Reformation改革

General Information 一般信息

The Reformation of the 16th century was a movement within Western Christendom to purge the church of medieval abuses and to restore the doctrines and practices that the reformers believed conformed with the Bible and the New Testament model of the church.改革的16世紀是一個遷徙的西方基督教清除中世紀教堂的行為,並恢復的理論和做法,改革者認為符合聖經和新約模式的教堂。 This led to a breach between the Roman Catholic Church and the reformers whose beliefs and practices came to be called Protestantism.這導致了違約之間的羅馬天主教和改革派的信仰和習俗來到被稱為新教。

Causes原因

The causal factors involved in the Reformation were complex and interdependent.因果因素參與改革是複雜和相互依存的。 Precursors of the Reformation proper included the movements founded by John Wycliffe (the Lollards) and John Huss (the Hussites) during the 14th and 15th centuries.前體的改革包括適當的運動創辦的約翰威克里夫(在Lollards )和約翰胡斯(在Hussites )在第14和15世紀。 These reform groups, however, were localized (in England and Bohemia) and were largely suppressed.這些改革團體,但是,局部(在英格蘭和波希米亞)和主要壓制。 Changes in the intellectual and political climate were among the factors that made the reform movement of the 16th century much more formidable.變化中的知識分子和政治氣候等因素,使改革運動的16世紀更加艱鉅。

The cultural Renaissance that occurred during the preceding century and a half was a necessary preliminary, because it raised the level of education, reemphasized the ancient classics, contributed to thought and learning, and offered Humanism and rhetoric as an alternative to Scholasticism.文藝復興時期的文化過程中發生的前一個半世紀是一個必要的初步的,因為它提高了教育水平,再次強調古代經典,有助於思想和學習,並提出了以人為本和言論作為替代士林。 Especially through its emphasis on the biblical languages and close attention to the literary texts, the Renaissance made possible the biblical exegesis that led to Martin Luther's doctrinal reinterpretation.特別是通過其重點放在聖經的語言和密切關注文學文本,文藝復興使聖經註釋,導致馬丁路德的理論重新解釋。 Moreover, Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus criticized ecclesiastical abuses and promoted the study of both the Bible and the church fathers. The invention of printing by Johann Gutenberg provided a powerful instrument for the spread of learning and Reformation ideas.此外,像基督教人文主義者伊拉斯謨批評教會行為,促進了雙方的研究聖經和教會的父親。印刷術的發明約翰古騰堡提供了一個有力的工具蔓延的學習和思想改造。

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That grave ills were spreading through the church was already evident at the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, at which Pope Innocent III called for reform.這一嚴重弊端正在蔓延的教堂已經很明顯在第四次拉特蘭安理會在1215年,在諾森三世要求改革。 The papacy itself was weakened by its move from Rome to Avignon (1309-77), by the Great Schism of the papacy, which lasted four decades thereafter, and by the doctrine that supreme authority in the church belonged to general councils (Conciliarism).教宗本身就是削弱了其移動從羅馬到阿維尼翁( 1309年至1377年) ,由大分裂的教皇,歷時40年之後,和理論,最高權力機構中的教堂屬於一般性理事會( Conciliarism ) 。 The Renaissance popes were notoriously worldly. Abuses such as simony, nepotism, and financial excesses increased. The church was riddled with venality and immorality.文藝復興時期的教皇是眾所周知的世俗。弊端,如西摩尼,裙帶關係和金融過度增加。教堂充滿venality和不道德。 The sale of Indulgences was a particularly unfortunate practice because it impinged upon true spiritual repentance and improvement of life. At the same time a genuine upsurge of popular religiosity manifested itself and increased the disparity between the people's expectations and the church's ability to satisfy spiritual needs.出售Indulgences是一個特別不幸的做法,因為它影響到各國真實的精神懺悔和改善生活。與此同時一個真正的高潮流行的宗教表現出來,並增加之間的差距人民的期望和教會的能力,以滿足精神需求。 Some turned to mysticism and inward religion, but the great mass of people were restless and dissatisfied.一些轉向神秘主義和外來宗教,而是大規模的偉大的人焦躁不安和不滿。

A significant political change occurred during the later Middle Ages as well.一項重大的政治變革發生在中世紀晚期的。 The Holy Roman Empire, which had lost cohesion partly as a result of its struggle with the papacy in the Investiture Controversy, was weakened by the growth of virtually independent territorial princedoms and free imperial cities.神聖羅馬帝國,它已失去凝聚力的部分原因是由於它的鬥爭與教皇的論爭Investiture ,被削弱的增長幾乎獨立的領土princedoms和自由帝國城市。 Externally the empire was weakened by the gradual evolution of the nation-states of modern western Europe.對外帝國被削弱了循序漸進的民族國家的現代西歐。 The monarchies in France, England, and, later, Spain were developing dynastic strength and unity that enabled them largely to control the church within their borders.該王朝在法國,英國,以及後來,西班牙是發展中國家王朝的力量和團結,使它們在很大程度上控制的教堂在其境內。

