Quietism

General Information 一般信息

The term has several connotations and is often used in a broad sense to refer to the emphasis on human inactivity and passivity that has accompanied the mystic experience.這個詞有幾個內涵,往往是中被廣泛使用的意義指的是強調人類活動和被動已經伴隨著神秘的經驗。 In a more specific way it refers to a manifestation of Roman Catholic mysticism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.在一個更具體的方式是指體現了羅馬天主教的神秘主義在17和18世紀。 This movement was inspired by the teachings of Miguel de Molinos, a Spanish priest who lived in Italy and published his views in a book entitled Spiritual Guide.這一運動的靈感來自教誨米格爾德莫利諾斯,西班牙神父誰住在意大利和發表自己的看法一本書,題為精神指南。 According to Molinos the goal of Christian experience is the perfect rest of the soul in God. Such a condition is possible when a person abandons himself completely to God and the will is totally passive.據莫利諾斯的目標,基督教的經驗是完美的其餘的靈魂在上帝。這樣的條件下是可能的當一個人完全放棄自己對上帝的意願是完全被動的。 Mental prayer rather than any external activity is the means to the state of absolute rest with God. Molinos was accused of despising Christian virtue and of moral aberration because he believed that in a state of contemplation the soul is unaffected by either good works or sin.心理祈禱,而不是任何外部活動是指對國家的絕對休息與上帝。莫利諾斯被指控鄙視基督教美德和道德畸變因為他認為在一個國家的沉思的靈魂是不會受到任何好的作品或罪孽。 The Jesuits led the attack on his doctrine, claiming that it was an exaggerated and unhealthy form of mysticism.耶穌會導致攻擊他的理論,聲稱它是一種誇大和不健康的神秘主義。 Through their efforts he was arrested and imprisoned.通過他們的努力,他被逮捕和監禁。

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Despite the opposition quietism spread to France, where it found an outstanding proponent in Madame Guyon, a woman from an influential family.儘管反對派傳播quietism法國,在那裡發現了一個傑出的投標人居永夫人,一個女人從一個有影響力的家庭。 Forced to abandon her desire to follow a religious vocation and instead to marry, she was constantly seeking a deeper spiritual life. Following the death of her husband she came under the influence of Molinos's thought and by 1680 felt herself so close to God that she received visions and revelations.被迫放棄她希望後續的宗教使命,而是結婚,她不斷尋求更深的精神生活。去世後她的丈夫,她的影響下,莫利諾斯的思想和一千六百八十〇覺得自己如此接近上帝,她收到遠見和啟示。 Traveling widely through France she won many converts, calling them "spiritual children."通過廣泛的旅行法國,她贏得了許多轉換,稱他們為“精神文明孩子。 ” Her teaching, elaborated in A Short and Easy Method of Prayer, emphasized passive prayer as the major Christian activity.她的教學,闡述在很短的簡易方法祈禱,祈禱強調被動為主要基督教活動。 Eventually, she felt, the soul will lose all interest in its own fate, and even the truth of the gospel would be insignificant before "the torrent of the forces of God."最後,她覺得,靈魂將失去所有關心自己的命運,甚至是真理的福音將是微不足道的前“種子部隊的上帝。 ”

On a popular level her teaching led to a disregard for the spiritual activities and the sacraments of the church.在她的受歡迎程度教學導致了無視的精神活動和聖禮的教堂。 The result was a belief in a vague pantheism which is closer to the South Asian religions than to Christianity.其結果是信仰的一個模糊的泛神論這是靠近南亞的宗教,而不是基督教。 Bossuet, bishop of Meaux, warned her to stop propagating these ideas, and others considered her mentally unbalanced, but she continued to win followers.波舒哀主教莫,警告她停止傳播這些想法,和其他人認為她精神失常,但她不斷贏得追隨者。 She exchanged a series of letters with Fenelon, who admired and defended her ideas.她交換了一系列信件,費內龍,誰欽佩和捍衛她的想法。 In 1687 Pope Innocent XI condemned quietism, and Guyon along with many of her followers suffered imprisonment and persecution.在1687諾森十一quietism譴責,並居永連同她的許多追隨者遭受監禁和迫害。

