Positive Thinking正面思考

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Over the last decade or so a host of best-selling books have urged people to take a "positive" attitude to life.在過去的十年裡,或做了許多最暢銷的書籍已敦促人們採取“積極”的生活態度。 Some of these have been written from an explicitly Christian perspective, but the majority have been clearly secular.其中一些已書面明確從基督教的角度來看,但大多數已明確世俗。 Titles such as Robert Ringer's Looking Out for No.圖書,如羅伯特林格望著號 1 (1978), David Schwartz's The Magic of Self-Direction (1975), and Wayne Dyer's Pulling Your Own Strings (1978) are typical of this genre of literature in its secular guise. 1 ( 1978年) ,大衛施瓦茲的魔術自治方向( 1975年) ,以及韋恩戴爾的拉你自己的弦( 1978年)是典型的這種體裁的文學在其世俗的幌子。 The most popular religious writer in the new wave of positive thinkers is Robert Schuller with books such as Move Ahead with Possibility Thinking (1967) and his numerous seminars for church leaders and members.最流行的宗教作家在新一輪的積極的思想家是羅伯特舒勒書籍,如推進可能性思考( 1967 )和他的眾多研討會,教會領袖和成員。

Still popular today and a classic of its type is Dale Carnegie's How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936).目前十分流行的今天和一個典型的類型是卡內基的如何贏得朋友和影響他人( 1936年) 。 Here the secular brand of positive thinking is seen at its best.在這裡,世俗的品牌積極的思想被視為最好的服務。 Norman Vincent Peale represents the best of the older tradition of religiously motivated positive thinkers.諾曼文森特皮爾的最好的老年人傳統的宗教動機的積極思想家。 Although he published several books in the 1930s, his first success was A Guide to Confident Living (1948), which was followed by his even more successful the Power of Positive Thinking (1952).雖然他出版了幾本書在上世紀30年代,他的第一個成功指南自信生活( 1948年) ,隨後,他更加成功的力量正面思考( 1952年) 。 In the writing of these works Peale's mentor was the liberal theologian Harry Emerson Fosdick, whose On Being a Real Person (1943) expresses his mature thought on the subject.在寫這些作品皮爾的導師是自由派神學哈利艾默生福斯迪克,他們被一個真實的人( 1943年)表示成熟思考的問題。

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The religious roots of positive thinking can be traced back to the revivalism of Charles G. Finney, whose emphasis on the human element in conversion and the ability of men to create revivals broke with the Calvinist heritage of New England.宗教根源,積極思維可以追溯到的復古的查爾斯芬尼,他強調人的因素在轉換和能力的男性創造revivals打破了加爾文主義傳統的新英格蘭。 As the inventor of "high pressure revivalism" Finney psychologized conversion and in his Lectures on Revivals of Religion (1854) gave his readers techniques for success.作為發明者的“高壓復古”芬尼psychologized轉換和在他的講座Revivals宗教( 1854年)給他的讀者技術的成功。

The secular roots of positive thinking are found in New England transcendentalism, especially the works of Henry David Thoreau.世俗的根源,積極思維,發現在新英格蘭超驗,特別是作品的亨利大衛梭羅。 His now classic Walden or Life in the Woods (1854) develops a vision of faith as a psychological faculty which expresses a profound self-confidence in the ability of men and women to triumph in the ability of men and women to triumph against all odds.他現在的經典瓦爾登或生活中的老虎伍茲( 1854年)的發展遠景的信念作為一個心理教師表達了深刻的自我的能力的信心男子和婦女在勝利的能力,男人和女人,將比分追平,克服種種困難。

This faith in the will found expression in New Thought and Frank Haddock's best seller, Power of will, published in 1906.這信心,將體現在新思路和弗蘭克黑線鱈的最大賣方,電力的意願,於1906年出版。 Traces of it are also to be found in Christian Science and a host of other nineteenth century new religious movements.它的痕跡也被發現基督教科學和許多其他十九世紀的新的宗教運動。

