Nominalism唯名論

General Information 一般信息

Nominalism is the designation usually applied to any philosophical system, ancient or modern, that denies all objectivity, whether actual or potential, to universals; in other words, nominalists grant no universality to mental concepts outside the mind.唯名是指定通常適用於任何哲學體系,古代或現代,拒絕所有的客觀性,無論是實際的或潛在的,以共性,換句話說,沒有nominalists給予精神的普遍性概念之外的想法。 In this sense, the philosophical systems of Epicurus, William of Occam, George Berkeley, David Hume, John Stuart Mill, and of contemporary linguistic analysis may be called nominalistic in that they attribute universality only to words (nomina), mental habits, or concepts and maintain the objective existence only of the concrete, individual thing.在這個意義上,哲學體系的伊壁鳩魯,奧卡姆的威廉,喬治伯克利分校的大衛休謨,彌爾,以及當代語言分析可能是所謂的唯名論,因為它們的屬性只具有普遍性的話( nomina ) ,心理習慣,或概念並保持客觀存在不僅是具體的,個別的事情。 Nominalism is simultaneously opposed to the philosophical idealism of Plato and to the moderate realism of Aristotle and Saint Thomas Aquinas.唯名論,同時反對唯心主義哲學柏拉圖和溫和的現實主義的亞里士多德和聖托馬斯阿奎那。 The principal objection of nominalists is to the attribution of objective existence to ideas formally as they exist in the mind and fundamentally (or potentially) as they exist in particulars having some similarity to each other in any given class or species.主要的反對意見是nominalists的歸屬客觀存在的想法正式因為它們存在於思想和根本(或潛在)因為它們存在於細節有一些相似,彼此在任何特定的階級或物種。

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Bibliography 目錄
Carre, Meyrick H., Realists and Nominalists (1961); Field, Hartrey, Science without Numbers: Nominalism Revisited (1980); Goodman, Nelson, and Bochenski, Innocentius, eds., The Problem of Universals, A Symposium (1956); Van Iten, R., ed., The Problem of Universals (1970); Veatch, H., Realism and Nominalism Revisited (1954).卡爾閣下蛾,現實主義者和Nominalists ( 1961年) ;場, Hartrey ,科學沒有號碼:唯名論回顧( 1980年) ;古德曼,納爾遜,並Bochenski , Innocentius合編。 ,這個問題的共性,一個專題討論會( 1956年) ;凡Iten ,河,編輯。 ,這個問題的共性( 1970年) ;威奇,閣下,實在論和唯名論回顧( 1954年) 。


Nominalism唯名論

General Information 一般信息

Nominalism (Latin nominalis,"of or pertaining to names"), in medieval Scholastic philosophy, doctrine stating that abstractions, known as universals, are without essential or substantive reality, and that only individual objects have real existence.唯名(拉丁文nominalis “ ,或有關的名字” ) ,在中世紀的學術思想,理論指出,抽象的,稱為共性,是沒有必要的或實質性的現實,只有個別的對象有真正的存在。 These universals, such as animal, nation, beauty, circle, were held to be mere names, hence the term nominalism.這些共性,如動物,民族,美,圓圈,舉行了僅僅是名稱,因此,長期的唯名論。 For example, the name circle is applied to things that are round and is thus a general designation; but no concrete identity with a separate essence of roundness exists corresponding to the name. The nominalistic doctrine is opposed to the philosophical theory called extreme realism (see Realism), according to which universals have a real and independent existence prior to and apart from particular objects.例如,循環的名稱是適用於外的一輪,因此是一般的名稱; ,但沒有具體的身份與一個單獨的本質圓存在相應的名稱。 學說的唯名論反對哲學理論稱為極端現實主義 (見現實主義) ,其中共性有真正的和獨立的存在之前,除了特定的對象。

Nominalism evolved from the thesis of Aristotle that all reality consists of individual things; the extreme theory of realism was first enunciated by Plato in his doctrine of universal archetypal ideas.從唯名論的論文亞里士多德,所有的現實包括個人的事情;的極端現實主義理論的首次闡述了柏拉圖在他的理論的普遍典型的想法。 The nominalist-realist controversy became prominent in the late 11th and 12th centuries, the nominalist position being expounded by the Scholastic Roscelin, and the realist by the Scholastics Bernard of Chartres and William of Champeaux.在唯名論現實主義的爭議成為突出的後期第11和12世紀,唯名論的立場正在闡述Roscelin的學術和現實主義的Scholastics伯納德的沙特爾和威廉Champeaux 。

