Pacifism和平主義

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Pacifism is a term, derived from the Latin word for peacemaking, that has been applied to a spectrum of positions covering nearly all attitudes toward war.和平主義是一個長期,源於拉丁詞為締造和平,這已適用於頻譜的職位涵蓋幾乎所有戰爭的態度。 On one extreme pacifist designates any person who desires peace, thus describing those who wage war as much as those who refuse participation in war.在一個極端的和平主義者指定的任何人誰渴望和平,從而說明這些誰發動戰爭多達那些誰拒絕參與戰爭。 On the other extreme pacifism also describes renunciation of force and coercion in all forms.在其他極端主義還介紹了放棄武力和脅迫的一切形式。 A mediating definition sometimes distinguishes nonresistance, which renounces force in all forms, from pacifism, which rejects participation in war but allows the use of nonviolent kinds of force.調解的定義有時區別不抵抗,它放棄武力的一切形式,從和平主義,反對參與戰爭,但允許使用非暴力的各種力量。 It makes most sense to reserve the term "pacifism" for that part of the spectrum which includes at least a refusal to participate in war.它最有意義保留的“和平主義”的這一部分的頻譜,其中包括至少拒絕參加戰爭。 Those individuals who refuse to do this are called conscientious objectors.這些人誰拒絕這樣做是所謂的良心拒服兵役者。

History歷史

Pacifism is one of three historic attitudes of the church toward war.和平主義是一個歷史性的態度三個教堂走向戰爭。 In some form it has existed throughout the entire history of the Christian church.在某些形式存在的整個歷史上的基督教教堂。 Since the fourth century it has often been overshadowed by the just war theory and the concept of crusade, or aggressive war for a holy cause.自第四世紀它往往被掩蓋了正義戰爭的理論和概念的運動,或侵略戰爭的一個神聖的事業。 The early church was pacifist.早期的教堂是和平主義者。 Prior to AD 170-80 there are no records of soldiers in the Roman army. Following that epoch there are both Christians in the army and also writings which opposed the practice from church fathers such as Tertullian.之前,公元170-80沒有記錄的士兵在羅馬軍隊。時代之後,有基督徒在軍隊和著作也反對這種做法從教堂的父親如良。 Some Christian writers sanctioned police functions and military service, provided these did not entail bloodshed and killing. Under Emperor Constantine, who closely identified the interests of the empire with the interests of Christianity, Christian soldiers were common.一些基督教作家認可的警察職能和軍事服務,但這些並不意味著流血和殺戮。皇帝君士坦丁下,密切合作,確定了誰的利益,帝國的利益,基督教,基督教士兵被普遍。 During the rule of Theodosius II only Christians could serve as soldiers.在法治的狄奧二只基督徒可以充當士兵。

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When confronted by the barbarian invasions that seemed to threaten Roman civilization and thus the Christianity identified with it, Augustine of Hippo developed the idea, rooted in Roman Stoic philosophy and first given a Christian formulation by Ambrose, which has come to be called the just war theory.當所面臨的野蠻入侵,似乎威脅到羅馬文明和基督教從而確定它,奧古斯丁的河馬開發的理念,植根於古羅馬斯多葛哲學和第一次給一個基督教制定,劉漢銓,這已成為所謂的正義戰爭理論。 It intended not to advocate war but to limit the conditions under which Christians could participate in war, accepting it as an unfortunately necessary tool for preserving the civilization to which Christianity belonged.它不打算主張戰爭,但限制在何種條件下基督徒可以參加戰爭,接受它作為一個不幸的是必要的手段維護文明而屬於基督教。 Since Augustine some form of the just war theory has been the majority position of most Christian traditions.自奧古斯丁某種形式的正義戰爭理論一直是多數地位最基督教傳統。

In the Middle Ages the idea of the crusade developed from another attempt by the church to limit warfare.在中世紀的想法制定的十字軍東征的又一嘗試教堂限制的戰爭。 The peace of God and the truce of God limited times for fighting and banned clerical participation in war.和平的上帝和上帝的休戰時間有限,戰鬥文書,並禁止在戰爭中的參與。 To enforce these limitations the church itself came to conduct warring activity.為了實施這些限制的教堂本身來進行交戰活動。 This act associated war with a holy cause, namely the enforcement of peace.這種行為與戰爭相關的一個神聖的事業,即強制執行和平。 This association developed into the crusades, the holy cause of rescuing the Holy Land from the Moslems.該協會已發展成為十字軍,神聖的事業,挽救聖地的穆斯林。 Pope Urban II preached the first crusade in 1095.烏爾巴諾二鼓吹在第一次十字軍東征1095 。 In either religious or secular versions the crusade has been a part of the church's tradition ever since.無論是哪一種宗教或世俗的十字軍東征的版本已部分教會的傳統至今。