RG Clouse的RG克勞斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
P. Hazard, The European Mind; RA Knox, Enthusiasm.體育危害,歐洲心靈;類風濕性關節炎諾克斯,熱情。


Quietism

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Quietism (Latin quies, quietus, passivity) in the broadest sense is the doctrine which declares that man's highest perfection consists in a sort of psychical self-annihilation and a consequent absorption of the soul into the Divine Essence even during the present life. Quietism (拉丁文quies , quietus ,被動)在廣泛的意義上是理論,其中宣布,男子的最高完善包括在一種心理自我毀滅,從而吸收的靈魂到神的本質,即使在目前的生活。 In the state of "quietude" the mind is wholly inactive; it no longer thinks or wills on its own account, but remains passive while God acts within it.在該州的“寂靜”的思想是完全無效;它不再認為遺囑或在其自己的帳戶,但仍然被動行為,而上帝內。 Quietism is thus generally speaking a sort of false or exaggerated mysticism, which under the guise of the loftiest spirituality contains erroneous notions which, if consistently followed, would prove fatal to morality. Quietism因此,一般來說,一種虛假或誇大的神秘主義,它的幌子下最崇高的精神包含錯誤的概念,如果一貫遵循,將證明是致命的道德準則。 It is fostered by Pantheism and similar theories, and it involves peculiar notions concerning the Divine cooperation in human acts.這是培育的泛神論和類似的理論,它涉及到特有的概念關於神在人類合作的行為。 In a narrower sense Quietism designates the mystical element in the teaching of various sects which have sprung up within the Church, only to be cast out as heretical.在狹義Quietism指定的神秘元素教學中的各教派的興起,教會內,只有將投出的異端邪說。 In some of these the Quietistic teaching has been the conspicuous error, in others it has been a mere corollary of more fundamental erroneous doctrine.在一些教學的Quietistic一直是顯眼的錯誤,在另一些國家,已成為必然結果僅僅是更根本的錯誤理論。 Quietism finally, in the strictest acceptation of the term, is the doctrine put forth and defended in the seventeenth century by Molinos and Petrucci. Quietism最後,在嚴格驗收的任期,是理論提出和捍衛在十七世紀由莫利諾斯和彼得魯奇。 Out of their teaching developed the less radical form known as Semiquietism, whose principle advocates were Fénelon and Madame Guyon.在他們的教學制定了不到根治的形式被稱為Semiquietism ,其原則主張是費內龍和夫人居永。 All these varieties of Quietism insist with more or less emphasis on interior passivity as the essential condition of perfection; and all have been proscribed in very explicit terms by the Church.所有這些品種的Quietism堅持或多或少重點放在內部被動為必要條件的完善;和所有已被禁非常明確的教會。

