Jesus on the Cross耶穌在十字架上

The Seven Words七個關鍵詞

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Our Lord uttered seven memorable "words" (or statements) from the cross, namely,我們的主發出7個難忘的“字” (或報表)由兩岸,即:

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The Seven Words七個關鍵詞

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(Beginning in Book 5, Chapter 15, Life and Times of Jesus (從圖書5日,第15章, 生活和時代的耶穌
the Messiah by Alfred Edersheim, 1886) 彌賽亞的阿爾弗雷德愛德生, 1886年)

It was when they thus nailed Him to the Cross, and parted His raiment, that He spake the first of the so-called 'Seven Words': 'Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.' (Luke 23:34) [4 The genuineness of these words has been called in question.這是當他們因此他釘在十字架,並分開他的服飾,他spake的第一次所謂的'七詞' : ' 爸爸,原諒他們,因為他們不知道他們所做的事情。 ' (路加23 : 34 ) [ 4的真實性,這些話被稱為問題。 But alike external and internal evidence demands their retention.] Even the reference in this prayer to 'what they do' (not in the past, nor future) points to the soldiers as the primary, though certainly not the sole object of the Saviour's prayer.但是,同樣的外部和內部的證據要求保留。 ]即使提到這個祈禱,他們所做的事情' (而不是在過去,也沒有未來)點的士兵作為主,但肯定不是唯一對象救世主的祈禱。 [b Comp.並[ b比較。 Acts iii.行為三。 17 1 Cor. 17條1肺心病。 ii.二。 8.] 8 。 ]

[5 It would be presumptuous to seek to determine how far that prayer extended. [ 5這將是放肆尋求以確定如何遠,祈禱延長。 Generally, I agree with Nebe, to all (Gentiles and Jews) who, in their participation in the sufferings inflicted on Jesus, acted in ignorance.] But higher thoughts also come to us.一般來說,我同意Nebe ,向所有(外邦人和猶太人)誰,在他們參加的苦難對耶穌,行事的無知。 ]更高的想法,但也給我們。 In the moment of the deepest abasement of Christ's Human Nature, the Divine bursts forth most brightly.在目前的最深切的自卑基督的人性,神用最明亮的規定。

It is, as if the Saviour would discard all that is merely human in His Sufferings, just as before He had discarded the Cup of stupefying wine.這是因為如果救世主將放棄所有的僅僅是人類在他的苦難,就像以前他拋棄了世界杯stupefying葡萄酒。 These soldiers were but the unconscious instruments: the form was nothing; the contest was between the Kingdom of God and that of darkness, between the Christ and Satan, and these sufferings were but the necessary path of obedience, and to victory and glory. When He is most human (in the moment of His being nailed to the Cross), then is He most Divine, in the utter discarding of the human elements of human instrumentality and of human suffering.這些士兵,但潛意識文書:形式是什麼;競賽之間,上帝的國和黑暗之間,耶穌和撒旦,而這些痛苦是必要的,但道路的服從,並勝利和光榮。當他是人類(在此刻,他被釘在十字架) ,然後是他最神聖的,在完全拋棄了人的要素人類的工具和人類的痛苦。 Then also in the utter self-forgetfulness of the God-Man, which is one of the aspects of the Incarnation, does He only remember Divine mercy, and pray for them who crucify Him; and thus also does the Conquered truly conquer His conquerors by asking for them what their deed had forfeited.然後又在完全自我遺忘的神人,這是一個方面的體現,但他只記得神的憐憫,並為他們祈禱誰釘死他,因此也沒有征服的真正征服了他的征服者他們要求他們的行為已經喪失。

And lastly, in this, that alike the first and the last of His Utterances begin with 'Father,' does He show by the unbrokenness of His faith and fellowship the real spiritual victory which He has won.最後,在這方面,這都第一次和最後一次他的話語開始的父親,並不表明他的unbrokenness自己的信仰和研究金的真正精神勝利法,他韓元。 And He has won it, not only for the martyrs, who have learned from Him to pray as He did, but for everyone who, in the midst of all that seems most opposed to it, can rise, beyond mere forgetfulness of what is around, to realising faith and fellowship with God as 'the Father,', who through the dark curtain of cloud can discern the bright sky, and can feel the unshaken confidence, if not the unbroken joy, of absolute trust.和他贏得了它,不僅是烈士,誰從中吸取了教訓,他祈禱像他那樣,但每個人都誰在中間,似乎所有最反對的,可以上升,超越單純的健忘什麼是圍繞,以實現信仰和金與上帝為'父親' ,誰通過暗幕雲可以看出明亮的天空,並能感受到堅毅的信心,如果不是完整喜悅,絕對的信任。

This was His first Utterance on the Cross, as regarded them; as regarded Himself; and as regarded God.這是他首次話語在十字架上,因為他們認為,作為視為自己;並視為上帝。 So, surely, suffered not Man.因此,毫無疑問,沒有人遭受。 Has this prayer of Christ been answered?這個基督祈禱得到回答? We dare not doubt it; nay, we perceive it in some measure in those drops of blessing which have fallen upon heathen men, and have left to Israel also, even in its ignorance, a remnant according to the election of grace.我們不敢懷疑;不,我們認為它在一定程度上在這些下降的祝福已經下降後異教徒的男子,並已離開以色列還,甚至在其無知,殘餘根據選舉的寬限期。 [1 In reference to this St. Augustine writes: 'Sanguinem Christi, quem saevientes fuderunt, credentes biberunt.' [ 1在提及這個聖奧古斯丁寫道: ' Sanguinem基督,終止saevientes fuderunt , credentes biberunt 。 The question why Christ did not Himself forgive, but appeal for it to the Father, is best answered by the consideration, that it was really a crimen laesae majestatis against the Father, and that the vindication of the Son lay with God the Father.]這個問題為什麼耶穌沒有原諒自己,但它呼籲的父親,是最好的回答了審議,這是真正的罪laesae majestatis對父親,並且證明人子在於聖父。 ]

And now began the real agonies of the Cross, physical, mental, and spiritual.現在開始真正的痛苦的十字架,身體,心理和精神。 It was the weary, unrelieved waiting, as thickening darkness gradually gathered around.這是厭倦, unrelieved等待,因為黑暗逐漸增厚聚集。 Before sitting down to their melancholy watch over the Crucified, [a St.之前,坐下來觀看他們的憂鬱的十字架, [聖 Matthew.] the soldiers would refresh themselves, after their exertion in nailing Jesus to the Cross, lifting it up, and fixing it, by draughts of the cheap wine of the country. As they quaffed it, they drank to Him in their coarse brutality, and mockingly came to Him, asking Him to pledge them in response.馬修。 ]士兵將刷新自己,他們的消耗後,在耶穌釘在十字架,取消它,並確定它的吃水的廉價葡萄酒的國家。 quaffed正如他們,他們給他喝的粗暴行,並嘲弄了他,要求他保證他們的反應。

Their jests were, indeed, chiefly directed not against Jesus personally, but in His Representative capacity, and so against the hated, despised Jews, whose King they now derisively challenged to save Himself.他們開玩笑了,實際上,主要不是針對耶穌本人,但在他的代表能力,所以對討厭,鄙視的猶太人,他們的國王,他們現在嘲笑質疑拯救自己。 [b St. Luke.] Yet even so, it seems to us of deepest significance, that He was so treated and derided in His Representative Capacity and as the King of the Jews.並[ b聖盧克。 ]即便如此,在我們看來,最深切的意義,認為他是如此對待和嘲笑在他的代表身份和作為國王的猶太人。 It is the undesigned testimony of history, alike as regarded the character of Jesus and the future of Israel.這是非故意的證詞的歷史,都為把耶穌的性質和未來的以色列。 But what from almost any point of view we find so difficult to understand is, the unutterable abasement of the Leaders of Israel, their moral suicide as regarded Israel's hope and spiritual existence.但是,從幾乎任何角度來看我們發現很難理解的是,自卑的難言的以色列領導人,他們的道德自殺視為以色列的希望和精神的存在。

There, on that Cross, hung He, Who at least embodied that grand hope of the nation; Who, even on their own showing, suffered to the extreme for that idea, and yet renounced it not, but clung fast to it in unshaken confidence; One, to Whose Life or even Teaching no objection could be offered, save that of this grand idea.因此,在此交叉,掛著他是誰,至少體現這一宏偉希望的民族;誰,甚至自己的表現,受到極端的這一想法,但它沒有放棄,而是堅持快給它以堅毅的信心;之一,以他的生命,甚至沒有異議教學可提供,保存的這一宏偉的想法。 And yet, when it came to them in the ribald mockery of this heathen soldiery, it evoked no other or higher thoughts in them; and they had the indescribable baseness of joining in the jeer at Israel's great hope, and of leading the popular chorus in it!然而,當它來到他們在查爾斯嘲弄這個異教徒士兵,但沒有其他誘發或更高的思想在他們和他們的無法形容的卑鄙的加入嘲笑以色列抱有很大希望,並帶領合唱團的流行它!

For, we cannot doubt, that, perhaps also by way of turning aside the point of the jeer from Israel, they took it up, and tried to direct it against Jesus; and that they led the ignorant mob in the piteous attempts at derision.因為,我們不能毫無疑問,這,或許還的方式把擱置點的嘲弄來自以色列,他們採取了它,並試圖它直接對耶穌; ,他們的無知導致暴徒在可憐企圖嘲笑。 And did none of those who so reviled Him in all the chief aspects of His Work feel, that, as Judas had sold the Master for nought and committed suicide, so they were doing in regard to their Messianic hope?也沒有誰對這些謾罵他,以便在所有主要方面,他的工作感受,說,猶大已售出的大師化為烏有和自殺,所以他們在做關於他們的救世主的希望嗎?

For, their jeers cast contempt on the four great facts in the Life and Work of Jesus, which were also the underlying ideas of the Messianic Kingdom: the new relationship to Israel's religion and the Temple ('Thou that destroyest the Temple, and buildest it in three days'); the new relationship to the Father through the Messiah, the Son of God ('if Thou be the Son of God'); the new all-sufficient help brought to body and soul in salvation ('He saved others'); and, finally, the new relationship to Israel in the fulfilment and perfecting of its Mission through its King ('if He be the King of Israel').因為,他們投下的蔑視嘲笑的四個偉大的事實,在生活和工作的耶穌,這也是基本思想的彌賽亞王國:新的關係對以色列的宗教和寺廟( '你認為destroyest廟,以及它buildest在3天內' ) ;新的關係,通過父親的彌賽亞,上帝的兒子( '如果你是上帝的兒子' ) ;新都帶來足夠的幫助,以身體和靈魂的救贖( '他挽救他人' ) ;最後,新的合作關係對以色列在實現和完善其使命通過其國王( '如果他是國王的以色列) 。

On all these, the taunting challenge of the Sanhedrists, to come down from the Cross, and save Himself, if he would claim the allegiance of their faith, cast what St. Matthew and St. Mark characterise as the 'blaspheming' [1 The two Evangelists designate by this very word the bearing of the passersby, rendered in the AV 'reviled' and 'railed.'在所有這些,在嘲笑的挑戰Sanhedrists ,來從交叉,並保存自己,他是否會要求效忠自己的信仰,鑄什麼馬太和聖馬克特徵的'褻瀆' [ 1兩個福音派指定的這個詞軸承的路人,呈現在視聽'唾罵'和'欄杆。 of doubt.的疑問。 We compare with theirs the account of St. Luke and St. John.我們與他們比較的帳戶聖盧克和聖約翰。 That of St. Luke reads like the report of what had passed, given by one who throughout had been quite close by, perhaps taken part in the Crucifixion.這對聖盧克等內容的報告通過了什麼,因為一個誰各地已相當接近了,也許參加了十字架。

[2 The peculiarities in it are (besides the titulus): what passed on the procession to Golgotha (St. Luke xxiii. 27-31); the prayer, when affixed to the Cross (ver. 34 a); the bearing of the soldiers (vv. 36, 37); the conversion of the penitent thief; and the last words on the Cross (ver. 46).] one might almost venture to suggest, that it had been furnished by the Centurion. [ 2的特殊性在它的(除了titulus ) :如何通過對遊行的墓地(聖盧克二十三。 27-31 ) ;祈禱時,貼在十字架(版本34 ) ;的軸承士兵( vv. 36 , 37 ) ;轉換的懺悔小偷;和最後一句話在十字架上(版本46 ) 。 ]一個可能幾乎合資企業表明,它已經提供的百夫長。 [3 There is no evidence, that the Centurion was still present when the soldier 'came' to pierce the Saviour's side (St. John xix. 31-37). [ 3沒有任何證據表明,該百夫長仍然存在時,這名士兵'是'穿透救世主的一方(聖約翰19 。 31-37 ) 。 The narrative of St.說明街 John reads markedly like that of an eyewitness, and he a Judaen.約翰內容明顯一樣,現場目擊者,和他是Judaen 。 [1 So from the peculiar details and OT quotations.] [ 1因此,從獨特的細節和催產素的報價。 ]

And as we compare both the general Judaen cast and Old Testament quotations in this with the other parts of the Fourth Gospel, we feel as if (as so often), under the influence of the strongest emotions, the later development and peculiar thinking of so many years afterwards had for the time been effaced from the mind of St. John, or rather given place to the Jewish modes of conception and speech, familiar to him in earlier days.而且我們都比較一般Judaen演員和舊約的報價在此與其他地區的第四福音,我們感覺好像(如經常)的影響下,強烈的情緒,後來的發展和獨特的思想,使多年後已的時間從被抹去心中聖約翰,或者特定地點的猶太模式的概念和講話,熟悉他的前幾天。 Lastly, the account of St. Matthew seems as if written from the priestly point of view, as if it had been furnished by one of the Priests or Sanhedrist party, present at the time.最後,考慮到馬太好像書面從祭司的角度來看,就好像是提供一個牧師或Sanhedrist黨,出席了時間。

