Christian View of Philosophy基督教哲學觀

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Certain Greek thinkers in the seventh and sixth centuries BC were the first to call themselves philosophers, literally "lovers of wisdom."某些希臘思想家在第七和公元前六世紀的第一個自稱哲人,字面“愛好者的智慧。 ” Discounting the traditional myths, doctrines, and common sense of the priests and poets of classical Greece, the first philosophers held that the most important questions all human beings need to answer are those concerning social order and the origin, nature, and development of the material world.貼現的傳統神話,理論,知識和常識的牧師和詩人的古典希臘哲學家第一次舉行,最重要的問題,所有的人需要回答的是關於社會秩序和起源,性質和發展的物質世界。 Their method of approaching these questions included the critical scrutiny of confessedly human theories about the natural order.他們的方法處理這些問題包括關鍵的審查明白人權理論的自然秩序。 Alleged revelation from the gods offered by the religious leaders was explicitly repudiated.據稱啟示神所提供的宗教領袖被明確否定。 Not all philosophers since the first ones in ancient Greece have been antisupernaturalists, but they have all been concerned primarily with the most basic questions common to every human being, and they have adopted a method which tries to be critical of every assertion and the assumptions behind it.並非所有的哲學家,因為第一次在古希臘已antisupernaturalists ,但他們都主要涉及最基本的共同問題,每個人,他們通過這種方法試圖將每一個關鍵的斷言和背後的假設它。

Focusing on the most fundamental and general issues facing mankind, philosophers traditionally have attempted to synthesize all knowledge into a coherent, consistent system.著眼於最根本的和一般人類所面臨的問題,傳統的哲學家試圖綜合所有的知識轉變成一個連貫一致的系統。 No scientist or group of scientists can accomplish this task, for they are all limited in the scope of their investigations to just parts or certain aspects of the experienced world.沒有科學家或一組科學家能夠完成這項任務,因為它們都是有限的範圍的調查,只是部分或某些方面的經驗豐富的世界。 The dominance of the scientific method in the modern era has brought with it a skepticism by many, including some scholars in philosophy, about going beyond the methods of science in describing reality.佔支配地位的科學方法,在當今時代帶來了一個由許多持懷疑態度,其中包括一些學者在哲學,對超越科學的方法來描述現實。 Consequently the synthetic and synoptic function of philosophy is considered less than attainable by some philosophers today.因此,合成和綜合功能的哲學是考慮不到的一些達到今天的哲學家。

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More in vogue presently is the other characteristic associated with the philosophers from the time of the ancient Greeks onward, namely, their attempt to be analytical.更多的是目前流行的其他特徵與從哲學家的時候,古希臘人開始,即他們試圖分析。 In this role the philosopher gives leadership in the careful evaluation of the assertions, concepts, assumptions, methods, and conclusions of anyone who claims to be describing reality or prescribing for human behavior.在此作用哲學家讓領導在仔細評估斷言,概念,假設,方法和結論的人誰聲稱要描述現實或處方為人類的行為。

The Four Types of Philosophical Problems這四個類型的哲學問題

Logic邏輯

Distinguishing good reasoning from bad cannot be done scientifically, for the ability to make this distinction is presupposed by all thinkers, scientific or otherwise.區分好不好推理不能做科學的,有能力使這一區別是假定所有的思想家,科學或其他方式。 The philosophical field of logic seeks to ascertain the principles of the thought patterns one ought to follow if reality is to be reflected adequately or if reality is intentionally not being reflected in one's thought or utterances.哲學邏輯領域的要求,以確定的原則之一思維模式應該遵循的現實是,如果要充分地反映現實,或者是故意不反映在一個人的思想或言論。 Thus logic is the normative discipline of correct reasoning as such.因此邏輯是規範紀律,正確的推理這樣。

Theory of Knowledge理論知識

Although as important as any area in philosophy, the theory of knowledge, also designated epistemology, has seen surprisingly little progress in moving past the issues raised by the first philosophers over two and a half millennia ago.雖然作為重要的任何領域的哲學,理論知識,還指定認識論,看到令人驚訝的進展不大移動過去提出的問題首先哲學家超過兩年半的千年前。 These issues include the definition, criteria, and sources of knowledge.這些問題包括定義,標準和知識來源。 Equally significant is the question of whether there is a foundational structure of directly known principles of evidence upon which reasoning can be built.同樣重要的問題是是否有基礎結構的直接已知的原則,證據的推理,才能建立。 Also, there is the problem of deciding on the conditions that must exist for a statement to be true.另外,有問題的決定條件,必須具備一份聲明是真實的。