Economically, the rise of commerce and the shift to a moneyed economy had the effect of creating a stronger middle class in a more urban society.在經濟上,崛起的商業和轉變為金錢經濟的影響,建立一個強大的中產階級在一個更加城市社會。 The church met financial difficulty during this time because it had become involved in the manorial economy, possessed landed wealth, and had trouble meeting its extensive administrative, diplomatic, and judicial obligations.教會財政困難會見了在此期間,因為它已成為參與莊園經濟,降落擁有的財富,無法滿足其廣泛的行政,外交和司法的義務。

Development發展

Luther路德

The Reformation began in Germany on Oct. 31, 1517, when Martin Luther, an Augustinian university professor at Wittenberg, posted 95 theses inviting debate over the legitimacy of the sale of indulgences. The papacy viewed this as a gesture of rebellion and proceeded to take steps against Luther as a heretic.改革開始在德國1517年十月31日,當馬丁路德,一個大學教授奧古斯丁在維滕貝格,張貼論文95邀請爭論的合法性出售indulgences 。教宗認為這是一種姿態的叛亂,並著手採取對路德步驟作為一個邪教。 The German humanists supported Luther's cause during the early years.德國人文主義支持路德的事業在最初幾年。 The reformer's three famous treatises of 1520, An Open Letter to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation Concerning the Reform of the Christian Estate, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and On the Freedom of a Christian, also won him powerful popular support.在改革者的三個著名論文的1520年,一封公開信給基督教貴族的德國國家關於改革的基督教 ,圈養的巴比倫的教會,以及對新聞自由的一個基督徒,也贏得了強大的支持。 He was excommunicated in 1521, but in April of that year at the Diet at Worms he stood before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the German princes and refused to recant unless proven wrong by the Bible or by clear reason.他被逐出教會在1521 ,但在當年4月在國會上百戰天虫他站在神聖羅馬之前,皇帝查爾斯五世和德國的王子,並拒絕撤回,除非證明是錯誤的聖經或明確的理由。 He believed that salvation was a free gift to persons through the forgiveness of sins by God's grace alone and received by them through faith in Christ.他認為,拯救了一份免費的禮物的人通過寬恕的罪孽上帝的恩典單獨和他們收到的通過信仰基督。

Luther was protected by Frederick III, elector of Saxony, and other German princes--partly out of intellectual and religious conviction, partly out of the desire to seize church property, and partly to assert independence of imperial control--gave their support to the reformers.路德是受弗雷德里克三,下薩克森州的選民,和其他德國王子-部分的知識和宗教信念,部分退出的願望抓住教堂財產,部分主張獨立的帝國控制-給他們支持改革者。 In 1530 many princes and cities signed the Augsburg Confession presented at the Diet of Augsburg as an expression of the evangelical faith.在1530年許多王子和城市簽署了奧格斯堡自白提交國會的奧格斯堡,以表達福音的信仰。 After years of conflict the settlement reached in the Peace of Augsburg (1555) provided that each German prince would determine the religious affiliation (Roman Catholic or Lutheran) of the territory he ruled.經過多年的衝突的解決中達成的和平奧格斯堡( 1555 )款規定,每一個德國公爵將決定宗教信仰(羅馬天主教或路德)的領土他排除。 Lutheranism also became the established religion of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland.路德教也成為設立宗教丹麥,瑞典,挪威和芬蘭。 Apart from the role of the princes, however, the Reformation spread rapidly as a popular movement.除了從方面的作用王子然而,改革迅速蔓延的全民運動。 It penetrated Poland, Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, and Transylvania.它侵入波蘭,波希米亞,摩拉維亞,匈牙利和特蘭西瓦尼亞。