In its essential features Quietism is a characteristic of the religions of India.在其基本特點Quietism的一個特點是宗教的印度。 Both Pantheistic Brahmanism and Buddhism aim at a sort of self-annihilation, a state of indifference in which the soul enjoys an imperturbable tranquillity.這Pantheistic婆羅門教和佛教的目的是一種自我毀滅,一個國家的冷漠,其中的靈魂得到安寧的沉著。 And the means of bringing this about is the recognition of one's identity with Brahma, the all-god, or, for the Buddhist, the quenching of desire and the consequent attainment of Nirvana, incompletely in the present life, but completely after death.和手段做到這一點是承認一個人的身份與梵,所有神,或為佛教,淬火的慾望和由此實現涅磐,不完全在目前的生活,但完全後死亡。 Among the Greeks the Quietistic tendency is represented by the Stoics.在希臘人的Quietistic的趨勢是由Stoics 。 Along with Pantheism, which characterizes their theory of the world, they present in their apatheia an ideal which recalls the indifference aimed at by the Oriental mystics.隨著泛神論,它的特點及其理論的世界,他們在其apatheia一個理想的回顧,以冷漠的東方神秘主義者。 The wise man is he who has become independent and free from all desire.智者是誰,他已經成為獨立的,不受所有的願望。 According to some of the Stoics, the sage may indulge in the lowest kind of sensuality, so far as the body is concerned, without incurring the least defilement of his soul.據一些Stoics ,聖人可能沉迷於最低的一種肉感,就身體而言,不產生至少污辱了他的靈魂。 The Neoplatonists (qv) held that the One gives rise to the Nous or Intellect, this to the world-soul, and this again to individual souls.該Neoplatonists ( qv )舉行,一個使人的理性或理智,這對世界的靈魂,這再次向個別的靈魂。 These, in consequence of their union with matter, have forgotten their Divine origin.這些,在他們的後果與工會問題,已經忘記自己神聖的原產地。 Hence the fundamental principle of morality is the return of the soul to its source.因此,基本原則是道德的返回的靈魂其來源。 The supreme destiny of man and his highest happiness consists in rising to the contemplation of the One, not by thought but by ecstasy (ekstasis).最高命運的男子和他的幸福組成,最高上升到沉思的一個,而不是思想,而是由搖頭丸( ekstasis ) 。

The origin of these Quietistic tendencies is not hard to discover.起源這些Quietistic趨勢不難發現。 However strongly the Pantheistic conception of the world may appeal to the philosophic minded, it cannot do away with the obvious data of experience.然而強烈Pantheistic概念的世界可向上訴的哲學思想,它不能放棄的明顯數據的經驗。 To say that the soul is part of the Divine being or an emanation from God enhances, apparently, the dignity of man; but there still remains the fact that passion, desire, and moral evil make human life anything but Divine.說的靈魂,是神聖的或氣來自上帝的增強,顯然,人的尊嚴,但仍然存在的事實,激情,慾望,罪惡和道德使人類生活,但神聖的東西。 Hence the craving for deliverance and peace which can be obtained only by some sort of withdrawal from action and from dependence on external things and by a consequent immersion, more or less complete, in the Divine being.因此,渴望解脫與和平可以得到只有通過某種形式的撤出行動,並從依賴外部的事情,並隨之浸泡,或多或少地完成,在神聖的福祉。 These aberrations of Mysticism continued even after the preaching of Christianity had revealed to mankind the truth concerning God, the moral order, and human destiny.這些反常現象的神秘主義繼續即使在宣揚基督教,發現人類的真相關於上帝,道德秩序和人類的命運。 Gnosticism, especially the Antinomian School, looked for salvation in a sort of intuitive knowledge of the Divine which emancipated the "spiritual" from the obligation of the moral law.諾斯替主義,特別是Antinomian學校,尋找救國的一種直觀的了解這神聖的解放“精神”的義務的道德法。 The same Quietistic tendency appears in the teaching of the Euchites or Messalians, who maintained that prayer frees the body from passion and the soul from evil inclination, so that sacraments and penitential works are useless. They were condemned at the Synod of Side in Pamphilia (383) and at Ephesus (431).同樣的Quietistic的趨勢出現在教學Euchites或Messalians ,誰主張,祈禱釋放身體的激情和靈魂邪惡的傾向,因此,聖禮和悔罪工程是毫無用處的。譴責他們在會議上側的Pamphilia ( 383 )和以弗所( 431 ) 。 The Bogomili (qv) of the later Middle Ages were probably their lineal descendants.該Bogomili ( qv )的中世紀以後很可能他們的直系後裔。