Today the popularity of books like Napoleon Hill's Think and Grow Rich, first published in 1937, shows the continuity of this tradition. At the same time a host of television evangelists and other preachers offer the public encouragement through books and cassette tapes that assure them of their self-worth and need to believe in themselves.今天的流行書籍一樣,拿破崙希爾的思考和成長芬香,首次出版於1937年,顯示了連續性的這一傳統。與此同時一系列電視和其他的福音派傳教士提供了鼓勵公眾通過書籍和錄音帶是他們保證他們的自我價值和需要相信自己。

Several systems of counseling have developed along these lines, such as the Psycho-Cybernetics (1960) of Maxwell Maltz and various techniques of inner healing associated with the charismatic movement.一些系統已經開發輔導沿著這些路線,如心理控制論( 1960年) ,麥克斯韋馬爾茲和各種技術的內在癒合與魅力的運動。

Psychologically, the need to think in positive ways has been severely criticized by Richard Lazarus in his book Psychological Stress and the Coping Process (1966).在心理上,需要在積極想辦法一直嚴厲批評由理查德拉扎勒斯在他的著作和心理應激應對過程( 1966年) 。 Sociologically, a telling critique of the trends found in positive thinking is presented in Christopher Lasch's The Culture of Narcissism (1979).社會學,有力地批判的趨勢中找到積極的想法是在克里斯托弗拉斯奇的文化自戀( 1979年) 。

Theologically, positive thinking encourages a form of humanism that has often led to the development of heretical movements along the lines of New Though, Christian Science, and a variety of semi-Christian groups today.神學的,積極的思想鼓勵某種形式的人文主義的,往往導致發展的邪教運動,按照新雖然基督教科學,以及各種半基督教團體今天。 It overlooks biblical teachings about sin and the sovereignty of God to emphasize the essential goodness of humanity and the ability of people to solve their own problems through faith in their own abilities.它忽略了聖經教義的罪惡和主權的上帝強調的基本善良的人性和人的能力解決自身問題的信心通過自己的能力。 In its Christianized form this self-faith is mediated through reference to Christian symbols, which upon closer examination are devoid of their original meaning.在其Christianized形式這一自我的信念是通過提到基督教的象徵,它應更仔細的審查是完全原始的含義。

I Hexham餘赫克瑟姆
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
D. Meyer, The Positive Thinkers; PC Vitz, Psychology as Religion. D.邁耶,積極的思想家;電腦威姿,心理學,宗教。


Positivism實證

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte.實證主義是一個系統的哲學和宗教理論闡述的奧古斯特孔德。 As a philosophical system or method, Positivism denies the validity of metaphysical speculations, and maintains that the data of sense experience are the only object and the supreme criterion of human knowledge; as a religious system, it denies the existence of a personal God and takes humanity, "the great being", as the object of its veneration and cult.作為一個哲學體系或方法,實證否認的有效性,形而上學的猜測,並保持數據的意義的經驗是唯一的目的和最高標準的人權知識;作為一個宗教系統,否認存在個人的上帝,並考慮人類的“大正” ,因為其對象的崇拜和邪教。 We shall give a brief historical sketch of Positivism, an exposition of its fundamental principles, and a criticism of them.我們應給予簡短的歷史素描的實證,闡述了其基本原則,並批評他們。