Zwingli茨溫利

The Reformation in Switzerland initially developed in Zurich under the leadership of the priest Ulrich Zwingli.改革初期在瑞士蘇黎世開發的領導下,烏爾里希神父茨溫利。 Zwingli had been influenced by Erasmus and by Christian humanism.茨溫利已影響伊拉斯謨和基督教人文精神。 He arrived at an evangelical understanding of Christianity from his study of the Bible and from contacts with Lutherans.他來到一個福音派基督教的理解從他的研究聖經和接觸路德會。 On Jan. 1, 1519, he began a 6-year series of sermons on the New Testament that moved the city council and the people of Zurich toward reform.在1519年1月1日,他開始了6年的一系列布道的新約,移動市議會和人民對改革的蘇黎世。 The favorable response to The Sixty-Seven Articles, which he prepared for public disputation with a papal representative in 1523, proved the popularity of his program.良好的回應第六十二七篇文章,他準備公開爭論與教皇的代表在1523年,證明了他的普及計劃。 He called for the abolition of the Mass (and its replacement by a symbolic Lord's Supper), independence from episcopal control, and a reform of the city-state in which both priests and Christian magistrates would conform to the will of God. His influence spread to other Swiss cantons such as Basel, Saint Gall, and Bern.他呼籲廢除大眾(及其替代的一個象徵性的上帝的晚餐) ,獨立於主教的控制,以及改革的城市國家在這兩個神父和基督教法官將符合上帝的意志。他的影響蔓延其他瑞士各州如巴塞爾,聖加爾,和伯爾尼。

Calvin卡爾文

Through Lutheran tracts and merchant missionaries, the evangelical movement spread to France, where it won many converts, among whom was John Calvin.通過路德村組和商人傳教士,福音運動蔓延到法國,在那裡贏得了很多轉換,其中被約翰卡爾文。 In 1536, Calvin went to Geneva, where a reformation led by Guillaume Farel was well under way.在1536年,卡爾文前往日內瓦,在領導改革紀堯姆法惹勒正在順利進行。 Calvin was persuaded to stay in Geneva and helped organize the second major surge of Protestantism.卡爾文被說服留在日內瓦和幫助組織的第二起重大激增新教。 In his Ordinances of 1541, he gave a new organization to the church consisting of pastors, doctors, elders, and deacons. His Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) had great influence in France, Scotland (where John Knox carried the Calvinist reformation), and among the Puritans in England.他在條例的第1541 ,他給一個新的組織教堂組成的牧師,醫生,老人,和執事。他的研究所基督教( 1536 )有很大的影響力,法國,蘇格蘭(如約翰諾克斯進行改革的加爾文主義)之間和在英國清教徒。 Geneva became the center of a great missionary enterprise that reached into France, where the Huguenots became so powerful that a synod met in Paris in 1559 to organize a nationwide church of some 2,000 reformed congregations.日內瓦成為中心的一個偉大的傳教士的企業,達到法國,那裡的胡格諾派變得如此強大,一個主教會議在巴黎舉行1559年舉辦一個全國性的一些教堂2000年改革的教會。 As a result of the French Wars of Religion, the Huguenot party was checked and the French monarchy kept the kingdom Catholic.由於法國的宗教戰爭,黨的胡格諾派檢查和法國君主制王國保持天主教。

England英格蘭

Although England had a religious reform movement influenced by Lutheran ideas, the English Reformation occurred as a direct result of King Henry VIII's efforts to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon.雖然英格蘭在一個宗教的改革運動的影響路德的想法,在英格蘭宗教改革發生的直接原因是國王亨利八世的努力,離婚的第一任妻子阿拉貢的凱瑟琳。 The formal break with the papacy was masterminded by Thomas Cromwell, the king's chief minister.正式打破教皇是策劃的托馬斯克倫威爾,國王的首席部長。 Under Cromwell's direction Parliament passed the Act in Restraint of Appeals (to Rome; 1533), followed by the Act of Supremacy (1534) fully defining the royal headship over the church.在克倫威爾的方向議會通過該法案的約束上訴(羅馬;第1533號) ,其次是法至上( 1534 )全面界定王室校長的教堂。 As archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer annulled Henry's marriage to Catherine, allowing the king to marry Anne Boleyn.作為坎特伯雷大主教托馬斯克蘭麥無效亨利的婚姻凱瑟琳,讓國王娶安妮博林。 Although Henry himself wished to make no doctrinal changes, Cromwell and Cranmer authorized the translation of the Bible into English, and Cranmer was largely responsible for the Book of Common Prayer, adopted under Henry's successor, Edward VI.雖然亨利本人希望提出任何理論的變化,克倫威爾和克蘭麥授權翻譯聖經譯成英文,並克蘭麥主要是負責公禱書,下通過亨利的繼任者,愛德華六世。 The gains that Protestantism made under Edward (r. 1547-53) were lost under his Catholic sister Mary I (r. 1553-58).成果新教根據愛德華(河1547年至1553年)下失去了他的天主教姐姐瑪麗一世(河1553年至1558年) 。 The religious settlement (1559) under Elizabeth I, however, guaranteed the Anglican establishment.宗教解決( 1559 )根據伊麗莎白一世,但保證英國聖公會建立。