Yet other inferences come to us.然而,其他的推論來找我們。 First, there is a remarkable relationship between what St. Luke quotes as spoken by the soldiers: 'If Thou art the King of the Jews, save Thyself,' and the report of the words in St. Matthew: [a St.首先,是一個了不起的關係,什麼聖盧克引號的談過的士兵: '如果你是國王的猶太人,拯救你自己, '和報告的話馬太: [聖 Matt.馬特。 xxvii.二十七。 42] He saved others, Himself He cannot save. He [2 The word 'if' (if He) in our AV is spurious.] is the King of Israel! 42 ]他挽救他人,自己,他無法保存。他[ 2字'如果' (如果他)在我們的AV是虛假的。 ]是以色列的國王! Let Him now come down from the Cross, and we will believe on Him!'讓他現在從十字架,我們會相信他! These are the words of the Sanhedrists, and they seem to respond to those of the soldiers, as reported by St. Luke, and to carry them further.這些話Sanhedrists ,他們似乎應付這些士兵的報告,聖盧克,並進行進一步。 The 'if' of the soldiers: 'If Thou art the King of the Jews,' now becomes a direct blasphemous challenge.在'如果'的士兵: '如果你是國王的猶太人,現在成為一個直接褻瀆的挑戰。 As we think of it, they seem to re-echo, and now with the laughter of hellish triumph, the former Jewish challenge for an outward, infallible sign to demonstrate His Messiahship.正如我們想想看,他們似乎重新回音,而現在的笑聲地獄般的勝利,前猶太人面臨的挑戰外,萬無一失的跡象表明他的Messiahship 。

But they also take up, and re-echo, what Satan had set before Jesus in the Temptation of the wilderness.但他們也採取行動,並重新迴聲,什麼撒旦已成立之前,耶穌在誘惑的荒野。 At the beginning of His Work, the Tempter had suggested that the Christ should achieve absolute victory by an act of presumptuous self-assertion, utterly opposed to the spirit of the Christ, but which Satan represented as an act of trust in God, such as He would assuredly own.在開始他的工作,在誘惑曾建議,應實現基督的絕對勝利的行為放肆自我主張,完全反對的精神,基督,但撒旦派的行為對上帝的信仰,如他將自己的肯定。 And now, at the close of His Messianic Work, the Tempter suggested, in the challenge of the Sanhedrists, that Jesus had suffered absolute defeat, and that God had publicly disowned the trust which the Christ had put in Him.而現在,在結束他的彌賽亞的工作,誘惑建議,在挑戰Sanhedrists ,耶穌絕對遭受失敗,而且上帝曾公開否認的信任基督把他。 'He trusteth in God: let Him deliver Him now, if He will have Him.' '他trusteth上帝:讓他提供他現在,如果他將他的。 [3 This is the literal rendering. [ 3這是字面渲染。

The 'will have Him' has pleasure in Him, like the German: 'Wenn Er Ihn will.'] Here, as in the Temptation of the Wilderness, the words misapplied were those of Holy Scripture, in the present instance those of Ps.在'將他'了,他很高興,像德國: '好萊塢二Ihn意願。 ' ]在這裡,在誘惑的荒野中,誤用了這些聖經,在目前情況下這些物質。 xxii. 22 。 8. 8 。 And the quotation, as made by the Sanhedrists, is the more remarkable, that, contrary to what is generally asserted by writers, this Psalm [b Ps.和引號,因為所作的Sanhedrists ,是更了不起的是,相反的是一般所稱的作家,這詩篇並[ b物質。 xxii.] was Messianically applied by the ancient Synagogue. 22 。 ]是Messianically採用古老的猶太教堂。 [1 See Appendix IX.] [ 1見附錄IX 。 ]

More especially was this verse, [a Ps.尤其是這個詩句, [一種物質。 xxii. 22 。 7] which precedes the mocking quotation of the Sanhedrists, expressly applied to the sufferings and the derision which Messiah was to undergo from His enemies: 'All they that see Me laugh Me to scorn: they shoot out the lip, they shake the head.' 7 ]之前的嘲弄引號的Sanhedrists ,明確適用的痛苦和嘲笑的彌賽亞是接受來自他的敵人: '這一切,他們看到我笑我鄙視:他們拍攝了嘴唇,他們動搖的頭部。 ' [b Yalkut on Is.並[ b Yalkut的是。 lx.光照。 vol.第二卷。 ii.二。 p. 56 d, lines 12 &c, from bottom] [2 Meyer actually commits himself to the statement, that Ps. 56日, 12日線和c ,從底部] [ 2邁耶本人實際承諾的聲明,該物質。 xxii. 22 。 was not Messianically applied by the Jews.沒有Messianically適用的猶太人。 Other writers follow his lead.其他作家的後續領先。 The objection, that the Sanhedrists could not have quoted this verse, as it would have branded them as the wicked persons described in the Psalm, has no force when we remember the loose way in which the Jews were in the habit of quoting the Old Testament.]的反對, Sanhedrists不能援引這一詩句,因為這將有品牌他們的邪惡者中描述的詩篇,沒有力量時,我們記得鬆散的方式,猶太人的習慣,引用舊約。 ]

The derision of the Sanhedrists under the Cross was, as previously stated, not entirely spontaneous, but had a special motive.該嘲笑的Sanhedrists跨下的是,如前所述,並非完全自發的,而是有一個特殊的動機。 The place of Crucifixion was close to the great road which led from the North to Jerusalem.這個地方的十字架已接近偉大的道路而導致從北到耶路撒冷。 On that Feast-day, when, as there was no law to limit, as on the weekly day of rest, locomotion to a 'Sabbath day's journey,' many would pass in and out of the City, and the crowd would naturally be arrested by the spectacle of the three Crosses. Equally naturally would they have been impressed by the titulus over the Cross of Christ.在這個節日天,當,因為沒有法律限制,如在每週一天的休息,運動的'安息日的旅程,許多人進出的城市,人群自然會被逮捕由壯觀的三個十字架。同樣自然地將他們留下了深刻的印象titulus的十字基督。 The words, describing the Sufferer as 'the King of the Jews,' might, when taken in connection with what was known of Jesus, have raised most dangerous questions.的話,說明患者為'國王的猶太人, '可能時,採取與已知的耶穌,提出了最危險的問題。

And this the presence of the Sanhedrists was intended to prevent, by turning the popular mind in a totally different direction.這在場的情況下Sanhedrists是為了防止通過把流行銘記在一個完全不同的方向發展。 It was just such a taunt and argumentation as would appeal to that coarse realism of the common people, which is too often misnamed 'common sense.' St.只是這樣的嘲弄和論證的呼籲是現實的粗普通百姓,這往往是命名錯誤的共同意識。街 Luke significantly ascribes the derision of Jesus only to the Rulers, [3 The words, 'with them,' in St. Luke xxiii.盧克大大的嘲笑歸因於耶穌唯一的統治者, [ 3的話,與他們, '在聖盧克二十三。 35, are spurious.] and we repeat, that that of the passers by, recorded by St. Matthew and St. Mark, was excited by them. Thus here also the main guilt rested on the leaders of the people. 35歲,是虛假的。 ]我們再說一遍,這對行人的,記錄了馬太和聖馬克,是激發他們。因此,這裡也是主要的有罪取決於領導人的人。 [4 St. Mark introduces the mocking speeches (xv. 29) by the particle ova ('Ah') which occurs only here in the NT It is evidently the Latin 'Vah,' an exclamation of ironical admiration. [ 4聖馬克介紹了嘲弄的講話( xv. 29 )的顆粒卵子( '啊' ) ,其中只發生在這裡的新台幣這顯然是拉丁美洲' Vah , '一個驚嘆號的諷刺欽佩。 (See Bengel and Nebe, ad loc.) The words literally were: 'Ha! (見本格爾和Nebe ,廣告祿) 。字面的話是: '哈! the downbreaker of the sanctuary and upbuilding it in three days, save Thyself.'在downbreaker的庇護和upbuilding它在3天內,拯救你自己。 Except the introductory particle and the order of the words, the words are the same in St. Matthew.除介紹粒子和秩序的話,字是相同的馬太。 The is used in the sense of a substantive (comp. Winer, Gram. p. 122, and especially p. 316).]在使用意義上的實質性( comp.溫,革蘭氏。第122頁,特別是第316頁) 。 ]

One other trait comes to us from St. Luke, confirming our impression that his account was derived from one who had stood quite close to the Cross, probably taken official part in the Crucifixion.另外一個特點是,我們從聖盧克,證實了我們的印象是,他的帳戶是來自一個誰經受相當接近交叉,可能採取的官員參加了十字架。 St. Matthew and St. Mark merely remark in general, that the derision of the Sanhedrists and people was joined in by the thieves on the Cross.馬太和聖馬克只是一般的話,該嘲笑的Sanhedrists和人民是加入了小偷在十字架上。 [5 The language of St. Matthew and St. Mark is quite general, and refers to 'the thieves;' that of St. Luke is precise and detailed. [ 5語言的聖馬修和聖馬克是相當普遍,並指'小偷'的聖盧克是準確和詳細。 But I cannot agree with those who, for the sake of 'harmony,' represent the penitent thief as joining in his comrade's blasphemy before turning to Christ.但我不能同意那些誰,為了'和諧'代表了小偷的懺悔加入他的同伴的褻瀆,然後基督。

I do not deny, that such a sudden change might have taken place; but there is no evidence for it in the text, and the supposition of the penitent thief first blaspheming gives rise to many incongruities, and does not seem to fit into the text.] A trait this, which we feel to be not only psychologically true, but the more likely of occurrence, that any sympathy or possible alleviation of their sufferings might best be secured by joining in the scorn of the leaders, and concentrating popular indignation upon Jesus.我不否認,這種突然的變化可能已經發生,但沒有證據表明它在文本中,並假定的懺悔小偷第一次褻瀆引起許多不協調,而且似乎不適合到文本。 ]一個特質這一點,我們認為不僅是心理上如此,但更有可能發生,任何同情或盡可能減輕他們的痛苦最好是擔保的加入鄙視的領導人,並集中對民憤耶穌。 But St. Luke also records a vital difference between the two 'robbers' on the Cross.但是,聖盧克還記錄了重要兩者之間的差額'強盜'在十字架上。 [1 Tradition names the impenitent thief Gestas, which Keim identifies with, silenced, hardened, although the derivation seems to me forced. [ 1傳統名字的不知悔改的小偷Gestas ,其中凱姆認同,壓制,硬化,但推導我看來,強迫。

The penitent thief is called Dysmas, which I would propose to derive from in the sense of 'the setting,' viz, of the sun: he who turns to the setting sun.小偷的懺悔被稱為Dysmas ,我將提議源於意義上的'設置' ,即,太陽:誰把他的夕陽。 Sepp very fancifully regards the penitent thief as a Greek (Japhetisch), the impenitent as a negro.] The impenitent thief takes up the jeer of the Sanhedrists: 'Art Thou not the Christ?布拉特非常fancifully關於懺悔的小偷作為希臘( Japhetisch )中,作為一個不知悔改的黑人。 ]的不知悔改的小偷佔用的嘲笑的Sanhedrists : '藝術你不是基督? [2 So according to the right reading.] Save Thyself and us!' [ 2因此,根據閱讀的權利。 ]拯救你自己和我們! The words are the more significant, alike in their bearing on the majestic calm and pitying love of the Saviour on the Cross, and on the utterance of the 'penitent thief,' that, strange as it may sound, it seems to have been a terrible phenomenon, noted by historians, [3 See the quotations in Nebe, ii.的話是更重要的,都在其影響在雄壯的平靜和憐憫的愛救主在十字架上,在話語的'懺悔小偷, '說,奇怪的,因為它可能聽起來,這似乎是一個可怕的現象,歷史學家所指出的, [ 3見報價Nebe ,二。 258.] that those on the cross were wont to utter insults and imprecations on the onlookers, goaded nature perhaps seeking relief in such outbursts. 258 。 ]那些在十字架上的習慣說出侮辱和imprecations的圍觀,刺激的性質尋求救濟或許在這種爆發。 Not so when the heart was touched in true repentance.並非如此時,心是感動的真實懺悔。

If a more close study of the words of the 'penitent thief' may seem to diminish the fulness of meaning which the traditional view attaches to them, they gain all the more as we perceive their historic reality.如果更仔細研究的話, '懺悔小偷'似乎減少了豐富的含義的傳統觀點的重視,他們獲得更因為我們認為他們的歷史現實。 His first words were of reproof to his comrade.他的第一句話是責備他的戰友。 In that terrible hour, amidst the tortures of a slow death, did not the fear of God creep over him, at least so far as to prevent his joining in the vile jeers of those who insulted the dying agonies of the Sufferer?在這可怕的時刻,面對酷刑的緩慢死亡,沒有恐懼上帝的蠕變超過他,至少到目前為止,以防止他加入邪惡的嘲笑那些誰侮辱了死亡的痛苦的患者? [4 'Dost not thou even fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation?' [ 4 '斯特即使你不害怕上帝,看到祢在同一譴責? ' Condemnation here means that to which one is condemned: the sufferings of the cross; and the expostulation is: Suffering as thou art like Him and me, canst thou join in the jeers of the crowd?這裡指的譴責,要哪一個是譴責:痛苦的交叉和諫是:痛苦祢喜歡他和我,你canst加入嘲笑的人群? Dost thou not even fear God, should not fear of Him now creep over thy soul, or at least prevent thee from insulting the dying Sufferer?斯特你甚至不害怕上帝,不應該害怕他現在對你的蠕變的靈魂,或至少防止你從侮辱垂死患者? And this all the more, since the circumstances are as immediately afterwards described.]而這一切更多,因為這種情況下是在事後立即描述。 ]

And this all the more, in the peculiar circumstances.而這一切更,在特殊情況。 They were all three sufferers; but they two justly, while He Whom he insulted had done nothing amiss. From this basis of fact, the penitent rapidly rose to the height of faith.他們都是三個患者,但他們兩個公正,而他侮辱他做了什麼不對勁。從這個基礎事實上,懺悔迅速上升到高度的誠意。 This is not uncommon, when a mind is learning the lessons of truth in the school of grace.這種情況並不少見,當學習到的經驗教訓真理在學校的寬限期。 Only, it stands out here the more sharply, because of the dark background against which it is traced in such broad and brightly shining outlines.只是,它隨時在這裡更急劇,因為在黑暗的背景,它在追查這種廣泛和燦爛光輝的概述。 The hour of the deepest abasement of the Christ was, as all the moments of His greatest Humiliation, to be marked by a manifestation of His Glory and Divine Character, as it were, by God's testimony to Him in history, if not by the Voice of God from heaven.一個小時的最深切的自卑的基督,因為所有的時刻,他最大的侮辱,是標誌的一種表現他的光榮和神聖的品格,因為它是按上帝的證詞對他在歷史上,如果不是由語音上帝從天上。 And, as regarded the 'penitent' himself, we notice the progression in his soul.而且,把'懺悔'自己,我們通知的進展他的靈魂。