During the Middle Ages it was the sectarians who kept alive the pacifist tradition.在中世紀,這是sectarians誰維持生命的和平傳統。 Groups of Waldensians and Franciscan Tertiaries refused military service.組Waldensians和濟Tertiaries拒絕服兵役。 The Cathari were pacifist. Cathari人的和平。 The Hussite movement developed two branches, a crusading one under blind general Jan Zizka and a pacifist one under Peter Chelciky. Hussite運動的發展兩個分支,一個十字下一個盲人一般揚Zizka和和平主義者下一個彼得Chelciky 。

The period of the Renaissance and Reformation saw assertions of all three attitudes toward war.這一時期的文藝復興和宗教改革看到斷言所有三個戰爭的態度。 Renaissance humanism developed a pacifist impulse, of which Erasmus is one of the most important examples. Humanist pacifism appealed to such philosophical and theological principles as the common humanity and brotherhood of all persons as children of God, the follies of war, and the ability of rational individuals to govern themselves and their states on the basis of reason.文藝復興時期的人文主義制定了一個和平的衝動,其中伊拉斯謨是最重要的一個例子。人文主義和平呼籲,例如哲學和神學原則作為共同的人性和博愛的所有人士為兒童的上帝,愚蠢的戰爭,和能力合理的個人來管理自己和國家的基礎上的原因。

All Protestant churches except the Anabaptists accepted the inherited tradition of the just war. Luther identified two kingdoms, of God and of the world. 所有新教除Anabaptists接受繼承傳統的正義戰爭。路德確定了兩個王國,上帝和世界。 While he rejected the idea of crusade, his respect for the state as ordained by God to preserve order and to punish evil in the worldly realm made him a firm supporter of the just war approach. The Reformed tradition accepted the crusade concept, seeing the state not only as the preserver of order but also as a means of furthering the cause of true religion.雖然他拒絕了思想鬥爭,他尊重國家作為上帝祝維護秩序和懲治邪惡的世俗境界,他的堅定支持者的正義戰爭的辦法。改革傳統的十字軍東征接受的概念,看到了國家它不僅是保存的秩序,而且作為一種手段,推動事業的真正的宗教。 Zwingli died in a religious war; Calvin left the door open to rebellion against an unjust ruler; and Beza developed not only the right but the duty of Christians to revolt against tyranny.茨溫利死於一場宗教戰爭;卡爾文敞開大門,以反抗不公正的統治者;和Beza發達國家不僅有權而且有責任基督徒反抗暴政。 Cromwell's pronouncement of divine blessing on the massacre of Catholics at Drogheda illustrates the crusade idea in English Puritanism.克倫威爾的言論神祝福的大屠殺天主教徒在德羅伊達說明了十字軍東征的想法英文清教。

Alongside the wars of religion of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries arose the pacifist traditions which for the most part have preserved their opposition to war until the present time.除了戰爭的宗教, 16和17世紀出現的和平傳統的大部分都保留其反對戰爭,直至現在。 Pacifism emerged as the dominant position of the Anabaptists, who rejected not only the sword of war but also refused to engage in political life. Although their identification of two kingdoms paralleled Luther's analysis closely, the Anabaptists denied that Christians could in any way exercise the sword of the magistrate in the worldly kingdom.和平主義成為主導地位的Anabaptists ,誰拒絕不僅是戰爭之劍,而且拒絕參與政治生活。儘管他們確定兩個平行路德王國的分析,密切合作,在Anabaptists否認,基督徒可以在任何方式行使劍在裁判官在世俗的王國。 When Alexander Mack organized the Church of the Brethren in 1708, Anabaptism was the major impulse in dialectic with pietism.當麥晉桁亞歷山大教會組織的弟兄們在1708年, Anabaptism主要是衝動的虔誠主義與辯證。 While Quakers, who emerged in the midseventeenth century, distinguished the kingdom of God from that of the world, they did not utterly despair of the world and involved themselves in its political processes up to the point of war. Appeals to individual conscience played an important role in Quaker nonviolent political activity on behalf of justice and peace. Anabaptists, the immediate predecessors of the Mennonites, were the most withdrawn from participation in government, with the Quakers the least separated.雖然誼,誰出現在midseventeenth世紀,尊敬的上帝王國的從這個世界,但它們並沒有完全絕望,世界和參與在其本身的政治進程,直至指向戰爭。呼籲個人良知發揮了重要中格非暴力的政治活動,代表正義與和平。 Anabaptists ,立即前輩的門諾派,是最撤出參與政府,與誼最不分開。 The Brethren occupied a median position.被佔領的弟兄們中間立場。

