Process Theology, Process Theism過程神學,進程有神論

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Process Theology is a contemporary movement of theologians who teach that God is dipolar, or has two natures, and that he is integrally involved in the endless process of the world.過程神學是當代神學運動誰教,上帝是偶極,或有兩種性質,他是全面參與無休止的過程中世界。 God has a "primordial" or transcendent nature, his timeless perfection of character, and he has a "consequent" or immanent nature by which he is part of the cosmic process itself.上帝有一個“原始”或超然的性質,他的永恆完美的性格,他有一個“因此”或內在性質的,他是宇宙的進程本身。 This process is "epochal," ie, not according to the motion of atoms or changeless substances but by events or units of creative experience which influence one another in temporal sequence.這一進程是“時代” ,即不按照運動的原子或不變的物質,而是由事件或單位的創造性經驗,互相影響的時間序列。

The method of process theology is more philosophically than biblically or confessionally based, though many of its proponents use process thought as a contemporary way of expressing traditional Christian teachings or seek to relate biblical themes to process concepts.該方法的過程神學是哲學比聖經或confessionally基礎,但它的許多支持者使用過程中思想作為當代的方式表達傳統的基督教教義或尋求與聖經的主題進程的概念。 Also the method emphasizes the importance of the sciences in theological formulation.該方法還強調了科學在神學的提法。 Thus process theology generally stands in the tradition of natural theology, and in particular is associated with the empirical theology tradition in America (Shailer Mathews, DC Macintosh, Henry Nelson Wieman) which championed the inductive, scientific approach in liberal theology.因此,進程神學一般站在傳統的自然神學,尤其是與神學的傳統經驗在美國( Shailer馬修斯,直流Macintosh上,亨利尼爾森維曼) ,其中倡導的歸納,科學方法,在自由神學。 Also process theology has some philosophical kinship with the evolutionary thinking of H. Bergson, S. Alexander, C. Lloyd Morgan, and P. Teilhard de Chardin.神學進程也有一些哲學的親屬關係的進化思想的H.柏格森,美國亞歷山大角勞埃德摩根和P.德日進。 But its true fountainhead is Whiteheadian philosophy.但其真正的源頭是懷特海哲學。

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The Influence of Whitehead的影響,懷特黑德

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947), the famed mathematician-philosopher, sought a set of metaphysical concepts that would be able to explain all individual beings, from God to the most insignificant thing.阿爾弗雷德北白石( 1861年至1947年) ,著名的數學家,哲學家,尋求一套形而上學的概念,將能解釋一切個別人,來自上帝的最微不足道的事情。 Through philosophical speculation in interaction with science he developed his notable model of the basic unit of reality, which he called the "actual occasion" or "actual entity."通過投機哲學與科學的互動,他制定了顯著的模型的基本單位的現實,他所謂的“實際場合”或“實際的實體。 ” All things can be explained as processes of actual occasions, interrelated and varying in degree of complexity.所有的事情可以被解釋為進程的實際情況下,相互關聯的,在不同的複雜程度。 Each actual occasion is a momentary event which is partially self-created and partially influenced by other actual occasions.每一個實際場合是一時的事件,部分是自我創造和部分受其他實際情況。

Every actual occasion or entity is dipolar, having both physical and mental functions.每一個實際場合或實體偶極後,身體和精神的功能。 With its physical pole the actual entity feels or "prehends" the physical reality of other actual entities, and with the mental pole it prehends the "eternal objects" by which actual entities have conceptual definiteness.憑藉其身體極實體的實際感覺或“ prehends ”物理現實的其他實際的實體,並與心理極有prehends的“永恆的物體”的實際實體的概念定性。 The eternal objects are the abstract possibilities of the universe, and actual entities are distinct from each other according to the way they realize or actualize these possibilities.永恆的對象是抽象的可能性的宇宙,實際實體有別於對方按照他們的方式實現或實現這些可能性。

Whitehead uses the term "prehend" to refer to a feeling or grasping of the physical and conceptual data of actual entities.白石使用“ prehend ”來指一種感覺或把握的物理和概念上的數據的實際實體。 By prehending each other actual entities are internally related (instead of externally related, as in materialistic or mechanistic philosophies).據prehending對方的實際實體國內有關(而不是外部相關的,如在機械唯物主義或哲學) 。 This means that the entities are not isolated or independent beings but are present in other actual entities as interrelated moments of an ongoing process.這意味著實體並非是孤立或獨立的人,但目前在其他實際實體相互關聯的時刻,一個持續的過程。 This characteristic of prehension or feeling is not a conscious or intelligent act except with higher forms of life, but the dipolar structure and the prehensive function are there to some degree in every actual entity, however elementary or complex its level of existence.這一特徵的理解或感覺不是一個自覺的行為或智能除具有較高形式的生命,但偶極結構和綜合功能有一定程度上在每一個實際的實體,但小學或複雜程度的存在。

