Rationalism理性

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Philosophical rationalism encompasses several strands of thought, all of which usually share the conviction that reality is actually rational in nature and that making the proper deductions is essential to achieving knowledge.理性主義哲學包含若干鏈的思想,所有這一切通常都深信,實際上是現實的合理性和決策的適當扣減是必不可少的實現知識。 Such deductive logic and the use of mathematical processes provide the chief methodological tools.這種演繹的邏輯和使用過程的數學提供的主要方法工具。 Thus, rationalism has often been held in contrast to empiricism.因此,理性往往被關押在對比的經驗。

Earlier forms of rationalism are found in Greek philosophy, most notably in Plato, who held that the proper use of reasoning and mathematics was preferable to the methodology of natural science.早些時候形式的理性是在古希臘哲學,最顯著的柏拉圖,誰認為,正確使用推理和數學是最好的方法自然的科學。 The latter is not only in error on many occasions, but empiricism can only observe facts in this changing world.後者不僅是錯誤的在許多場合,但經驗只能觀察事實在這變化的世界。 By deductive reason, Plato believed that one could extract the innate knowledge which is present at birth, derived from the realm of forms.通過演繹原因,柏拉圖認為,人們可以提取先天的知識本是在出生時,來自境界的形式。

However, rationalism is more often associated with Enlightenment philosophers such as Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz.然而,理性往往是與啟蒙思想家,如笛卡爾,斯賓諾莎和萊布尼茨。 It is this form of continental rationalism that is the chief concern of this article.正是這種形式的大陸理性主義是主要關注的文章。

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Innate Ideas先天觀念

Descartes enumerated different types of ideas, such as those which are derived from experience, those which are drawn from reason itself, and those which are innate and thus created in the mind by God.笛卡爾列舉不同類型的想法,如那些來自經驗,是那些來自本身的原因,以及那些固有的,因此,建立在銘記的上帝。 This latter group was a mainstay of rationalistic thought.這後一組是一個主要的理性思考。

Innate ideas are those that are the very attributes of the human mind, inborn by God.先天的想法是那些非常屬性的人的頭腦,天生的上帝。 As such these "pure" ideas are known a priori by all humans, and are thus believed by all.因此這些“純粹”的想法是眾所周知的先驗的所有人類,因而認為所有。 So crucial were they for rationalists that it was usually held that these ideas were the prerequisite for learning additional facts.因此,關鍵是他們的理性主義,這是通常認為,這些想法是為前提的學習更多的事實。 Descartes believed that, without innate ideas, no other data could be known.笛卡爾認為,沒有天生的想法,沒有其他數據可眾所周知的。

The empiricists attacked the rationalists at this point, arguing that the content of the socalled innate ideas was actually learned through one's experience, though perhaps largely unreflected upon by the person.該empiricists襲擊了理性主義在這一點上,認為內容的所謂先天的想法實際上是通過一個學到的經驗,雖然也許在很大程度上unreflected所的人。 Thus we learn vast amounts of knowledge through our family, education, and society which comes very early in life and cannot be counted as innate.因此,我們學習了大量的知識通過我們的家庭,教育,和社會是非常早期的生活和不能算作天生的。

One rationalistic response to this empirical contention was to point out that they were many concepts widely used in science and mathematics that could not be discovered by experience alone.一個理性的響應這一論點是經驗指出,他們有許多廣泛使用的概念在科學和數學領域,不能被發現單獨的經驗。 The rationalists, therefore, concluded that empiricism could not stand alone, but required large amounts of truth to be accepted by the proper use of reason.在理性主義,因此,得出結論認為,經驗不能單獨存在,但需要大量的事實被接受的正確使用的原因。

Epistemology認識論

Rationalists had much to say about knowledge and how one might gain certainty.理性主義有很多要說的知識和如何可能獲得確定性。 Although this query was answered somewhat differently, most rationalists eventually got back to the assertion that God was the ultimate guarantee of knowledge.雖然這個查詢回答有所不同,大多數理性主義終於回到斷言,上帝是最終保障知識。

Perhaps the best example of this conclusion is found in the philosophy of Descartes.也許最好的例子,這一結論是在哲學的笛卡爾。 Beginning with the reality of doubt he determined to accept nothing of which he could not be certain.從現實的疑問,他決定接受什麼,他不能肯定。 However, at least one reality could be deduced from this doubt: he was doubting and must therefore exist.然而,至少有一個事實可以推斷這個疑問:他被懷疑,因此必須存在。 In the words of his famous dictum, "I think, therefore I am."在的話他著名的格言: “我想,故我在。 ”

From the realization that he doubted, Descartes concluded that he was a dependent, finite being.從認識到,他懷疑,笛卡爾的結論是,他是一個依賴有限的。 He then proceeded to the existence of God via forms of the ontological and cosmological arguments.接著,他向上帝存在通過各種形式的本體論和宇宙論的論點。 In Meditations III-IV of his Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes argued that his idea of God as infinite and independent is a clear and distinct argument for God's existence.在沉思三,四,他沉思第一哲學笛卡爾認為,他的想法上帝的無限和獨立是一個明確的和獨特的論點為上帝的存在。