Medieval Quietism is further represented in the vagaries of Hesychasm, according to which the supreme aim of life on earth is the contemplation of the uncreated light whereby man is intimately united with God.中世紀Quietism進一步代表變幻莫測的Hesychasm ,其中的最高目的是地球上的生命是沉思的參照,即uncreated人有著密切的團結與上帝。 The means for attaining to such contemplation are prayer, complete repose of body and will, and a process of auto-suggestion.手段實現這種沉思的祈禱,完全寄託的身體和意志,一個過程的自動建議。 Among the errors of the Beguines and Beghards condemned by the Council of Vienne (1311-12) are the propositions: that man in the present life can attain such a degree of perfection as to become utterly impeccable; that the "perfect" have no need to fast or pray, but may freely grant the body whatsoever it craves; that they are not subject to any human authority or bound by the precepts of the Church (see Denzinger-Bannwart, 471 sqq.).其中的錯誤Beguines和Beghards譴責安理會的維埃納( 1311年至1312年)的主張:即人本的生活能夠達到這種程度的完善,成為完全無可挑剔;的“完美”有沒有必要快速或祈禱,但可以自由地給予它什麼身體渴望; ,他們不受任何人的授權或受戒律的教會(見Denzinger - Bannwart , 471 sqq 。 ) 。 Similar exaggerations on the part of the Fraticelli led to their condemnation by John XXII in 1317 (Denzinger-Bannwart, 484 sqq.).類似的誇張的一部分Fraticelli使他們譴責約翰二十二中1317 ( Denzinger - Bannwart , 484 sqq 。 ) 。 The same pope in 1329 proscribed among the errors of Meister Eckhart the assertions that (prop. 10) we are totally transformed into God just as in the sacrament the bread is changed into the Body of Christ; that (14) since God wills that I should have sinned I do not wish that I had not sinned; that (18) we should bring forth the fruit, not of external actions, which do not make us good, but of internal actions which are wrought by the Father abiding within us (Denzinger-Bannwart, 501, sqq). Quite in accord with their Pantheistic principles, the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit (thirteenth to fifteenth century) held that they who have reached perfection, ie complete absorption in God, have no need of external worship, of sacraments, or of prayer; they owe no obedience to any law, since their will is identical with God's will; and they may indulge their carnal desires to any extent without staining the soul.同教皇在1329年被禁的錯誤艾克哈的斷言( prop. 10 )我們完全轉化為上帝一樣的聖禮的麵包變成了基督的奧體,這( 14 )上帝的意志,因為我應該有罪我不想說我沒有犯過罪;說( 18 )我們應該帶來的果實,而不是外部的行動,不使我們很好,但內部行動,這是造成守法的父親在我們( Denzinger - Bannwart , 501 , sqq ) 。很符合他們的Pantheistic原則,弟兄姐妹們的自由精神(第十三至十五世紀)舉行,他們誰已經達到完美,即完全吸收的上帝,沒有必要的外部禮拜的聖禮,或祈禱,他們應該沒有服從任何法律,因為他們的將是相同的天意; ,他們可能沉溺於他們的肉體的慾望在任何程度不染的靈魂。 This is also substantially the teaching of the Illuminati (Alumbrados), a sect that disturbed Spain during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.這也大大的教學光明( Alumbrados ) ,一個教派的不安西班牙在十六世紀和十七世紀。