Metaphysics and Ontology形而上學和本體

The term "metaphysics" was first used to refer to what Aristotle claimed to be "a science which investigates being as being and the attributes which belong to this in virtue of its own nature."術語“形而上學”最早是用來指什麼亞里士多德聲稱自己是“一個科學調查被視為和屬性屬於這種憑藉其自身的性質。 ” He distinguished this "science" from all the "so-called special sciences," for none of them dealt "generally with being as being."他尊敬這個“科學”從所有“所謂特殊的科學, ”為其中沒有涉及“一般被視為” 。 Although the etymology and traditional use of the term "ontology" makes it a synonym of "metaphysics," its meaning has become narrowed in contemporary philosophy.雖然詞源和傳統使用“本體”使它成為同義詞的“形而上學” ,其含義已成為縮小在當代哲學。 This constriction began with Immanuel Kant's theoretical separation of reality from the appearance of reality and the limitation of human knowledge to the latter.這收縮開始,康德的理論分離的現實從外觀的現實和限制人類的知識後者。

Prior to Kant metaphysics was commonly understood as the theoretical grasp of the overall structure of reality.之前,康德的形而上學的一般理解,把握理論的總體結構現實。 Following Kant's distinction between reality and appearance metaphysics has been seen by many as the dispelling of illusion about what can be known of reality, assuming the human inability to transcend the realm of appearance.繼康德的區分現實和形而上學的外觀已經被許多人視為消除錯覺什麼可稱為現實的,假設人類無法超越的境界出現。

In the analytically oriented philosophy of today's English-speaking world metaphysics amounts to a rigorous examination of the concepts used when referring to the basic categories of being.在分析哲學面向今天的英語世界形而上學的數額嚴格審查的概念時使用指的是基本類型的福祉。 The term "ontology" is usually preferred, leaving "metaphysics" for the largely discredited speculative account of reality as a whole.所謂“本體論”通常是首選,使“形而上學”的主要掃地投機帳戶的現實作為一個整體。 By way of contrast, continental European philosophy considers ontology to be the disclosure of the world of appearance which is reality.相比之下,歐洲大陸哲學本體論認為應披露的世界外觀這是現實。 Many philosophers, however, reject the kantian distinction between appearance and reality by striving to grasp reality as a coherent system toward which human thought is advancing.許多哲學家,但是,反對康德區分外觀和現實,努力把握現實,一個連貫的制度對人的思想是前進。 For them metaphysics is understood in its traditional sense.對於他們的形而上學的理解在其傳統意義。

Value Theory價值理論

The fourth major department of philosophy includes ethics and aesthetics.第四個主要部門包括道德哲學和美學。 The primary focus of the study of aesthetics is upon the question of whether beauty is relative to the observer.主要研究的重點是美學的問題是否美麗是相對的觀察員出席了會議。 The answer has a direct bearing on the practical problem of whether standards should be imposed upon the creation, appreciation, and criticism of art works.答案有直接影響的實際問題的標準是否應該強加的創造,讚賞和批評的藝術作品。

