代“ 。在政治和經濟agitations在約克了領導的一部分可能會提到這些廢除的法律,禁止使用的印紙期刊出版物,廢除所有宣誓法律規定,對世俗教育的公立學校,為脫離教會,為促進合作社運動之間的工人階級等

Charles Bradlaugh (born at Hoxton, London, 26 September, 1833; died 30 January, 1891) was a zealous Sunday school teacher in the Church of England, when Rev. Mr.查爾斯Bradlaugh (出生在Hoxton ,倫敦, 1833年9月26日,死於1891年一月30日)是一個熱心的主日學校教師在英格蘭教會,當牧師先生 Packer, the incumbent of St. Peter's, Hackney Road, asked him to prepare for confirmation which was to be administered by the Bishop of London.派克,現任的聖彼得,哈克尼路,問他準備確認這是由倫敦主教。 "I studied a little", writes Bradlaugh, "the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, and the four Gospels, and came to the conclusion that they differed" (Autobiography, 6). “我研究了一點點” ,寫Bradlaugh “的39個條款的英格蘭教會,四福音,並得出結論,認為他們不同” (自傳, 6 ) 。 He wrote this to Rev. Mr. Packer, who hastily denounced him as an atheist.他寫道,這牧師Packer先生,誰匆忙譴責他是一個無神論者。 His views, which at this time were deistical later on reached extreme Atheism.他的意見,在這個時候被deistical後來達成的極端無神論。 From 1853 till 1868 he wrote a great number of articles under the pseudonym of "Iconoclast", gave many lectures, and held many public debates. In 1858 he edited "The Investigator", and in 1859 founded "The National Reformer".從1853年到1868年他寫了大量文章的筆名的“ Iconoclast ” ,使許多講座,並舉行了多次公開辯論。於1858年,他編輯的“調查” ,並在1859年成立“全國改革者” 。 Elected by Northampton as a member of the House of Commons in 1880, he refused to take the required oath, and was not allowed to sit in the House. Re-elected the following year, he consented to take the oath, but this was refused on account of his Atheism.選出的北安普頓的一個成員下議院於1880年,他拒絕採取必要的誓言,並沒有獲准參加在眾議院。再次當選的第二年,他同意的誓言,但被拒絕考慮到他的無神論。 Finally, in 1886, the new Speaker allowed him to take the oath and sit in Parliament.最後,在1886年,新議長讓他的誓言,並在議會中坐。 In 1858 Bradlaugh succeeded Holyoake as president of the London Secular Society, and in 1866 enlarged the scope of this association by founding the National Secular Society, over which he presided until 1890, when he was succeeded by Mr. GW Foote, the actual president.在1858年成功地約克Bradlaugh擔任倫敦世俗社會,並在1866年擴大了範圍,由該協會成立的國家世俗社會中,由他主持,直到1890年,當時他接替富特先生萬千瓦,實際的總統。 The following words from Bradlaugh's farewell speech are significant: "One element of danger in Europe is the approach of the Roman Catholic Church towards meddling in political life. . . . Beware when that great Church, whose power none can deny, the capacity of whose leading men is marked, tries to use the democracy as its weapon. There is danger to freedom of thought, to freedom of speech, to freedom of action. The great struggle in this country will not be between Freethought and the Church of England, not between Freethought and Dissent, but - as I have long taught, and now repeat - between Freethought and Rome" (Charles Bradlaugh, II, 412).下面的話Bradlaugh的告別演說顯著: “一個危險的因素是歐洲的做法,羅馬天主教會的干預政治生活中。 。 。 。提防當這個偉大的教會,他們沒有權力也不能否認的能力,其領先的男子的特點是,試圖利用民主作為其核武器。有危險思想自由,言論自由,自由的行動。偉大的鬥爭中這個國家將不會與Freethought和英格蘭教會,而不是Freethought之間和不同意見,但是-正如我早就教導,現在重複-之間Fr eethought和羅馬“(查爾斯Br adlaugh,二, 4 1 2)。