The issue between nominalism and realism was not only philosophical but also theological, for Roscelin maintained that the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), conceived in the traditional theology of the church as constituting a unity of one divine nature, cannot be understood, according to the individualizing method of nominalism, except as three distinct and separate gods, a doctrine known as tritheism. The church was therefore irreconcilably opposed to nominalism.之間的問題唯名論和現實主義不僅是哲學,而且神學,為Roscelin堅持認為,三一(父親,兒子,和聖靈) ,設想在傳統的神學教會構成一個統一的神聖性質,不能被理解根據個體化的方法唯名,除3個不同的和單獨的神,一種理論被稱為tritheism 。教堂因此irreconcilably反對唯名。 The implications for ethics were also far-reaching.影響道德也意義深遠。 If there is no common nature for all individuals, then there is no "natural law" that governs all people; actions are morally right or wrong only because they are commanded or forbidden by God.如果沒有共同的性質的所有個人,那麼就沒有“自然法”規範全體人民;行動是道義上是正確或錯誤的不僅是因為他們指揮或真主所不允許的。

A theory intermediate between nominalism and realism is that of conceptualism, in which universals, although they have no real or substantive existence in the external world, do exist as ideas or concepts in the mind and are thus something more than mere names.中間的理論與唯名論和現實主義是概念,其中共性,但他們沒有真正或實質性存在的外部世界,確實存在著的想法或概念的主意,因此,東西不僅僅是名字。 Another alternative theory is moderate realism, which locates universals in the mind but also admits a real basis in particular objects.另一種選擇理論是溫和的現實主義,其中位於共性的銘記,但也承認一個真正的基礎上特別的對象。 The defense of nominalism undertaken by the 14th-century English Scholastic philosopher William of Ockham prepared the way for various modern nominalistic theories such as those of instrumentalism, pragmatism, semantics, and logical positivism.國防部的唯名論所進行的14世紀英語學校哲學家奧卡姆的威廉準備的方式為各種現代唯名論的理論,如工具,務實,語義,和邏輯實證。


Nominalism唯名論

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Nominalism is the theory of knowledge that maintains that "universals" (general concepts representing the common elements belonging to individuals of the same genus or species) are empty concepts that have no reality independent of their existence in the thought of an individual.唯名論的理論知識,堅持“共性” (一般概念代表的共同要素屬於個人的同一屬或種)是空的概念,沒有獨立的現實存在的思想的個人。 In contrast to Platonic realism, which held that universals had a separate existence apart from the individual object, nominalism insisted that reality was found only in the objects themselves.相反,柏拉圖式的現實主義,認為普遍有一個單獨的存在除了個別對象,唯名論堅持認為,現實情況是只存在於物體本身。 This debate on universals, found in Porphyry's Isagogue, caused great controversy during the Middle Ages.本次辯論的共性,發現斑岩的Isagogue ,引起極大的爭議在中世紀。 Roscellinus of Compiegne, a teacher and priest in Brittany in the eleventh century, has been called the father of nominalism because he argued that universals are derived from one's observation of individuals and that concepts of genus and species are just abstractions. Roscellinus的Compiegne ,一名教師和布列塔尼牧師於11世紀,被稱為父親的唯名論,因為他認為,共性是來自一個人的觀察和個人的概念,屬和種只是抽象的。 This affected his theology, because it led him to the belief that "God" was no more than a word, an empty abstraction, and that the divine reality was actually found in the three individuals of the Godhead.這影響到他的神學,因為這使他相信, “上帝”只不過是一個詞,一個空洞的抽象,這神聖的現實實際上是發現了三個人的神體。 He was condemned by the Synod of Soissons (1092) for holding to tritheism.他譴責了主教的蘇瓦松( 1092 )舉行,以tritheism 。