No one could have been ignorant, least of all those who were led forth with Him to crucifixion, that Jesus did not suffer for any crime, nor for any political movement, but because He professed to embody the great hope of Israel, and was rejected by its leaders.沒有人能一直無知,至少所有這些誰領導提出了與他十字架,耶穌並沒有受到任何犯罪,也沒有為任何政治運動,而是因為他聲稱體現很大的希望,以色列和被否決其領導人。 And, if any had been ignorant, the 'title' over the Cross and the bitter enmity of the Sanhedrists, which followed Him with jeers and jibes, where even ordinary humanity, and still more Jewish feeling, would have enjoined silence, if not pity, must have shown what had been the motives of 'the condemnation' of Jesus.而且,如果任何已無知,在'標題'的交叉和痛苦的敵意的Sanhedrists ,隨後他的嘲笑和jibes ,即使普通的人類,更猶太的感覺,將責成沉默,如果不是憐憫必須表現出了哪些的動機'譴責'耶穌。 But, once the mind was opened to perceive all these facts, the progress would be rapid.但是,一旦考慮到開幕式感知所有這些事實,進展將較快。 In hours of extremity a man may deceive himself and fatally mistake fear for the fear of God, and the remembrance of certain external knowledge for spiritual experience.在小時的肢體一個人可以欺騙自己和致命的錯誤恐懼的恐懼上帝,和紀念的某些外部知識的精神體驗。 But, if a man really learns in such seasons, the teaching of years may be compressed into moments, and the dying thief on the Cross might outdistance the knowledge gained by Apostles in their years of following Christ.但是,如果一個男人真的學會在這種季節,多年的教學可能會壓縮成的時刻,和瀕臨死亡的小偷在十字架上可能會拋在後頭獲得的知識的使徒在其多年的下列基督。

One thing stood out before the mind of the 'penitent thief,' who in that hour did fear God.有一件事之前,站在心靈的'懺悔小偷, '誰在這一小時也害怕上帝。 Jesus had done nothing amiss. And this surrounded with a halo of moral glory the inscription on the Cross, long before its words acquired a new meaning.耶穌做任何事情不對勁。包圍,這與光環的道德光榮的題詞在十字架上,很久以前的話獲得了新的含義。 But how did this Innocent One bear Himself in suffering?但如何這樣一個無辜的承擔自己的痛苦? Right royally, not in an earthly sense, but in that in which alone He claimed the Kingdom.王室的權利,而不是在一個世俗意義上說,但在這其中就有他聲稱王國。 He had so spoken to the women who had lamented Him, as His faint form could no longer bear the burden of the Cross; and He had so refused the draught that would have deadened consciousness and sensibility.他這樣講的婦女誰曾哀嘆他,他淡淡的形式不再能夠承受的交叉;和他這樣拒絕了吃水會deadened的意識和情感。

Then, as they three were stretched on the transverse beam, and, in the first and sharpest agony of pain, the nails were driven with cruel stroke of hammer through the quivering flesh, and, in the nameless agony that followed the first moments of the Crucifixion, only a prayer for those who in ignorance, were the instruments of His torture, had passed His lips.然後,他們三人緊張的橫向梁,並在第一和最大的痛苦,疼痛,指甲被驅逐中風與殘忍錘通過顫抖的肉體,並在無名的痛苦之後的第一時刻十字架,只有祈禱的人誰知道,是他的文書的酷刑,已通過他的嘴唇。 And yet He was innocent, Who so cruelly suffered.然而,他是無辜的,他如此殘酷地受到影響。 All that followed must have only deepened the impression.所有這一切必須遵循不僅加深了印象。 With what calm of endurance and majesty of silence He had borne the insult and jeers of those who, even to the spiritual unenlightened eye, must have seemed so infinitely far beneath Him!有什麼平靜的耐力和雄偉的沉默,他已經承擔了侮辱和嘲笑的人誰,甚至無知的眼睛的精神,必須具有如此無窮遠底下他! This man did feel the 'fear' of God, who now learned the new lesson in which the fear of God was truly the beginning of wisdom.這名男子沒有感到害怕'上帝,誰現在學會了新的經驗教訓,其中的恐懼上帝是真正的開始智慧。 And, once he gave place to the moral element, when under the fear of God he reproved his comrade, this new moral decision because to him, as so often, the beginning of spiritual life.而且,一旦他發生的道德因素,如果按照上帝的恐懼,他責備他的同伴,這種新的道義上的決定,因為他,因為這樣往往開始精神生活。 Rapidly he now passed into the light, and onwards and upwards: 'Lord, remember me, when Thou comest in Thy Kingdom!'很快,他現在進入了光,起向上: '上帝,我還記得,當你去你的國度!

The familiar words of our Authorised Version, 'When Thou comest into Thy Kingdom', convey the idea of what we might call a more spiritual meaning of the petition.熟悉的話我們的授權版本, '當你進入你的倫理學王國' ,傳達的想法是我們可能需要一個更加精神意義上的請願書。 But we can scarcely believe, that at that moment it implied either that Christ was then going into His Kingdom, or that the 'patient thief' looked to Christ for admission into the Heavenly Kingdom.但是,我們幾乎可以相信,在那一刻它意味著無論是基督,然後進入他的王國,或耐心小偷'期待基督接納到太平天國。 The words are true to the Jewish point of vision of the man.的話是真正的猶太人點遠見的人。 He recognised and owned Jesus as the Messiah, and he did so, by a wonderful forthgoing of faith, even in the utmost Humiliation of Christ.他承認和國有耶穌是彌賽亞,他這樣做了,由一個奇妙forthgoing的信念,即使在最羞辱基督。 And this immediately passed beyond the Jewish standpoint, for he expected Jesus soon to come back in His Kingly might and power, when he asked to be remembered by Him in mercy.這立即通過超出了猶太人的角度來看,他預計不久將耶穌回來在他的王道可能和力量,當他要求將記住他的擺佈。

And here we have again to bear in mind that, during the Life of Christ upon earth, and, indeed, before the outpouring of the Holy Ghost, men always first learned to believe in the Person of the Christ, and then to know His teaching and His Mission in the forgiveness of sins. It was so in this case also.在這裡我們再次銘記,在基督的生命地球時,的確,在源源不斷的聖靈,男人總是第一個教訓,認為在人的基督,然後知道他的教學和他的代表團在寬恕的罪孽。就這樣在這種情況下也。 If the 'penitent thief' had learned to know the Christ, and to ask for gracious recognition in His coming Kingdom, the answering assurance of the Lord conveyed not only the comfort that his prayer was answered, but the teaching of spiritual things which he knew not yet, and so much needed to know.如果'懺悔小偷'了教訓,知道耶穌基督,並要求親切承認他的未來英國,回答保證主轉達不僅舒適,他的祈禱得到回答,但教學的精神的東西,他知道還沒有,因此迫切需要知道的。

The 'patient' had spoken of the future, Christ spoke of 'to-day'; the penitent had prayed about that Messianic Kingdom which was to come, Christ assured him in regard to the state of the disembodied spirits, and conveyed to him the promise that he would be there in the abode of the blessed, 'Paradise', and that through means of Himself as the Messiah: 'Amen, I say unto thee, To-day with Me shalt thou be in the Paradise.' (Luke 23:43) Thus did Christ give him that spiritual knowledge which he did not yet process, the teaching concerning the 'to-day,' the need of gracious admission into Paradise, and that with and through Himself, in other words, concerning the forgiveness of sins and the opening of the Kingdom of Heaven to all believers. This, as the first and foundation-creed of the soul, was the first and foundation-fact concerning the Messiah.的'病人'曾談到未來,以基督的'今天' ;的懺悔禱告了對這一彌賽亞這是英國來,基督向他保證方面的狀況disembodied精神,並轉達了許諾說,他將在那裡居留權的祝福, '天堂' ,並通過自己的手段作為彌賽亞 ' 阿門,我實在告訴你,今日與我shalt你是在天堂。 ' (路加23:43 )耶穌因此沒有讓他的精神的知識,他還沒有進程,關於教學'今天'的需要殷勤進入天堂,這與通過自己,換言之,有關寬恕的罪孽和開放天國的所有信徒。此,作為第一和基礎的信仰的靈魂,是第一次和基礎,實際上關於彌賽亞。

This was the Second Utterance from the Cross.這是第二次話語從十字架上。 The first had been of utter self-forgetfullness; the second of deepest, wisest, most gracious spiritual teaching.第一次被徹底自我forgetfullness ;的第二個最深切的,明智的,最親切的教學精神。 And, had He spoken none other than these, He would have been proved to be the Son of God.而且,談到了他無非這些,他將被證明是上帝的兒子。 [1 Fully to understand it, we ought to realise what would be the Jewish ideas of the 'penitent thief,' and what his understanding of the words of Christ. [ 1充分了解它,我們應該明白什麼是猶太思想的'懺悔的小偷,和他的理解的話基督。 Broadly, one would say, that as a Jew he would expect that his 'death would be expiation of his sins.'一般而言,一個會說,作為一個猶太人,他希望他的死將是贖罪,他的罪孽。 Thoughts of need of forgiveness through the Messiah would not therefore come to him.思想需要通過寬恕彌賽亞不會因此來找他。 But the words of Christ must have supplied all this. Again when Christ spoke of 'Paradise,'但是,基督的話必須提供這一切。基督時再次談到了'天堂'

His hearer would naturally understand that part of Hades in which the spirits of the righteous dwelt till the Resurrection.他的聽者自然會明白,閻王的一部分,其中的精神正義的住,直到復活。 On both these points there are so many passengers in Rabbinic writings that it is needless to quote (see for ex. Westein, ad loc., and our remarks on the Parable of Lazarus and Dives).就這兩個點有許多乘客在拉比的著作,這是不必要的報價(見前。 Westein ,廣告祿。 ,和我們談話的寓言拉撒路和富豪) 。 Indeed, the prayer: let my death be the expiation of my sins, is still in the Jewish office for the dying, and the underlying dogma is firmly rooted in Rabbinic belief.事實上,祈禱:讓我死是贖罪,我的罪孽,仍然是在猶太辦事處的死亡,和基本的教條是深深植根於拉比信仰。 The words of our Lord, so far from encouraging this belief, would teach him that admission to Paradise was to be granted by Christ.的話我們的上帝,迄今鼓勵這一信念,將教他,接納天堂要給予的基督。 It is scarcely necessary to add, that Christ's words in no way encouraged the realistic conceptions which Judaism attached to Paradise.這是幾乎沒有必要增加,基督的話絕不鼓勵切合實際的概念,其中猶太教重視的天堂。 In Biblical Hebrew the word is used for a choice garden: in Eccl.在希伯來文聖經一詞用於園林的選擇:在傳道書。 ii.二。 5; Cant. 5 ;公會。 iv.四。 13; Nehem. 13 ; Nehem 。 ii.二。 8. 8 。 But in the LXX.但是,在LXX 。 and the Apocr.與Apocr 。 the word is already used in our sense of Paradise.這個詞已經被應用在我們的天堂。 Lastly, nothing which our Lord had said to the 'penitent thief' about being 'to-day' with Him in Paradise, is in any way inconsistent with, rather confirms, the doctrine of the Descent into Hades.]最後,我們沒有上帝說的'懺悔小偷'有關的'日常'與他的天堂,以任何方式不一致,而證實了這一理論的後裔到閻王。 ]

Nothing more would require to be said to the 'penitent' on the Cross.沒有更多的要求應該說的'懺悔'在十字架上。 The events which followed, and the words which Jesus would still speak, would teach him more fully than could otherwise have been done.該事件之後,和耶穌的話仍會說話,教他將更加充分地比本來可以做。 Some hours, probably two, had passed since Jesus had been nailed to the Cross.一些時間,也許兩年,已經過去了耶穌已經釘在十字架上。 We wonder how it came that St. John, who tells us some of the incidents with such exceeding particularity, and relates all with the vivid realisation of a most deeply interested eyewitness, should have been silent as to others, especially as to those hours of derision, as well as to the conversion of the penitent thief.我們不知道如何來的聖約翰,誰告訴我們的一些事件,例如超過特殊性,以及涉及所有的生動實現最深感興趣的目擊者,本來應該沉默給他人,特別是對那些小時嘲笑,以及轉換的懺悔小偷。 His silence seems to us to have been due to absence from the scene.他的沉默,在我們看來,已因不在現場。 We part company with him after his detailed account of the last scene before Pilate.我們是同他的公司後,詳細敘述了過去現場彼拉多面前。 [a St. John xix. [一個聖約翰19 。 2-16] 2-16 ]

The final sentence pronounced, we suppose him to have hurried into the City, and to have acquainted such of the disciples as he might find, but especially those faithful women and the Virgin-Mother, with the terrible scenes that had passed since the previous evening.最後一句明顯,我們假設他已匆匆到城市,並有熟悉這類的弟子,他可能會發現,特別是那些忠實的婦女和維爾京母親,與可怕的場景已經過去了,因為前一天晚上。 Thence he returned to Golgotha, just in time to witness the Crucifixion, which he again describes with peculiar fulness of details.然後他回到墓地,正好看到受難,他又介紹了與獨特的豐富的細節。 [b vv. 17-24] When the Saviour was nailed to the Cross, St. John seems once more to have returned to the City, this time, to bring back with him those women, in company of whom we now find him standing close to the Cross.並[ b超強。 17-24 ]當救世主被釘在十字架,聖約翰似乎再次回到了城市,這一次,帶回他的那些婦女,在公司的人,我們現在發現他站在接近交叉。 A more delicate, tender, loving service could not have been rendered than this.一個更微妙的,投標書,熱愛服務無法已變得比這一點。 Alone, of all the disciples, he is there, not afraid to be near Christ, in the Palace of the High-Priest, before Pilate, and now under the Cross.孤獨,在所有的弟子,他在那裡,不害怕接近基督,在故宮的高牧師,在彼拉多,現在下的十字架上。