In fact, Descartes concluded that the human mind was not capable of knowing anything more certainly than God's existence.事實上,笛卡爾的結論是,人的心靈是沒有能力知道什麼更多的肯定不是上帝的存在。 A finite being was not capable of explaining the presence of the idea of an infinite God apart from his necessary existence.有限的是無法解釋的存在的想法是無限的上帝除了他的必要的存在。

Next Descartes concluded that since God was perfect, he could not deceive finite beings.下一步笛卡爾的結論是,因為上帝是完美的,他不能被欺騙有限。 Additionally Descartes's own facilities for judging the world around him were given him by God and hence would not be misleading.此外笛卡爾自己的設施來判斷周圍的世界他有他的上帝,因而不會產生誤導。 The result was that whatever he could deduce by clear and distinct thinking (such as that found in mathematics) concerning the world and others must therefore be true.其結果是,無論他可以推斷出明確的和獨特的思維(如發現數學)關於世界和他人因此,必須是真實的。 Thus the necessary existence of God both makes knowledge possible and guarantees truth concerning those facts that can be clearly delineated.因此,必要的上帝存在兩種可能使知識和真理的保證這些事實,可以明確界定。 Beginning with the reality of doubt Descartes proceeded to his own existence, to God, and to the physical world.從現實的疑問笛卡爾接著他自己的存在,上帝,和物理世界。

Spinoza also taught that the universe operated according to rational principles, that the proper use of reason revealed these truths, and that God was the ultimate guarantee of knowledge.斯賓諾莎還告訴我們,宇宙的運作按照合理的原則問題,這是正確使用這些原因揭示的真理,這是上帝的最終保證知識。 However, he rejected Cartesian dualism in favor of monism (referred to by some as pantheism), in that there was only one substance, termed God or nature. Worship was expressed rationally, in accordance with the nature of reality.不過,他拒絕了笛卡爾的二元論主張論(以下簡稱被一些人視為泛神論) ,在這世界上只有一個實質內容,或稱之為神的性質。崇拜有人合理,按照性質的現實。 Of the many attributes of substance thought and extension were the most crucial.許多屬性的實質思想和推廣是最重要的。

Spinoza utilized geometrical methodology to deduce epistemological truths which could be held as factual.斯賓諾莎利用幾何方法來推斷認識論的真理可舉行事實。 By limiting much of knowledge to self-evident truths revealed by mathematics, he thereby constructed one of the best examples of rationalistic system-building in the history of philosophy.通過限制很多知識,不言自明的真理所揭示的數學,他從而構建一個最好的例子理性的制度建設歷史上的哲學。

Leibniz set forth his concept of reality in his major work Monadology. In contrast to the materialistic concept of atoms, monads are unique metaphysical units of force that are not affected by external criteria. Although each monad develops individually, they are interrelated through a logical "preestablished harmony," involving a hierarchy of monads arranged by the culminating in God, the Monad of monads.萊布尼茨闡明他對現實的概念在他的主要工作Monadology 。與此相反的物質的原子概念, monads是獨特的形而上學單位的力量,不會受到外部條件。雖然每個單子單獨開發,他們通過一個相互關聯的邏輯“ preestablished和諧“ ,涉及層次monads安排的最終上帝,單子的monads 。

For Leibniz a number of arguments revealed the existence of God, who was established as the being responsible for the ordering of the monads into a rational universe which was "the best of all possible worlds." God also was the basis for knowledge, and this accounts for the epistemological relationship between thought and reality.對於萊布尼茨了一些論點揭示了存在的上帝,誰成立的負責訂購的monads到一個合理的宇宙是“最好的一切可能的世界。 ”上帝也是基礎知識,這帳戶之間關係的認識論思想和現實。 Leibniz thus returned to a concept of a transcendent God much closer to the position held by Descartes and in contrast to Spinoza, although neither he nor Spinoza began with the subjective self, as did Descartes.因此,萊布尼茨回到了概念的超驗的上帝更接近的立場舉行的笛卡爾和斯賓諾莎相反,儘管他也沒有斯賓諾莎開始自我的主觀一樣,笛卡爾。

Thus rationalistic epistemology was characterized both by a deductive process of argumentation, with special attention being given to mathematical methodology, and by the anchoring of all knowledge in the nature of God.因此,理性主義認識論的特點都演繹的論證過程中,特別注意考慮到數學方法,以及錨定的所有知識性質的上帝。 Spinoza's system of Euclidean geometry claimed demonstration of God or nature as the one substance of reality.斯賓諾莎的體系歐幾里德幾何示範聲稱上帝或性質的一個實質內容的現實。 Some scholars of the Cartesian persuasion moved to the position of occasionalism, whereby mental and physical events correspond to each other (as the perceived noise of a tree falling corresponds with the actual occurrence), as they are both ordained by God.一些學者的勸說感動笛卡爾的地位occasionalism ,即精神和肉體的活動符合對方(如知覺噪音樹屬於符合實際發生) ,因為它們都是注定的上帝。 Leibniz utilized a rigorous application of calculus to deductively derive the infinite collection of monads which culminate in God.萊布尼茨利用嚴格實施演算到deductively獲得無限的收集monads而最終的上帝。