In the fourteenth century William of Ockham devised a nominalistic system of theology based on his belief that universals were only a convenience of the human mind.在14世紀奧卡姆的威廉設計了一種唯名論的神學體系的基礎上,他相信共性只有方便了人類思維。 According to this view, the fact of a resemblance between two individuals does not necessitate a common attribute; the universals one forms in his mind more likely reflect one's own purposes rather than the character of reality.根據這一觀點,這一事實的相似之處這兩個人並不一定一個共同的屬性;的共性之一的形式他心裡更有可能反映了自己的目的,而不是性質的現實。 This led William to question scholastic arguments built upon such abstractions. As he argues in his Centilogium, systematization of theology must be rejected, for theology can ultimately be based only on faith and not on fact.這導致威廉問題學術論點的基礎,例如抽象。正如他說在他的Centilogium ,系統化的神學必須予以駁斥,對於能夠最終神學的基礎只能是信仰,而不是事實。 Therefore, through grace and not knowledge, he accepted the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, bowed to the authority of the pope, and declared the authority of Scripture.因此,通過寬限期,而不是知識,他接受教導的羅馬天主教會屈服於權威的教皇,並宣布權威的聖經。 His follower, Gabriel Biel, would carry his thought to its logical conclusion and declare that reason could neither demonstrate that God was the First Cause of the universe nor make a distinction between the attributes of God, including God's intellect and will.他的追隨者,加布里埃爾比爾,將進行他的思想的合乎邏輯的結論,並宣布為此既不能證明上帝是第一原因的宇宙,也不是區分屬性的神,包括上帝的智慧和意願。 The reality of the Trinity, as well as any theological dogma, can be found only in the realm of faith, not in the realm of reason.現實的三位一體,以及任何神學教條,可以發現只有在信仰的領域,而不是境界的原因。 This was diametrically opposed to the natural theology of medieval scholasticism.這是截然相反的自然神學的中世紀經院。

Nominalism continued to have an effect on theology.唯名論繼續產生影響神學。 Its influence can be discerned in the writings of David Hume and John Stuart Mill.其影響力可以分辨的著作大衛休謨和彌爾。

DA Rausch多巴胺Rausch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
DM Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism: Nominalism and Realism, I; FJ Copleston, History of Philosophy, III; RA Eberle, Nominalistic Systems; R. Seeberg, Text-book of the History of Doctrines, II.馬克阿姆斯特朗,共性和科學實在:唯名論與現實主義,我;福建Copleston ,哲學史,三;類風濕性關節炎埃貝勒,唯名論系統;河西貝爾格,文字書史的理論,二。


Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism唯名論,現實主義,概念

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the most important questions in philosophy, often referred to as the problem of universals, which, while it was a favourite subject for discussion in ancient times, and especially in the Middle Ages, is still prominent in modern and contemporary philosophy.這些條件是用來指定的理論已提出了解決的一個最重要的問題,在哲學,常常被稱為問題的共性,這雖然這是一個最喜歡討論的議題在古代,特別是在中世紀,仍然是突出的現代與當代哲學。 We propose to discuss in this article:我們建議,討論在這條:

I. The Nature of the Problem and the Suggested Solutions;一,問題的性質和對策;

II.二。 The Principal Historic Forms of Nominalism, Realism, and Conceptualism;歷史的主體形式的唯名論,現實主義和概念;

III.三。 The Claims of Moderate Realism.索賠適度現實。

I. THE PROBLEM AND THE SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS一,問題和建議的解決辦法

The problem of universals is the problem of the correspondence of our intellectual concepts to things existing outside our intellect.問題是共性問題的信件我們的概念,以現有的東西以外的智力。 Whereas external objects are determinate, individual, formally exclusive of all multiplicity, our concepts or mental representations offer us the realities independent of all particular determination; they are abstract and universal.鑑於外部對象的確定,個人,正式獨家所有多重,我們的概念或精神表述為我們提供獨立的現實特別是所有的決心,它們是抽象的和普遍的。 The question, therefore, is to discover to what extent the concepts of the mind correspond to the things they represent; how the flower we conceive represents the flower existing in nature; in a word, whether our ideas are faithful and have an objective reality.因此,問題是發現到什麼程度的概念相對應考慮到的東西他們代表;如何花我們想像的花代表現有的性質;一句話,我們的想法是否忠誠和有一個客觀的現實。

Four solutions of the problem have been offered.四解決這個問題已經提出。 It is necessary to describe them carefully, as writers do not always use the terms in the same sense.有必要說明他們仔細,因為作者並不總是利用職權在同樣的意義。

A. Exaggerated Realism字母a.誇大現實

Exaggerated Realism holds that there are universal concepts in the mind and universal things in nature.誇張的現實主義認為,有普遍概念中的思想和普遍東西的性質。 There is, therefore, a strict parallelism between the being in nature and the being in thought, since the external object is clothed with the same character of universality that we discover in the concept. This is a simple solution, but one that runs counter to the dictates of common sense.因此,嚴格的平行關係正在性質,而被認為,由於外部對象是穿著同一性質的普遍性,我們發現在這一概念。這是一個簡單的解決辦法,但這種違背要求的常識。