Creativity is another of Whitehead's universal concepts; every actual entity has a measure of freedom which is expressed in an individual "subjective aim."創新是另一種懷特海的普遍概念;每一個實體實際的措施是自由表達個人的“主觀目的。 ” The self-creative process by which an actual entity realizes its subjective aim includes unifying its many prehensions of the past and adding to them something new which is the entity's own creative contribution to the cosmic process.自我創作過程中的實際實體實現其主觀目的包括統一它的許多prehensions過去和增加他們的東西是新的實體自身的創造性貢獻,宇宙的進程。 When the actual entity has realized its subjective aim, it attains "satisfaction," and thereafter ceases to exist as an experiencing subject, becoming instead the object or datum of the prehensions of subsequent actual entities.當實際的實體,實現了其主觀目標,達到“滿意” ,並在其後不再存在作為一個經歷議題,而不是成為對象或數據的prehensions隨後的實際實體。 Thus the "life" of an actual entity is completed in the moment, and process in the world must be seen as a succession of organically related occasions or momentary experiences.因此, “生命”的一個實際的實體完成的時刻,並過程中,世界必須被視為一個有機繼承有關場合或瞬間的經驗。

Hence what traditional philosophy would call an enduring substance, Whitehead calls a succession or "route" of actual occasions with a common characteristic.因此,如何將傳統哲學呼籲持久的物質,白石呼籲繼承或“路線”的實際場合與一個共同的特點。 Change is explained by the creative contribution of each occasion in the series, and endurance is explained by common qualities which are inherited from antecedent occasions.變化是解釋了創造性的貢獻,每一次的系列,和耐力的原因是共同的素質是前期遺留下來的場合。 The flux and stability of all things are explained in this way, whether they be electrons, rocks, plants, mammals, or men.通量與穩定的一切事物都是在解釋這種方式,無論是電子,石頭,植物,哺乳動物,或男人。 Man is an extremely complex route or "nexus" of occasions with memory, imagination, and heightened conceptual feelings.人是一個極其複雜的路線或“關係”的場合與記憶,想像,並提高概念性的感情。

God is the supreme actual entity, and as such he perfectly exhibits all the functions of the actual entity.上帝是最高的實際實體,這樣,他完美的展品全部職能的實際實體。 Whitehead contends that metaphysical coherence cannot be had by seeing God as an exception to the rules; on the contrary, he is the chief exemplification of the metaphysical principles by which all things are to be explained.懷特黑德說,形而上學的連貫性不能看到了上帝作為一種例外的規則,相反,他是主要體現在形而上的原則,所有的東西要加以解釋。 Thus God perfectly prehends all entities in the universe and is prehended in part by them.因此,上帝完美prehends所有實體在宇宙中是prehended部分由他們。 He also has the supreme influence on all actual entities, setting the limits of their creativity and influencing their subjective aims by supplying each one with an ideal "initial aim."他還擁有最高的影響力對所有實際實體,設置的限制他們的創造力和影響自己的主觀目的是提供每一個有理想的“初始目標。 ” God does this by virtue of his mental pole or "primordial nature" in which he envisions all the eternal objects and their graded values relevant to the actual world.上帝,這憑藉他的精神極或“原始性” ,他設想的所有永恆的物體及其分級的價值觀有關的實際的世界。

In arguing for the existence of God, Whitehead contends that without the eternal objects there would be no definite rational possibilities or values to be actualized, and yet only that which is actual is able to affect actual entities.在主張上帝存在,懷特黑德說,沒有永恆的物體就不會有一定的合理可能性,或者價值被現實,而只是說這是實際能夠影響企業實際的實體。 Therefore there must be some actual entity which grasps and valuates all of the eternal objects and can act as the universal agent and transcendent source of order and value in the world.因此,必須有一些實際的實體把握和valuates所有永恆的物體,可以作為普遍的代理人和超然的來源秩序和價值的世界。 For Whitehead, then, without God the cosmic process would not be an orderly, creative process, but only a chaos.對於懷特黑德,然後,沒有上帝的宇宙進程將不會是一個有秩序的,創造性的過程,但只有混亂。 God, by his primordial nature, acts as the "principle of limitation" or "concretion," enabling the world to become concretely determinate by aiming at certain values within divinely given limits of freedom.上帝,他的原始性質,充當“原則的限制”或“凝固” ,使世界成為具體的目標確定在一定的價值觀,神給予限制的自由。