This rationalistic methodology, and the stress on mathematics in particular, was an important influence on the rise of modern science during this period.這種理性的方法,並強調特別是數學,是一個重要的影響力崛起的現代科學在此期間。 Galileo held some essentially related ideas, especially in his concept of nature as being mathematically organized and perceived as such through reason.伽利略計劃舉行一些相關的基本思想,尤其是在他的概念,性質,數學正在有組織,有被視為通過的原因等。

Biblical Criticism聖經批判

Of the many areas in which the influence of rationalistic thought was felt, higher criticism of the Scriptures is certainly one that is relevant to the study of contemporary theological trends.在許多領域的影響,理性思考有人認為,更高的批評,聖經當然是這是有關研究當代神學的趨勢。 Spinoza not only rejected the inerrancy and propositional nature of special revelation in the Scriptures, but he was also a forerunner of both David Hume and some of the English deists who rejected miracles.斯賓諾莎不僅拒絕了inerrancy和命題性質的特殊啟示的聖經,但他也是一個先行者的大衛休謨和一些英語deists誰拒絕了奇蹟。 Spinoza held that miracles, if denied as events which break the laws of nature, do not occur.斯賓諾莎認為,奇蹟,如果否認事件打破了自然規律,沒有發生。

A number of trends in English deism reflect the influence of, and similarities to, continental rationalism as well as British empiricism. Besides the acceptance of innate knowledge available to all men and the deducing of propositions from such general knowledge, deists such as Matthew Tindal, Anthony Collins, and Thomas Woolston attempted to dismiss miracles and fulfilled prophecy as evidences for special revelation.一些趨勢,反映了英語自然神論的影響,並相似之處,大陸理性主義和英國經驗主義。除了接受先天的知識提供給所有男人和推導的命題從這種一般性的知識, deists如馬修廷德爾,安東尼柯林斯和托馬斯伍斯頓企圖解散的奇蹟和滿足的預言作為證據的特殊啟示。 In fact deism as a whole was largely characterized as an attempt to find a natural religion apart from special revelation.事實上自然神論作為一個整體主要特點是試圖找到一種自然宗教除了特殊的啟示。 Many of these trends had marked effects on contemporary higher criticism.許多這些趨勢明顯影響當代高等教育的批評。

Evaluation評價

Although rationalism was quite influential in many ways, it was also strongly criticized by scholars who noticed a number of weak points.雖然理性是相當有影響力的在許多方面,也有人強烈批評誰的學者發現了一些薄弱環節。

First, Locke, Hume, and the empiricists never tired of attacking the concept of innate ideas.首先,洛克,休謨,以及empiricists從來沒有厭倦攻擊的概念,先天的想法。 They asserted that young children gave little, if any, indication of any crucial amount of innate knowledge.他們斷言,孩子很少了,如果有的話,說明任何重大的先天知識。 Rather the empiricists were quick to point to sense experience as the chief school-teacher, even in infancy.相反的empiricists迅速指向意義的經驗作為學校的首席教師,即使在萌芽狀態。

Second, empiricists also asserted that reason could not be the only (or even the primary) means of achieving knowledge when so much is gathered by the senses.第二, empiricists還聲稱,原因可能不是唯一的(或什至小學)手段實現知識時是這麼多所收集的理智。 While it is true that much knowledge may not be reducible to sense experience, this also does not indicate that reason is the chief means of knowing.誠然,很多知識可能無法還原到意義的經驗,這也並不表明原因是主要手段知道。

Third, it has frequently been pointed out that reason alone leads to too many contradictions, metaphysical and otherwise.第三,經常有人指出,唯一的原因導致了太多的矛盾,形而上學和其他方面。 For example, Descartes's dualism, Spinoza's monism, and Leibniz's monadology have all been declared as being absolutely knowable, in the name of rationalism.舉例來說,笛卡爾的二元論,斯賓諾莎論和萊布尼茲的monadology都被宣布為絕對可知,在理性的名稱。 If one or more of these options is incorrect, what about the remainder of the system(s)?如果一個或多個這些選項是不正確的,那餘下的系統(星期日) ?