HISTORY OF POSITIVISM歷史上的實證

The founder of Positivism was Auguste Comte (born at Montpellier, 19 Jan., 1798; died at Paris, 5 Sept., 1857).在實證主義的創始人是奧古斯特孔德(出生於蒙彼利埃, 1798年1月19號;死在巴黎, 1857年九月五日) 。 He entered the Ecole polytechnique at Paris in 1814, was a disciple of Saint-Simon until 1824, and began to publish his course of philosophy in 1826.他進入高等理工學院在巴黎在1814年,是一個弟子圣西門,直到1824年,開始發表他的哲學課程於1826年。 About this period he became temporarily deranged (1826-27).關於此期間,他成了暫時失常( 1826年至1827年) 。 After recovering, he was appointed instructor (1832-52) and examiner in mathematics (1837-44) at the Ecole polytechnique, giving meanwhile a course of public lectures on astronomy.康復後,他被任命為指導員( 1832年至1852年)和檢驗的數學( 1837年至1844年)在巴黎高等理工學院,同時給予球場的公開講座上天文學。 The unhappiness of his married life and his strange infatuation for Mme Clotilde de Vaux (1845-46) greatly influenced his naturally sentimental character.在他的不幸婚姻生活和他的奇怪的迷戀的太太克洛蒂爾德德沃克斯( 1845年至1846年)極大地影響了自然的情感特徵。 He realized that mere intellectual development is insufficient for life, and, having presented Positivism as the scientific doctrine and method, he aimed at making it a religion, the religion of humanity. Comte's chief works are his "Cours de philosophie positive" [6 vols.: Phiosophie mathématique (1830), astronomique et physique (1835), chimique et biologique (1838), partie dogmatique de la philosophie sociale (1839), partie historique (1840), complément de la philosophie sociale et conclusions (1842); translated by Harriet Martineau (London, 1853)] and his "Cours de politique positive" (3 vols., Paris 1815-54).他意識到,僅僅是智力發展是不夠的生命,並提出了實證的科學理論和方法,他以使它的宗教,宗教的人類。孔德的主要作品是他的“馬格尼哲學積極的” [ 6卷。 : Phiosophie數學( 1830 ) , astronomique等體質( 1835年) ,化學和生物學( 1838 ) ,部分dogmatique哲學社會( 1839年) ,部分歷史( 1840年) ,補充哲學社會和結論( 1842年) ;翻譯由哈里特馬蒂諾(倫敦, 1853年) ]和他的“教程的政治積極的” ( 3卷。 ,巴黎1815年至1854年) 。 Various influences concurred to form Comte's system of thought: the Empiricism of Locke and the Scepticism of Hume, the Sensism of the eighteenth century and the Criticism of Kant, the Mysticism of the Middle Ages, the Traditionalism of De Maistre and de Bonald, and the Philanthropy of Saint-Simon.各種影響,同意組建孔德系統的思想:在經驗主義的洛克和休謨懷疑論的Sensism十八世紀和康德的批判,在神秘的中世紀時代,傳統的德梅斯特爾和除名博納爾,並慈善事業的聖西蒙。 He maintains as a law manifested by history that every science passes through three successive stages, the theological, the metaphysical, and the positive; that the positive stage, which rejects the validity of metaphysical speculation, the existence of final causes, and the knowableness of the absolute, and confines itself to the study of experimental facts and their relations, represents the perfection of human knowledge.他認為,作為一個法律所體現的歷史,每一個科學通過連續三次階段,神學,形而上學和積極;的積極階段,反對形而上學的有效性的投機活動,存在著最後的原因,以及對knowableness絕對的,並僅限於該研究的實驗事實和他們的關係,代表了完美的人類知識。 Classifying the sciences according to their degree of increasing complexity, he reduces them to six in the following order: mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology.科學的分類根據其程度的日益複雜,他減少了6個下列順序排列:數學,天文學,物理學,化學,生物學和社會學。 Religion has for its object the "great being" (humanity), the "great medium" (world-space), and the "great fetich" (the earth), which form the positivist trinity.宗教為對象的“大正” (人類) , “大媒介” (世界空間) ,以及“偉大的fetich ” (地球) ,形成三位一體的實證。 This religion has its hierarchical priesthood, its positive dogmas, its organized cult, and even its calendar on the model of Catholicism (cf. Comte, "Catéchisme positiviste").這宗教有其等級鐸,其積極的教條,它的邪教組織,甚至其日曆模型的天主教(參見孔德, “ Catéchisme positiviste ” ) 。