God, as dipolar, also has a physical pole, or "consequent nature," by which he feels the completed actuality of each occasion.上帝,作為偶極,也有身體極,或“由此性質” ,其中他覺得現狀完成每一次。 (Remember that "physical" does not mean physical substance, as in materialism.) He actually takes the complete entities into his divine life as objects of his perfect prehension and gives them "objective immortality" in his consequent being by his valuation of their achievements. (請記住, “實際”並不意味著身體的實質內容,如在唯物論。 )他確實完整的實體到他的神聖的生命的物體,他完美的理解,使他們“客觀永生”在他由此被他的估價取得的成就。 (No actual entity has subjective immortality except God; finite living beings continue subjectively only by virtue of a continuing succession of actual occasions.) Moreover, God "gives back" to the world the data of the objectified entities he has prehended so that the world process will continue and be enriched by the past. (沒有實際的實體除外主觀永生上帝;有限活生生的人主觀上只有繼續憑藉不斷繼承的實際情況。 )此外,上帝“使回”到世界的數據實體對象,他prehended使世界進程將繼續下去,並得到豐富和過去。

Thus God, by prehending and being prehended, interacts with every being in the world, in every momentary event in the succession of occasions that constitute the "life" of that being.因此上帝,由prehending和正在prehended ,互動與每一個正在世界上,在每一個瞬間的事件繼承場合表示,構成了“生命”的福祉。 In this way God is radically immanent in the world process itself, leading it on toward greater value and aesthetic intensity, not by coercion but by sympathetic persuasion.這樣,上帝是根本的內在世界過程本身,它的主要走向更大的價值和審美的強度,而不是強迫,而是由同情說服力。 And although God in his primordial nature transcends the world, he as actual entity includes the world consequently within himself, and suffers and grows along with it through the creativity which he and the world possess.雖然上帝在他的原始性質超越了世界,他作為實際的實體包括世界內,因此本人和生長患與它一起通過的創造力,他和世界的擁有。

The Contributions of Hartshorne的貢獻哈茨霍恩

Though Whitehead's philosophy had already reached maturity with the publication of Process and Reality in 1929, only a few used Whitehead as a source for theological thought before the 1950s.雖然懷特海的哲學已經達到成熟的出版過程和現實於1929年,只有少數用白石作為一個來源的神學思想在20世紀50年代。 Most theologians in the intervening years were preoccupied with the rise of neo-orthodoxy, which tended to reject natural theology and compartmentalize theology and science.大多數神學的干預幾年忙於崛起的新的正統,這往往拒絕自然神學和區域化的神學和科學。 One notable exception was Charles Hartshorne (1897-), who developed the theological implications of Whitehead's thought and acted as the chief catalyst for the process theology movement of the 60s and 70s.一個突出的例外是查爾斯哈特( 1897年-) ,誰制定了神學的影響懷特海的思想和行動作為主要催化劑的過程神學運動的6 0歲到7 0歲。

Like Whitehead, Hartshorne was interested in metaphysics as the study of those general principles by which all particulars of experience are to be explained.白石一樣,哈特很感興趣,形而上學作為研究這些一般原則,其中的所有細節的經驗,要加以解釋。 But Hartshorne was more rationalistic about this study.但是,哈特更理性的研究。 For him metaphysics deals with what is externally necessary, or with "a priori statements about existence," ie, statements which are necessarily true of any state of affairs regardless of the circumstances.對於他的形而上學涉及什麼是外部必要的,或與“先驗聲明存在” ,即聲明,必然是真正的任何國家的內政不論情況。

Hartshorne took up Whitehead's metaphysical system and, with some modifications, defended it as the most coherent and viable alternative. He agreed with Whitehead on the primacy of becoming (which is inclusive of being, in contrast to classical philosophy), and he emphasized even more than Whitehead the category of feeling as a quality of every entity (panpsychism).哈特了懷特海的形而上學系統,並作一些修改,維護它的最連貫和可行的替代辦法。他同意白石的首要成為(這是被包容,而相比之下,古典哲學) ,他更強調白石比類的感覺作為一個質量的每一個實體( panpsychism ) 。