B. Nominalism灣唯名論

Exaggerated Realism invents a world of reality corresponding exactly to the attributes of the world of thought.誇張的寫實發明世界的現實完全對應的屬性世界的思想。 Nominalism, on the contrary, models the concept on the external object, which it holds to be individual and particular. Nominalism consequently denies the existence of abstract and universal concepts, and refuses to admit that the intellect has the power of engendering them.唯名論,相反,概念模型的外部對象,它擁有的個人和特別。唯名論,因此否認存在的抽象和普遍的概念,並拒絕承認,智慧的力量促成他們。 What are called general ideas are only names, mere verbal designations, serving as labels for a collection of things or a series of particular events.什麼是所謂的一般想法只有姓名,只是口頭指定,擔任標籤收集的東西或一系列特別活動。 Hence the term Nominalism.因此,長期唯名論。 Neither Exaggerated Realism nor Nominalism finds any difficulty in establishing a correspondence between the thing in thought and the thing existing in nature, since in different ways, they both postulate perfect harmony between the two.既不誇大,也不唯名論現實主義認為任何困難在建立對應關係的事情在思想和現有的東西的性質,因為在不同的方式,他們都假設完美和諧兩者之間的關係。 The real difficulty appears when we assign different attributes to the thing in nature and to the thing in thought; if we hold that the one is individual and the other universal.真正的困難出現時,我們指定不同的屬性的東西的性質和思想的東西,如果我們認為,一個是個人和其他具有普遍性。 An antinomy then arises between the world of reality and world as represented in the mind, and we are led to inquire how the general notion of flower conceived by the mind is applicable to the particular and determinate flowers of nature.然後一個悖論之間發生的世界和世界的現實所代表的頭腦,我們是領導,詢問如何一般概念的花卉所設想的心靈是適用於特定和確定花的性質。

C. Conceptualism角概念

Conceptualism admits the existence within us of abstract and universal concepts (whence its name), but it holds that we do not know whether or not the mental objects have any foundation outside our minds or whether in nature the individual objects possess distributively and each by itself the realities which we conceive as realized in each of them.概念承認,在我們存在的抽象和普遍的概念(何處它的名字) ,但它認為,我們不知道是否心理的物體有任何的基礎我們的頭腦以外,還是在個人性質的物體擁有分配,每個本身現實是我們設想的實現每個人。 The concepts have an ideal value; they have no real value, or at least we do not know whether they have a real value.的概念有一個理想的價值;他們沒有真正的價值,或者至少,我們不知道他們是否有真正的價值。

D. Moderate Realism D.溫和的現實主義

Moderate Realism, finally, declares that there are universal concepts representing faithfully realities that are not universal.溫和的現實主義,最後宣布,有普遍的概念,忠實地代表現實,不具有普遍性。

How can there be harmony between the former and the latter?怎麼會有和諧的前後者? The latter are particular, but we have the power of representing them to ourselves abstractly.後者是特別,但我們的力量,代表他們對自己抽象。 Now the abstract type, when the intellect considers it reflectively and contrasts it with the particular subjects in which it is realized or capable of being realized, is attributable indifferently to any and all of them.現在的抽象類型,當智慧認為,周詳和對比它與特定主題,其中實現或者能夠實現,原因是漠然的任何及所有的他們。 This applicability of the abstract type to the individuals is its universality.這適用於抽象型的個人是其普遍性。 (Mercier, "Critériologie", Louvain, 1906, p. 343). (梅西埃, “ Critériologie ” ,魯汶, 1906年,第343頁) 。

II.二。 THE PRINCIPAL HISTORICAL FORMS OF NOMINALISM, REALISM, AND CONCEPTUALISM歷史的主要形式的唯名論,現實主義和概念

A. In Greek Philosophy a.在希臘哲學

The conciliation of the one and the many, the changing and the permanent, was a favourite problem with the Greeks; it leads to the problem of universals.調解的一個和許多人來說,不斷變化的和永久的,是一個最喜歡的問題,希臘人;它導致問題的共性。 The typical affirmation of Exaggerated Realism, the most outspoken ever made, appears in Plato's philosophy; the real must possess the attributes of necessity, universality, unity, and immutability which are found in our intellectual representations.典型的肯定誇大現實,最直言不諱有史以來,出現在柏拉圖的哲學,真正的必須具備的屬性的必要性,普遍性,團結,這是不可改變發現我們的陳述。 And as the sensible world contains only the contingent, the particular, the unstable, it follows that the real exists outside and above the sensible world.作為合理的世界只包含特遣隊,特定的,不穩定的,因此,真正的存在和上述以外的合理的世界。 Plato calls it eîdos, idea.柏拉圖稱之為理念,想法。 The idea is absolutely stable and exists by itself (óntos ón; autá kath' autá), isolated from the phenomenal world, distinct from the Divine and human intellect. Following logically the directive principles of his Realism, Plato makes an idea entity correspond to each of our abstract representations.這個想法是絕對穩定和存在本身( óntos上; autá kath ' autá ) ,分離出驚人的世界,不同的神和人類的智慧。以下邏輯的指導原則,他的現實主義,柏拉圖提出一個想法實體對應於每一個我們的抽象的陳述。 Not only natural species (man, horse) but artificial products (bed), not only substances (man) but properties (white, just), relations (double, triple), and even negations and nothingness have a corresponding idea in the suprasensible world.不僅天然物種(人,馬) ,但人工製品(床) ,不僅是物質的(男子) ,但性能(白,公正) ,關係(雙,三) ,甚至否定和虛無有相應的想法在世界上suprasensible 。 "What makes one and one two, is a participation of the dyad (dúas), and what makes one one is a participation of monad (mónas)in unity" (Phædo, lxix). “是什麼讓一個和一個兩個,是一個參與的對子( dúas ) ,以及如何使一個是一個參與的單子(滴蟲)團結” (斐多篇, lxix ) 。 The exaggerated Realism of Plato, investing the real being with the attributes of the being in thought, is the principal doctrine of his metaphysics.現實主義的誇張柏拉圖,投資的真正正的屬性被認為是主要的理論,他的形而上學。