It was the Spaniards Michael de Molinos who developed Quietism in the strictest sense of the term.這是西班牙人的莫利諾斯邁克爾發達國家Quietism誰在嚴格意義上的。 From his writings, especially from his "Dux spiritualis" (Rome, 1675), sixty-eight propositions were extracted and condemned by Innocent XI in 1687 (Denzinger-Bannwart, 1221 sqq.).從他的著作,特別是從他的“ Dux精神性” (羅馬, 1675年) , 68主張提取和譴責無辜的十一大在1687 ( Denzinger - Bannwart , 1221 sqq 。 ) 。 The key-note of the system is contained in the first proposition: man must annihilate his powers and this is the inward way (via interna); in fact, the desire to do anything actively is offensive to God and hence one must abandon oneself entirely to God and thereafter remain as a lifeless body (prop. 2).的關鍵,說明該系統中的第一個命題:人類必須消滅他的權力,這是外來的方式(通過國際) ;事實上,希望做任何積極的進攻,上帝,因而我們必須完全放棄自己上帝並在其後繼續作為一個生命體( prop. 2 ) 。 By doing nothing the soul annihilates itself and returns to its source, the essence of God, in which it is transformed and divinized, and then God abides in it (5).無為的靈魂annihilates本身並返回其來源,本質的上帝,在它轉化和divinized然後,上帝在遵守它( 5 ) 。 In this inward way, the soul has not to think either of reward or of punishment, of heaven or hell, of death or eternity.在這個外來的方式,靈魂還沒有想任何獎勵或處罰,天堂或地獄,死亡或永恆。 It must not concern itself about its own state, its defects, or its progress in virtue; having once resigned its will to God it must let Him work out His will without any action of the soul itself (7-13).它絕不能對自己關心自己的國家,它的缺陷,或其進展美德;有一次辭職的意願,上帝就必須讓他進行他的工作將不採取任何行動的靈魂本身( 7-13 ) 。 He who has thus committed himself entirely to God must not ask anything of God, or render thanks to Him; must take no account of temptations nor offer any active resistance; "and if nature be stirred one must permit its stirring because it is nature" (14-17).他因此,誰自己完全致力於向上帝絕不能問什麼上帝,或使其感謝他;必須沒有考慮到的誘惑,也沒有提供任何積極性; “ ,如果性質是激起人們必須允許其攪拌,因為它的性質” ( 14-17 ) 。 In prayer one must not use images or discursive thought, but must remain in "obscure faith" and in quiet, forgetting every distinct thought of the Divine attributes, abiding in God's presence to adore, love and serve Him, but without producing any acts because with these God is not pleased. Whatever thoughts arise during prayer, even though they be impure or against faith, if they are not voluntarily encouraged nor voluntarily expelled but are suffered with indifference and resignation, do not hinder the prayer of faith but rather enhance its perfection.在祈禱中不能使用圖片或話語,但卻必須留在“掩蓋的信念” ,並在安靜的,忘記每一個不同思想的神聖屬性,遵守上帝的存在,崇拜,愛情和服務,但他沒有產生任何行為,因為這些上帝是不是高興。什麼想法期間出現的祈禱,即使他們是不純或反對的信仰,如果不鼓勵,也不主動自願驅逐,但遭受的冷漠和辭職,不妨礙祈禱的信仰,而是加強其完善。 He who desires sensible devotion is seeking not God but himself; indeed every sensible effect experienced in the spiritual life is abominable, filthy, unclean (18-20).他誰的願望是合理的奉獻精神尋求不是上帝,但他實際上每一個明智的影響經歷的精神生活是可惡的,骯髒的,不潔的( 18-20 ) 。