At the death of Comte, a division arose among the Positivists, the dissident group being formed with Littré as its leader, and the orthodox group under the direction of Pierre Laffitte.在死亡的孔德,出現一個部門之間的實證主義的持不同政見團體正在形成與Littré作為其領導人,正統組的指導下皮埃爾拉菲特。 Emile Littré (qv) accepted Positivism in its scientific aspect: for him Positivism was essentially a method, viz, that method which limits human knowledge to the study of experimental facts and neither affirms nor denies anything concerning what may exist outside of experience.埃米爾Littré ( qv )接受實證科學方面:實證,他基本上是一個方法,即,這種方法限制了人類知識的研究和實驗的事實既不確認也不否認任何關於可能存在什麼以外的經驗。 He rejected as unreal the religious organization and cult of Positivism.他拒絕為虛幻的宗教組織和邪教組織的實證。 He considered all religions from the philosophical point of view, to be equally vain, while he confessed that, from the historical point of view, Catholicism was superior to all other religions.他認為所有的宗教從哲學的角度來看,同樣徒勞的,但他承認,從歷史角度來看,天主教優於所有其他宗教。 The true end of man, he maintained, was to work for the progress of humanity by studying it (science and education), loving it (religion), beautifying it (fine arts), and enriching it (industry).真正的結束男子,他堅持,是工作人類的進步學習它(科學與教育) ,熱愛它(宗教) ,美化它(美術) ,和豐富它(工業) 。 The official successor of Comte and leader of the orthodox group of Postivists was Pierre Laffitte, who became professor of the general history of sciences in the Collège de France in 1892.官方繼承孔德和領導人的正統組Postivists是皮埃爾拉菲特,誰成為教授的一般歷史科學在法蘭西學院於1892年。 He maintained both the scientific and the religious teaching of Positivism with its cult, sacraments, and ceremonies.他認為,雙方在科學和宗教教學的實證與邪教,聖禮,並儀式。 Other orthodox groups were formed in England with Harrison as its leader and Congreve, Elliot, Hutton, Morrison etc. as its chief adherents; in Sweden with A. Nystrom.其他東正教群體形成於英格蘭哈里森作為其領導人和康格里夫,艾略特,赫頓,莫里森等作為其主要的追隨者;在瑞典與字母a.奈斯特龍。 An active and influential group was also founded in Brazil and Chile with Benjamin Constant and Miguel Lemos as leaders and a temple of humanity was built at Rio Janeiro in 1891.積極的和有影響力的集團也成立於巴西和智利與貢斯當和Miguel萊莫斯的領導人和一個寺廟的人類是在裡約建於1891年里約熱內盧。 The principles of Positivism as a philosophical system were accepted and applied in England by J. Stuart Mill, who had been in correspondence with Comte (cf. "Lettres d'Aug. Comte à John Stuart Mill, 1841-1844", Paris, 1877), Spencer, Bain, Lewes, Maudsley, Sully, Romanes, Huxley, Tyndall etc.; in France by Taine, Ribot, de Roberty etc.; in Germany by Dühring, Avenarius etc. Thus, the principles and spirit of Positivism pervaded the scientific and philosophical thought of the nineteenth century and exercised a pernicious influence in every sphere.該原則的實證主義哲學作為一個系統被接受和應用在英國的J.密爾,誰一直在通信與孔德(見“文學德8月。孔德à彌爾, 1841年至1844年” ,巴黎, 1877年) ,斯賓塞, Bain說,劉易斯, Maudsley ,蘇利,羅曼,赫胥黎,廷德爾等;在法國的丹納,波,德Roberty等;在德國的杜林,阿芬那留斯等因此,原則和精神,充滿實證科學和哲學思想在十九世紀和行使流毒在各個領域。 They had their practical consequences in the systems of positive or so-called scientific morality and utilitarianism in ethics, of neutrality and naturalism in religion.他們有實際後果的系統的正面或所謂的科學道德和功利主義的道德,中立和自然主義的宗教。