Ethics is mainly concerned with the grounds warranting human actions to be judged right or wrong, and persons and events good or evil. Ethicists who take moral statements to be cognitively meaningful and who find an objective basis for ethical values are divided into two standpoints in their theory as to what makes human behavior morally right or wrong.倫理學主要涉及的理由需要人的行動來判斷對錯,和者和事件好或邪惡。倫理學誰需要道義上的講話是認知有意義的,誰找到一個客觀的依據道德價值觀分為兩個觀點在其理論什麼使得人類行為的道義上是正確或錯誤的。 The teleological approach looks for the moral quality of an action in its tendency to bring about an intrinsically good state of affairs.該目的的方法尋找道德素質的行動,其趨勢是實現內在的良好狀態。 Instances of such states that have been proposed include the greatest pleasure for the largest number of people, the full development of one's potential as a rational being, and the attainment of eternal peace.這樣的事例指出,已提出包括最大的高興的人數最多,充分發展自己的潛力,作為一個合理的福利,並實現永久和平。 The competing standpoint is that of deontological ethics, which maintains that the rightness or wrongness of some human actions is not based on the results of those actions.競爭的角度看是義務論道德,它堅持認為,正確性或不正當的一些人的行動沒有成果的基礎上採取這些行動。 Keeping a promise, for example, is thought right in any situation, because it is one's duty or is commanded by God.保持承諾,例如,是正確的思想在任何情況下,因為它是一個人的工作地點或指揮的上帝。 Traditionally Christian ethics has had both teleological and deontological elements.傳統的基督教道德都已經目的和義務論的內容。

The Christian Attitude Toward Philosophy基督教哲學態度

The apostle Paul's warning to the Colossian believers is clear: "See to it that no one makes a prey of you by philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe, and not according to Christ" (Col. 2:8).在使徒保羅的警告Colossian信徒是明確的: “看它,沒有人提出了獵物你的哲學和空洞的欺騙,按照人類的傳統,根據元素的精神宇宙,而不是根據基督” (上校2時08 ) 。 Such a warning was to be expected in light of what passed for philosophy in Paul's time.這樣的警告是可以預期根據什麼哲學通過在保羅的時間。 But he makes a philosophical assertion himself by continuing in the same passage to point out that in Christ "the whole fulness of deity dwells bodily" and that Christ is "the head of all rule and authority" (Col. 8:9-10). Apparently Paul regarded at least some problems of interest to the philosophers of his day worth addressing.但他提出了自己的哲學主張,繼續在同一通道指出,在基督“整個充滿神居住的身體” ,以及基督是“負責所有的規則和權威” (中校8:9-10 ) 。顯然保羅認為至少在一些問題感興趣的哲學家,他一天值得解決的問題。 For instance, "Christ" and "the elemental spirits of the universe" are taken by Paul to be alternative answers to a philosophical question he considers important.例如, “基督”和“精神元素的宇宙”是由保羅將替代回答了哲學問題,他認為很重要的。

Secular philosophers began losing the initiative to Christian thinkers within a few centuries after Paul's death.世俗的哲學家開始失去了主動基督教思想家在一個幾百年後,保羅的死亡。 Indeed, during the thousand years prior to the modern era virtually all European philosophers were Christians.實際上,在1000年之前,現代幾乎所有歐洲的哲學家是基督徒。 They took seriously the need of providing an interpretation of divine revelation in nature, Christ, and Scripture for a culture built on the framework of the ancient Greek philosophers.他們認真對待,需要提供一個解釋的神聖啟示的性質,基督和聖經文化基礎上的框架內,古希臘哲學家。 The basic questions every human must ask had been so clearly articulated by the Greeks that the Christian philosophers sought to formulate equally cogent answers from the standpoint of God's general and special revelation.基本問題每個人必須自問已經清楚地闡明了希臘人的基督教哲學家的要求,制定有說服力的回答同樣的角度上帝的一般和特殊的啟示。

Secular philosophy, often anti-Christian, has regained the leadership in the modern period.世俗哲學,往往是反基督教,已經恢復的領導在現代時期。 The foundational issues with which philosophy deals have not changed, but their specific formulations and proposed solutions in the last few centuries have not always been compatible with Christianity.基礎問題,其中涉及哲學並沒有改變,但其具體的提法,並提出解決方案,在過去的幾個世紀中並非總是符合基督教。 Hence, there is a great need for the insights and truths of divine revelation to be reestablished as being worthy of philosophical consideration.因此,非常需要的見解和真理的神聖啟示重新確立作為哲學值得考慮。