In accordance with the "law of polarity" Hartshorne developed his dipolar view of God, though somewhat differently from Whitehead. Rejecting Whitehead's notion of eternal objects, Hartshorne called the mental pole of God the "abstract nature" of God, which is simply the character through all the stretches of time.根據“極性法”哈特發達國家認為他的偶極上帝,但略有不同的白石。摒棄懷特海的概念,永恆的物體,哈特所謂的心理極上帝的“抽象性”上帝,這是根本的性質所有的延伸時間。 The consequent nature Hartshorne called God's "concrete nature," which is God in his actual existence in any given concrete state, with all the wealth of accumulated values of the world up to that present state.由此性質哈特所謂的上帝“的具體性質, ”這是上帝在他的實際存在任何具體國家,所有的財富積累價值的世界行動,目前的狀態。 The attributes of God's abstract nature are those divine qualities that are eternally, necessarily true of God regardless of the circumstances; whereas the qualities of God's concrete nature are those particulars of God's being which he has gained by his interaction with the world in accordance with the circumstances.屬性上帝的抽象性質是神聖的素質,永遠,不一定真正的上帝不論情況如何,而品質的上帝具體的性質是那些細節的上帝被他獲得了他的互動與世界按照情況。 God in his concrete actuality is a "living person," in process; his life consists of an everlasting succession of divine events or occasions.在他的上帝具體的現狀是一個“活生生的人, ”在進程;他的生命是由一個永恆的神聖的繼承事件或場合。 (Here again Hartshorne differs from Whitehead, who viewed God as a single everlasting actual entity.) (這裡再次哈茨霍恩不同於白石,誰認為上帝作為一個單一永恆的實際實體。 )

The polar opposites in God, therefore, mean that God is necessary according to his abstract nature but contingent according to his concrete nature, and, again, that he is independent in his abstract nature but dependent in his concrete nature.兩極對立的上帝,因此,上帝的意思是必要根據他的抽象的性質,但有根據他的具體性質,並再次說,他是獨立的在他的抽象的性質,但在他的依賴的具體性質。 God is independent in the sense that nothing can threaten his existence or cause him to cease acting according to his loving and righteous character, but God is dependent in that what the creatures do affects his response, his feelings, and the content of his divine life.上帝是獨立的,即沒有任何東西可以威脅到他的存在,或使他停止行動根據他的愛好和正義的性質,但上帝是在這取決於什麼動物做會影響他的反應,他的感情,和內容,他神聖的生命。

According to Hartshorne, God's perfection should not be seen exclusively in terms of absoluteness, necessity, independence, infinity, and immutability wholly in contrast to the relatively, contingency, dependence, finitude, and changeability of the creatures. For Hartshorne this is the great mistake of classical theism (of such theologians as Thomas Aquinas), resulting in all sorts of problems like the contradiction of God's necessary knowledge of a contingent world, or God's timeless act of creating and governing a world which is temporal, or God's love for man which supposedly involves God in history yet in no way makes him relative to or dependent on man. Hartshorne contends that if temporal process and creativity are ultimately real, then God himself must be in process in some sense and must be dependent upon the free decisions of the creatures.據哈特,上帝的完美不應該被看作僅僅方面的絕對性,必要性,獨立,至無限遠,和不可改變完全相反,相對,應急,依賴有限,而且變性的動物。對於哈特,這是偉大的錯誤古典有神論(這種神學的托馬斯阿奎那) ,導致各種問題的矛盾,像上帝的必要的知識特遣隊的世界,或上帝的永恆的行為,建立和管理的世界是時間,或上帝的愛的人而據稱涉及上帝在歷史上還沒有辦法使他相對或依賴於男子。哈特說,如果時間進程和創造力的最終真實的,那麼上帝本人必須在進程在某種意義上,必須依賴於自由決定動物。