PRINCIPLES OF POSITIVISM實證原則

The fundamental principle of Positivism is, as already said, that sense experience is the only object of human knowledge as well as its sole and supreme criterion.這一基本原則的實證,因為已經說過,這個意義上的經驗是唯一的對象人類知識以及作為其唯一的和最高的標準。 Hence abstract notions or general ideas are nothing more than collective notions; judgments are mere empirical colligations of facts. Reasoning includes induction and the syllogism: induction has for its conclusion a proposition which contains nothing more than the collection of a certain number of sense experiences, and the syllogism, taking this conclusion as its major proposition is necessarily sterile or even results in a vicious circle. Thus, according to Positivism, science cannot be, as Aristotle conceived it, the knowledge of things through their ultimate causes, since material and formal causes are unknowable, final causes illusions, and efficient causes simply invariable antecedents, while metaphysics, under any form, is illegitimate. Positivism is thus a continuation of crude Empiricism, Associationism, and Nominalism.因此,抽象的概念或一般的想法只不過是集體的觀念;判決僅僅是經驗colligations的事實。推理包括上崗和三段論:感應了其最後一個命題其中包含只不過收集了一些意義的經驗,和三段論,同時這一結論是其主要論點是一定不育,甚至造成了一種惡性循環。因此,根據實證,科學不能作為亞里士多德的設想是,知識的東西通過他們的最終原因,因為材料和正式原因是不可知的,最後導致的幻想,和高效率的原因只是不變的先例,而形而上學,任何形式,是非法的。實證因此,繼續經驗主義的原油, Associationism和唯名論。 The arguments advanced by Positivism, besides the assertion that sense experiences are the only object of human knowledge, are chiefly two: the first is that psychological analysis shows that all human knowledge can be ultimately reduced to sense experiences and empirical associations; the second, insisted upon by Comte, is historical, and is based on his famous "law of the three stages", according to which the human mind in its progress is supposed to have been successively influenced by theological preoccupations and metaphysical speculation, and to have finally reached at the present time the positive stage, which marks, according to Comte, its full and perfect development (cf. "Cours de philosophie positive", II, 15 sqq.).先進的論點的實證,除了斷言這個意義上的經驗是唯一的對象的人類知識,主要是兩個:第一是心理分析表明,所有人類知識可以最終降低到意義的經驗和實證協會;第二,堅持由孔德,是歷史的,是基於其著名的“法的三個階段” ,根據該人的心靈在其進展是已經先後受關注的神學和形而上學的猜測,並最終達成目前,積極的階段,這標誌著,根據孔德,充分和完善的發展(見“教程哲學積極的” ,二, 15 sqq 。 ) 。