Aristotle broke away from these exaggerated views of his master and formulated the main doctrines of Moderate Realism.亞里士多德脫離這些誇大的意見和他的主人制定的主要理論適度現實。 The real is not, as Plato says, some vague entity of which the sensible world is only the shadow; it dwells in the midst of the sensible world.實際並非如柏拉圖指出,一些模糊的實體,其中合理的世界是唯一的陰影,它居住在各種艱難的合理的世界。 Individual substance (this man, that horse) alone has reality; it alone can exist.個別物質(此人,即馬)就有現實;它可以單獨存在。 The universal is not a thing in itself; it is immanent in individuals and is multiplied in all the representatives of a class. As to the form of universality of our concepts (man, just), it is a product of our subjective consideration.普遍不是一個事情本身,它是內在的個人和乘以在所有代表的一類。至於形式的普遍性,我們的概念(男子,公正) ,它是一個產品的主觀考慮。 The objects of our generic and specific representations can certainly be called substances (ousíai), when they designate the fundamental reality (man) with the accidental determinations (just, big); but these are deúterai ousíai (second substances), and by that Aristotle means precisely that this attribute of universality which affects the substance as in thought does not belong to the substance (thing in itself); it is the outcome of our subjective elaboration.對象的一般和具體的表述當然可以被稱為物質( ousíai ) ,當他們指定的基本現實(男子)與意外的決定(公正,大) ;但這些deúterai ousíai (第二物質) ,以及由該亞里士多德手段恰恰是這個屬性的普遍性影響實質的思想不屬於物質(事情本身) ;這是我們的成果的主觀闡述。 This theorem of Aristotle, which completes the metaphysics of Heraclitus (denial of permanent) by means of that of Parmenides (denial of change), is the antithesis of Platonism, and may be considered one of the finest pronouncements of Peripateticism.這一定理的亞里士多德,其中完成了形而上學的赫拉克利特(拒絕常任理事國)的方式是巴門尼德(拒絕改變) ,是對立面柏拉圖,並可能被認為是最優秀的聲明逍遙。 It was through this wise doctrine that the Stagyrite exercised his ascendency over all later thought.正是通過這一明智學說認為Stagyrite行使其優越的所有更新思想。

After Aristotle Greek philosophy formulated a third answer to the problem of universals, Conceptualism.在古希臘哲學亞里士多德制定第三個答案的問題共性,概念。 This solution appears in the teaching of the Stoics, which, as is known, ranks with Platonism and Aristoteleanism among the three original systems of the great philosophic age of the Greeks.該解決方案中出現的教學Stoics ,因為眾所周知,隊伍與柏拉圖和Aristoteleanism的三個原始系統的偉大的哲學時代的希臘人。 Sensation is the principle of all knowledge, and thought is only a collective sensation.感覺的原則是所有的知識,並認為只有一個集體的感覺。 Zeno compared sensation to an open hand with the fingers separated; experience or multiple sensation to the open hand with the fingers bent; the general concept born of experience to the closed fist.芝諾相比,感覺一個開放手的手指分開;經驗或多重感覺的開放與手指彎曲;的一般概念誕生的經驗,封閉拳頭。 Now, concepts, reduced to general sensations, have as their object, not the corporeal and external thing reached by the senses (túgchanon), but the lektóon or the reality conceived; whether this has any real value we do not know.現在,概念,減少一般的感覺,作為其對象,而不是有形的和外部的事情達成的感官( túgchanon ) ,但lektóon或現實的設想,這是否有任何真正的價值,我們不知道。 The Aristotelean School adopted Aristotelean Realism, but the neo-Platonists subscribed to the Platonic theory of ideas which they transformed into an emanationistic and monistic concepton of the universe.學校的Aristotelean通過Aristotelean現實,但新Platonists訂閱了柏拉圖的思想理論,他們變成了emanationistic和一元concepton的宇宙。