In the United States, the American Secular Union and Freethought Federation, presided over by Mr. EP Peacock, with many affiliated local societies, has for its object the separation of Church and State, and for its platform the nine demands of Liberalism, namely:在美國,美國的世俗聯盟和Freethought聯邦,先生主持內啡肽孔雀,許多地方的社會聯繫,有其對象分離的教會與國家,以及其平台的9個自由主義的要求,即:

that churches and other ecclesiastical property shall be no longer exempt from taxation;該教堂和其他宗教財產應不再免除稅收;

that the employment of chaplains in Congress, in state legislatures, in the army and navy, and in prisons, asylums, and all institutions supported by public money, shall be discontinued, and that all religious services maintained by national, state, or municipal governments shall be abolished; that all public appropriations for educational and charitable institutions of a sectarian character shall cease;該就業的隨軍國會,州議會,在陸軍和海軍,並在監獄中, asylums ,和所有機構的支持公共資金,應停止,並要求所有宗教服務維護國家,州或市政府應予以廢除; ,所有公共經費用於教育和慈善機構的一個宗派性質的權利即告終止;

that, while advocating the loftiest instruction in morals and the inculcation of the strictest uprightness of conduct, religious teaching and the use of the Bible for religious purposes in public schools shall be prohibited; that the appointment by the President of the United States and the governors of the various states of religious festivals, fasts, and days of prayer and thanksgiving shall be discontinued;認為,雖然倡導崇高的道德教育和灌輸嚴格的浩然正氣的行為,宗教的教學和使用的聖經用於宗教目的在公立學校,均應予以禁止; ,任命的美國總統和州長各個國家的宗教節日,齋戒,並天的祈禱和感恩應停止;

that the theological oath in the courts and in other departments of government shall be abolished, and simple affirmation under the pains and penalties of perjury, established in its stead;該神學宣誓在法院和其他政府部門應予以廢除,並根據簡單肯定的痛苦和懲罰犯有偽證罪,成立於取而代之;

that all laws directly or indirectly enforcing in any degree the religious and theological dogma of Sunday or Sabbath observance shall be repealed;這方面的所有法律直接或間接地執行在任何程度的宗教和神學教義的星期日或遵守安息日應予以廢除;

that all laws looking to the enforcement of Christian morality as such shall be abrogated, and that all laws shall be conformed to the requirements of natural morality, equal rights and impartial justice;這方面的所有法律著眼於執法的基督教道德等應廢除,所有法律須符合要求的自然道德,平等權利和公正司法;

that, in harmony with the Constitution of the United States and the constitutions of the several states, no special privileges or advantages shall be conceded to Christianity or any other religion; that our entire political system shall be conducted and administered on a purely secular basis; and that whatever changes are necessary to this end shall be consistently, unflinchingly, and promptly made.在和諧與美國憲法和憲法的幾個州,沒有特殊的特權或優勢應承認基督教或其他任何宗教; ,我們的整個政治制度應進行和管理的一個純粹的世俗基礎;這一切的變化是必要為此應始終如一,堅定不移地,並迅速進展。

Although the name Secularism is of recent origin, its various doctrines have been taught by free-thinkers of all ages, and, in fact, Secularism claims to be only an extension of free-thought.雖然世俗的名稱是最近的起源,各種學說已講授的自由思想家不分年齡人人共享的,事實上,世俗聲稱自己是唯一的延伸的自由思考。 "The term Secularism was chosen to express the extension of freethought to ethics" (English Secularism, 34). “世俗的任期被選為表示,延長freethought倫理” (英文世俗, 34 ) 。 With regard to the question of the existence of God, Bradlaugh was an atheist, Holyoake an agnostic.關於這個問題的存在上帝, Bradlaugh是一個無神論者,約克一個不可知的。 The latter held that Secularism is based simply on the study of nature and has nothing to do with religion, while Bradlaugh claimed that Secularism should start with the disproof of religion.後者認為,世俗主義是簡單地基於研究性質,並與宗教無關,而Bradlaugh聲稱,應該開始世俗與宗教反證。 In a public debate held in 1870 between these two secularists, Bradlaugh said: "Although at present it may be perfectly true that all men who are Secularists are not Atheists, I put it that in my opinion the logical consequence of the acceptance of Secularism must be that the man gets to Atheism if he has brains enough to comprehend.在舉行公開辯論在1870年這兩個世俗主義者, Bradlaugh說: “雖然目前可以完全誠然,所有的人誰是世俗不是無神論者,我把它說,我認為,合乎邏輯的結果接受世俗必須被這名男子進入無神論如果他的大腦足夠的理解。

"You cannot have a scheme of morality without Atheism. The Utilitarian scheme is a defiance of the doctrine of Providence and a protest against God". “你不能有一個計劃,沒有道德的無神論。功利的計劃是蔑視理論普羅維登斯和抗議上帝” 。