The Radicals激進分子

The radicals consisted of a great variety of sectarian groups known as Anabaptists because of their common opposition to infant baptism. The Anabaptist leader Thomas Munzer played a leading role in the Peasants' War (1524-26), which was suppressed with the support of Luther.激進派組成了各種教派的群體被稱為Anabaptists ,因為他們共同反對嬰兒洗禮。領導人的再洗禮派托馬斯閔采爾中發揮了帶頭作用的農民戰爭( 1524至1526年) ,這是壓制的支持下,路德。 In Munster, radical Anabaptists established (1533) a short-lived theocracy in which property was held communally.在明斯特,激進Anabaptists成立( 1533 )一個短命的神,其中財產社區舉行。 This too was harshly suppressed.這也被嚴厲壓制。 The radicals also encompassed evangelical humanists and spiritualists who developed highly individualistic religious philosophies.激進分子還包括福音人道主義者和招魂誰開發高度個人主義的宗教哲學。

Results結果

An obvious result of the Reformation was the division of Western Christendom into Protestant and Catholic areas.一個顯而易見的結果是改革的分工到西方基督教新教和天主教的地區。 Another result was the development of national churches; these strengthened the growth of modern national states, just as, earlier, growing national consciousness had facilitated the development of the Reformation. The Catholic Counter-Reformation--including the founding of the Jesuits by Ignatius Loyola (sanctioned 1540), the Council of Trent (1545-63), the Inquisition, the Index, and reformed clergy like Charles Borromeo--gave new life to the old church and was in part a result of the Reformation movement.另一個結果是發展國家的教堂,這些加強了增長的現代民族國家,就像早些時候,越來越多的民族意識有利於發展的改革。天主教反宗教改革-包括成立耶穌的伊格內修拉(第1540號決議認可) ,安理會的遄達( 1545年至1563年) ,宗教裁判所,該指數和改革的神職人員像查爾斯鮑羅麥歐-提供了新的生活的老教堂,並在部分造成的改革運動。 Finally, the Reformation introduced much radical change in thought and in ecclesiastical and political organization and thus began many of the trends that are taken to characterize the modern world.最後,介紹了很多改革徹底改變思想和在教會和政治組織,從而開始許多趨勢,採取定性現代世界。

Lewis W. Spitz劉易斯美國施皮茨

Bibliography 目錄
Bainton, Roland H., Women of the Reformation (1977) and Age of the Reformation (1984); Chadwick, Owen, The Reformation (1964); Cowen, IB, The Scottish Reformation (1982); Dickens, AG, The English Reformation (1964) and The German Nation and Martin Luther (1974); Dickens, AG, et al., The Reformation in Historical Thought (1985); Donaldson, Gordon, The Scottish Reformation (1972); Elton, GR, Reform and Reformation: England, 1509-1558 (1978); Grimm, Harold, The Reformation Era, 2d ed. Bainton ,羅蘭閣下,婦女的改革( 1977年)和時代的改革( 1984年) ;查德威克,歐文,改革( 1964年) ;科恩,興業,蘇格蘭宗教改革( 1982年) ;狄更斯公司,英語改革( 1964年)和德意志民族和馬丁路德( 1974年) ;狄更斯,股份公司等。 ,改革的歷史思考( 1985年) ;唐納森,戈登,蘇格蘭宗教改革( 1972年) ;埃爾頓,遺傳資源,改革與改造:英格蘭, 1509至58年( 1978年) ;格林,哈羅德,改革時代,二維版。 (1973); Hillerbrand, Hans J., Christendom Divided: The Protestant Reformation (1971), and, as ed., The Reformation (1978); McNeill, John T., The History and Character of Calvinism (1954); Olin, John, and Smart, JD, eds., Luther, Erasmus and the Reformation (1970; repr. 1982); Ozment, GR, The Reformation in the Cities (1975), and When Fathers Ruled (1983); Smith, Page, The Age of Reformation, 2 vols. ( 1973年) ; Hillerbrand ,漢斯J ,基督教分裂:新教改革( 1971年) ,並在版。 ,改革( 1978年) ;麥克尼爾,約翰噸,歷史和特性的加爾文主義( 1954年) ;奧林,約翰,和智能,第納爾,合編。 ,路德,伊拉斯謨和改革( 1970年; repr 。 1982年) ; Ozment ,遺傳資源,改革城市( 1975年) ,和當父親直紋( 1983年) ;史密斯頁,目前時代的變革,第2卷。 (1962); Spitz, Lewis W., The Renaissance and Reformation Movement (1971), and The Protestant Reformation (1984). ( 1962年) ;施皮茨,美國劉易斯,文藝復興和宗教改革運動( 1971年) ,和新教改革( 1984年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Protestant Reformation (advanced information) 新教改革(先進的信息)

Canons of Dort 規例的多特
Belgic Confession 比利時信條
Heidelberg Confession 海德堡自白

Helvetic Confession 海爾維第自白
Westminster Confession 韋斯敏斯德
Augsburg Confession 奧格斯堡自白


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