No preparation is required before Communion nor thanksgiving after other than that the soul remain in its usual state of passive resignation; and the soul must not endeavour to arouse in itself feelings of devotion.沒有任何準備之前,需要交流後,也感恩以外的靈魂留在其正常狀態的被動辭職;和靈魂絕不能努力喚起本身感情的奉獻精神。 Interior souls resign themselves, in silence, to God; and the more thorough their resignation the more do they realize that they are unable to recite even the "Pater Noster". They should elicit no acts of love for the Blessed Virgin or the saints or the Humanity of Christ, because, as these are all sensible objects, love for them is also sensible.室內辭去自己的靈魂,在沉默,向上帝;和更徹底的辭職更這樣做,他們認識到,他們無法背誦甚至是“佩特Noster 。 ”應徵求他們的行為沒有愛聖母或聖人或人性的基督,因為這些都是明智的對象,為他們的愛也是明智的。 External works are not necessary to sanctification, and penitential works, ie voluntary mortification should be cast off as a grievous and useless burden (32-40).對外工程是沒有必要成聖,並悔罪工程,即自願屈辱應擺脫作為一個嚴重的和無用的負擔( 32-40 ) 。 God permits the demon to use "violence" with certain perfect souls even to the point of making them perform carnal actions either alone or with other persons.上帝允許魔鬼使用“暴力”與某些完美的靈魂甚至使他們的行動進行肉體單獨或與其他人。 When these onsets occur, one must make no effort but let the demon have his way.當這些onsets發生,我們必須作出努力,但沒有讓惡魔有他的去路。 Scruples and doubts must be set aside.顧忌和疑慮必須予以撤銷。 In particular, these things are not to be mentioned in confession, because by not confessing them the soul overcomes the demon, acquires a "treasure of peace", and attains to closer union with God (41-52).特別是,這些事情不應該提到的供詞,因為不承認他們的靈魂克服了惡魔,獲得了“珍惜和平” ,並達到更密切工會與上帝( 41-52 ) 。 The "inward way" has nothing to do with confession, confessors, cases of conscience, theology, or philosophy. Indeed, God sometimes makes it impossible for souls who are advanced in perfection to go to confession, and supplies them with as much grace as they would receive in the Sacrament of Penance.該“辦法向內”沒有任何關係招供, confessors ,案件的良知,神學,或哲學。事實上,上帝有時使它不可能的靈魂誰是先進的完善去懺悔,並為其提供了寬限期為他們將收到的聖懺悔。 The inward way leads on to a state in which passion is extinguished, sin is no more, sense is deadened, and the soul, willing only what God wills, enjoys an imperturbable peace: this is the mystic death.在抵港的方式導致了國家在這激情撲滅,沒有罪惡更多的感覺是deadened和靈魂,只願意上帝的意志,有著沉著和平:這是神秘的死亡。 They who pursue this path must obey their superiors outwardly; even the vow of obedience taken by religious extends only to outward actions, only God and the director enter into the soul's interior.他們誰走這條道路必須服從上級外表;甚至發誓服從所採取的宗教範圍只適用於外向的行動,只有上帝和導演進入靈魂的內飾。 To say that the soul in its interior life should be governed by the bishop is a new and very ridiculous doctrine; for on the hidden things the Church passes no judgment (55-68). From this summary it is readily seen why the Church condemned Quietism. Nevertheless, these doctrines had found adherents even in the higher ranks of the clergy, such as the Oratorian, Pietro Matteo Petrucci (1636-1701), who was made Bishop of Jesi (1681), and raised to the cardinalate (1686).說的靈魂在其內部的生活應該由主教是一個新的和非常荒謬的學說;用於隱藏的東西教會通行證沒有判決( 55-68 ) 。從這個簡要這是不難看出,為什麼會譴責Quietism 。然而,這些理論已發現的信徒甚至在上級神職人員,如Oratorian ,彼得利瑪竇彼得魯奇( 1736至01年) ,誰是主教Jesi ( 1681 ) ,並提出向紅衣主教( 1686 ) 。 His works on Mysticism and the spiritual life were criticized by the Jesuit Paolo Segneri, and a controversy ensued which resulted in an examination of the whole question by the Inquisition, and the proscription of fifty-four propositions taken from eight of Petrucci's writings (1688).他的作品的神秘主義和精神生活的批評耶穌保羅Segneri ,以及隨後的爭議導致審查整個問題的探討,並取締54主張從8彼得魯奇的著作( 1688 ) 。 He submitted at once, resigned his bishopric in 1696, and was appointed by Innocent XII Apostolic visitor.他再次提出辭職,他的主教在1696號決議,並任命了無辜的十二使徒訪問者。 Other leaders of the Quietist movement were: Joseph Beccarelli of Milan, who retracted before the Inquisition at Venice in 1710; François Malaval, a blind layman of Marseilles (1627-1719); and especially the Barnabite François Lacombe, the director of Mme.其他領導人的寂靜主義運動是:約瑟夫Beccarelli的米蘭,誰收回的調查之前,在威尼斯在1710年;弗朗索瓦Malaval ,盲目門外漢馬賽( 1627年至1719年) ; ,特別是Barnabite弗朗索瓦拉孔布,導演太太。 Guyon, whose views were embraced by Fénelon.居永,其觀點是接受了費內龍。