B. In the Philosophy of the Middle Ages B.在哲學中世紀

For a long time it was thought that the problem of universals monopolized the attention of the philosophers of the Middle Ages, and that the dispute of the Nominalists and Realists absorbed all their energies.長期以來人們認為問題的共性壟斷注意的哲學家中世紀,以及爭端的現實主義者Nominalists和吸收所有的能量。 In reality that question, although prominent in the Middle Ages, was far from being the only one dealt with by these philosophers.在現實中的問題,儘管著名的中世紀,遠沒有得到的只有一個處理這些哲學家。

(1) From the commencement of the Middle Ages till the end of the 12th century.--It is impossible to classify the philosophers of the beginning of the Middle Ages exactly as Nominalists, Moderate and Exaggerated Realists, or Conceptualists. ( 1 )從開始到中世紀結束的12世紀.--這是不可能的分類哲學家開始的中世紀完全一樣Nominalists ,中度和誇大現實主義者,或Conceptualists 。 And the reason is that the problem of the Universals is very complex.原因是這個問題的共性是非常複雜的。 It not merely involves the metaphysics of the individual and of the universal, but also raises important questions in ideology--questions about the genesis and validity of knowledge.它不僅涉及到形而上學的個人和普遍,而且還提出一個重要的問題,在思想-問題的成因和有效性的知識。 But the earlier Scholastics, unskilled in such delicate matters, did not perceive these various aspects of the problem.但是早期的Scholastics ,非熟練工人在這種微妙的問題,並沒有認為這些問題的各個方面。 It did not grow up spontaneously in the Middle Ages; it was bequeathed in a text of porphyry's "Isagoge", a text that seemed simple and innocent, though somewhat obscure, but one which force of circumstances made the necessary starting-point of the earliest medieval speculations about the Universals.它沒有長大自發在中世紀,它留下的文字斑岩的“ Isagoge ”的文字,似乎簡單,無辜的,儘管有些模糊,但這種力量的情況下作出必要的起點最早的中世紀猜測的共性。

Porphyry divides the problem into three parts:斑岩劃分的問題分為三個部分:

Do genera and species exist in nature, or do they consist in mere products of the intellect?不要屬和種存在的性質,還是僅僅包括在產品的智慧?

If they are things apart from the mind, are they coporeal or incorporeal things?如果他們的東西除了一點,他們coporeal的或無形的東西?

Do they exist outside the (individual) things of sense, or are they realized in the latter?他們是否存在內外(個人)的事情的意義,或者他們意識到在後者?

"Mox de generibus et speciebus illud quidem sive subsistant sive in nudis intelluctibus posita sint, sive subsistentia corporalia sint an incorporalia, et utrum separata a senaibilibus an in sensibilibus posita er circa haec subsistentia, decere recusabo." “混合氧化物燃料的generibus等speciebus諭quidem性subsistant性的nudis intelluctibus posita聖,性subsistentia corporalia聖一個incorporalia等utrum粘蟲1 senaibilibus一個sensibilibus posita呃大約haec subsistentia , decere recusabo 。 ” Historically, the first of those questions was discussed prior to the others: the latter could have arisen only in the event of denying an exclusively subjective character to universal realities.從歷史上看,首先這些問題進行了討論之前,其他:後者可能只出現在發生拒絕完全主觀性質的普遍現實。 Now the first question was whether genera and species are objective realities or not: sive subsistant, sive in nudis intellectibus posita sint?現在,第一個問題是,是否屬和種是客觀現實或不: subsistant性,性在nudis intellectibus posita聖? In other words, the sole point in debate was the absolute reality of the universals: their truth, their relation to the understanding, was not in question.換句話說,唯一的爭論點是絕對現實的共性:他們的真理,它們之間的關係的理解,是不是問題。 The text from Porphyry, apart from the solution he elsewhere proposed in works unknown to the early Scholastics, is an inadequate statement of the question; for it takes account only of the objective aspect and neglects the psychological standpoint which alone can give the key to the true solution.文字斑岩,除了他的解決方案中提出的其他作品未知早日Scholastics ,是一個不足聲明的問題,因為它不僅考慮到客觀方面,忽視了心理的角度只有這樣才能給予的關鍵真正的解決辦法。 Moreover, Porphyry, after proposing his triple interrogation in the "Isagoge", refuses to offer an answer (dicere recusabo).此外,斑岩型,在提出三聯審訊他的“ Isagoge ” ,拒不提供了一個答案( dicere recusabo ) 。 Boëthius, in his two commentaries, gives replies that are vague and scarecely consistent. Boëthius ,在他的兩個評注,使答复是含糊不清, scarecely一致。 In the second comentary, which is the more important one, he holds that genera and species are both subsistentia and intellecta (1st question), the similarity of things being the basis (subjectum) both of their individuality in nature and their universality in the mind: that genera and species are incorporeal not by nature but by abstraction (2nd question), and that they exist both inside and outside the things of sense (3rd question).在第二comentary ,這是更重要的是,他認為,屬和種都subsistentia和intellecta ( 1問題) ,相似的東西的基礎上( subjectum )雙方各自的個性的性質和其普遍性中銘記:即屬和種是無形的而不是性質,而是由抽象( 2問題) ,他們都存在著內部和外部的事情的意義(第3次問題) 。