Fourth, rebuttals to rationalistic and deistic higher criticism appeared quickly from the pens of such able scholars as John Locke, Thomas Sherlock, Joseph Butler, and William Paley.第四,以理性的反駁和批評deistic出現較高迅速從這種筆能學者約翰洛克,托馬斯福爾摩斯,約瑟夫巴特勒和威廉佩利。 Special revelation and miracles were especially defended against attack.特別啟示和奇蹟的人尤其是對攻擊辯護。 Butler's Analogy of Religion in particular was so devastating that many have concluded that it is not only one of the strongest apologetics for the Christian faith, but that it was the chief reason for the demise of deism.巴特勒的類比的宗教尤其是如此嚴重,許多已經結束,它不僅是最強烈的護教學的基督教信仰,但是,它的主要理由的消亡自然神論。

GR Habermas受體哈貝馬斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
R. Descartes, Discourse on Method; P. Gay, Deism: An Anthology; G. Leibniz, Monadology; B. Spinoza, Ethics and Tractatus Theologico-Politicus; CL Becker, The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers; J. Bronowski and B. Mazlish, The Western Intellectual Tradition: From Leonardo to Hegel; F. Copleston, A History of Philosophy, IV; WT Jones, A History of Western Philosophy, III; B. Williams, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, VII.河笛卡爾,論方法;體育同性戀,自然神論:選集;灣萊布尼茨, Monadology ;灣斯賓諾莎,倫理學和Tractatus神學政治論;發光貝克爾,天上之城十八世紀哲學家;學者布魯諾斯基和B Mazlish ,西方知識分子的傳統:從達芬奇到黑格爾;樓Copleston ,歷史哲學,第四;野生瓊斯西方哲學史,三;威廉斯,哲學百科全書,七。


Rationalism理性

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Latin, ratio -- reason, the faculty of the mind which forms the ground of calculation, ie discursive reason. See APOLOGETICS; ATHEISM; BIBLE; DEISM; EMPIRICISM; ETHICS; BIBLICAL EXEGESIS; FAITH; MATERIALISM; MIRACLE; REVELATION). (拉丁美洲,比例-因此,教師的這種形式考慮到地面的計算,即話語的原因。見護教學;無神論;聖經;自然神論;經驗;道德;聖經註釋;信仰;唯物主義;奇蹟;啟示) 。

The term is used: (1) in an exact sense, to designate a particular moment in the development of Protestant thought in Germany; (2) in a broader, and more usual, sense to cover the view (in relation to which many schools may he classed as rationalistic) that the human reason, or understanding, is the sole source and final test of all truth.這個詞是用來: ( 1 )在一個確切的意義上說,指定一個特別的時刻發展的新教思想在德國( 2 )在一個更廣泛和更往常一樣,意義涵蓋的看法(相對於許多學校可他歸類為理性) ,人的理由,或理解,是唯一的來源和最終測試的所有真相。 It has further: (3) occasionally been applied to the method of treating revealed truth theologically, by casting it into a reasoned form, and employing philosophical Categories in its elaboration.它進一步: ( 3 )偶爾被用於治療方法揭示真理神學,它的鑄造成一個合理的形式,並僱用哲學範疇在擬訂。 These three uses of the term will be discussed in the present article.這三個用途的任期將討論在本規定。