This goal of contemporary Christian philosophy cannot be attained apart from the assistance of biblical scholarship and theology, however.這一目標的當代基督教哲學就不可能實現除了聖經援助獎學金和神學,但是。 Since orthodox Christianity is grounded upon, and intended to be consistent with, the events recorded and interpreted in Scripture, the Christian philosopher must come to understand Scripture as it understands itself.自正統基督教的基礎是各國,並打算符合的事件記錄和解釋聖經,基督教哲學家必須認識到聖經,因為它本身的理解。 Of particular assistance will be theological interpretations of Scripture limited to the problems dealt with by God's inspired prophets and apostles.特別援助將神學的解釋聖經有限的問題,處理上帝的靈感先知和使徒。 The Christian in philosophy will build upon this theological framework but will never supplant it.基督教哲學將建立在這個神學的框架,但絕不會取代它。

Since much has been learned from and about both God's and mankind's creative work since the origin of the human race, the Christian thinker must contemplate more than the problems of concern to the biblical writers.由於取得了很大的教訓和兩個上帝和人類的創造性的工作,因為原產地的人類,基督教思想家必須考慮以上問題的關注,聖經作家。 Moreover, in order to encompass as much of God's truth as possible from natural revelation within a comprehensive view of the universe created and sustained by the merciful, loving God of Scripture, the Christian must engage in philosophical speculation.此外,為了涵蓋了上帝的真理盡可能自然的啟示在一個全面的看法,宇宙的創造和持續的仁慈,愛上帝的聖經,基督教必須進行哲學的猜測。 This does not entail an outlook inconsistent with Scripture.這並不意味著前景不符合聖經。 Specifically, there is no need to repudiate the miraculous, historical events upon which the Christian faith rests.具體來說,有沒有必要否定奇蹟,歷史事件,在此基礎在於基督教信仰。

A philosopher's synthetic standpoint is not necessarily secular, much less anti-Christian, even though the first philosophy began this way and has largely reverted to this stance in the modern era.一位哲學家的綜合的角度並不一定是世俗的,更不用說反基督教,即使第一哲學開始這種方式已基本上回复到這一立場在現代的時代。 All that a Christian must do to pursue philosophy properly is critically to scrutinize the discoveries, insights, and theories that have increased our knowledge of God's universe, and coherently to weave this knowledge into an adequate whole consistent with Scripture.所有這一切基督徒必須做的正確的哲學追求是極其仔細檢查發現,見解,理論,增加了我們的知識上帝的宇宙和連貫編織這方面的知識到足夠的符合整個聖經。 This will involve a consideration, assessment, and evaluation from the scriptural viewpoint of every area of the human quest for knowledge, for control of the environment, for human governance, and for artistic expression.這將涉及審議,評估和評價從聖經觀點的每一個領域的人類尋求知識,為控制環境,為人類治理和藝術表達。

The Christian philosopher's overriding purpose is to love God with one's entire being, including the mind.基督教哲學家的首要目的是為了上帝的愛與一個人的全部福利,包括想法。 In addition, the Christian philosopher desires to assist the theologian in two important ways.此外,基督教哲學家的願望,以協助神學的兩個重要途徑。 One is to provide leadership in developing techniques of rigorous, critical analysis of both cultural and theological assumptions, concepts, and doctrines and their implications.其中之一是提供領導在制定嚴格的技術,嚴謹的分析文化和神學的假設,概念和理論及其影響。 The other line of assistance is in the formulation of a synthetic and synoptic scheme of thought in order that the systematic theologian, particularly, can show Scripture to be relevant to contemporary life and thought.其他行的援助是在制定綜合和天氣計劃的思路,以使該系統的神學,尤其是能夠證明聖經是有關當代生活和思想。 The simple fact that any systematic theologican must adopt a philosophical system makes it crucial that Christian philosophers make available guidance in the selection and use of one consistent with the teachings of Scripture.一個簡單的事實,任何系統的theologican必須採取一種哲學系統,所以至關重要的是,基督教哲學家提供指導,選拔和使用一個符合聖經的教誨。

SR Obitts簡Obitts
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
RM Chisholm et al., Philosophy; MD Hunnex, Philosophies and Philosophers; HA Wolfson, The Philosophy of the Church Fathers; BL Hebblethwaite, The Problems of Theology; R. Nash, The Word of God and the Mind of Man; W. Corduan, Handmaid to Theology.產品姆等。哲學; Hunnex醫學,哲學和哲學家;醫管局歐,哲學教會教父; Hebblethwaite基本法的問題,神學;河納什,上帝的話,和人的心靈;總統Corduan ,侍女,以神學。


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