In opposition to classical theism, then, Hartshorne develops his "neoclassical" theism in which perfection is understood to mean that God is unsurpassable in social relatedness.在反對古典有神論,那麼,哈特開發他的“新古典主義”有神論的完善是指,上帝是無法超越的社會關聯性。 If God really is perfect love, then he perfectly feels or has total sympathetic understanding of every creature and responds appropriately to every creature in every event.如果上帝真的是完美的愛情,那麼他完全感覺或總同情和理解每一個動物和適當地回應每一個動物在每一個活動。 Thus God is supremely absolute in his abstract nature but supremely relative in his concrete nature.因此,上帝是超級絕對在他的抽象的性質,但超級相對在他的具體性質。 No one can surpass him in the supremacy of his social relatedness to every creature.沒有人能超過他的至高無上的社會關聯的每一個動物。 But God can surpass himself, ie, he can and does "grow," not to become morally better or more perfect, but to grow in the joy and feeling of the world, in knowledge of actual events, and in the experience of the values created by the world.但是上帝能超越自己,即他能夠而且確實“成長” ,而不是成為道義上更好或更完美的,但成長的喜悅和感覺的世界,在知識的實際活動,並在經驗值所創造的世界。 (Note that for Hartshorne, God cannot foreknow future contingent events, and so his knowledge, which is complete of what can be known, nevertheless continues to grow with the process of the world.) Thus God is the "self-surpassing surpasser of all." (注意,哈特,上帝不能預知未來的特遣隊事件,所以他的知識,這是完成什麼可眾所周知,然而,持續增長的過程中世界。 )因此,上帝是“自我超越所有surpasser “ 。

God is more than just the world in its totality (contra pantheism) because he has his own transcedent self-identity; yet God includes the world within himself (contra classical theism) by his knowledge and love, which are simply his perfect prehension or taking in of the creative events of the world.上帝不僅僅是世界的整體(禁忌泛神論) ,因為他有他自己的transcedent自我認同,但上帝包括在自己的世界(禁忌古典有神論) ,他的知識和愛,這僅僅是他的完美理解,或採取在創造性活動的世界。 Such a view of God is thus termed "panentheism" (all-in-God-ism).這種觀點的上帝,因此稱為“ panentheism ” (全上帝主義) 。

With the panentheistic view of God, Hartshorne has become one of the chief protagonists in the twentieth century reassertion of the ontological argument.隨著panentheistic鑑於上帝,哈特已經成為一個主要的主角在二十世紀中重申本體論的論點。 He says that the medieval Anselm really discovered something which was fundamental to the theistic proofs, namely the idea of "perfection" and its uniqueness among concepts.他說,中世紀的安瑟倫的東西真的發現這是基本的有神論的證據,即提出“完善”和它的獨特性之間的概念。 But Anselm's argument lacked cogency because it depended on a classical theistic view of perfection.但是,安瑟倫的論點缺乏說服力,因為它依賴於古典有神論的意見完善。 The neoclassical view of perfection, Hartshorne contends, overcomes the objection of modern philosophers that perfection cannot be consistently defined.在新古典主義觀點的完善,哈特爭辯,克服了反對現代哲學家的完善不能一貫的界定。 The thrust of Hartshorne's argument, then, is that perfection or "most perfect being" by definition either exists necessarily or is necessarily nonexistent, and since only the self-contradictory is necessarily nonexistent, perfect being, if it is self-consistent to speak of such, is in reality necessarily existent.一言以蔽之,哈特的說法,那麼,是完善或“最完美的”的定義也存在一定或一定是不存在的,因為只有自我矛盾的必然是不存在的,完美的,如果是自洽的發言例如,在現實中是必然存在的。

Most philosophers still hold that such an argument is defining God into existence by confusing logical necessity with existential necessity.大多數哲學家仍然認為,這種論點是確定上帝存在的混亂與邏輯的必要性存在的必要。 But Hartshorne argues that the relation of logic to existence is unique in the case of perfection; ie, perfection, if it really is perfection, exists necessarily as the logically required ground of all existence and thought.但是哈特認為,邏輯關係的存在是獨一無二的情況下完善,即完善,如果真的是完美的,存在著一定的邏輯需要地面的所有存在和思考。

Here one can see Hartshorne's aprioristic approach to metaphysics very much at work, and the philosophical debate on that issue continues.在這裡人們可以看到哈特的aprioristic辦法非常形而上學的工作,以及哲學辯論這個問題上繼續進行。 Nevertheless philosophers (eg, even a nontheist like JN Findlay) admit that Hartshorne has made the concept of perfection rationally conceivable and has reopened the ontological argument which before seemed closed.然而哲學家(例如,即使是像江南nontheist芬德雷)承認,哈茨霍恩了的概念,完善合理的設想,並已重新開放了本體論的論點,似乎之前關閉。