This was not sufficiently clear for beginners, though we can see in it the basis of the Aristotlean solution of the problem.這是不夠明確的初學者,但我們可以看到在它的基礎Aristotlean問題的解決。 The early Scholastics faced the problem as proposed by Porphyry: limiting the controversy to genera and species, and its solutions to the altenatives suggested by the first question: Do objects of concepts (ie, genera and species) exist in nature (subsistentia), or are they mere abstractions (nuda intelecta)?早期Scholastics面臨的問題提出的斑岩型:限制爭議屬和種,其解決辦法altenatives提出的第一個問題:不要物體的概念(即,屬和種)存在的性質( subsistentia ) ,或他們只是抽象(蘑intelecta ) ? Are they, or are they not, things? Those who replied in the affirmative got the name of Reals or Realists; the others that of Nominals or Nominalists.他們,或者他們沒有的東西?這些誰作了肯定的回答得到的名稱或現實主義者雷亞爾;其他的Nominals或Nominalists 。 The former or the Realist, more numerous in the early Middle Ages (Fredugisus, Rémy d'Auxerre, and John Scotus Eriugena in the ninth century, Gerbert and Odo of Tournai in the Tenth, and William of Chapeaux in the twelfth) attribute to each species a universal essence (subsistentia), to which all the subordinate individuals are tributary. The Nominalists, who should be called rather the anti-Realists, assert on the contrary that the individual alone exists, and that the universals are not things realized in the universal state in nature, or subsistentia.前者或寫實,多在中世紀早期( Fredugisus ,雷米德歐塞爾,約翰司各脫Eriugena在第九世紀,熱爾貝特和Odo的圖爾奈在第十,和威廉的開頭語中的第十二屆)每個屬性物種的普遍本質( subsistentia ) ,這是所有的下屬個人的支流。 Nominalists的,誰應要求而反現實主義者,主張與此相反,個人單獨存在的,而且共性的東西沒有實現的普遍的國家性質,或subsistentia 。 And as they adopt the alternative of Porphyry, they conclude that the universals are nuda intellecta (that is, purely intellectual representations).當他們通過替代的斑岩型,他們得出結論認為,共性是蘑intellecta (即純粹的智力交涉) 。