On the other hand, Holyoake affirmed that "Secularism is not an argument against Christianity, it is one independent of it. It does not question the pretensions of Christianity; it advances others. Secularism does not say there is no light or guidance elsewhere, but maintains that there is light and guidance in secular truth, whose conditions and sanctions exist independently, and act forever. Secular knowledge is manifestly that kind of knowledge which is founded in this life, which relates to the conduct of this life, conduces to the welfare of this life, and is capable of being tested by the experience of this life" (Charles Bradlaugh, I, 334, 336).另一方面,約克申明, “世俗主義不是一個反對基督教,它是一個獨立的。它並不懷疑基督教的意圖,它的進展等。世俗不說,沒有輕或指導其他地方,但堅持有輕和指導,在世俗的真理,其條件和制裁獨立存在,並採取行動永遠。世俗的知識顯然是這樣的知識是建立在此生活,其中涉及行為的這種生活,有利於福利這個生命,能夠被測試的經驗,這種生活“ (查爾斯Bradlaugh ,我, 334 , 336 ) 。 But in many passages of his writings, Holyoake goes much further and seeks to disprove Christian truths.但是在許多段落他的著作,約克遠遠進一步,並設法推翻基督教的真理。 To the criticism of theology, Secularism adds a great concern for culture, social progress, and the improvement of the material conditions of life, especially for the working classes.的批評神學,世俗增添了極大的關注文化,社會進步,改善物質生活條件,特別是對工人階級。 In ethics it is utilitarian, and seeks only the greatest good of the present life, since the existence of a future life, as well as the existence of God, "belong to the debatable ground of speculation" (English Secularism, 37). It tends to substitute "the piety of useful men for the usefulness of piety" (ibid., 8).在職業道德是功利的,並謀求最大的只有良好的目前的生活,因為存在著未來的生活,以及上帝存在“ ,屬於有爭議的理由猜測” (英文世俗, 37 ) 。委員會往往替代“的虔誠有用的男人是有用的虔誠” (同上, 8 ) 。

II.二。 CRITICISM批評

The fundamental principle of Secularism is that, in his whole conduct, man should be guided exclusively by considerations derived from the present life itself.這一基本原則的政教分離的是,他的整個行為,人應該遵循的考慮完全來自本生活本身。 Anything that is above or beyond the present life should be entirely overlooked.凡是高於或超越目前的生活應該完全忽視。 Whether God exists or not, whether the soul is immortal or not, are questions which at best cannot be answered, and on which consequently no motives of action can be based.上帝是否存在,或否,靈魂是不朽的,或沒有,是問題最多不能回答,並因而沒有任何動機的行動可以基於。 A fortiori all motives derived from the Christian religion are worthless.更何況所有的動機來自基督教是毫無價值的。 "Things Secular are as separate from the Church as land from the ocean" (English Secularism, 1). “事情是世俗脫離教會的土地從海洋” (英文世俗, 1 ) 。 This principle is in strict opposition to essential Catholic doctrines.這一原則是在嚴格的反對天主教的基本教義。 The Church is as intent as Secularism on the improvement of this life, as respectful of scientific achievements, as eager for the fulfilment of all duties pertaining to the present life.教會的意圖是作為世俗對改善這生活,尊重科學的成就,渴望履行所有職責有關本的生活。 But the present life cannot be looked upon as an end in itself, and independent of the future life.但是,目前生活不能被看作目的本身,而獨立的未來生活。 The knowledge of the material world leads to the knowledge of the spiritual world, and among the duties of the present life must be reckoned those which arise from the existence and nature of God, the fact of a Divine Revelation, and the necessity of preparing, for the future life.知識的物質世界,導致知識的精神世界,和各國之間的職責目前的生活必須是不可忽視那些產生的存在和性質的上帝,事實上一個神聖的啟示,並有必要準備,對未來的生活。 If God exists, how can Secularism inculcate the practical sufficiency of natural morality?" If "Secularism does not say there is no light or guidance elsewhere" how can it command us to follow exclusively the light and guidance of secular truth? Only the Atheist can be a consistent Secularist.如果上帝存在,怎麼能灌輸世俗的實際自給自足的自然道德? “如果”世俗不說,沒有輕或指導其他地方“怎麼能命令我們跟隨完全參照和指導的世俗真相?只有無神論者才能是一致的世俗。

According as man makes present happiness the only criterion of the value of life, or on the contrary admits the existence of God and the fact of a Divine Revelation and of a future life, the whole aspect of the present life changes. These questions cannot be ignored, for on them depends the right conduct of life and "the development of the moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point".據男子使得作為本幸福的唯一標準,生命的價值,或者相反承認上帝存在的事實和一個神聖的啟示和未來的生活,整個方面,現在的生活變化。這些問題不能被忽視,對他們的依賴行為的權利和生活“的發展,道德和智力的性質男子可能的最高點” 。 If anything can be known about God and a future life, duties to be fulfilled in the present life are thereby imposed on "all who would regulate life by reason and ennoble it by service".如果什麼都可以了解上帝和未來的生活,義務必須履行本生活從而對“誰所有規範生活的理由和ennoble它的服務” 。 "Considerations purely human" become inadequate, and the "light and guidance" found in secular truth must be referred to and judged from a higher point of view. “思考純粹的人”成為不足,和“輕和指導”中找到世俗的真理必須提到和判斷從更高的角度來看。 Hence the present life in itself cannot be looked upon as the only standard of man's worth.因此,目前的生活本身不能被看成唯一的標準,人的價值。 The Church would fail in her Divine mission if she did not insist on the insufficiency of a life conducted exclusively along secular lines, and therefore on the falsity of the main assumption of Secularism教會將不能在她的神聖使命,如果她不堅持不全的生活進行了專門的世俗線沿線,因此,對虛假的主要擔任世俗