And alone he renders to Christ this tender service of bringing the women and Mary to the Cross, and to them the protection of his guidance and company.和他單獨使基督這次招標的服務,使婦女和瑪麗的交叉,並給他們保護他的指導和公司。 He loved Jesus best; and it was fitting that to his manliness and affection should be entrusted the unspeakable privilege of Christ's dangerous inheritance.他愛耶穌最好的,它是恰當的,以他的氣概和愛戴應當委託無法形容的特權基督的危險遺產。 [1 The first impression left is, of course, that the 'brothers' of Jesus were not yet, at least in the full sense, believers. [ 1左邊的第一印象,當然是說, '兄弟'耶穌還沒有,至少在充分意義上說,信徒。 But this does not by any means necessarily follow, since both the presence of John under the Cross, and even his outward circumstances, might point him out as the most fit custodian of the Virgin-Mother.但是,這並不以任何方式必然,因為兩者存在的約翰十字架下,即使他的離港的情況下,可能點他是最合適的保管人維爾京母親。 At the same time it seems the more likely supposition, that the brothers of Jesus were converted by the appearance to James of the Risen One (1 Cor. xv. 7).]同時,它似乎更有可能的假設,即耶穌的兄弟被轉換的外觀詹姆斯復活一( 1肺心病。十五。 7 ) 。 ]

The narrative [a St. John xix.說明[一個聖約翰19 。 25-27] leaves the impression that with the beloved disciple these four women were standing close to the Cross: the Mother of Jesus, the Sister of His Mother, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary of Magdala. 25-27 ]葉片的印象是,與心愛的弟子這四個婦女站在靠近交叉:在耶穌的母親,姐妹的母親,瑪麗的妻子Clopas ,以及抹大拉的瑪麗。 [2 This view is now generally adopted.] A comparison with what is related by St. Matthew [b St. Matt. [ 2這種觀點現在普遍採用。 ]的比較與有關什麼是由馬太並[ b聖馬特。 xxvii.二十七。 55] and St. Mark [c St. Mark xv. 55 ]和聖馬克[中聖馬克十五。 40, 41] supplies further important particulars. 40 , 41 ]用品更重要的細節。 We read there of only three women, the name of the Mother of our Lord being omitted.我們讀到那裡只有3名婦女的名字的母親我們的主被省略。 But then it must be remembered that this refers to a later period in the history of the Crucifixion.但是必須記住,這是指後期歷史上的十字架。 It seems as if John had fulfilled to the letter the Lord's command: 'Behold thy mother,' (John 19:26-27) and literally 'from that very hour' taken her to his own home.好像約翰已經履行的信上帝的命令: '瞧你媽媽, ' (約19:26-27 )和字面上,從非常小時,她採取了自己的家園。 If we are right in this supposition, then, in the absence of St. John, who led away the Virgin-Mother from that scene of horror, the other three women would withdraw to a distance, where we find them at the end, not 'by the Cross,' as in St. John xix.如果我們在這個假設,然後,在沒有聖約翰,誰導致了美屬維爾京母親從現場的恐怖,其他3名婦女將撤回了距離,我們在那裡找到他們的目的,不'的交叉,在聖約翰19 。 25, but 'beholding from afar,' and now joined by others also, who had loved and followed Christ. 25日,但' beholding自遠方來,現在加入了其他人也,誰愛和基督之後。

We further notice that, the name of the Virgin-Mother being omitted, the other 'three are the same as mentioned by St. John; only, Mary of Clopas is now described as 'the mother of James and Jose,' [3 There is, of course, the difficulty that Judas (Lebbaeus) and Simon Zelotes are not here mentioned as her sons.我們還注意到,名稱美屬維爾京母親被省略,其他三個是同一所提到的聖約翰;只,瑪麗Clopas現在稱為'的母親,詹姆斯和聖何塞, ' [ 3有當然,困難,猶大( Lebbaeus )和西蒙Zelotes不是在這裡提到她的兒子。 But they may have been her stepsons, or there may have other reasons for the omission.但他們可能已被她繼,或有可能有其他原因遺漏。 'Judas of James' could scarcely have been the son of James, and Simon is expressly mentioned by Hegesippus as the son of Clopas.] and Christ's Mother's Sister' as 'Salome' [d St. Mark] and 'the mother of Zebedee's children.' '猶大的詹姆斯幾乎一直是詹姆斯的兒子,和西蒙是明確提到的Hegesippus的兒子Clopas 。 ]和基督的母親的姐妹'為'莎樂美' [ d聖馬克]和'的母親, 6號Zebedee的孩子。 [e St. Matthew] Thus Salome, the wife of Zebedee and St.John's mother, was the sister of the Virgin, and the beloved disciple the cousin (on the mother's side) of Jesus, and the nephew of the Virgin. [英馬太]因此,莎樂美的妻子號Zebedee和聖約翰的母親,是姐姐的美屬維爾京,與心愛的弟子的表哥(母親的一方)的耶穌,和侄子維爾京。 This also helps to explain why the care of the Mother had been entrusted to him.這也有助於解釋為什麼照顧母親已經託付給他。

Nor was Mary the wife of Clopas unconnected with Jesus.也不是瑪麗的妻子Clopas與耶穌無關。 What we have every reason to regard as a trustworthy account [f Hegesippus in Euseb.我們有一切理由認為,一個值得信賴的帳戶用[ f Hegesippus在Euseb 。 HE iii.何三。 11 and iv. 11日和四。 22] describes Clopas as the brother of Joseph, the husband of the Virgin. Thus, not only Salome as the sister of the Virgin, but Mary also as the wife of Clopas, would, in a certain sense, have been His aunt, and her sons His cousins. 22 ]介紹Clopas的弟弟約瑟夫,丈夫維爾京。因此,不僅莎樂美的妹妹維爾京,但也瑪麗的妻子Clopas ,將在一定意義上講,他已經姑姑,並她的兩個兒子他的表兄弟。

And so we notice among the twelve Apostles five cousins of the Lord: the two sons of Salome and Zebedee, and the three sons of Alphaeus or Clopas [1 Alphaeus and Clopas are the same name.因此,我們通知的12使徒五個堂兄弟主:兩個兒子和6號Zebedee莎樂美,和三個兒子的Alphaeus或Clopas [ 1 Alphaeus和Clopas是相同的名稱。 The first occurs in the Babylon Talmud as Ilphai, or Ilpha [ ] as in R. haSh.第一次發生在巴比倫塔木德作為Ilphai ,或Ilpha [ ]在河哈希。 17 b, and often; the other in the Jerusalem Talmud as Chilphai [ ] , as for ex. 17 b和經常;其他在耶路撒冷猶太法典作為Chilphai [ ] ,如前。 in Jer.在哲。 B. Kama 7 a.] and Mary: James, Judas surnamed Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus, and Simon surnamed Zelotes or Cananaean. 7日灣卡馬字母a. ]和瑪麗:詹姆斯,猶大姓Lebbaeus和項退,和西蒙姓Zelotes或Cananaean 。 [2 I regard the Simon Zelotes of the list of Apostles as the Simon son of Clopas, or Alphaeus, of Hegesippus, first, because of his position in the lists of the Apostles along with the two other sons of Alphaeus; secondly, because, as there were only two prominent Simons in the NT (the brother of the Lord, and Zelotes), and Hegesippus mentions him as the son of Clopas, it follows that the Simon son of Clopas was Simon Zelotes. [ 2我認為西蒙Zelotes名單的使徒的西蒙的兒子Clopas ,或Alphaeus的Hegesippus ,第一,因為他的立場名單中的使徒連同其他兩個兒子Alphaeus ;其次,因為因為只有兩個著名的西門子在新台幣(弟弟的上帝,和Zelotes ) ,並Hegesippus提到他的兒子Clopas ,因此,西蒙的兒子西蒙Clopas是Zelotes 。 Levi Matthew was, indeed, also a son of Alphaeus, but we regard this as another Clopas than the husband of Mary.]列維馬修事實上,也是一個兒子Alphaeus ,但我們認為這是另一個Clopas比丈夫的瑪麗。 ]

We can now in some measure realise events.現在,我們可以在一定程度上實現的事件。 When St. John had seen the Saviour nailed to the Cross, he had gone to the City and brought with him for a last mournful farewell the Virgin, accompanied by those who, as most nearly connected with her, would naturally be with her: her own sister Salome, the sister-in-law of Joseph and wife (or more probably widow) of Clopas, and her who of all others had experienced most of His blessed power to save, Mary of Magdala.當聖約翰看到了救星釘在十字架,他還去了市,帶來了他最後的悲哀告別維爾京的陪同下,那些誰,因為大多數幾乎與她聯繫,自然會與她:她自己的妹妹莎樂美的嫂嫂約瑟夫和妻子(或更多可能的遺孀)的Clopas ,她誰所有其他人經歷了最幸運的他以節省電力,抹大拉的瑪麗。 Once more we reverently mark His Divine calm of utter self-forgetfulness and His human thoughtfulness for others.我們再次恭敬地紀念他的神聖平靜的完全自我遺忘和他的人體貼他人。 As they stood under the Cross, He committed His Mother to the disciple whom He loved, and established a new human relationship between him and her who was nearest to Himself.當他們站在十字架下,他承諾他的母親給他的弟子愛戴,並設立了一個新的人類之間的關係他和她誰是最接近他本人。 [3 Incongruous though the interruption be, we cannot help noticing that the introduction of such a scene seems inconsistent with the whole theory of an Ephesian authorship of the Fourth Gospel. [ 3不協調雖然中斷,但我們不能不看到,引進這樣一個場景似乎不符合整個理論的以弗所作者第四福音。

On the other hand, it displays evidence of the true human interest of an actor in the scene.] And calmly, earnestly, and immediately did that disciple undertake the sacred charge, and bring her, whose soul the sword had pierced, away from the scene of unutterable woe to the shelter of his home. [4 Nothing is really known of the later history of the Blessed Virgin.] And this temporary absence of John from the Cross may account for the want of all detail in his narrative till quite the closing scene.另一方面,它顯示的證據真正的人類利益的一個演員在現場。 ]和冷靜,認真,並立即這樣做弟子的神聖承諾負責,並把她的靈魂之劍刺穿了,離現場難言的呼吸,共命運的住房,他家裡。 [ 4沒有什麼是真的知道後來歷史的聖母。 ]這暫時缺席,約翰從交叉可能佔所有想在他的詳細敘述到相當的閉幕式現場。 [a St. John xix. [一個聖約翰19 。 28.] 28 。 ]

Now at last all that concerned the earthward aspect of His Mission, so far as it had to be done on the Cross, was ended. He had prayed for those who had nailed Him to it, in ignorance of what they did; He had given the comfort of assurance to the penitent, who had owned His Glory in His Humiliation; and He had made the last provision of love in regard to those nearest to Him.現在終於一切有關earthward方面,他的任務,迄今,它要做在十字架上,是結束。他祈禱的人誰釘了他它,在無知,他們做了什麼,他給舒適的保證的懺悔,誰擁有了他的輝煌在他的侮辱;和他取得了最後的愛提供關於這些最近給他。 So to speak, the relations of His Humanity, that which touched His Human Nature in any direction, had been fully met.可以這麼說的關係,他的人性,這其中涉及他的人性在任何方向,已得到充分滿足。 He had done with the Human aspect of His Work and with earth.他做了與人力方面所做的工作以及與地球。 And, appropriately, Nature seemed now to take sad farewell of Him, and mourned its departing Lord, Who, by His Personal connection with it, had once more lifted it from the abasement of the Fall into the region of the Divine, making it the dwelling-place, the vehicle for the manifestation, and the obedient messenger of the Divine.同時,適當,自然現在似乎採取傷心告別他,並哀悼在離開主,誰,通過他的個人與它連接,再一次取消它從自卑的落入區域的神,使之成為居住地點,車輛的表現,並服從使者的神聖。

For three hours had the Saviour hung on the Cross.三個小時的救世主掛在十字架上。 It was midday.這是中午時分。 And now the Sun was craped in darkness from the sixth to the ninth hour.現在, Sun是craped在黑暗中從第六至第九小時。 No purpose can be served by attempting to trace the source of this darkness.沒有目的可以送達,試圖追查來源,這黑暗之中。 It could not have been an eclipse, since it was the time of full moon; nor can we place reliance on the later reports on this subject of ecclesiastical writers.它不能一直是月食,因為它是時間的滿月;我們也不能依賴後報告關於這一主題的教會作家。 [1 I do not think the testimony of Phlegon, as quoted by Eusebius, is available (see the discussion in Wieseler's Synopse, p. 387, note 1). [ 1我不認為證詞Phlegon ,所引述的優西比烏,可(見討論Wieseler的Synopse ,第387頁,注1 ) 。 Still, if the astronomical calculations of Ideler and Wurm are correct, 'the eclipse' recorded by Phlegon [whether 'eclipse' in the scientific sense, or 'darkness,'] would have taken place in the very year of our Lord's death, AD 29, but, as they reckon, on November 24.不過,如果天文計算Ideler和亞龍是正確的,這次月食'記錄了Phlegon [是否'食'的科學意義上講,或'黑暗' ]將已發生了非常今年我們的上帝的死亡,反傾銷29日,但是,因為他們認為, 11月24日。

I do not possess the special knowledge requisite to verify these calculations; but that it is described by Phlegon as an 'eclipse', which this could not have been, does not necessarily invalidate the argument, since he might have used the term inaccurately.我不具備必要的專業知識來驗證這些計算,但是,它描述了Phlegon作為一個'食' ,這不可能,不一定無效的論點,因為他可能會使用這個詞不準確。 It is in this sense that St. Luke (xxiii. 45) uses the verb, that is, if we adopt the amended reading.正是在這個意義上,聖盧克( xxiii. 45 )使用動詞,也就是說,如果我們通過修訂後的閱讀。 What Nebe writes on this subject (vol. ii. p. 301), and the illustrations of the popular use of the word from Pliny and Plutarch, deserve the most serious consideration. Nebe寫什麼就這個問題(第二卷。頁301 ) ,和插圖流行的使用這個詞從普林尼和普魯塔克,最值得認真考慮。 But, I repeat, I cannot attach weight in this argument to such testimonies, nor yet to the sayings of Origen, Tertullian, &c., nor to the Acta Pilati (the ecclesiastical testimonies are discussed by Nebe, usp 299).]但是,我再說一遍,我不能高度重視這一論點等證詞,也沒有格言奧利,良, &角,也給學報皮拉蒂(教會證詞討論Nebe ,美國藥典299 ) 。 ]