(1) The German school of theological Rationalism formed a part of the more general movement of the eighteenth-century "Enlightenment". ( 1 )德國學校的神學形成了理性的一部分,更普遍的運動,十八世紀的“啟蒙” 。 It may be said to owe its immediate origin to the philosophical system of Christian Wolff (1679-1754), which was a modification, with Aristotelean features, of that of Leibniz, especially characterized by its spiritualism, determinism, and dogmatism.這可以說歸功於其立即起源的哲學體系的基督教沃爾夫( 1679年至1754年) ,這是一個修改,與Aristotelean特點,該萊布尼茨,特別是其特點唯心論,宿命論和教條主義。 This philosophy and its method exerted a profound influence upon contemporaneous German religious thought, providing it with a rationalistic point of view in theology and exegesis.這一理念和方法產生了深刻影響的同時德國宗教思想,它提供了理性的觀點來看,神學和註釋。 German philosophy in the eighteenth century was, as a whole, tributary to Leibniz, whose "Théodicée" was written principally against the Rationalism of Bayle: it was marked by an infiltration of English Deism and French Materialism, to which the Rationalism at present considered had great affinity, and towards which it progressively developed: and it was vulgarized by its union with popular literature.德國哲學在18世紀是作為一個整體,支流萊布尼茨的“ Théodicée ”寫主要是對理性的培爾:它的特點是一個滲透的英文自然神論和法國唯物主義,而理性考慮,目前已偉大的親和力,並實現它逐步發展:它庸俗化由工會與通俗文學。 Wolff himself was expelled from his chair at the University of Halle on account of the Rationalistic nature of his teaching, principally owing to the action of Lange (1670-1774; cf. "Causa Dei et reilgionis naturals adversus atheismum", and "Modesta Disputatio", Halle, 1723). Retiring to Marburg, he taught there until 1740, when he was recalled to Halle by Frederick II.沃爾夫本人被開除他的椅子上大學的哈雷對帳戶的理性性質,他的教學,主要是因為採取行動的蘭格( 1670年至1774年;比照。 “棣等事業reilgionis naturals adversus atheismum ”和“ Modesta Disputatio “哈雷, 1723 ) 。馬爾堡即將卸任,他教,直到1740年,當他回憶到哈雷的弗雷德里克二世。 Wolff's attempt to demonstrate natural religion rationally was in no sense an attack upon revelation.沃爾夫試圖證明自然宗教理性是沒有意義的襲擊後的啟示。 As a "supranaturalist" he admitted truths above reason, and he attempted to support by reason the supernatural truths contained in Holy Scripture.作為一個“ supranaturalist ”他承認真理上述原因,他企圖以支持因超自然的真理載於聖經。 But his attempt, while it incensed the pietistic school and was readily welcomed by the more liberal and moderate among the orthodox Lutherans, in reality turned out to be strongly in favour of the Naturalism that he wished to condemn.但他的企圖,而激怒了pietistic學校,並隨時歡迎更多的自由和溫和的正統路德會,但在現實中被證明是堅決贊成自然,他希望譴責。 Natural religion, he asserted, is demonstrable; revealed religion is to be found in the Bible alone.自然宗教,他斷言,是顯而易見的;發現宗教是要找到在聖經中就有。 But in his method of proof of the authority of Scripture recourse was had to reason, and thus the human mind became, logically, the ultimate arbiter in the case of both. Supranaturalism in theology, which it was Wolff's intention to uphold, proved incompatible with such a philosophical position, and Rationalism took its place. This, however, is to be distinguished from pure Naturalism, to which it led, but with which it never became theoretically identified.但是,在他的方法證明了聖經權威的追索權是有理性,從而成為人類思維邏輯上說,在最終裁決的情況下兩者兼而有之。 Supranaturalism在神學,它是沃爾夫的意圖在於堅持,不符合證明這樣一種哲學的立場,理性了它的位置。然而,這是區別於純粹的自然主義,它領導的,但它從來沒有成為理論上確定。 Revelation was not denied by the Rationalists; though, as a matter of fact, if not of theory, it was quietly suppressed by the claim, with its ever-increasing application, that reason is the competent judge of all truth.啟示是不否認,理性主義;但是,事實上,如果不是理論,它悄悄地抑制索賠,其日益增加的應用程序,這原因是主管法官的所有真相。 Naturalists, on the other hand, denied the fact of revelation.自然學家,另一方面,否認的事實啟示。 As with Deism and Materialism, the German Rationalism invaded the department of Biblical exegesis.至於自然神論和歷史唯物主義,德國入侵理性部聖經註釋。 Here a destructive criticism, very similar to that of the Deists, was levelled against the miracles recorded in, and the authenticity of the Holy Scripture.這裡具有破壞性的批評,非常相似的Deists ,是針對的奇蹟記錄,以及真實性的聖經。 Nevertheless, the distinction between Rationalism and Naturalism still obtained.然而,區分理性和自然仍然獲得。 The great Biblical critic Semler (1725-91), who is one of the principal representatives of the school, was a strong opponent of the latter; in company with Teller (1734-1804) and others he endeavoured to show that the records of the Bible have no more than a local and temporary character, thus attempting to safeguard the deeper revelation, while sacrificing to the critics its superficial vehicle.偉大的聖經評論家塞姆勒( 1725年至1791年) ,是誰的一個主要代表的學校,是一個強大的對手後,在與泰勒公司( 1734年至1804年)和其他他努力表明,該記錄聖經不超過地方和臨時性質,從而企圖維護更深的啟示,而犧牲的批評它的膚淺的車輛。 He makes the distinction between theology and religion (by which he signifies ethics).他讓之間的區別和宗教神學(其中他標誌著倫理) 。