Again, the Catholic Church does not admit that religion is simply a private affair.此外,天主教會不承認宗教是一種私事。 God is the author and ruler not only of individuals, but also of societies.上帝是作者和統治者不僅是個人,而且社會。 Hence the State should not be indifferent to religious matters (see ETHICS).因此,國家不應該漠視宗教事務(見倫理) 。 How far in practice Church and State should go together depends on a number of circumstances and cannot be determined by any general rule, but the principle remains true that religion is a social as well as an individual duty. In practice again, owing to special circumstances, a secular education in the public schools may be the only possible one.有多遠在實踐中教會與國家應該一起去取決於一些情況下,不能確定任何一般規則,但原則仍然是真正的宗教是一種社會以及個人責任。再次在實踐中,由於特殊情況,一個世俗教育的公立學校可能是唯一可能的一個。 At the same time, this is a serious defect which must be supplied otherwise.與此同時,這是一個嚴重的缺陷,必須另行提供。 It is not enough for the child to be taught the various human sciences, he must also be given the knowledge of the necessary means of salvation.這是不夠的孩子要教的各種人文科學,他也必須得到的知識,必要的手段拯救。 The Church cannot renounce her mission to teach the truths she has received from her Divine Founder.教會不能放棄她的使命,教導真理,她收到了她的神聖的創始人。 Not only as individuals, but also as citizens, all men have the right to perform the religious duties which their conscience dictates.不僅是個人,而且還作為公民,所有的人都有權履行宗教義務而他們的良知要求。 The complete secularization of all public institutions in a Christian nation is therefore inadmissible.完整的世俗的所有公共機構的一個基督教國家,因此不予受理。 Man must not only be learned in human science; his whole life must be directed to the higher and nobler pursuits of morality and religion, to God Himself.人不僅要學習人文科學;一生必須向更高的追求和高尚的道德和宗教,上帝。 While fully recognizing the value of the present life, the Church cannot look upon it as an end in itself, but only as a movement toward a future life for which preparation must be made by compliance with the laws of nature and the laws of God.雖然充分認識到的價值,現在的生活,教會不能把它作為目的本身,而只是作為一個走向未來生活的準備工作必須作出符合法律的性質和法律的上帝。 Hence there is no possible compromise between the Church and Secularism, since Secularism would stifle in man that which, for the Church, constitutes the highest and truest motives of action, and the noblest human aspirations.因此,沒有可能的妥協之間的教會和世俗的,因為世俗會扼殺在人,其中,為教會,構成了最高和最真實的動機採取行動,人類最崇高的願望。

Publication information Written by CA Dubray.出版信息書面由CA Dubray 。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1號。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

HOLYOAKE, The Principles of Secularism (London, 1860); IDEM, Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life (London, 1892), autobiography; IDEM, The Origin and Nature of Secularism (London, 1896); published simultaneously in America under the title English Secularism, A Confession of Belief (Chicago, 1896); McCABE, Life and Letters of George Jacob Holyoake (London, 1908); GOSS, A Descriptive Bibliography of the Writings of George Jacob Holyoake, with a Brief Sketch of his Life (London, 1908); The Autobiography of Mr. Bradlaugh (London, sd); BONNER, Charles Bradlaugh (7th ed., London, 1908); FLINT, Anti-Theistic Theories (5th ed., Edinburgh, 1894).約克的原則,世俗(倫敦, 1860年) ;同上, 60年的攪拌器的生命(倫敦, 1892年) ,自傳;同上,起源和本質的世俗(倫敦, 1896年) ;同時發表在美國的標題是英文世俗,招供的信仰(芝加哥, 1896年) ;麥凱布,生活和文學的喬治雅各布約克(倫敦, 1908年) ;戈斯描寫的書目著作的喬治雅各布約克,並簡要示意圖他的生命(倫敦, 1908年) ;自傳先生Bradlaugh (倫敦,海峽) ;邦納,查爾斯Bradlaugh (第7版。 ,倫敦, 1908年) ;弗林特,反神論(第5版。 ,愛丁堡, 1894年) 。


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