Wars in North America, from Puritan conflicts with the Indians through the Revolutionary War to the world wars, have all been defended in religious and secular versions of the just war theory or the crusade idea.戰爭在北美,從衝突清教徒與印第安人通過革命戰爭的世界戰爭,都在捍衛宗教和世俗版本的正義戰爭理論或十字軍東征的想法。 For example, World War I, fought "to make the world safe for democracy," was a secular crusade.例如,第一次世界大戰後,打“ ,使世界安全的民主” ,是一個政教分離的十字軍東征。 Throughout the North American experience Mennonites, Brethren, and Quakers maintained a continuing if at times uneven witness against war as well as a refusal to participate in it.在整個北美門諾派的經驗,弟兄們,和誼保持了持續,如果不均衡,有時證人反對戰爭以及拒絕參加。 In the twentieth century they have come to be called the historic peace churches.在二十世紀,他們來到被稱為歷史性的和平教堂。

The nineteenth century saw the formation of a number of national and international pacifist societies.十九世紀形成了一些國家和國際和平的社會。 The Fellowship of Reconciliation was founded as an interdenominational and international religious pacifist organization on the eve of World War I and established in the United States in 1915.該和解聯誼會成立一個interdenominational和國際宗教和平組織的前夕,第一次世界大戰,並設立在美國於1915年。 It continues today as an interfaith activist force for peace.今天它繼續作為積極分子間的和平力量。 In reaction to the horror of World War I and buttressed by an optimistic belief in the rationality of humanity, the period between the world wars saw another wave of pacifist sentiment, both inside and outside the churches.在反應的恐怖第一次世界大戰和支撐的一種樂觀的信念,對人類理性期間,兩次世界大戰之間看到另一波和平主義者情緒,內外的教堂。 These efforts to create peace included political means such as the League of Nations and nonviolent pressure such as the activities of Mohandas Gandhi to influence British withdrawal from India.這些努力包括創造和平的政治手段,如國際聯盟和非暴力的壓力,如活動的聖雄甘地影響英國撤出印度。

Spurred by the growing possibility of a nuclear holocaust and the realization that military solutions do not fundamentally resolve conflicts, the era begun in the late 1960s is experiencing another round of increasing attention to pacifist perspectives.促使越來越多的可能性核浩劫,並認識到,軍事解決辦法不從根本上解決衝突,時代開始在20世紀60年代末正經歷新一輪的日益重視和平的觀點。 In addition to the historic peace churches, denominations which have traditionally accepted the just war theory or the crusade idea have also issued declarations accepting pacifist positions within their traditions.除了歷史性的和平教會,教派的傳統接受了正義戰爭的理論,或十字軍東征的想法還發表聲明接受和平的立場在其傳統。 Two significant examples are Vatican II's Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, which for the first time endorsed pacifism as compatible with Catholic teaching, and the declaration of the United Presbyterian Church (USA), Peacemaking: The Believer's Calling.兩個重要的例子是梵二田園憲法對教會在現代世界,它第一次贊同主義作為符合天主教的教學,並宣布美國基督教長老會(美國) ,締造和平:在信仰的呼喚。

Intellectual Basis for Pacifism知識產權基礎主義

Pacifism encompasses many kinds of oppositions to war, deriving support from a variety of overlapping philosophical, theological, and biblical sources, not all of which are explicitly Christian.和平主義包含許多種類的反對戰爭,支持產生了各種重疊的哲學,神學和聖經的來源,而不是所有這些都是明確的基督徒。

Pacifism may proceed from various pragmatic and utitarian arguments. Consideration of the destructiveness of modern warfare and the realization that it fails to resolve conflicts can lead to the conclusion that avoidance of war best serves the interests of humanity at all levels, from the individual person to the human race as a whole. The threat of nuclear war has given these arguments particular weight in recent times, resulting in what has been called nuclear pacifism.和平主義可以從各種務實和utitarian的論點。審議破壞性現代戰爭和實現它未能解決衝突可能導致的結論是,避免戰爭最好的利益,人類在各級,從個別人人類作為一個整體。核戰爭的威脅給了這些論點特別重視近年來,從而導致所謂的核和平。