Christian Process Thought基督教思想進程

After 1960, as the influence of neo-orthodoxy was waning, an increasing number of theologians turned to Whitehead and Hartshorne as new philosophical sources for a contemporary expression of Christian faith. 1960年後,隨著影響的新的正統的減弱,越來越多的神學轉向白石和哈特作為新的哲學來源的當代表達的基督教信仰。 Beginning with the doctrine of God, such theologians as John Cobb, Schubert Ogden, Daniel D. Williams, and Norman Pittenger sought to show that the process view of God is more in accord with the biblical view of God (as dynamically related to human history) than is the more traditional Christian view of classical theism.從理論的上帝,這樣的神學家約翰科布,舒伯特奧格登,丹尼爾威廉姆斯,和諾曼Pittenger試圖表明,這一進程認為上帝是更符合聖經認為上帝(如動態與人權有關的歷史)比是更傳統的基督教的古典檢視有神論。 They argued that the monopolar conception of God as timeless, immutable, impassible, and in every sense independent was more hellenistic than biblical.他們認為,單極概念的上帝作為永恆的,不可改變的,恝,並在每一個獨立的意義更希臘比聖經。 Williams analyzed the biblical, Christian theme of love and argued that Whitehead's metaphysics helps the theologian to explain God's loving action in ways not possible with classical notions of God as being-itself or absolute predestinator.威廉姆斯分析聖經,基督教主題的愛和認為,懷特海的形而上學的神學有助於解釋上帝的愛的行動不可能的方式與經典概念的上帝作為本身或絕對predestinator 。

Ogden argued that the "new theism" of process thought, with its world-affirming emphasis, expresses the relevance of Christian faith to secular man, who needs an ultimate ground for his "ineradicable confidence" in the final worth of human existence.奧格登說, “新有神論”思想的過程,其世界肯定的重視,表達了相關的基督教信仰的世俗的人,誰需要一個最終為他的“不可磨滅的信心”的最後價值,人類的生存。 Cobb showed how Whiteheadian philosophy can be the basis of a new Christian natural theology, a theology which by philosophical means demonstrates that the peculiar vision of the Christian community of faith illuminates the general experience of mankind.科布顯示懷特海哲學如何才能根據新的自然基督教神學,而神學的哲學手段表明,特殊遠見的基督教社區的信念照亮的一般人類的經驗。

Process theologians then began to concentrate on Christology, especially in the 70s, though Pittenger led the way by writing several works on the subject from a process view, the first in 1959.過程神學然後開始集中於基督,特別是在70年代,儘管Pittenger領導以書面方式若干作品的主題從一個過程來看,首先於1959年。 For Pittenger the uniqueness of Christ is seen in the way he actualized the divine aim for his life.對於Pittenger的獨特性,基督是出現在他的神聖現實的目標是他的生命。 Sin is "deviation of aim"; man in his subjective aim distorts or deviates from God's initial aim.黃大仙是“偏離目標” ;男子在他的主觀目的是歪曲或背離上帝的初步目標。 In his subjective aims Christ actualized the ideal aim of God (as the cosmic Lover) with such intensity that Christ became the supreme human embodiment of "love-in-action."在他的主觀目的是基督現實的理想目標是上帝(如宇宙的情人)等強度基督成為人類的最高體現“愛在行動中。 ” The deity of Jesus does not mean that he is an eternally preexistent person, but refers to God's act in and through the life of Jesus, who incarnated and transformed the whole of Israel's religion and became the eminent example of God's creative love which is at work universally.在耶穌的神並不意味著他是一個永遠preexistent人,而是指上帝的行為,並通過耶穌的生活,體現和誰改變了整個以色列的宗教,並成為傑出的例子,上帝的創造性的愛,是在工作普遍。

David Griffin has spoken similarly, suggesting that Jesus actualized God's decisive revelation; ie, the "vision of reality" shown in his words and actions was the supreme expression of God's eternal character and purpose.大衛格里芬談到同樣,這表明耶穌現實上帝的決定性的啟示,即在“願景的現實”表現在他的言辭和行動的最高表達上帝的永恆的性質和宗旨。

Cobb emphasizes a Logos Christology.科布強調一種理性的基督。 The Logos as the primordial nature of God is present (incarnate) in all things in the form of initial aims for creatures.該徽標的原始性質的上帝是本(化身)在一切事物的形式,最初的目標是動物。 But Jesus is the fullest incarnation of the Logos because in him there was no tension between the divine initial aim and his own self-purposes of the past.但是,耶穌是充分體現了理性,因為他沒有任何關係緊張的神聖最初的目的是和他自身的目的過去。 Jesus so prehended God that God's immanence was "coconstitutive" of Jesus' selfhood.耶穌使prehended上帝,上帝的內涵是“ coconstitutive ”耶穌自我。 Cobb thus suggests (as opposed to other process thinkers) that Jesus was different from others in his "structure of existence" not merely by degree but in kind.科布因此建議(而不是其他進程的思想家) ,耶穌不同於他人在他的“結構的存在”而不僅僅是程度,但實物。