The distinction made between natural and revealed religion necessitated a closer definition of the latter.之間的區別自然和啟示宗教,必須建立更密切的定義後者。 For Supernaturalists and Rationalists alike religion was held to be "a way of knowing and worshipping the Deity", but consisting chiefly, for the Rationalists, in the observance of God's law.對於Supernaturalists和理性主義的宗教都被認為是“一種認識和崇拜的神” ,但主要組成,為理性主義,在遵守上帝的法律。 This identification of religion with morals, which at the time was utilitarian in character (see UTILITARIANISM), led to further developments in the conceptions of the nature of religion, the meaning of revelation, and the value of the Bible as a collection of inspired writings.這確定宗教與道德,這在當時是功利的性質(見功利主義) ,導致進一步的發展概念的性質,宗教,啟示意義和價值的聖經作為一個收集靈感的著作。 The earlier orthodox Protestant view of religion as a body of truths published and taught by God to man in revelation was in process of disintegration.早先的正統基督教宗教觀作為一個機構出版的真理教按上帝的人的啟示是在過程中解體。 In Semler's distinction between religion (ethics) on the one hand and theology on the other, with Herder's similar separation of religion from theological opinions and religious usages, the cause of the Christian religion, as they conceived it, seemed to be put beyond the reach of the shock of criticism, which, by destroying the foundations upon which it claimed to rest, had gone so far to discredit the older form of Lutheranism. Kant's (1724-1804) criticism of the reason, however, formed a turning-point in the development of Rationalism.在塞姆勒的區別宗教(道德)一方面和神學另一方面,與赫德類似的政教分離從神學的觀點和宗教習慣,事業的基督教,因為它的設想,似乎是把鞭長莫及休克的批評,其中摧毀了基礎聲稱它休息,竟詆毀舊形式的路德教。康德( 1724至1804年)的批評,原因,然而,形成的一個轉折點發展的理性。 For a full understanding of his attitude, the reader must be acquainted with the nature of his pietistic upbringing and later scientific and philosophical formation in the Leibniz-Wolff school of thought (see KANT, PHILOSOPHY OF).為充分了解他的態度,讀者必須熟悉的性質,他pietistic撫育和更新科學和哲學的形成萊布尼茨,沃爾夫學校的思想(見康德哲學) 。 As far as concerns the point that occupies us at present, Kant was a Rationalist.至於涉及佔用一點我們目前,康德是一個理性。 For him religion was coextensive, with natural, though not utilitarian, morals.他宗教共存,與自然,但不是功利,道德。 When he met with the criticisms of Hume and undertook his famous "Kritik", his preoccupation was to safeguard his religious opinions, his rigorous morality, from the danger of criticism.當他會見了休謨的批評,並進行了著名的“批判” ,他的當務之急是維護宗教的意見,他嚴格的道德,從危險的批評。 This he did, not by means of the old Rationalism, but by throwing discredit upon metaphysics.這他,而不是由手段的舊理性,而是通過詆毀投擲後形而上學。 The accepted proofs of the existence of God, immortality, and liberty were thus, in his opinion, overthrown, and the well-known set of postulates of the "categoric imperative" put forward in their place.公認的證明上帝存在,永生,和自由,因此,他認為,推翻,和眾所周知的一套假設的“絕對必要” ,提出自己的位置。 This, obviously, was the end of Rationalism in its earlier form, in which the fundamental truths of religion were set out as demonstrable by reason.顯然,這是理性年底在其早先的形式,其中根本的宗教真理闡明了作為證明的原因。 But, despite the shifting of the burden of religion from the pure to the practical reason, Kant himself never seems to have reached the view --; to which all his work pointed --; that religion is not mere ethics, "conceiving moral laws as divine commands", no matter how far removed from Utilitarianism --; not an affair of the mind, but of the heart and will; and that revelation does not reach man by way of an exterior promulgation, but consists in a personal adaptation towards God.但是,儘管轉移的負擔,宗教從純粹的實踐理性,康德本人似乎永遠不會達成的看法-;這是所有他的工作指出- ;,宗教不僅僅是職業道德,“道德的法律構想作為神的命令“ ,無論多麼遠離功利主義-;不是一個事件的介意,但心和意願; ,並揭露沒有達到人的方式頒布的外觀,而且包括以個人為適應上帝。 This conception was reached gradually with the advance of the theory that man possesses a religious sense, or faculty, distinct from the rational (Fries, 1773-1843; Jacobi, 1743-1819; Herder, 1744-1803; -- all opposed to the Intellectualism of Kant), and ultimately found expression with Schleiermacher (1768-1834), for whom religion is to be found neither in knowledge nor in action, but in a peculiar attitude of mind which consists in the consciousness of absolute dependence upon God.這一概念逐漸達成了與預先的理論,人具有宗教意義,或教師,有別於理性(薯條, 1773年至1843年;雅可比, 1743年至1819年;赫德, 1744年至1803年; -所有反對智識康德) ,並最終找到表達與施( 1768年至1834年) ,為他們的宗教是要找到既沒有知識,也不採取行動,但在一個特殊的態度,考慮到其中包括在意識的絕對依賴上帝。 Here the older distinction between natural and revealed religion disappears.在這裡,老年人之間的區別自然和啟示宗教消失。 All that can be called religion -- the consciousness of dependence -- is at the same time revelational, and all religion is of the same character.所有這一切可稱為宗教-意識的依賴-是在同一時間re velational,所有宗教是同一性質。 There is no special revelation in the older Protestant (the Catholic) sense, but merely this attitude of dependence brought into being in the individual by the teaching of various great personalities who, from time to time, have manifested an extraordinary sense of the religious.有沒有特別的啟示中老年人新教(天主教)感覺,只是這種態度的依賴帶入的是在個人的教學中的各種偉大的人物誰,不時表現出了非凡的意義上的宗教。 Schleiermacher was a contemporary of Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, whose philoasophical speculations had influence, with his own, in ultimately subverting Rationalism as here dealt with.施是一種當代的費希特,謝林,黑格爾,其philoasophical猜測了影響,他自己,在最終顛覆理性這裡處理。 The movement may be said to have ended with him -- in the opinion of Teller "the greatest theologian that the Protestant Church has had since the period of the Reformation".這個運動可以說已經結束與他-的意見櫃員機“最大的神學家認為新教以來已時期的改革” 。 The majority of modern Protestant theologians accept his views, not, however, to the exclusion of knowledge as a basis of religion. Parallel with the development of the philosophical and theological views as to the nature of religion and the worth of revelation, which provided it with its critical principles, took place an exegetical evolution.大多數的現代基督教神學家接受他的意見,但是,不排除知識為基礎的宗教。並行的發展哲學和神學觀點的性質,宗教和價值的啟示,它向它提供其關鍵的原則,舉行了一個訓詁的演變。 The first phase consisted in replacing the orthodox Protestant doctrine (ie that the Sacred Scriptures are the Word of God) by a distinction between the Word of God contained in the Bible and the Bible itself (Töllner, Herder), though the Rationalists still held that the purer source of revelation lies rather in the written than in the traditional word.第一階段包括更換正統基督教教義(即神聖的聖經是天主的聖言)的區別天主的聖言中所載的聖經和聖經本身( Töllner ,赫德) ,但理性主義仍然認為,在純潔的啟示在於,而在書面比傳統的詞。 This distinction led inevitably to the destruction, of the rigid view of inspiration, and prepared the ground for the second phase.這種區分必然會引起的破壞,僵化的觀點的啟發,準備在當地為第二階段。 The principle of accommodation was now employed to explain the difficulties raised by the Scripture records of miraculous events and demoniacal manifestations (Senf, Vogel), and arbitrary methods of exegesis were also used to the same end (Paulus, Eichhorn).這一原則的住宿,現在用來解釋的困難所提出的聖經記錄的神奇事件和demoniacal表現(森福教授,沃格爾) ,以及任意方法的註釋也被用來為同一目的(保盧斯,艾希霍恩) 。 In the third phase Rationalists had reached the point of allowing the possibility of mistakes having been made by Christ and the Apostles, at any rate with regard to non-essential parts of religion.在第三階段達到了理性主義的角度允許犯錯誤的可能性已經取得了基督和使徒,無論如何對於非重要組成部分的宗教。 All the devices of exegesis were employed vainly; and, in the end, Rationalists found themselves forced to admit that the authors of the New Testament must have written from a point of view different from that which a modern theologian would adopt (Henke, Wegseheider).所有設備的註釋就業徒勞; ,並在最後,理性主義發現自己不得不承認,作者的新約全書必須有書面的觀點不同於現代神學家將通過(亨克, Wegseheider ) 。 This principle, which is sufficiently elastic to admit of usage by nearly every variety of opinion, was admitted by several of the Supernaturalists (Reinhard, Storr), and is very generally accepted by modern Protestant divines, in the rejection of verbal inspiration.這條原則,這是足夠的彈性承認使用了幾乎每一個不同的意見,承認了幾個Supernaturalists (萊因哈德,斯托爾) ,是非常普遍接受的現代新教divines ,在口頭上反對的靈感。 Herder is very clear on the distinction -- the truly inspired must be discerned from that which is not; and de Wette lays down as the canon of interpretation "the religious perception of the divine operation, or of the Holy Spirit, in the sacred writers as regards their belief and inspiration, but not respecting their faculty of forming ideas. . ."赫德是非常明確的區別-真正的激勵必須從這一發現這不是和德W ette奠定了作為經典的解釋“的宗教觀念的神聖行動,或聖靈,在神聖的作家對於自己的信仰和靈感,但不尊重他們的教師組成的想法。 。 。 “ In an extreme form it may be seen employed in such works as Strauss's "Leben Jesu", where the hypothesis of the mythical nature of miracles is developed to a greater extent than by Schleiermacher or de Wette.在一種極端的形式,可以看出在這種就業工程作為施特勞斯的“耶穌生平” ,在假設的神話性質的奇蹟是開發在更大程度上比施或Wette 。