It seems only in accordance with the Evangelic narrative to regard the occurrence of the event as supernatural, while the event itself might have been brought about by natural causes; and among these we must call special attention to the earthquake in which this darkness terminated.看來只能按照福音的敘述把發生的事件,超自然的,而這一事件本身可能已經所帶來的自然原因造成的;之間以及這些要求,我們必須特別注意地震中這黑暗的終止。 [a St. Matt. [聖馬特。 xxvii.二十七。 51.] For, it is a well-known phenomenon that such darkness not infrequently precedes earthquakes. 51 。 ]對,這是一個眾所周知的現象,這種黑暗中並不罕見地震之前。 On the other hand, it must be freely admitted, that the language of the Evangelists seems to imply that this darkness extended, not only over the land of Israel, but over the inhabited earth.另一方面,它必須承認自由,即語言的福音派似乎意味著,這黑暗的延長,不僅在以色列土地上,但是有人居住的地球。 The expression must, of course, not be pressed to its full literality, but explained as meaning that it extended far beyond Judaea and to other lands.必須表達,當然,不能要求充分發揮其直譯,但解釋它的含義遠遠超出擴大猶太和其他土地。

No reasonable objection can be raised from the circumstance, that neither the earthquake nor the preceding darkness are mentioned by any profane writer whose works have been preserved, since it would surely not be maintained that an historical record must have been preserved of every earthquake that occurred, and of every darkness that may have preceded it.沒有合理的反對意見可以提出的情況下,無論是大地震前,也沒有提到黑暗中的任何世俗的作家,其作品已保存,因為它肯定會無法維持一個歷史記錄必須保存的每一個地震發生和每一個黑暗的,可能在這之前就有了。 [2 There are frequent notices in classical writers of eclipses preceding disastrous events or the death of great men, such as of Caesar (Nebe, usp 300). [ 2經常有告示經典作家的超越前面的災難性事件或死亡的偉人,如在凱撒( Nebe ,美國藥典300 ) 。 But these were, if correctly related, eclipses in the true sense, and, as such, natural events, having in no way a supernatural bearing, and hence in no sense analogous to this 'darkness' at the Crucifixion.] But the most unfair argument is that, which tries to establish the unhistorical character of this narrative by an appeal to what are described as Jewish sayings expressive of similar expectancy.但是,這些人,如果正確有關,日食的真正意義,而且,因為這樣,自然的事件,而絕不是超自然的影響,因此,在沒有任何意義類似於這種'黑暗'的十字架。 ]但最不公平論點是,它試圖建立unhistorical性質,這說明了什麼上訴被稱為猶太人的諺語表達了類似的預期。

[1 So Strauss (after Wetstein) and even Keim. [ 1所以斯特勞斯(後Wetstein ) ,甚至凱姆。 Painful as controversy is in connection with the last hours of Jesus, I would not have shrunk from contesting the positions of Keim, if I had not felt that every unprejudiced person must see, that most of them are mere assertions, without an attempt at anything like historical evidence.] It is quite true that in old Testament prophecy, whether figuratively or really, the darkening, though not only of the sun, but also of the moon and stars, is sometimes connected, not with the Coming of Messiah, still less with His Death, but with the final Judgement.痛苦的爭論是與最後幾個小時的耶穌,我不會逃避競爭的立場凱姆,如果我不認為,每一偏見的人必須看到,這其中大多數是僅僅斷言,沒有任何企圖像歷史證據。 ]這是相當不錯,在舊約的預言,無論是形象或真的,在昏暗,但不是唯一的太陽,也是月亮和星星,有時是連接,而不是未來的救世主,仍那麼他的逝世,但最終判決。 [2 Strauss (ii. p. 556), and more fully Keim (iii. p. 438, Note 3), quote Joel ii. [ 2斯特勞斯(白介素第556頁) ,以及更充分的凱姆( iii.頁438 ,注3 ) ,報價喬爾二。 10, 31; Amos viii. 10日, 31日;阿莫斯八。 9; Is. 9 ;是。 xiii.十三。 10; 1. 10 ; 1 。 3; Job ix. 3 ;作業九。 7; Jer. 7 ;哲。 xv.十五。 9. 9 。 Of these passages some have no bearing, however remote, on the subject, while the others refer not to the Messiah but to the final judgement.]這些通道有些人沒有關係,但遙控器,關於這個問題的,而其他未提及的彌賽亞,但最後的判斷。 ]

But Jewish tradition never speaks of such an event in connection with Messiah, or even with the Messianic judgments, and the quotations from Rabbinic writings made by negative critics must be characterised as not only inapplicable but even unfair.但是,猶太傳統中從來沒有提到這樣的活動方面的彌賽亞,甚至與彌賽亞判斷,報價從拉比的著作所作的負面批評必須特色不僅不適用,但即使不公平的。 [3 To be quite fair, I will refer to all the passages quoted in connection with the darkening of the sun as a token of mourning. [ 3很公平的,我將提及的所有通道引用與昏暗的太陽,以示哀悼。

The first (quoted by Wetstein) is from the Midrash on Lament.第一(引述Wetstein )是由米德拉士的輓歌。 iii.三。 28 (ed. Warsh. p. 72 a). 28 (編輯沃什。頁72 ) 。 But the passage, evidently a highly figurative one, refers to the destruction of Jerusalem and the dispersion of Israel, and, besides the darkening of the sun, moon, and stars (not the sun only), refers to a realistic fulfilment of Nah.但是通過,顯然一個高度象徵之一,是指破壞耶路撒冷和以色列的分散,以及,除了昏暗的太陽,月亮和星星(不只是太陽) ,指的是現實的實現羅。 i.字母i. 3 and Lament. iii. 3和輓歌。三。 28 in God's walking in dust and keeping silence. 28日在上帝的走在灰塵和保持沉默。 The second quotation of Wetstein, that when a great Rabbi dies it is as portentous as if the sun went down at midday, has manifestly no bearing whatever on the matter in hand (though Strauss adduces it).第二次報價Wetstein ,當一個偉大拉比去世是因為奇特,猶如陽光墜毀中午,有明顯的不影響什麼就此事在手(儘管它斯特勞斯1971 ) 。 The last and only quotation really worth mention is from Sukk.最後,只有引號非常值得一提的是從Sukk 。 29 a. 29字母a. In a somewhat lengthened statement there, the meaning of an obscuration of the sun or moon is discussed.在聲明中有所延長,有含義,一個朦朧的太陽或月亮進行了討論。 I have here to remark (1) that these phenomena are regarded as 'signs' in the sense of betokening coming judgments, such as war, famine, &c., and that these are supposed to affect various nations according as the eclipse is towards the rising or setting of the sun.我已經在這裡的話( 1 ) ,這些現象被視為'標誌'的意義betokening未來的判斷,如戰爭,飢荒,與角,這些是為了影響根據不同國家的月食是朝著增加或設置的太陽。

The passage therefore can have no possible connection with such a phenomenon as the death of Messiah.因此,通過有沒有可能與這種現象作為死亡的救世主。 (2) This is further confirmed by the enumeration of certain sins for which heavenly luminaries are eclipsed. ( 2 )這進一步證實了所列舉的某些罪孽而神聖的燈具都黯然失色。 Some are not fit for mention, while others are such as false witness-bearing, the needless cutting down of fruit-trees, &c.有些人不適合提,而另一些,如虛假證人的軸承,在減少不必要的水果樹,與角 (3) But the unfairness, as well as the inaptitude, of the quotation appears from this, that only the beginning of the passage is quoted (Strauss and Keim): 'At a time when the sun is obscured, it is an evil sign to all the world,' while what follows is omitted: 'When the sun is obscured, it is an evil sign to the nations of the world; when the moon is obscured, it is an evil sign to Israel, because Israel reckons according to the moon, the nations of the world according to the sun.' ( 3 )但是,不公正,以及inaptitude ,報價從這個看來,這僅僅是個開始的通行引用(斯特勞斯和凱姆) : '當太陽遮蔽,這是一個邪惡的跡象世界所有,而哪些是省略如下: '當太陽是模糊不清,這是一個邪惡的標誌,世界各國,當月球遮蔽,這是一個邪惡的簽署對以色列,因為以色列認為根據月亮,世界各國根據太陽。 And yet Wunsche (Erlauter. pp. 355, 356) quotes both that which precedes and that which follows this passage, but leaves out this passage itself.但Wunsche ( Erlauter.頁。 355 , 356 )報價都認為這之前,並遵循這一通道,但留下了這一段本身。 (Comp. Mechilta, p. 3 b.] ( Comp. Mechilta ,第3頁灣]

But to return from this painful digression.但是,為了回報這個痛苦的題外話。 The three hours' darkness was such not only to Nature; Jesus, also, entered into darkness: Body, Soul, and Spirit.三個小時的黑暗就是這樣不僅自然;耶穌,也進入黑暗:身體,靈魂和精神。 It was now, not as before, a contest, but suffering.現在,而不是像以前,競賽,而是痛苦。 Into this, to us, fathomless depth of the mystery of His Sufferings, we dare not, as indeed we cannot, enter.到這一點,對我們來說,深不可測的奧秘,他的痛苦,我們不敢,因為我們確實不能進入。 It was of the Body; yet not of the Body only, but of physical life.這是身體,但不是唯一的機構,但身體的生活。 And it was of the Soul and Spirit; yet not of them alone, but in their conscious relation to man and to God.它的靈魂和精神;尚未他們,而是他們意識到與人與上帝。 And it was not of the Human only in Christ, but in its indissoluble connection with the Divine: of the Human, where it reached the utmost verge of humiliation to body, soul, and spirit, and in it of the Divine, to utmost self-examination.它不是人類只有在基督裡,但在其不可分割的聯繫神聖:人類,它達到了最大的恥辱邊緣身體,靈魂和精神,它的神聖,以最大的自我審查。

The increasing, nameless agonies of the Crucifixion were deepening into the bitterness of death.越來越多,無名的痛苦的十字架是深化到痛苦的死亡。 All nature shrinks from death, and there is a physical horror of the separation between body and soul which, as a purely natural phenomenon, is in every instance and overcome, and that only by a higher principle.所有性質縮小的死亡,並有身體可怕的分開身體和靈魂,作為一個純粹的自然現象,是在每一個個體和克服,只有通過更高的原則。 And we conceive that the purer the being the greater the violence of the tearing asunder of the bond with which God Almighty originally bound together body and soul.和我們想像的純潔的是更大的暴力撕裂四分五裂的債券與真主結合在一起原來身體和靈魂。 In the Perfect Man this must have reached the highest degree.在這個完美的人必須已經達到了最高程度。 So, also, had in those dark hours the sense of man-forsakenness and His own isolation from man; so, also, had the intense silence of God, the withdrawal of God, the sense of His God-forsakenness and absolute loneliness.所以,也已在那些黑暗的時間意義上的人forsakenness和他自己孤立於男子,因此,也有激烈的沉默的上帝,撤出上帝,他感覺上帝forsakenness和絕對的孤獨。

We dare not here speak of punitive suffering, but of forsakenness and loneliness.我們不敢在這裡講的懲罰的痛苦,但forsakenness和孤獨。 And yet as we ask ourselves how this forsakeness can be though of as so complete in view of His Divine consciousness, which at least could not have been wholly extinguished by His Self-examination, we feel that yet another element must be taken into account.然而,我們捫心自問,如何才能forsakeness雖然如此的完整,鑑於他的神聖意識,至少不能被完全撲滅了他的自我檢查,我們認為,又一因素必須考慮到。 Christ on the Cross suffered for man; He offered Himself a sacrifice; He died as the Representative of man, for man and in room of man; He obtained for man 'eternal redemption, ' [a Hebr.基督在十字架上受苦受難的人;他願意犧牲自己;他死於作為代表的人,對人類和房間的人;他獲得了男子'永恆的贖回, ' [一個Hebr 。 ix.九。 12] having given His Life 'a ransom,[b St. Matt. 12 ]給他的生活'了贖金,並[ b聖馬特。 xx.二十。 28] for many. 28 ]許多。 For, men were 'redeemed' with the 'precious Blood of Christ, as of a Lamb without blemish and without spot;' [c 1 Pet.因為,男子被'贖回'與'珍貴的基督的血,作為一個羔羊沒有污點,沒有現貨; ' [中一寵物。 i.字母i. 19] and Christ 'gave Himself for us, that He might "redeem" us from all iniquity; [d Tit. 19 ]和基督給了自己對我們來說,他可能“贖回”我們所有的不公正; [ d山雀。 ii.二。 14] He 'gave Himself "a ransom" for all;' [e 1 Tim. 14 ]他是給自己“贖金”的所有; ' [英一添。 ii.二。 6.] Christ died for all;' [f2 Cor. 6 。 ]基督死亡的所有; ' [ F2代肺心病。 v. 15.] Him, Who knew no sin, God 'made sin for us;' 'Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us', and this, with express reference to the Crucifixion.訴15 。 ]他,誰知道沒有罪惡,上帝的罪過了我們; ' '基督救贖我們從詛咒的法律,已經成為一種詛咒,我們' ,這與明確提到十字架。

[g Ga. iii. [喬治亞州三克。 13.] This sacrificial, vicarious, expiatory, and redemptive character of His Death, if it does not explain to us, yet helps us to understand, Christ's sense of God-forsakenness in the supreme moment of the Cross; if one might so word it, the passive character of His activeness through the active character of His passiveness. 13 。 ]本品,替代, expiatory ,並買回的性質他的死,如果它不向我們解釋,還幫助我們理解,基督的責任感上帝forsakenness在最高的時刻橫;如果有可能,以便字它的被動角色,他積極通過積極性格,他被動。

It was this combination of the Old Testament idea of sacrifice, and of the Old Testament ideal of willing suffering as the Servant of Jehovah, now fulfilled in Christ, which found its fullest expression in the language of the twenty-second Psalm.正是這種結合,舊約想法犧牲,舊約理想,願意為苦難的耶和華的僕人,現在在基督內完成,其中發現其充分的表達語言的第二十二屆詩篇。 It was fitting, rather, it was true, that the willing suffering of the true Sacrifice should now find vent in its opening words: 'My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?', Eli, Eli, lema sabachthanei? (Matthew 27:46)[1 So in St. matthew, according to the best reading.這是適當的,相反,它是真的,即願意痛苦的真正犧牲現在應該找到發洩在其開頭語 ' 我的上帝,我的上帝,你為什麼你放棄我嗎? ' ,禮,禮,萊馬sabachthanei ? (馬修27:46 ) [ 1因此,在馬太,根據最好的閱讀。 In St. Mark, Eloi, Eloi [apparently the Syriac form], lema sabachthanei? (Mark 15:34).在聖馬克, 埃洛伊,埃洛伊[顯然是敘利亞形式] ,萊馬sabachthanei ? (馬克15:34 ) 。 Might it be that St. Matthew represents the current Judaean or Galilean dialect, and St. Mark the Syrian, and that this casts light alike on the dialects in Palestine at the time of Christ, and even, to some extent, on the composition of the Gospels, and the land in which they were written?它可能是馬太代表了當前Judaean或伽利略方言,聖馬克和敘利亞,這都蒙上輕的方言在巴勒斯坦時,基督,甚至,在一定程度上的組成福音,土地,他們在寫? The Targum renders Ps.該根使物質。 xxii. 22 。 2: Eli, Eli, metul mah shebhaqtani? 2 :禮,禮, metul麻將shebhaqtani ? ('On account of what hast Thou forsaken me?').] ( '論到什麼你你拋棄我?').]