The doctrine contained in Fénelon's "Explication de Maximes des Saints" was suggested by the teachings of Molinos, but was less extreme in its principles and less dangerous in its application; it is usually designated as Semiquietism. The controversy between Bossuet and Fénelon has already been noticed.理論載於費內龍的“釋德Maximes萬聖徒”所建議的教誨莫利諾斯,但不太極端的原則和危險性較小的應用,它通常是被指定為Semiquietism 。之間的爭議和費內龍波舒哀已注意。 The latter submitted his book to the Holy See for examination, with the result that twenty-three propositions extracted from it were condemned by Innocent XII in 1699 (Denzinger-Bannwart, 1327 sqq.).後者提交了他的書,羅馬教廷檢查,結果是03年命題提取它是無辜的譴責十二1699 ( Denzinger - Bannwart , 1327 sqq 。 ) 。 According to Fénelon, there is an habitual state of the love of God which is wholly pure and disinterested, without fear of punishment or desire of reward.根據費內龍,有一個慣常的狀況上帝的愛是完全純潔和無私,而不用擔心懲罰或獎賞的願望。 In this state the soul loves God for His own sake -- not to gain merit, perfection, or happiness by loving Him; this is the contemplative or unitive life (props. 1, 2).在這種狀態的靈魂愛上帝為了他自己-而不是獲得好處,完善,或幸福的愛他,這是沉思,或統一生活( p rops.1 , 2 ) 。 In the state of holy indifference, the soul has no longer any voluntary deliberate desire in its own behalf except on those occasions in which it does not faithfully cooperate with all the grace vouchsafed to it.在該州的聖漠不關心,靈魂已不再有任何蓄意的願望自願在其自己的名義,但在這些場合中它沒有忠實地與所有的恩典vouchsafed它。 In that state we seek nothing for ourselves, all for God; we desire salvation, not as our deliverance or reward or supreme interest, but simply as something that God is pleased to will and that He would have us desire for His sake (4-6).在該國尋求什麼,我們為我們自己,所有的上帝拯救我們的願望,而不是我們的解脫或報酬,或最高利益,而只是當作上帝很高興將和他希望我們的願望,他為了( 4 - 6 ) 。 The self-abandonment which Christ in the Gospel requires of us is simply the renunciation of our own interest, and the extreme trials that demand the exercise of this renunciation are temptations whereby God would purify our love, without holding out to us any hope even in regard to our eternal welfare.自我放棄這基督福音要求我們只不過是放棄我們自己的利益,以及極端的試驗,要求行使這一放棄的誘惑,即上帝會淨化我們的愛,沒有堅持給我們任何希望甚至在關於我們永恆的福利。 In such trials the soul, by a reflex conviction that does not reach its innermost depths, may have the invincible persuasion that it is justly reprobated by God.在這種審判的靈魂,通過反射的信念,即沒有達到其內心深處,可能立於不敗之地的勸說,這是理所當然reprobated的上帝。 In this involuntary despair it accomplishes the absolute sacrifice of its own interest in regard to eternity and loses all interested hope; but in its higher and most inward acts it never loses perfect hope which is the disinterested desire of obtaining the Divine promises (7-12).在這絕望它自願完成的絕對犧牲自己的利益就永遠失去所有感興趣的希望,但其較高的和最內向的行為從來沒有失去它完美希望這是無私的願望,獲得神聖的承諾( 7-12 ) 。 While meditation consists in discursive acts, there is a state of contemplation so sublime and perfect that it becomes habitual, ie whenever the soul prays, its prayer is contemplative, not discursive, and it needs not to return to methodical meditation (15-16).雖然打坐在話語構成的行為,有一個國家的沉思,使崇高和完善,它成為習慣,即每當靈魂祈禱,祈禱它是沉思,而不是話語,它需要不返回有條不紊地默念( 15-16 ) 。 In the passive state the soul exercises all the virtues without adverting to the fact that they are virtues; its only thought is to do what God wills; it desires even love, not as its own perfection and happiness, but simply in so far as love is what God asks of us (18-19).在被動狀態的靈魂演習所有的美德沒有adverting這樣一個事實,即他們是美德;其唯一的想法是做上帝的意志,它甚至愛情的慾望,而不是其本身的完善和幸福,只是在迄今為止的愛上帝就是要求我們( 18-19 ) 。 In confession the transformed soul should detest its sins and seek forgiveness not as its own purification and deliverance but as something that God wills and that He would have us will for His glory (20).在供詞轉化的靈魂應該痛恨它的罪孽,並尋求寬恕不是作為自己的淨化和解脫而是上帝的意志,他希望我們將他的榮耀( 20 ) 。 Though this doctrine of pure love is the evangelical perfection recognized in the whole course of tradition, the earlier directors of souls exhorted the multitude of the just only to practices of interested love proportioned to the graces bestowed on them.雖然這一理論的純潔的愛是公認的福音完善的整個過程中的傳統,以前的董事靈魂告誡眾多的公正的做法不僅有興趣的愛比例的青睞賦予他們。 Pure love alone constitutes the whole interior life and is the one principle and motive of all actions that are deliberate and meritorious (22-23).純潔的愛構成單獨的整個生命和內部是一個原則和動機,所有的行動,是蓄意和有立功( 22-23 ) 。