Lewis Ford places emphasis on the resurrection as the basis for a Christology.劉易斯福特將重點放在復活為基礎的基督。 According to him, what the first disciples experienced was neither a bodily appearance of Christ nor merely a hallucination, but a vision, or an encounter with a "nonperceptual reality" made perceptual by "hallucinatory means."據他講,什麼第一弟子經歷既不是身體上出現的基督,也不只是一種幻覺,而是一個理想,或遇到了“ nonperceptual現實”了知覺的“幻覺的手段。 ” Thus the resurrection is of a spiritual kind; it is a new emergent reality, the "body of Christ," in which mankind is transformed into a new organic unity by the living spirit of Christ. Ford also suggests a process view of the Trinity; the Father is the transcendent unity of God, who by a creative "nontemporal act" generates the Logos (the primordial nature) as the eternal expression of divine wisdom and valuation, and the Spirit is the consequent nature in the sense of the immanent being and providential power of God.因此,復活的是一種精神上的一種,它是一種新出現的現實, “基督的奧體”中,人類變成一個有機統一的新的生活基督精神。福特也表明一個過程鑑於三一;父親是至高無上的上帝的團結,誰的創意“ nontemporal行為”產生的徽標(原始性) ,作為永恆的表達神聖的智慧和估價,以及精神,因而自然意義上的幸福和內在天賜神的力量。

At present, process works continue to abound, dealing with various Christian concepts and concerns: sin and evil, a theodicy, the church, pastoral care, ecology, liberation, and the relation of theology to science, philosophy, and culture.目前,工程進程繼續比比皆是,處理各種基督教的概念和問題:罪孽和邪惡,一個theodicy ,教會牧靈工作,生態環境,解放和神學的關係的科學,哲學和文化。 Though process theology has not yet become a major force in the church pew, it is very influential in the intellectual world of the seminaries and graduate schools, and no doubts is the most viable form of neoliberal theology now in the United States.雖然過程神學尚未成為主要力量的教堂長凳,這是非常有影響力的知識世界的神學院和研究生院,並毫無疑問是最可行的形式的新自由主義神學現在在美國。

Some other writers of Christian theology from a process perspective are Bernard Meland, Ian Barbour, Peter Hamilton, Eugene Peters, Delwin Brown, William Beardslee, Walter Stokes, Ewert Cousins, E. Baltazar, and Bernard Lee.其他一些作家的基督教神學從一個進程的觀點是伯納德Meland ,伊恩巴伯,彼得漢密爾頓,尤金彼得斯Delwin布朗,威廉比爾茲利,沃爾特斯托克斯, Ewert表兄弟,體育塔薩和伯納德李。 Though process theology developed mainly within Protestantism, it now has influence also with Roman Catholic thinkers (as is evident from the last four names just mentioned).雖然發達國家的進程神學主要新教,但現在已經影響還與羅馬天主教思想家(如是顯而易見從過去四年的名字剛才提到的) 。 Catholic process thinkers have been coming to grips not only with Whitehead but also with Teilhard de Chardin, whose thought is historically separate from, but has some philosophical affinity with, the Whiteheadian tradition.天主教進程的思想家已經來對付不僅與懷特黑德,而且與德日進,其思想是歷史上分開,但有一些哲學與親和力,在懷特海的傳統。

Evaluation評價

By philosophical or rational standards process theology has several commendable points.由哲學或合理的標準進程神學有幾個值得稱道的點。 First, it emphasizes metaphysical coherence; ie, it seeks to express a vision of God and the world by a coherent and clearly defined set of metaphysical concept.首先,它強調形而上學的連貫性,即它試圖表達的設想上帝和世界的一致和明確界定的一套形而上學的概念。 Second, it integrates science and theology, and vice versa; they are together in the same universal sphere of discourse, namely, process metaphysics. Consequently, and in the third place, process theology provides a tenable answer to the charge that theological language is meaningless.其次,它集成了科學和神學,反之亦然;他們是在同一領域的普遍話語,即形而上學的進程。因此,在第三位,過程神學提供了一個站得住腳的答案,費神的語言是沒有意義的。