Varying individual and collective impulses may support these arguments.不同的個人和集體的衝動可能會支持這些論點。 Pacifism can appear as the only logical extension of the categorical imperative.可能會出現和平的唯一合乎邏輯的延伸絕對必要的。 Convictions concerning the uniqueness or sanctity of human life, whether based on intuition, logic, or divine revelation, proscribe war.關於信念的獨特性或人的生命神聖不可侵犯的,無論是憑直覺,邏輯,或神的啟示,取締戰爭。 Others may adopt pacifist suffering not only as a means of unilaterally breaking the chain of violence which more violent acts will only prolong but also as an instrument to touch the conscience of the oppressors and turn them into friends.其他可能通過和平的苦難不僅是一種手段,單方面打破了一連串的暴力更暴力行為只會延長,而且作為一種手段,以觸摸的良心壓迫者和把他們變成朋友。

Pacifism informs or is an outgrowth of a number of social and political strategies.和平通知或封鎖了一些社會和政治戰略。 Some argue that political measures such as the negotiation of nuclear weapons bans and promotion of international cooperation are more effective than war in promoting peace.有些人認為,政治措施,如談判核武器的禁令和促進國際合作更有效比戰爭,促進和平。 Nonviolent techniques attempt not only to prevent the outbreak of violence but also to move society, even against its will, toward a more just disposition.非暴力手段企圖不僅是為了防止暴力事件的爆發也將社會,甚至對自己的意志,走向一個更加公正的處置。 Notable examples are the efforts of Gandhi and the movement of Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States to acquire civil rights for black people.顯著的例子是努力的甘地和流動的小馬丁路德金在美國取得公民權利的黑人。

As the dominant view of the early church pacifism stands squarely within the Christian tradition and has theological and biblical bases more specific to Christianity.作為佔主導地位的意見,早期教會的和平主義立場完全符合基督教傳統和神學和聖經基地更具體的基督教。 Pacifists appeal to the authority of the Bible, using specific texts such as the Decalogue and the Sermon on the Mount.和平主義者呼籲權威的聖經,使用特定的文本,如十誡和山上寶訓。 The incarnation and the priestly office of Jesus make his specific teachings authoritative and therefore binding on his followers.化身和祭司辦公室耶穌使他的具體教義權威性和約束力因此,他的追隨者。 Pacifism also finds support in broader biblical injunctions such as the call to express God's love to all persons or to witness to the presence of the Kingdom of God on earth.和平主義還認為在更廣泛的支持聖經的禁令,如要求對天主的愛所有的人或見證人在場的情況下王國的上帝在地球上。

The examples of Jesus and of the early church also support Christian pacifism.這些例子耶穌和早期教會也支持基督教和平主義。 The incarnation defines Jesus' action as reflective of the will of God.界定的化身耶穌的行動,反映了上帝的意志。 The ideas of imitation of Christ and obedience to his command to "follow me" then demand pacifism of those who understand Christians as followers of Jesus.這些想法模仿基督和服從他的指揮下,以“跟我來” ,然後要求和平的人誰認識基督徒耶穌的追隨者。 Following includes specifically the idea that with Jesus they will endure suffering for the kingdom of God without violent resistance.包括以下具體的想法與耶穌他們將承受的痛苦上帝王國的無暴力抵抗。 Beginning with the generation that experienced Jesus' personal headship, the church of the first century exemplifies obedience to the pacifist example of Jesus.從一代經歷耶穌的個人校長,教會第一世紀例證服從和平主義者耶穌的例子。

Theological motifs central to Christianity also support pacifism.神圖案中央基督教也支持和平主義。 For one, since life is sacred and a gift from God, no individual has the right to take it.一方面,因為生命是神聖和禮物的上帝,沒有任何個人都有權採取它。 This divine source of life leads directly to the brotherhood of all persons and their divinely given purpose of living for God as his children.這神聖的生命之源直接導致了兄弟情誼的所有人員和他們的神聖特定目的的生活在上帝為他的孩子們。 With every human being then either actually or potentially a child of God, no Christian may take the life of a fellow member of the family of God.由於每個人都那麼,任何實際或可能的孩子的上帝,沒有基督教可能採取的生活同胞的家庭成員的上帝。 The presence of the kingdom of God on earth similarly links all persons under God's rule and therefore proscribes violence toward anyone.在場的王國上帝在地球上同樣的鏈接下的所有人員上帝的規則,因此,禁止對任何人的暴力行為。

JD Weaver韋弗約旦第納爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

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