(2) Rationalism, in the broader, popular meaning of the term, is used to designate any mode of thought in which human reason holds the place of supreme criterion of truth; in this sense, it is especially applied to such modes of thought as contrasted with faith. ( 2 )理性,在更廣泛的,流行的一詞的含義,是用來指定任何模式的思想在人類理性的地方舉行的最高準則的真理;從這個意義上講,它是特別適用於這種思維方式的作為對比的信念。 Thus Atheism, Materialism, Naturalism, Pantheism, Scepticism, etc., fall under the head of rationalistic systems.因此,無神論,唯物主義,自然主義,泛神論,懷疑論等,屬於理性負責制度。 As such, the rationalistic tendency has always existed in philosophy, and has generally shown itself powerful in all the critical schools.因此,理性主義傾向始終存在著哲學,並已普遍顯示出其強大的所有重要的學校。 As has been noted in the preceding paragraph, German Rationalism had strong affinities with English Deism and French Materialism, two historic forms in which the tendency has manifested itself.正如已經指出前一段,德國的理性主義有很強的親和力英語自然神論和法國唯物主義,兩個歷史性形式的趨勢表現出來。 But with the vulgarization of the ideas contained in the various systems that composed these movements, Rationalism has degenerated.但是,隨著庸俗化的想法在各個系統組成,這些動作,理性已墮落。 It has become connected in the popular mind with the shallow and misleading philosophy frequently put forward in the name of science, so that a double confusion has arisen, in which;它已成為連接中流行的頭腦,淺水和誤導性的哲學經常提出的科學名稱,這樣的雙重混亂出現了,其中;

questionable philosophical speculations are taken for scientific facts, and science is falsely supposed to be in opposition to religion.哲學問題的猜測是採取科學事實,科學是錯誤應該在反對宗教。