These words, cried with a loud voice [2 This in the extreme agony of soul, not to mark His Divinity.] at the close of the period of extreme agony, [3 'About the ninth hour.'這些話,哭了響亮的聲音[ 2這在極端痛苦的靈魂,而不是紀念他的神。 ]結束時期間的極端痛苦, [ 3 ,關於第九屆小時。 I cannot bring myself here to discuss the supposed analogous quotations of Ps.我不能把自己在這裡討論假定類似的PS報價。 xxii. 22 。 1 in Rabbinic writings. 1在拉比的著作。 The comparison is equally inapt and irreverent.] marked the climax and the end of this suffering of Christ, of which the utmost compass was the withdrawal of God and the felt loneliness of the Sufferer.比較同樣是不適宜和不敬的。 ]標記的高潮和結束這種痛苦的基督,其中最大的指南針被撤銷上帝和感到孤獨的患者。 But they that stood by the Cross, misinterpreting the meaning, and mistaking the opening words for the name Elias, imagined that the Sufferer had called for Elias.但是,他們認為站在交叉,曲解含義,以為開頭的名稱埃利亞斯,想像的患者要求埃利亞斯。 We can scarcely doubt, that these were the soldiers who stood by the Cross.我們可以幾乎毫無疑問,這些都是誰的士兵站在十字架上。 They were not necessarily Romans; on the contrary, as we have seen, these Legions were generally recruited from Provincials.他們不一定是羅馬人,相反,我們已經看到,這些軍團普遍招募Provincials 。

On the other hand, no Jew would have mistaken Eli for the name of Elijah, not yet misinterpreted a quotation of Psalm xxii.另一方面,猶太人將不會有錯禮的名稱以利亞,尚未誤解報價的詩篇二十二。 1 as a call for that prophet. 1呼籲的先知。 And it must be remembered, that the words were not whispered, but cried with a loud voice.它必須記住,這兩個詞並不小聲,但哭了響亮的聲音。 But all entirely accords with the misunderstanding of non-Jewish soldiers, who, as the whole history shows, had learned from His accusers and the infuriated mob snatches of a distorted story of the Christ.但是,所有完全符合誤解非猶太士兵,誰,因為整個歷史表明,得知從他的指控和憤怒的暴民片段的扭曲的故事基督。

And presently the Sufferer emerged on the other side.和目前的患者出現的另一邊。 It can scarcely have been a minute or two from the time that the cry from the twenty-second Psalm marked the high-point of His Agony, when the words 'I thirst' [a St. John xix.這簡直是一個兩分鐘的時候,哭的第二十二屆詩篇顯著的高點,他痛苦,當的話'我渴' [一個聖約翰19 。 28.] seem to indicate, by the prevalence of the merely human aspect of the suffering, that the other and more terrible aspect of sin-bearing and God-forsakenness was past. 28 。 ]似乎表明,通過流行的僅僅是人類方面的痛苦,其他更可怕的罪惡方面的軸承和上帝forsakenness了過去。 To us, therefore, this seems the beginning, if not of Victory, yet of Rest, of the End.對我們來說,因此,這似乎一開始,如果沒有勝利,但在休息,端。 St. John alone records this Utterance, prefacing it with this distinctive statement, that Jesus so surrendered Himself to the human feeling, seeking the bodily relief by expressing His thirst: 'knowing that all things were now finished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled.'聖約翰僅記錄本話語,前言與這種獨特的聲明,聲稱是耶穌使自首的人的感覺,尋求救濟的身體表達他的渴望: '知道所有的事情,現在完成後,該經文可能實現。 '

[1 The words last quoted can, of course, and have by most writers been connected with the thirst of Christ, as the fulfilment of Ps. [ 1最後引用的話當然可以,而且多數作家已與基督的渴求,作為實現的PS 。 lxix. lxix 。 21. 21 。 But the structure of the sentence leads rather to the punctuation adopted in the text, while I have the greatest difficulty in applying Ps.但是,結構的一句話而導致的標點符號通過的文本,而我最大的困難在運用物質。 lxix. lxix 。 21 in the manner proposed, and still more grave objection to the idea that Christ uttered the words in order to fulfil the Psalm, although the word 'that' must, as previously shown (p. 503), not be taken in the sense of 'in order that.' 21建議的方式,更嚴重的反對的想法基督說出的話,以履行詩篇,雖然這個字是'必須,正如先前顯示(頁503 ) ,而不是採取意識' ,以便。 There is, of course, a tertium quid, and the Evangelist may be supposed to have expressed only his own sense that the Scripture was fulfilled, when he saw the thirst of the Saviour quenched in the 'vinegar' of the soldiers.因此,當然,第三者塊,和傳播者可能是要表達只有他自己感覺到,聖經是滿足,當他看到渴求的救世主淬火中的'醋'的士兵。 But in that case we should expect the words 'that the Scripture might be fulfilled,' placed after the 'I thirst.']但是,在這種情況下,我們應該期待的話,認為聖經可能實現,後置於'我渴。 ]

In other words, the climax of Theanthropic Suffering in His feeling of God-forsakenness, which had led to the utterance of Psalm xxii.換言之,高潮Theanthropic痛苦的他感覺上帝forsakenness ,這導致了話語的詩篇二十二。 1, was now, to His consciousness, the end of all which in accordance with Scripture-prediction He had to bear. 1 ,現在,他的意識,結束所有這些按照聖經的預測,他不得不承擔。 He now could and did yield Himself to the mere physical wants of His Body.他現在也可以和自己的收益率僅僅是物理希望他的身體。

It seems as if St. John, having perhaps just returned to the scene, and standing with the women 'afar off,' beholding these things, [a St. Luke xxiii.好像聖約翰後,也許是剛剛返回到現場,並站在女子遠處, beholding這些東西, [一個聖盧克二十三。 49.] had hastened forward on the cry from Psalm xxii., [2 Whether or not he heard the words of the cry.] and heard Him express the feeling of thirst, which immediately followed. 49 。 ]加快了前進的呼聲從詩篇22 。 , [ 2與否,他聽到的話,哭了起來。 ]和聽到他表達感情的渴求,這緊接著。 And so St. John alone supplies the link between that cry and the movement on the part of the soldiers, which St. Matthew and St. Mark, as well as St. John, report.因此,聖約翰用品僅之間的聯繫和哭泣的運動的一部分士兵,其中馬太和聖馬克,以及聖約翰報告。 For, it would be impossible to understand why, on what the soldiers regarded as a call for Elijah, one of them should have hastened to relieve His thirst, but for the Utterance recorded in the Fourth Gospel. But we can quite understand it, if the Utterance, 'I thirst,' followed immediately on the previous cry.對,就不可能理解為什麼,什麼兵視為一種呼籲以利亞,其中一人應趕緊以減輕他的乾渴,但話語記錄在第四福音。但我們可以明白,如果的話語: '我渴,緊隨其後的前哭了起來。

One of the soldiers, may we not be allowed to believe, one who either had already learned from that Cross, or was about to learn, to own Him Lord, moved by sympathy, now ran to offer some slight refreshment to the Sufferer by filling a sponge with the rough wine of the soldiers and putting it to His lips, having first fastened it to the stem ('reed') of the caper ('hyssop'), which is said to grow to the height of even two or three feet.其中一名士兵,可我們不能讓認為,無論是誰的教訓已經從該交叉,或者是對學習,他自己的上帝,感動,同情,現在提供了一些輕微的茶點的患者填寫海綿的粗酒的士兵,使其向他的嘴唇,首先拴它的幹( '蘆葦' )的戲弄( ' hyssop ' ) ,據說這是成長的高度,甚至兩個或三個腳。 [3 Comp. [ 3比較。 Tristram Nat.狄納特。 Hist.歷史。 of the Bible, p.聖經,第 457.] But, even so, this act of humanity was not allowed to pass unchallenged by the coarse jibes of the others who would bid him leave the relief of the Sufferer to the agency of Elijah, which in their opinion He had invoked. Nor should we perhaps wonder at the weakness of that soldier himself, who, though he would not be hindered in his good deed, yet averted the opposition of the others by apparently joining in their mockery. 457 。 ]但是,即使如此,這一行為是對人類不允許通過質疑的粗jibes其他誰會叫他離開救濟患者的機構,以利亞,而他們的意見,他援引。也不也許我們應該知道的弱點,這名士兵本人,誰,但他將不會阻礙他的好事,但避免了反對其他國家顯然是在其加入嘲弄。 [b St. Matt.並[ b聖馬特。 xxvii.二十七。 48, 49; St. Mark xv. 48 , 49 ;聖馬克十五。 36.] 36 。 ]

By accepting the physical refreshment offered Him, the Lord once more indicated the completion of the work of His Passion.通過接受身體點心給他,上帝再一次表明了完成的工作熱情。 For, as He would not enter on it with His senses and physical consciousness lulled by narcotised wine, so He would not pass out of it with senses and physical consciousness dulled by the absolute failure of life-power.因為,正如他不會進入與他的感官和身體的意識蒙蔽narcotised葡萄酒,所以他不會運出它的感官和物理意識困擾的絕對失敗的生命力量。 Hence He took what for the moment restored the physical balance, needful for thought and word.因此,他採取了什麼的時刻恢復了身體平衡,必要的思想和文字。 And so He immediately passed on to 'taste death for every man.'因此,他立即傳給口味死亡的每一個男人。 For, the two last 'sayings' of the Saviour now followed in rapid succession: first, that with a loud voice, which expressed it, that the work given Him to do, as far as concerned His Passion, was 'finished;' (John 19:30) [a St. John.] and then, that in the words of Psalm xxxi.因為,最後兩個'名言'的救世主現在遵循的快速繼承:第一,一個響亮的聲音,這表明它的工作給他做,就有關他的激情, ' 完成; ' (約翰19:30 ) [一個聖約翰。 ]然後,在的話詩篇三十一。 5, in which He commended His Spirit into the Hands of the Father. (Luke 23:46) [b St. Luke.] 5日, 在信中讚揚他的精神將手中的父親。 (路23:46 )並[ b聖盧克。 ]

Attempts at comment could only weaken the solemn thoughts which the words awaken.評論企圖只能削弱了莊嚴的想法的話喚醒。 Yet some points should be noted for our teaching.然而,有些點應該指出我們的教學。 His last cry 'with a loud voice' was not like that of one dying.他最後一次哭'了響亮的聲音'不一樣,一個死去。 St. Mark notes, that this made such deep impression on the Centurion.聖馬克注意到,這使得這種深刻印象的百夫長。 [c St. Mark xv. [中聖馬克十五。 39.] In the language of the early Christian hymn, it was not Death which approached Christ, but Christ Death: He died without death. 39 。 ]在語言的早期基督教讚美詩,不是死亡的接近基督,但基督死亡:他死於無死亡。 [1 En pessima, non tu Pervenis ad Christum, sed Christus pervenit ad te, Cui licuit sine morte mori. Sedulius.] Christ encountered Death, not as conquered, but as the Conqueror. [ 1恩pessima ,非土Pervenis廣告Christum ,基於基督pervenit廣告德,崔licuit家蠶必要死。 Sedulius 。 ]基督遇到死亡,而不是征服,而是作為征服者。 And this also was part of His work, and for us: now the beginning of His Triumph.這也是他的工作,並為我們:現在開始他的凱旋。 And with this agrees the peculiar language of St. John, that He 'bowed the Head, and gave up the Spirit'.與此同意的特殊語言,聖約翰說,他'鞠了一躬元首,以及放棄的精神。

Nor should we fail to mark the peculiarities of His last Utterance.我們也不應該失敗標誌的特殊性他最後的話語。 The 'My God' of the fourth Utterance had again passed into the 'Father' of conscious fellowship.在'我的上帝'的第四話語再次進入了'爸爸'的意識獎學金。 And yet neither in the Hebrew original of this Psalm, nor in its Greek rendering by the LXX., does the word 'Father' occur. Again, in the LXX.然而,無論在希伯來文原來的詩篇,也不在其希臘渲染的LXX 。 ,但這個詞父親發生。同樣,在LXX 。 translation of the Hebrew text this word expressive of entrustment, the commending, is in the future tense; on the lips of our Lord it is in the present tense.翻譯希伯來文這個詞表達的委託,了讚揚,在未來的緊張;的嘴唇我們的主是在目前的緊張。 [2 So according to the better reading.] And the word, in its New Testament sense, means not merely commending: it is to deposit, to commit for safe keeping. [ 2因此,按照更好地閱讀。 ]和這個詞,在其新約意義上來說,不只是指稱讚:這是存款,承諾保管。 [3 Comp. [ 3比較。 the use of the verb in such passages as St. Luke xii.使用動詞在這種通道的聖盧克十二。 48; Acts xiv. 48 ;行為十四。 23; xx. 32; 1 Tim. 23 ;第xx 。 32 ; 1蒂姆。 i.字母i. 18; 2 Tim. 18日, 2添。 ii.二。 2.] That in dying, or rather meeting and overcoming Death, He chose and adapted these words, is matter for deepest thankfulness to the Church. 2 。 ]這死亡的,或者不如會議和克服死亡,他選擇和調整這些話,是令人最深切的感激教會。

He spoke them for His people in a twofold sense: on their behalf, that they might be able to speak them; and 'for them,' that henceforth they might speak them after Him.他談到他的這些人有雙重意義:代表他們,他們也許可以說他們和'他們' ,從今以後,他們可能說話後他。 How many thousands have pillowed their heads on them when going to rest!有多少數千人pillowed頭上時,他們要休息! They were the last words of a Polycarp, a Bernard, Huss, Luther, and Melanchthon.他們是最後一句話的波利卡普,一個伯納德,胡斯,路德,並梅蘭希通。 And to us also they may be the fittest and the softest lullaby.我們和他們也可能是適者生存和柔軟的搖籃曲。 And in 'the Spirit' which He had committed to God did He now descend into Hades, 'and preached unto the spirits in prison.'和'精神' ,他已經承諾向上帝沒有他現在下降到閻王'和鼓吹你們的靈魂在監獄中。 [a 1 Pet. [ 1寵物。 iii.三。 18, 19.] But behind this great mystery have closed the two-leaved gates of brass, which only the Hand of the Conqueror could burst open. 18日, 19日。 ]但是,這個偉大的背後之謎已關閉兩個闊葉黃銅大門,只手的征服者可以爆裂開放。