The process theologian contends that if metaphysics describes those general concepts or principles by which all particulars are to be explained, and if God is the chief exemplification of those principles, then talk about God is eminently meaningful and basic to the meaningfulness of everything else.這個過程神學爭辯說,如果這些描述的形而上學的一般概念或原則,所有細節都加以解釋,如果上帝是主要體現這些原則,那麼談論上帝是非常有意義的和基本的意義的一切。 Fourth, process theology eloquently champions natural theology.第四,過程神學雄辯地冠軍自然神學。 Fifth, process theology gives clear and plausible form to a dynamic, personal view of God.第五,過程神學給予明確和可信的形式,以一個動態的,個人認為上帝。 Personal qualities such as self-consciousness, creatively, knowledge, and social relatedness are attributed to God in the most literal sense.個人素質,如自我意識,創造性,知識和社會關聯的原因是上帝在最字面意義。

By rational standards process theology also has its weaknesses or questionable features.通過合理的標準進程神學也有其弱點或可疑的特點。 First, one may question whether the process model does justice to the self-identity of an individual person in process.第一,人們可能會質疑過程模型不正義的自我認同個別人的進程。 Second, process theology has some problems concerning the finitude and temporality of God, eg, the problem of relating God's infinite, nontemporal, primordial nature of God's finite, temporal, growing, and consequent nature, or the problem of seeing unity of experience in each moment of God's omnipresent existence in view of the teaching of relativity physics that there is no simultaneous present throughout the universe.其次,過程神學有一些問題的有限性和暫時性的上帝,例如有關問題的上帝的無限的, nontemporal ,原始的性質,上帝的有限時間,成長,以及由此性質,或看到問題的經驗,團結在每個時刻上帝的無所不在的存在,認為教學的相對論物理,沒有同時目前整個宇宙。 Third, there is the question of the religious adequacy of panentheism.第三,有問題的宗教充足的panentheism 。 Is the most worthy object of worship of God who needs the world in order to be a complete personal being or a God who is a complete personal being prior to the world?是最有價值的崇拜對象的上帝誰需要世界,才能完整的個人正在或上帝誰是完整的個人被之前的世界?

In addition to these philosophical problems, there are some characteristics of process theology which, from the viewpoint of evangelical theology, are contrary to Scripture.除了這些哲學問題,也有一些特點的過程神學,從看福音派神學,是違反聖經。 These include a nontripersonal view of the Trinity, a Nestorian or Ebionite tendency in Christology, a nonsupernaturalistic view of the Bible and of Christ's works, the denial of divine foreknowledge and predestination, and a weak view of human depravity.這些措施包括nontripersonal認為三一,一個景教或Ebionite傾向基督,一個nonsupernaturalistic認為聖經和基督的作品,剝奪神聖的預知和預定,並認為薄弱的人類墮落。

DW Diehl德國之聲迪爾

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
JB Cobb, Jr., A Christian Natural Theology; LS Ford, The Lure of God; D. Griffin, A Process Christology; C. Hartshorne, The Divine Relativity, The Logic of Perfection, and Creative Synthesis and Philosophic Method; S. Ogden, The Reality of God; N. Pittenger, Christology Reconsidered and Process Thought and Christian Faith; AN Whitehead, Process and Reality; D. Brown, R. James, and G. Reeves, eds., Process Philosophy and Christian Thought; W.巴頓科布小基督教的自然神學;最小二乘福特的誘惑上帝; D.格里芬,這個過程基督;角哈特,神相對論,邏輯的完善和創新的合成與哲學方法;美國奧格登,現實的上帝;北Pittenger ,基督再和工藝思想和基督教信仰;安白石,過程和現實;布朗,詹姆斯,和G.里夫斯合編。 ,過程哲學和基督教思想;總統 Christian, An Interpretation of Whitehead's Metaphysics; JB Cobb, Jr., and D. Griffin, Process Theology: An Introductory Exposition; N. Geisler, "Process Theology," in Tensions in Contemporary Theology, ed. SN Gundry and AF Johnson.基督教,解讀懷特海形而上學;巴頓科布,小和D格里芬,過程神學:一個介紹性博覽會;北蓋, “過程神學” ,在緊張當代神學,編輯。失效Gundry和AF約翰遜。


Also, see:此外,見:
Pantheism 泛神論
Theism 有神論
Rationalism 理性
Agnosticism 不可知論
Panentheism Panentheism

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