While these condemnations showed the determined attitude of the Church against Quietism both in its extreme and in its moderate form, Protestantism contained certain elements which the Quietist might have consistently adopted.雖然這些譴責,表明決心的態度,對Quietism教會在其極端的和在其溫和的形式,新教的某些內容包含了寂靜主義可能始終獲得通過。 The doctrine of justification by faith alone, ie without good works, accorded very well with Quietistic passivity.該學說的理由僅僅信仰,即沒有良好的工作,給予很好Quietistic被動。 In the "visible Church" as proposed by the Reformers, the Quietist would have found a congenial refuge from the control of ecclesiastical authority.在“有形教會”提出的改革者,在寂靜主義將已經發現了一種和諧的庇護控制的教會的權威。 And the attempt to make the religous life an affair of the individual soul in its direct dealings with God was no less Protestant than it was Quietistic.並試圖使宗教生活外遇個人的靈魂直接打交道上帝是不新教比Quietistic 。 In particular, the rejection, in part or in whole, of the sacramental system, would lead the devout Protestant to a Quietist attitude.特別是,排斥反應,在部分或全部的聖禮制度,將導致虔誠的新教的寂靜主義的態度。 As a matter of fact, traces of Quietism are found in early Methodism and Quakerism (the "inward light").事實上,痕跡Quietism發現早期循道和Quakerism (以下簡稱“向內輕” ) 。 But in its later developments Protestantism has come to lay emphasis on the active, rather than the inert, contemplative life.但在後來的事態發展新教來注重積極,而不是惰性,沉思的生活。 Whereas Luther maintained that faith without work suffices for salvation, his successors at the present day attach little importance to dogmatic belief, but insist much on "religion as a life", ie as action.鑑於路德認為信仰沒有工作足以為救國,他的繼任者在當今高度重視小信仰教條,而是堅持多的“宗教作為一種生活” ,即採取行動。 The Catholic teaching avoids such extremes.天主教教學避免這種走極端。 The soul indeed, assisted by Divine grace can reach a high degree of contemplation, of detachment from created things and of spiritual union with God.確實的靈魂的協助下,神聖的寬限期可以達到高度的沉思,對脫離事物和創造精神工會與上帝。 But such perfection, far from leading to Quietistic passivity and Subjectivism, implies rather a more earnest endeavour to labour for God's glory, a more thorough obedience to lawful authority and above all a more complete subjugation of sensuous impulse and tendency.但是,這種完善,遠離導致Quietistic被動和主觀主義,而是意味著一個更認真的努力勞動,上帝的榮耀,更徹底地服從合法的權威和最重要的是更全面地征服感性的衝動和傾向。

Publication information Written by EA Pace.出版信息書面由EA步伐。 Transcribed by Paul T. Crowley.轉錄由保羅噸克勞利。 Dedicated to Our Lady of Fatima and Fr.致力於我們的夫人法蒂瑪和神父。 Clarence F. Galli The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.克拉倫斯樓草的天主教百科全書,體積十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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