This Rationalism is now rather a spirit, or attitude, ready to seize upon any arguments, from any source and of any or no value, to urge against the doctrines and practices of faith.這是理性而不是現在的精神或態度,隨時準備抓住任何論據,從任何來源的任何或沒有任何價值,敦促對理論和實踐的信念。 Beside this crude and popular form it has taken, for which the publication of cheap reprints and a vigorous propaganda are mainly responsible, there runs the deeper and more thoughtful current of critical-philosophical Rationalism, which either rejects religion and revelation altogether or treats them in much the same manner as did the Germans.除了本原油和流行的形式,採取了,而廉價的出版和重印大力宣傳主要負責,但運行更深入和更周到當前的關鍵哲學理性,它拒絕任何宗教和啟示完全或對待他們大致相同的方式,沒有德國人。 Its various manifestations have little in common in method or content, save the general appeal to reason as supreme.它的各種表現幾乎沒有共同的方法或內容,保存的一般上訴理由最高。 No better description of the position can be given than the statements of the objects of the Rationalist Press Association.沒有更好的描述的立場可以得到比報表的物體的理性報業協會。 Among these are: "To stimulate the habits of reflection and inquiry and the free exercise of individual intellect . . . and generally to assert the supremacy of reason as the natural and necessary means to all such knowledge and wisdom as man can achieve".其中有: “為了刺激習慣的反思和調查,並自由地行使個人的智慧。 。 。 ,一般主張至高無上的理由是天然的和必要的手段,所有這些知識和智慧的人才能實現。 ” A perusal of the publications of the same will show in what sense this representative body interprets the above statement.阿細讀出版物的同時將顯示在何種意義上這代表機構解釋上述聲明的。 It may be said finally, that Rationalism is the direct and logical outcome of the principles of Protestantism; and that the intermediary form, in which assent is given to revealed truth as possessing the imprimatur of reason, is only a phase in the evolution of ideas towards general disbelief.可以說最後,理性是直接和合乎邏輯的結果的原則,新教;和中介機構的形式,其中同意給予揭示真理擁有認可的理由,只是一個階段的發展過程中的想法對一般難以置信。 Official condemnations of the various forms of Rationalism, absolute and mitigated, are to be found in the Syllabus of Pius IX.正式譴責各種形式的理性,絕對和緩解,將發現的教學大綱的庇護九。

(3) The term Rationalism is perhaps not usually applied to the theological method of the Catholic Church. ( 3 )長期理性也許並不適用於通常的神學方法的天主教教會。 All forms of theological statement, however, and pre-eminently the dialectical form of Catholic theology, are rationalistic in the truest sense.一切形式的神學聲明,然而,前突出的辯證形式的天主教神學,是理性的真正意義。 Indeed, the claim of such Rationalism as is dealt with above is directly met by the counter claim of the Church: that it is at best but a mutilated and unreasonable Rationalism, not worthy of the name, while that of the Church is rationally complete, and integrated, moreover, with super-rational truth.實際上,這種要求作為理性處理以上是直接由反索賠的教會:即它是最好的,而是被肢解和不合理的理性,而不是名副其實的,而教會是完全合理的,和綜合性,此外,超理性的真理。 In this sense Catholic theology presupposes the certain truths of natural reason as the preambula fidei, philosophy (the ancilla theologiæ) is employed in the defence of revealed truth (see APOLOGETICS), and the content of Divine revelation is treated and systematized in the categories of natural thought. This systematization is carried out both in dogmatic and moral theology.在這個意義上天主教神學的前提是某些真理的自然原因的preambula信仰,哲學(神學的婢女)受僱在捍衛真理發現(見護教學) ,和內容神聖的啟示是治療和系統化的各類自然的思想。這種系統化進行了在教條和道德神學。 It is a process contemporaneous with the first attempt at a scientific statement of religious truth, comes to perfection of method in the works of such writers as St.這是一個過程同期的第一次嘗試了科學的說明宗教真理,來完善方法的作品,例如作家街 Thomas Aquinas and St. Alphonsus, and is consistently employed and developed in the Schools.托馬斯阿奎那和聖阿方,並始終就業和發展中的學校。

Publication information Written by Francis Aveling.出版信息撰稿:弗朗西斯Aveling 。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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