CRITICISM批評

Positivism asserts that sense experiences are the only object of human knowledge, but does not prove its assertion.實證人稱這個意義上的經驗是唯一的對象的人類知識,但並不證明其主張。 It is true that all our knowledge has its starting point in sense experience, but it is not proved that knowledge stops there.誠然,我們所有的知識有其出發點常識的經驗,但並不證明,有知識站。 Positivism fails to demonstrate that, above particular facts and contingent relations, there are not abstract notions, general laws universal and necessary principles, or that we cannot know them.實證未能證明,上述事實,特別是有關係,但都不是抽象的概念,一般法律和必要的普遍性原則,或者說我們不知道他們。 Nor does it prove that material and corporeal things constitute the whole order of existing beings, and that our knowledge is limited to them.它也沒有證明材料和物質的東西構成了整個秩序而現有的,而且我們的知識是有限的他們。 Concrete beings and individual relations are not only perceptible by our senses, but they have also their causes and laws of existence and constitution; they are intelligible.而混凝土和個人關係不僅感覺到我們的感官,但也其原因和存在的法律和憲法,他們是可以理解的。 These causes and laws pass beyond the particularness and contingency of individual facts, and are elements as fundamentally real as the individual facts which they produce and control. They cannot be perceived by our senses, but why can they not be explained by our intelligence?這些原因和超越法律的particularness和應急的個別事實,是根本因素,真正因為個人的事實,他們生產和控制。他們不能被視為我們的感官,但為什麼他們能不能解釋我們的情報? Again, immaterial beings cannot be perceived by sense experience, it is true, but their existence is not contradictory to our intelligence, and, if their existence is required as a cause and a condition of the actual existence of material things, they certainly exist.同樣,無關緊要的人不能被視為由意義的經驗,這是事實,但它們的存在並不矛盾,我們的情報,如果他們的生存需要的原因和條件的實際存在的物質的東西,他們肯定存在。 We can infer their existence and know something of their nature.我們可以推斷它們的存在,並知道其性質。 They cannot indeed be known in the same way as material things, but this is no reason for declaring them unknowable to our intelligence (see AGNOSTICISM; ANALOGY).他們不能被稱為的確以同樣的方式作為物質的東西,但是這是沒有任何理由宣布他們不可知的,以我們的情報(見不可知論;類比) 。 According to Positivism, our abstract concepts or general ideas are mere collective representations of the experimental order - for example, the idea of "man" is a kind of blended image of all the men observed in our experience.根據實證,我們的抽象的概念或一般的想法僅僅是集體交涉的實驗秩序-例如,提出“人”是一種形象的混合所有的男人看到我們的經驗。 This is a fundamental error.這是一個根本性的錯誤。 Every image bears individual characters; an image of man is always an image of a particular man and can represent only that one man.每一個圖像承擔個別字符;一個形象的人始終是一個形象,特別是男子和能代表只有一人。 What is called a collective image is nothing more than a collection of divers images succeeding one another, each representing an individual and concrete object, as may be seen by attentive observation.什麼是所謂的集體形象只不過是收集潛水員圖像彼此成功,每個代表個人和具體的對象,可看到的細心觀察。 An idea, on the contrary, abstracts from any concrete determination, and may be applied identically to an indefinite number of objects of the same class.一個想法,相反,摘錄的任何具體的決心,可以適用相同無限期一些物體的同一類。 Collective images are more or less confused, and are the more so as the collection represented is larger; an idea remains always clear.集體形象或多或少混淆,而且更使收集代表較大;的想法仍然總是很清楚。 There are objects which we cannot imagine (eg a myriagon, a substance, a principle), and which we can nevertheless distinctly conceive.有物體,我們不能想像(如myriagon ,一種物質,這一原則) ,而我們仍然可以明顯的設想。 Nor is the general idea a name substituted as a sign for all the individual objects of the same class, as stated by Taine (De l'Intelligence, I, 26).也不是一般的想法的名稱取代,以示對所有的個人物品在同一類,如丹納(法國情報,我26 ) 。 If a certain perception, says Taine, always coincides with or follows another perception (eg the perception of smoke and that of fire, the smell of a sweet odour and the sight of a rose), then the one becomes the sign of the other in such a way that, when we perceive one, we instinctively anticipate the presence of the other.如果某一看法,說丹納總是相吻合,或另一種看法如下(如知覺的煙霧和火災,味道甜的氣味,並看見玫瑰) ,然後成為一個標誌的其他在這樣,當我們認為,我們本能地預測存在的。 So it is, Taine adds, with our general ideas.所以,丹納說,與我們的一般想法。 When we have perceived a number of different trees, there remains in our memory a certain image made up of the characters common to all trees, namely the image of a trunk with branches.當我們認為有一些不同的樹木,還有在我們的記憶有一定的形象作出了共同的特點對所有樹木,即形象的主幹與分支。 We call it "tree", and this word becomes the exclusive sign of the class "tree"; it evokes the image of the individual objects of that class as the perception of every one of these evokes the image of the sign substituted for the whole class.我們稱之為“樹” ,這個詞成為獨家的跡象,一流的“樹” ,它使人的形象,個別物件的階層的看法,每一個這些使人的形象標誌取代整個類。

