Protestant Ethic新教倫理

General Information 一般信息

The Protestant ethic, also called the work ethic, is a code of morals based on the principles of thrift, discipline, hard work, and individualism.新教倫理,也稱為職業道德,是道德守則的原則基礎上節儉,紀律,勤奮工作,和個人主義。 The adjective Protestant is explained by the fact that these qualities were seen to have been especially encouraged by the Protestant religion, especially those denominations based on the tenets of Calvinism.新教的形容詞解釋的是,這些素質被視為已尤其感到鼓舞的是新教的宗教,特別是那些面值的基礎上的信條加爾文主義。 The major formulators of the concept of the Protestant ethic were the German political philosopher and sociologist Max Weber and the English historian Richard H. Tawney. Both men saw a close relationship between the Protestant ethic and the rise of capitalism.主要配方的概念新教倫理是德國政治哲學家和社會學家馬克斯韋伯和英文歷史學家理查德托尼。兩人都看到了密切的關係新教倫理與資本主義的興起。

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Weber was impressed by the seeming fact that modern capitalism had developed mainly in those areas of Europe where Calvinistic Protestantism had taken root early in the Protestant Reformation. In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905; rev. 1920; Eng. trans., 1930), Weber argued that a causal connection existed between the two; his concern was with the effect of religion on economic life, but he claimed that the reverse influences were equally important.韋伯留下了深刻的印象似乎是,現代資本主義發展主要集中在這些領域的歐洲加爾文新教採取了根早在新教改革。在新教倫理與資本主義精神( 1905年;恢復。 1920年;工程。轉運。 , 1930年) ,韋伯認為,存在因果關係兩國之間;他關心的是與宗教的影響在經濟生活,但他聲稱,扭轉的影響也同樣重要。 Weber held that the doctrine of predestination, central to Calvinism, and the remote and unknowable Protestant God created intense anxieties in the individual regarding that person's state of grace.韋伯認為,理論的命,中央對加爾文主義,以及偏遠和不可知的新教的上帝創造緊張焦慮中的個別人就國家的寬限期。 Practical means of reducing those anxieties took the form of a systematic commitment to a calling, that is, to hard work, thrift, and self-discipline, the material rewards of which were not consumed personally but saved and reinvested.實用的手段來減少那些憂慮採取的形式有系統的承諾要求,即勤奮工作,節儉,自律,物質獎勵,其中沒有個人消費,但保存和再投資。 Because these qualities were also those required for success in the newly emerging capitalist economy, it followed that these practicing Calvinists should also form the nucleus of the new capitalist class. Furthermore, success in the commercial world tended to assure the individual that he or she was in fact in a state of grace because God had smiled on his or her endeavors.因為這些素質還需要那些成功的新興的資本主義經濟,它遵循這些實踐加爾文教派也應構成核心的新的資產階級。此外,成功的商業世界的趨勢,以確保個人,他或她事實上,在一個國家的寬限期,因為上帝微笑著對他或她的事業。 Weber theorized that with the waning of a religious world view, the Protestant ethic remained as "the spirit of capitalism."韋伯的理論,在淡化宗教的世界觀,在新教倫理仍然是“資本主義的精神。 ”

Weber's theories, first put forth in 1905, were widely circulated, defended, and criticized.韋伯的理論,首先提出於1905年,被廣為散發,辯護,並批評。 Tawney's major work on the subject, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, was published in 1926.托尼的重要工作的議題,宗教與資本主義的興起,出版於1926年。 Tawney basically agreed with Weber, although he put less emphasis on the causal relationship between Protestantism and capitalism and less emphasis on the Calvinism.托尼基本上同意韋伯,但他把重點放在減少之間的因果關係新教和資本主義和不太重視的加爾文主義。 He pointed out that modern capitalism had begun to emerge long before the Protestant Reformation; he cited such 15th-century commercial centers as Venice, Florence, and Flanders as examples of this emerging capitalism.他指出,現代資本主義已開始出現很久以前的新教改革;他提到,例如15世紀的商業中心威尼斯,佛羅倫薩,和佛蘭德斯的例子這一新興的資本主義。 According to Tawney, the fact that the established churches--the Roman Catholic church on the Continent and the Anglican church in England--were so closely allied with the old landholding aristocracy caused the newly emerging middle class to gravitate toward the new Protestant sects. In sum, the two institutions developed side by side, without one "causing" the other.據托尼,一個事實,即建立教堂-羅馬天主教歐洲大陸和英國聖公會在英國-如此親密的結盟與舊的土地貴族造成新興的中產階級傾向於新的新教教派。總之,這兩個機構共同發展,沒有一個“造成”的。

The idea of the Protestant ethic has had substantial influence in 20th-century history, sociology, and political science.這個想法的新教倫理有相當的影響力在二十世紀的歷史學,社會學,政治學。 Nationalism and socialism, for example, are seen by some as being secular ethics affecting types of economic development.民族主義和社會主義例如,被一些人看作是世俗的道德影響類型的經濟發展。 Other theorists focus on the relative decline of capitalist economic influence in the United States and Great Britain, a result, they claim, of a deterioration in the Protestant ethic among the peoples of those countries.其他理論家集中於相對下降的資本主義經濟的影響在美國和英國,因此,他們主張,惡化中的新教倫理之間的這些國家的人民。

David Westby大衛韋斯特

Bibliography 目錄
Eisenberger, Robert, Blue Monday: The Loss of the Work Ethic in America (1989); Eisenstadt, Schmuel N., ed., The Protestant Ethic and Modernization; A Comparative View (1968); Green, Rupert W., ed., Protestantism and Capitalism: The Weber Thesis and Its Critics (1959); Jacobs, Norman, The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia (1958; repr. 1980); Samuelsson, Kurt, Religion and Economic Action: A Critique of Max Weber, trans. Eisenberger ,羅伯特,藍色星期一:喪失工作倫理在美國( 1989年) ;艾森斯塔特, Schmuel北路版。 ,新教倫理與現代化;比較觀( 1968年) ;綠色,魯珀特總統,編輯。 ,新教和資本主義:韋伯的論文及其批評家( 1959年) ;雅各布斯,諾曼的起源現代資本主義和東亞( 1958年; repr 。 1980年) ;埃爾松,庫爾特,宗教和經濟行動:批判馬克斯韋伯,反。 by EG French (1961).由乙二醇法國( 1961年) 。


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