And now a shudder ran through Nature, as its Sun had set.和現在不寒而栗貫穿自然,因為它的Sun公司已成立。 We dare not do more than follow the rapid outlines of the Evangelic narrative.我們不敢做更多的後續快速概述了福音說明。 As the first token, it records the rending of the Temple-Veil in two from the top downward to the bottom; as the second, the quaking of the earth, the rending of the rocks and the opening of the graves.作為第一個象徵,它記錄了心碎的聖殿,在兩年的面紗從頂部向下底部;作為第二,發抖的地球,心碎的岩石和開放的墳墓。 Although most writers have regarded this as indicating the strictly chronological succession, there is nothing in the text to bind us to such a conclusion.雖然大多數作者認為這表明了嚴格的時間順序繼承,沒有任何的文本約束我們這樣一個結論。 Thus, while the rending of the Veil is recorded first, as being the most significant token to Israel, it may have been connected with the earthquake, although this alone might scarcely account for the tearing of so heavy a Veil from the top to the bottom.因此,雖然心碎的面紗記錄第一,作為最重要的象徵以色列,它可能已經與地震,但僅此可能幾乎佔撕裂如此沉重的面紗從頂部向底部。

Even the latter circumstance has its significance.即使是後者的情況有其重要意義。 That some great catastrophe, betokening the impending destruction of the Temple, had occurred in the Sanctuary about this very time, is confirmed by not less than four mutually independent testimonies: those of Tacitus, [1 Hist.一些大災難, betokening即將毀滅寺,發生在聖域這個非常時間,證實了不少於四個相互獨立的證詞:那些佗, [ 1組織胺。 v. 13.] of Josephus, [2 Jew.訴13 。 ]的約瑟夫, [ 2猶太人。 War vi.戰爭六。 5, 3.] of the Talmud, [3 Jer. 5 , 3 。 ]的塔木德, [ 3哲。 Yoma 43 c; Yoma 39 b.] and of earliest Christian tradition.山脈43丙型;山脈39灣]和最早的基督教傳統。 [4 So in the Gospel according to the Hebrews, from which St. Jerome quotes (in Matt. xxvii. 51, and in a letter to Hedibia) to the effect, that the huge lintel of the Temple was broken and splintered, and fell. [ 4因此,在福音根據希伯來人,其中聖杰羅姆引號(在馬特。二十七。 51個,並在信中Hedibia )的影響,這巨大的門楣聖殿被打破和分裂,而且下跌。 St. Jerome connects the rending of the Veil with this, and it would seem an obvious inference to connect again this breaking of the lintel with an earthquake.]聖杰羅姆連接心碎的面紗與此,它似乎明顯的推理再次連接這打破楣同一次地震。 ]

The most important of these are, of course, the Talmud and Josephus.其中最重要的是,當然,塔木德和約瑟夫。 The latter speaks of the mysterious extinction of the middle and chief light in the Golden Candlestick, forty years before the destruction of the Temple; and both he and the Talmud refer to a supernatural opening by themselves of the great Temple-gates that had been previously closed, which was regarded as a portent of the coming destruction of the Temple.後者講的神秘滅絕的中層和首席輕金燭台,四十年前的破壞廟;他和猶太法典提到了超自然的開放自己的偉大寺大門已經過去關閉,這被視為一種預兆未來破壞寺。 We can scarcely doubt, that some historical fact must underlie so peculiar and widespread a tradition, and we cannot help feeling that it may be a distorted version of the occurrence of the rending of the Temple-Veil (or of its report) at the Crucifixion of Christ. [5 A story is told in Jewish tradition (Gitt, 56 b, about the middle; Ber. R. 10; Vayyik. R. 22, and in other places) to the effect that, among other vilenesses, 'Titus the wicked' had penetrated into the Sanctuary, and cut through the Veil of the Most Holy Place with his sword, when blood dropped down.我們可以幾乎毫無疑問,一些歷史事實必須依據這樣特殊的和普遍的傳統,我們不能不認為這可能是一個扭曲的文本發生的心碎了寺的面紗(或其報告)在十字架上基督。 [ 5故事告訴猶太傳統( Gitt , 56 b ,對中等;蘇貝等。河10 ; Vayyik 。河22個,並在其他地方)的影響,除其他vilenesses ,泰特斯惡人'已經滲透到了保護區,並穿越面紗至聖所與他的劍,當血壓下降。

I mention the legend to express my emphatic protest against the manner in which Dr. Joel (Blicke in d. Religionsgesch. i. pp. 7, 8, treating of the passage in the Midr. on Lam. ii. 17) has made use of it.我提到的傳說,以表達我的強烈抗議方式,博士喬爾( Blicke在d. Religionsgesch 。島頁。七日,八日,治療的通道中Midr 。對藍田。二。 17 )利用了它。 He represents it, as if the Veil had been rent (Zerreissen des Vorhanges bei d. Tempelzerstorung), not cut through by Titus, and on the basis of this misrepresentation has the boldness to set a legend about Titus side by side with the Evangelic account of the rending of the Temple-Veil!他表示,因為如果面紗已租( Zerreissen萬Vorhanges北d. Tempelzerstorung ) ,而不是通過削減的泰特斯,並在此基礎上歪曲了大膽設定傳說泰特斯並排的福音帳戶在心碎的寺的面紗! I write thus strongly because I am sorry to say that this is by no means the only instance in which Jewish writers adapt their quotations to controversial purposes.我寫這樣強烈,因為我很抱歉地說,這是絕不是唯一的實例,其中猶太人作家調整其報價,以有爭議的目的。 Joel refers to Dr. Sachs, Beitr.喬爾是指博士高盛, Beitr 。 ip 29, but that learned writer draws no such inference from the passage in question.]知識產權29 ,但作家借鑒的經驗教訓沒有這樣的推理從通道的問題。 ]

But even if the rending of the Temple-Veil had commenced with the earthquake, and, according to the Gospel to the Hebrews, with the breaking of the great lintel over the entrance, it could not be wholly accounted for in this manner.但即使心碎的寺的面紗已開始與地震,並按照福音的猶太人,以打破大楣的入口,但它不能完全佔了這種方式。 According to Jewish tradition, there were, indeed, two Veils before the entrance to the Most Holy Place.根據猶太傳統,有,事實上,前兩個面紗入口處的至聖所。 [a Yoma v.] The Talmud explains this on the ground that it was not known, whether in the former Temple the Veil had hung inside or outside the entrance and whether the partition-wall had stood in the Holy or Most Holy Place. [一個山脈訴]的塔木德解釋這種在地面上,這是不知道,無論是在寺廟前的面紗已掛在國內或國外的入口處,以及是否分割牆已經站在了羅馬教廷或至聖所。 [b Yoma 51 b.] Hence (according to Maimonides) [c Hilkh.並[ b山脈灣51 ]因此, (根據邁蒙尼德) [中Hilkh 。 Beth ha-Bech, iv.貝絲公頃,尾島,四。 2, ed. Amst vol. 2版。 Amst卷。 iii.三。 p. 149 b.] there was not any wall between the Holy and Most Holy Place, but the space of one cubit, assigned to it in the former Temple, was left unoccupied, and one Veil hung on the side of the Holy, the other on that of the Most Holy Place. 149灣]沒有任何牆壁之間的神聖和至聖所,但空間的一個肘,分配給它的前寺,是無人居住的左側,一個掛在面紗一側的聖地,另即至聖所。 According to an account dating from Temple-times, there were altogether thirteen Veils used in various parts of the Temple, two new ones being made every year.據一個帳戶可追溯到寺次,共有13面紗用於各地區的廟,兩個新的正每年。

[d Yoma 54 a Kethub. [ d山脈54 Kethub 。 106 a; Sheqal. 106 1 ; Sheqal 。 viii.八。 5.] The Veils before the Most Holy Place were 40 cubits (60 feet) long, and 20 (30 feet) wide, of the thickness of the palm of the hand, and wrought in 72 squares, which were joined together; and these Veils were so heavy, that, in the exaggerated language of the time, it needed 3000 priests to manipulate each. 5 。 ]的面紗之前,至聖所分別為40肘( 60英尺)長, 20 ( 30英尺)寬,厚度的手掌,並造成72平方,這是結合在一起;和這些面紗是如此沉重,認為,在誇張的語言的時候,它需要3000神職人員每個操縱。 If the Veil was at all such as is described in the Talmud, it could not have been rent in twain by a mere earthquake or the fall of the lintel, although its composition in squares fastened together might explain, how the rent might be as described in the Gospel.如果面紗在所有如中所描述的猶太法典,但它不能一直在吐溫的租金由地震或僅僅是秋季的門楣,但其組成的廣場拴在一起或許可以解釋,如何租金可能會說明在福音。

Indeed, everything seems to indicate that, although the earthquake might furnish the physical basis, the rent of the Temple-Veil was, with reverence be it said, really made by the Hand of God.事實上,一切似乎表明,儘管地震可能提供的物質基礎,租金寺的面紗是,與崇敬是它說,真正的上帝之手。 As we compute, it may just have been the time when, at the Evening-Sacrifice, the officiating Priesthood entered the Holy Place, either to burn the incense or to do other sacred service there.正如我們的計算,它可能只有一直的時候,在晚上的犧牲,主鐸職聖召進入聖地,無論是燃燒的香或其他有神聖的服務。 To see before them, not as the aged Zacharias at the beginning of this history the Angel Gabriel, but the Veil of the Holy Place rent from top to bottom, that beyond it they could scarcely have seen, and hanging in two parts from its fastenings above and at the side, was, indeed, a terrible portent, which would soon become generally known, and must, in some form or other, have been preserved in tradition.看到面前,而不是作為老年撒迦利亞在本月初的歷史天使加布里埃爾,但面紗的聖地租金自上而下,即超越他們幾乎已經看到,並掛在兩個部分從緊固件上述在一邊,的確是一個可怕的徵兆,這將很快成為一般人都知道,而且必須以某種形式或其他已被保存在傳統。

And they all must have understood, that it meant that God's Own Hand had rent the Veil, and for ever deserted and thrown open that Most Holy Place where He had so long dwelt in the mysterious gloom, only lit up once a year by the glow of the censer of him, who made atonement for the sins of the people.他們都必須明白,這意味著上帝的手已出租的面紗,和以往任何時候都遺棄和打開的至聖地方他只要在談到神秘的黑暗中,只有點燃了每年一次的輝光在香爐的他,誰取得贖罪的罪過的人。 [1 May this phenomenon account for the early conversion of so many priests recorded in Acts vi. [ 5月1日到這一現象的早期轉換如此眾多的牧師行為記錄在六。 7?] 7 ? ]

Other tokens were not wanting.其它的令牌沒有希望。 In the earthquake the rocks were rent, and their tombs opened.在地震中被石頭租金,他們的墓打開。 This, as Christ descended into Hades.這一點,因為基督的後裔到閻王。 And when He ascended on the third day, it was with victorious saints who had left those open graves.當他登上第三天,有人與勝利聖人誰離開這些開放的墳墓。 To many in the Holy City on that ever-memorable first day, and in the week that followed, appeared the bodies of many of those saints who had fallen on sleep in the sweet hope of that which had now become reality.許多在聖城上不斷難忘的第一天,並在一周之後,出現了機構的許多聖人誰已經下降對睡眠中的甜希望那些現在已經成為現實。 [2 I dare express myself dogmatically on the precise import of St. Matt. [ 2我不敢表達自己教條的確切進口聖馬特。 xxvii.二十七。 52, 53. 52 , 53 。 Does it mean that they were actually clothed with the Resurrection-body, or with the body which they had formerly borne, or that many saints from out Hades appeared to those who loved them, and with them had waited for the Kingdom, in the forms which they had known?這是否意味著他們實際上是衣服的復活體,或與這些機構原來承擔,或由許多聖人了閻王似乎那些誰愛他們,並與他們等待的英國,在形式他們已經知道? We know too little of the connection between the other world and this, and the mode in which the departed may communicate with those here, to venture on any decided statement, especially as we take into account the unique circumstances of the occasion.]我們知道得太少之間的關係的其他世界和本,並在該模式的離去可能會與那些在這裡,以合資企業的任何決定的聲明,特別是當我們考慮到的特殊情況之際。 ]

But on those who stood under the Cross, and near it, did all that was witnessed make the deepest and most lasting impression.但是,這些誰站在十字架下,和它附近,但所有這些見證使最深切和最持久的印象。 Among them we specially mark the Centurion under whose command the soldiers had been.其中,我們特別紀念百夫長其指揮下的士兵已。 Many a scene of horror must he have witnessed in those sad times of the Crucifixion, but none like this.很多現場的恐怖必須看到他在那些悲傷的時間,十字架,但沒有這樣。 Only one conclusion could force itself on his mind.只有一個結論,可能會迫使自己的主意。 It was that which, we cannot doubt, had made its impression on his heart and conscience.有人認為,我們不能毫無疑問,作出了的印象他的心和良知。 Jesus was not what the Jews, His infuriated enemies, had described Him.耶穌不是猶太人,他激怒了敵人,描述了他。 He was what He professed to be, what His bearing on the Cross and His Death attested Him to be: 'righteous,' and hence, 'the Son of God.'他是什麼,他聲稱要什麼他要在十字架上和他的死證明他是: '正義' ,因此, '上帝的兒子。 From this there was only a step to personal allegiance to Him, and, as previously suggested, we may possibly owe to him some of those details which St. Luke alone has preserved.從這個世界上只有一個步驟,以個人向他效忠,並曾建議,我們可能歸功於他的一些細節聖盧克僅保留。