Cardinal Mercier rightly remarks that this theory rests upon a confusion between experimental analogy and abstraction (Critériologie générale l, III c. iii, 2, pp. 237 sqq.).紅衣主教梅西埃正確的話,這一理論在於混淆與實驗類比和抽象( Critériologie總署升,三角三,二,頁。 237 sqq 。 ) 。 Experimental analogy plays indeed a large part in our practical life, and is an important factor in the education of our senses (cf. St. Thomas, "Anal. post.", II, xv).實驗類比發揮確實是一個很大一部分在我們的現實生活,而且是一個重要的因素在教育我們的感官(參見聖托馬斯, “肛門。職務。 ”二, XV )號決議。 But it should be remarked that experimental analogy is limited to the individual objects observed, to particular and similar objects; its generality is essentially relative.但是,應該指出,實驗類比是有限的,以個人觀察到的物體,具體和類似用途;其概括性基本上是相對的。 Again, the words which designate the objects correspond to the characters of these objects, and we cannot speak of "abstract names" when only individual objects are given, Such is not the case with our general ideas.同樣,話指定的對象對應的特點,這些物體,我們不能講“抽象的名稱”時,只有個別的對象,給出這種情況不是我們的一般想法。 They are the result of an abstraction, not of a mere perception of individual objects, however numerous; they are the conception of a type applicable in its unity and identity to an indefinite number of the objects of which it is the type.他們是由於一個抽象的,並不只是個人的看法物體,但眾多,他們的概念,是一種適用於它的統一和身份無限期一些物體,它是類型。 They thus have a generality without limit and independent of any concrete determination.因此,他們有一個概括性的限制,獨立於任何具體的決定。 If the words which signify them can be the sign of all the individual objects of the same class, it is because that same class has first been conceived in its type; these names are abstract because they signify an abstract concept.如果話意味著他們可以登錄所有的個人物品在同一類,是因為同一等級的構想首先在其類型;這些名字是抽象的,因為它們意味著一個抽象的概念。 Hence mere experience is insufficient to account for our general ideas.因此,單純的經驗是不夠的佔我們總的想法。 A careful study of Taine's theory and the illustrations given shows that the apparent plausibility of this theory comes precisely from the fact that Taine unconsciously introduces and employs abstraction.仔細研究丹納的理論和插圖表明,由於明顯的可信性是這一理論正是從這一事實,泰納不自覺地介紹和員工抽象的概念。 Again, Positivism, and this is the point especially developed by John Stuart Mill (following Hume), maintains that what we call "necessary truths" (even mathematical truths, axioms, principles) are merely the result of experience, a generalization of our experiences.此外,實證,這是指向特別是發達國家的彌爾(以下休謨) ,堅持認為,我們所說的“必要的真理” (甚至數學真理,公理,原則)只是由於經驗,推廣我們的經驗。 We are conscious, eg that we cannot at the same time affirm and deny a certain proposition, that one state of mind excludes the other; then we generalize our observation and express as a general principle that a proposition cannot be true and false at the same time. Such a principle is simply the result of a subjective necessity based on experience.我們意識到,例如,我們不能在同一時間肯定和否定某種主張,即一個國家的心態排除了其他;然後我們推廣我們的觀察,並表示作為一般原則,即主張不能真正的和虛假的在同一時間。這樣一個原則是簡單的結果必然是主觀經驗的基礎上。 Now, it is true that experience furnishes us with the matter out of which our judgments are formed, and with the occasion to formulate them.現在,它確實提供我們的經驗與問題,其中我們的判斷是成立的,並藉此機會他們制訂。 But mere experience does not afford either the proof or the confirmation of our certitude concerning their truth.但是,僅僅是經驗不承擔任何證據或確認我們確信有關其真相。 If it were so, our certitude should increase with every new experience, and such is not the case, and we could not account for the absolute character of this certitude in all men, nor for the identical application of this certitude to the same propositions by all men.如果是這樣,我們確信應該增加每個新經驗,這種情況並非如此,我們不能佔絕對的性質,在確信所有男人,也不相同適用本確信同樣的命題由所有的人。 In reality we affirm the truth and necessity of a proposition, not because we cannot subjectively deny it or conceive its contradictory, but because of its objective evidence, which is the manifestation of the absolute, universal, and objective truth of the proposition, the source of our certitude, and the reason of the subjective necessity in us.在現實中我們申明的真相和必要性的一個命題,而不是因為我們不能否認這一點主觀想像或其矛盾的,而是因為其客觀證據,這是體現了絕對的,普遍的,客觀真理的命題來源我們確信,原因主觀需要我們。

As to the so-called "law of the three stages", it is not borne out by a careful study of history.至於所謂的“法的三個階段” ,這不是證明了仔細研究歷史。 It is true that we meet with certain epochs more particularly characterized by the influence of faith, or metaphysical tendencies, or enthusiasm for natural science.誠然,我們與某些時代,特別是具有影響的信仰,或形而上的傾向,或熱衷於自然科學。 But even then we do not see that these characteristics realize the order expressed in Comte's law.但即便如此,我們還沒有看到,這些特點實現以表達孔德的法律。 Aristotle was a close student of natural science, while after him the neo-Platonic School was almost exclusively given to metaphysical speculation.亞里士多德是密切學生自然科學,而在他的新柏拉圖學派幾乎完全考慮到形而上學的猜測。 In the sixteenth century there was a great revival of experimental sciences; yet it was followed by the metaphysical speculation of the German idealistic school.在16世紀有一個偉大復興的實驗科學;但其次是形而上學的猜測,德國理想主義的學校。 The nineteenth century beheld a wonderful development of the natural sciences, but we are now witnessing a revival of the study of metaphysics.十九世紀看到美好的發展自然科學,但我們現在看到恢復的研究形而上學。 Nor is it true that these divers tendencies cannot exist during the same epoch.它也不是真正的,這些潛水員的傾向就無法生存在同一時代。 Aristotle was a metaphysician as well as a scientist.亞里士多德是一個metaphysician以及一名科學家。 Even in the Middle Ages, which are so generally considered as exclusively given to a priori metaphysics, observation and experiment had a large place, as is shown by the works of Roger Bacon and Albertus Magnus.即使在中世紀,它是如此普遍視為專門給先驗形而上學,觀察和實驗有很大的地方,是所表現出的作品,羅傑培根和阿爾貝馬格努斯。 St. Thomas himself manifests a remarkably keen spirit of psychological observation in his "Commentaries" and in his "Summa theologica", especially in his admirable treatise on the passions.聖托馬斯自己的表現非常渴望精神心理觀察在他的“評” ,並在他的“神學大全” ,尤其是在令人敬佩的論文的激情。 Finally, we see a harmonious combination of faith, metaphysical reasoning, and experimental observation in such men as Kepler, Descartes, Leibniz, Paschal etc. The so-called "law of the three stages" is a gratuitous assumption, not a law of history.最後,我們看到了一個和諧結合的信念,形而上學的推理,觀察和實驗等男子開普勒,笛卡爾,萊布尼茨,復活節等所謂的“法的三個階段”是一種無理的假設,而不是一個法律的歷史。

The positivist religion is a logical consequence of the principles of Positivism.在實證主義的宗教是合乎邏輯的後果,實證原則。 In reality human reason can prove the existence of a personal God and of His providence, and the moral necessity of revelation, while history proves the existence of such a revelation.在現實中人類理性可以證明存在的個人上帝和他的普羅維登斯,和道德必要性的啟示,而歷史證明存在這樣一個啟示。 The establishment of a religion by Positivism simply shows that for man religion is a necessity.建立一個宗教的實證表明,只要對人類的宗教是必要的。

Publication information Written by George M. Sauvage.出版信息撰稿喬治先生泥鰍。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

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