The brief spring-day was verging towards the 'evening of the Sabbath.'在簡短的春季一天接近於實現'晚上的安息日。 In general, the Law ordered that the body of a criminal should not be left hanging unburied over night.一般來說,法律命令,該機構的犯罪不應該掛埋葬過夜。 [a Deut. [一個Deut 。 xxi. 21 。 23; comp. 23 ;補償。 Jos. Wariv.聖何塞Wariv 。 5, 2] Perhaps in ordinary circumstances the Jews might not have appealed so confidently to Pilate as actually to ask [3 'ask,' St. John xix. 5 , 2 ]或許在一般情況下的猶太人可能不會如此自信地呼籲,以實際彼拉多問[ 3 '問: '聖約翰19 。 31.] him to shorten the sufferings of those on the Cross, since the punishment of crucifixion often lasted not only for hours but days, ere death ensued. 31 。 ]他以縮短痛苦的十字架上,因為懲罰十字架往往不僅持續了幾個小時,但天,元件死亡接踵而至。 But here was a special occasion.但這裡是一個特殊的時刻。 The Sabbath about to open was a 'high-day', it was both a Sabbath and the second Paschal Day, which was regarded as in every respect equally sacred with the first, nay, more so, since the so-called Wavesheaf was then offered to the Lord.安息日即將開放是一個'高天' ,這既是一個安息日和第二復活節日,被視為在各方面都同樣神聖的第一次,不,更如此,因為所謂的Wavesheaf當時提供給主。

And what the Jews now proposed to Pilate was, indeed, a shortening, but not in any sense a mitigation, of the punishment.和猶太人現在提議將彼拉多的確是縮短,但不是在任何意義上緩解,處罰的力度。 Sometimes there was added to the punishment of crucifixion that of breaking the bones (crucifragium) by means of a club or hammer.有時又增加懲罰十字架是打破骨頭( crucifragium )通過俱樂部或錘。 This would not itself bring death, but the breaking of the bones was always followed by a coup de grace, by sword, lance, or stroke (the perforatio or percussio sub alas), which immediately put an end to what remained of life.這本身不會帶來死亡,但打破的骨頭總是其次是政變的寬限期,以劍,槍,或中風(或的perforatio唉percussio分) ,這立即停止還有什麼生活。 [1 Comp. [ 1比較。 Friedlieb, Archaeol. Friedlieb , Archaeol 。 d. Leidensgesch. d. Leidensgesch 。 pp.163-168; but especially Nebe, us ii. pp.163 - 168 ; ,特別是Nebe ,我們二。 pp. 394, 395.] Thus the 'breaking of the bones' was a sort of increase of punishment, by way of compensation for its shortening by the final stroke that followed.頁。 394 , 395 。 ]因此, '斷骨頭'是一種增加了處罰,以補償其縮短了最後中風之後。

It were unjust to suppose, that in their anxiety to fulfil the letter of the Law as to burial on the eve of that high Sabbath, the Jews had sought to intensify the sufferings of Jesus.這是不公正的假設,在他們的焦慮履行的信法,以埋葬的前夕,高安息日,猶太人曾試圖加強苦難耶穌基督。 The text gives no indication of this; and they could not have asked for the final stroke to be inflicted without the 'breaking of the bones,' which always preceded it.案文並沒有表明了這一點,他們不能要求的最後中風是美國的'斷骨頭,它總是在這之前。 The irony of this punctilious care for the letter of the Law about burial and high Sabbath by those who had betrayed and crucified their Messiah on the first Passover-day is sufficiently great, and, let us add, terrible, without importing fictitious elements.具有諷刺意味的這種拘泥形式的照顧的信法的喪葬費和高安息日的人誰背叛和釘在十字架上的救世主逾越節的第一天是足夠的偉大,讓我們添加的,可怕的,沒有進口虛構的內容。 St. John, who, perhaps, immediately on the death of Christ, left the Cross, alone reports circumstance.聖約翰誰,也許就立即死亡的基督,離開了交叉,僅報告的情況。

Perhaps it was when he concerted with Joseph of Arimathaea, with Nicodemus, or the two Marys, measures for the burning of Christ, that he learned of the Jewish deputation to Pilate, followed it to Praetorium, and then watched how it was all carried out on Golgotha.也許是當他與約瑟夫協調一致的Arimathaea ,與尼科迪默斯,或兩個瑪麗,措施燃燒基督,他的經驗教訓的猶太人派遣到彼拉多,其次它Praetorium ,然後看著它如何都進行了關於墓地。 He records, how Pilate acceded to the Jewish demand, and gave directions for the crucifragium, and permission for the after-removal of the dead bodies, which otherwise might have been left to hang, till putrescence or birds of prey had destroyed them.他的記錄,如何彼拉多加入猶太人的需求,給方向crucifragium ,並允許後取消屍體,否則可能會被掛起,直到腐爛或猛禽摧毀了他們。 But St. John also tells us what he evidently regards as so great a prodigy that he specially vouches for it, pledging his own veracity, as an eyewitness, and grounding on it an appeal to the faith of those to whom his Gospel is addressed.但聖約翰還告訴我們,他顯然認為如此巨大的天才,他專門為它vouches ,保證自己的真實性,作為一名目擊者,並接地它呼籲信仰的那些人是他的福音處理。

It is, that certain 'things came to pass [not as in our AV, 'were done'] that the Scripture should be fulfilled,' or, to put it otherwise, by which the Scripture was fulfilled.這是某些'事情來傳遞[不是在我們的視聽, '做' ]認為聖經應得到履行,或者把它否則,其中聖經是履行。 These things were two, to which a third phenomenon, not less remarkable, must be added.這些東西有兩個,其中三分之一的現象,而不是更少顯著的,必須補充。 For, first, when, in the crucifragium, the soldiers had broken the bones of two malefactors, and then came to the Cross of Jesus, they found that He was dead already, and so 'a bone of Him' was 'not broken.'因為,第一,當時在crucifragium ,士兵們已經打破了骨頭,兩個263 ,然後來到十字耶穌,他們發現,他已經死了,所以'骨的他'是'沒有打破。 ' Had it been otherwise, the Scripture concerning the Paschal Lamb, [a Ex.如果不是,否則,聖經關於逾越節羔羊, [一個惠。 xii.十二。 46; Numb. 46 ;麻木了。 ix.九。 12] as well that concerning the Righteous Suffering Servant of Jehovah, [b Ps. 12 ]以及,關於正義的苦難僕人耶和華,並[ b物質。 xxxiv.三十四。 20] would have been broken. 20 ]將被打破。 In Christ alone these two ideas of the Paschal Lamb and the Righteous Suffering Servant of Jehovah are combined into a unity and fulfilled in their highest meaning.僅在基督這兩個思想的逾越節羔羊和正義的苦難僕人耶和華是合併為一個統一和實現其最高的意義。 And when, by a strange concurrence of circumstances, it 'came to pass' that, contrary to what might have been expected, 'a bone of Him' was 'not broken' this outward fact served as the finger to point to the predictions which were fulfilled of Him.時,被一陌生同意的情況下, '來傳遞'說,相反,可能已經預期,骨的他'是'沒有打破'這一事實外向擔任手指指向其中的預測得到滿足他。

Not less remarkable is the second fact.不少於顯著的是第二個事實。 If, on the Cross of Christ, these two fundamental ideas in the prophetic description of the work of the Messiah had been set forth: the fulfilment of the Paschal Sacrifice, which, as that of the Covenant, underlay all sacrifices, and the fulfilment of the ideal of the Righteous Servant of God, suffering in a world that hated God, and yet proclaimed and realising His Kingdom, a third truth remained to be exhibited.如果在十字架上的耶穌,這兩個基本思想的預言描述的工作彌賽亞已規定:履行復活節祝福,因為這盟約,背後所有的犧牲,並履行理想的正義的僕人上帝,苦難的世界憎恨上帝,尚未宣布和實現他的英國,第三真相仍有待展出。 It was not in regard to the character, but the effects, of the Work of Christ, its reception, alike in the present and in the future.這不是方面的特點,但影響工作的基督,它的接待,都在現在和將來。 This had been indicated in the prophecies of Zechariah, [c Zech.這已表明在撒迦利亞的預言, [中撒加利亞。 xii.十二。 10] which foretold how, in the day of Israel's final deliverance and national conversion, God would pour out the spirit of grace and of supplication, and as 'they shall look on Him Whom they pierced,' the spirit of true repentance would be granted them, alike nationally and individually. 10 ]這預示如何,在當天對以色列的最終解脫和國家的轉換,上帝將傾的精神,寬限期和祈求,並作為'他們應看他穿他們, '的精神,真正的懺悔將獲得他們都在國家和個人。

The application of this to Christ is the more striking, that even the Talmud refers the prophecy to the Messiah.適用本基督更是驚人,即使是塔木德是指預言的彌賽亞。 [d Sukk. [ d Sukk 。 52 a] And as these two things really applied to Christ, alike in His rejection and in His future return, [e Rev. i. 52 ]和這兩個東西真的適用於基督,都在他的拒絕和他未來的回報, [英牧師島 7] so did the strange historical occurrence at His Crucifixion once more point to it as the fulfilment of Scripture prophecy. 7 ]也是如此奇怪的歷史上發生在十字架上再次指向它作為履行聖經的預言。 For, although the soldiers, on finding Jesus dead, broke not one of His Bones, yet, as it was necessary to make sure of His Death, one of them, with a lance, 'pierced His Side, with a wound so deep, that Thomas might afterwards have thrust his hand into His Side.因為,儘管士兵,找到耶穌死了,沒有一個突破,他的骨頭,但因為它是必要的,以確定他的死亡,其中一人,以長矛,刺穿他身邊,與傷口如此之深,托馬斯說有可能以後推力他的手到他身邊。 [f St. John xx.用[ f聖約翰二十。 27] 27 ]

And with these two, as fulfilling Holy Scripture, yet a third phenomenon was associated, symbolic of both.與這兩項,作為履行聖經,但第三個現象是相關的,象徵性的。 As the soldier pierced the side of the Dead Christ, 'forthwith came there out Blood and Water.'正如士兵穿一側的死基督,隨即來到了有血和水。 It has been thought by some, [1 So, with various modifications, which need not here be detailed, first, Dr. Gruner (Comment. Antiq. Med. de Jesu Christ Morte, Hal. 1805), who, however, regarded Jesus as not quite dead when the lance pierced the heart, and, of late, Dr.它已被認為一些, [ 1因此,在各種修改,不需要在這裡詳細說明,第一,博士格魯納( Comment. Antiq 。醫科大學。基督耶穌的死,哈爾。 1805年) ,誰然而,認為耶穌作為不太死亡時,長矛刺穿心臟,以及最近博士 Stroud (The Physical Cause of the Death of Christ, 1871), and many interpreters (see Nebe, us pp. 400, 401).] that there was physical cause for this, that Christ had literally died of a broken heart, and that, when the lance pierced first the lung filled with blood and then the pericardium filled with serous fluid, [2 But certainly not through a separation of the serum and the cruor, which is the mark of beginning putrefaction.] there flowed from the wound this double stream.斯特勞德(物理死因的基督, 1871年) ,和許多口譯(見Nebe ,我們頁。 400 , 401 ) 。 ]有身體的原因,這個基督的字面心碎而死,而且當長矛刺穿肺部首充滿血液,然後心包充滿漿液性液體, [ 2但可以肯定不是通過分離血清和凝血,這是標誌著開始腐爛。 ]有源自這個傷口雙流。 [3 The fullest and most satisfactory physical explanation is that given by the Rev. S. Haughton, MD, and reprinted in the Speaker's Commentary on 1 John, pp. [ 3最充分和最令人滿意的物理解釋是,由美國牧師霍頓,醫學博士,並重印議長評1約翰頁。 349, 350. 349 , 350 。

It demonstrates, that this phenomenon would take place, but only if a person who was also being crucified died of rupture of the heart.] In such cases, the lesson would be that reproach had literally broken His Heart.它表明,這一現象將發生,但只有一個人誰也正在釘在十字架上死亡破裂的心。 ]在這種情況下,教訓將是責備實際上打破了他的心。 [a Ps. [一種物質。 ixix. 20.] But we can scarcely believe that St. John could have wished to convey this without clearly setting it forth, thus assuming on the part of his readers knowledge of an obscure, and, it must be added, a scientifically doubtful phenomenon. Accordingly, we rather believe that to St. John, as to most of us, the significance of the fact lay in this, that out of the Body of One dead had flowed Blood and Water, that corruption had not fastened on Him. ixix 。 20 。 ]但我們可以相信,幾乎聖約翰可能希望轉達這一不明確設置等等,從而承擔的一部分,他的讀者了解一個不起眼的,而且,它必須說,以科學可疑現象。因此,我們認為,而對聖約翰斯,因為我們大多數人來說,意義其實在於,這個出一具死了流入血液和水,腐敗現象還沒有拴在他身上。 Then, there would be the symbolic meaning conveyed by the Water (from the pericardium) and the Blood (from the heart), a symbolism most true, if corruption had no power nor hold on Him, if in Death He was not dead, if He vanquished Death and Corruption, and in this respect also fulfilled the prophetic ideal of not seeing corruption.然後,將有象徵意義傳達的水(從心包)和血液(發自內心) ,一個最真實的象徵,如果腐敗現象沒有權力也沒有對他進行,如果死他沒有死,如果他征服死亡和腐敗,並在這方面也實現了理想的預言沒有看到腐敗現象。 [b Ps.並[ b物質。 xvi.十六。 10.] 10 。 ]

To this symbolic bearing of the flowing of Water and Blood from His pierced side, on which the Evangelist dwells in his Epistle, [c 1 John v. 6.] and to its external expression in the symbolism of the two Sacraments, we can only point the thoughtful Christian.這一象徵性的軸承流動的水和血從他穿的方面,該傳播者居住在他的書, [中約翰一書訴6 。 ]和它的外部表達的象徵意義的兩個聖禮,我們只能點周到的基督徒。 For, the two Sacraments mean that Christ had come; that over Him, Who was crucified for us and loved us unto death with His broken heart, Death and Corruption had no power; and that He liveth for us with the pardoning and cleansing power of His offered Sacrifice.對於這兩個聖禮意味著基督已經到來; ,超過他,誰是釘在十字架上為我們和我們愛你們死刑,他的破碎的心,死亡和腐敗並沒有權力; ,而且他對我們來說liveth的赦免和清洗權力他提供的犧牲。

Excerpts from Book 5, Chapter 15, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah圖書摘錄5日,第15章, 生活和時代的耶穌救世主
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886由阿爾弗雷德愛德生, 1886年


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者愛德生提到許多參考資料在他的作品。 As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list. All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.作為一個書目資源,我們創建了一個單獨的愛德生參考清單。所有提到他的括號內顯示頁碼的作品中引用。


Also, see:此外,見:
Cross 交叉
Crucifix 十字架
Words Inscribed on the Cross 接詞在十字架上
The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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