It may be that Roscelin of Compiègne did not go beyond these energetic protest against Realism, and that he is not a Nominalist in the exact sense we have attributed to the word above, for we have to depend on others for an expression of his views, as there is extant no text of his which would justify us in saying that he denied the intellect the power of forming general concepts, distinct in their nature from sensation.這也許是因為Roscelin的Compiègne沒有超越這些精力充沛的抗議現實,而且他不是一個唯名論的確切意義上說,我們都歸咎於字以上,因為我們不得不依靠他人表達了自己的看法,因為有現存的沒有文字,他將證明我們的話說,他否認了智慧的力量,形成整體的理念,在其不同性質的感覺。 Indeed, it is difficult to comprehend how Nominalism could exist at all in the Middle Ages, as it is possible only in a sensist philosophy that denies all natural distinction between sensation and the intellectual concept.事實上,這是很難理解,為什麼唯名論可能存在於所有在中世紀,因為它可能只在sensist哲學,否認所有自然之間的區別感覺和智力的概念。 Futhermore there is little evidence of Sensism in the Middle Ages, and, as Sensism and Scholasticism, so also Nominalism and Scholasticism are mutually exclusive.此外,沒有什麼證據表明Sensism在中世紀,作為Sensism和士林,所以也唯名論和士林是並行不悖的。 The different anti-Realist system anterior to the thirteenth century are in fact only more or less imperfect forms of the Moderate Realism towards which efforts of the first period were tending, phases through which the same idea passed in its organic evolution.不同的反現實主義制度前的13世紀,其實只是或多或少不完善形式的現實主義走向適度的努力,第一期趨向,通過該階段同樣的想法通過其有機的演變。 These stages are numerous, and several have been studied in recent monograph (eg the doctrine of Adélard of Bath, of Gauthier de Mortagne, Indifferentism, and the theory of the collectio).這些階段是眾多的,和幾個已經在最近的研究專著(如理論阿德拉德的浴,對戈捷德莫爾塔涅, Indifferentism ,以及理論的collectio ) 。 The decisive stage is marked by Abélard, (1079-1142), who points out clearly the role abstraction, and how we represent to ourselves elements common to different things, capable of realization in an indefinite number of individuals of the same species, while the individual alone exists.在決定性階段的特點是亞伯拉德, ( 1079年至1142年) ,誰明確指出抽象的作用,以及我們如何代表自己的共同點,以不同的事情,能夠實現無限期一些個人的同一物種,而個人單獨存在。 From that to Moderate Realism there is but a step; it was sufficient to show that a real fundamentum allows us to attribute the general represention to individual thing. It is impossibe to say who was the first in the twelfth century to develop the theory in its entirety.從這一點,中度現實存在的一個步驟,但它足以表明,一個真正的fundamentum使我們的一般屬性represention個人的事情。 impossibe這是說誰是第一個在12世紀發展的理論在其全部內容。 Moderate Realism appears fully in the writing of John of Salisbury.溫和的現實主義似乎完全在書面索爾茲伯里的約翰。

C. From the thirteenth Century C.從13世紀

In the thirteenth century all the great Scholastics solved the problem of the universals by the theory of Moderate Realism (Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, Duns Scotus), and are thus in accord with Averroes and Avicenna, the great Arab commentators of Aristotle, whose works hasd recently passed into circulation by means of tranlations.在13世紀所有的偉大Scholastics解決了這個問題的普遍性的理論適度現實(托馬斯阿奎那,博納旺,鄧司各脫) ,因此符合阿威羅伊和阿維森納,偉大的阿拉伯評論家的亞里士多德,其作品hasd最近通過進入流通的方式tranlations 。 St. Thomas formulates the doctrine of Moderate Realism in precise language, and for that reason alone we can give the name of Thomistic Realism to this doctrine (see below).聖托馬斯制定的理論,現實中準確的語言,因此,單靠我們可以給的名稱Thomistic現實主義這一學說(見下文) 。 With William of Occam and the Terminist School appear the strictly conceptualist solution of the problem.隨著奧卡姆的威廉和Terminist學校出現了嚴格的概念論問題的解決。 The abstract and universal concept is a sign (signum), also called a term (terminus; hence the name Terminism given to the system), but it has no real value, for the absract and the universl do not exist in any way in nature and have no fundamentum outside the mind.抽象的和普遍的概念是一個符號( signum ) ,也稱為中期(總站;因而得名Terminism考慮到系統) ,但並沒有真正的價值,為摘要和universl不存在任何方式的性質沒有任何fundamentum以外的想法。 The universal concept (intentio secunda) has as it object internal representations, formed by the understanding, to which nothing external corresponding can be attributed.普遍概念(意向塞康達)的對象,因為它內部的陳述,形成了理解,而沒有相應的外部可以歸因。 The role of the universals is to serve as a label, to hold the place (supponere) in the mind of multitude of things which it can be attributed.的作用,共性是充當一個標籤,舉行的地點( supponere )在頭腦中千頭萬緒它可以歸因。 Occam's Conceptualism would be frankly subjectivistic, if, together with the abstract concepts which reach the individual thing, as it exists in nature.奧卡姆的概念將是坦率subjectivistic ,如果再加上抽象的概念,達到個人的事情,因為它存在的性質。

D. In Modern and Contemporary Philosophy d.在現代和當代哲學

We find an unequivocal affirmation of Nominalism in Positivism.我們找到一個明確的肯定,唯名論的實證。 For Hume, Stuart Mill, Spencer, and Taine there is strictly speaking no universal concept.對於休謨,密爾,斯賓塞,並泰納有嚴格地說沒有普遍的概念。 The notion, to which we lend universality, is only a collection of individual perceptions, a collective sensation, "un nom compris" (Taine), "a term in habitual association with many other particular ideas" (Hume), "un savoir potentiel emmagasiné" (Ribot).的概念,我們提供的普遍性,僅僅是收集的個人看法,一個集體的感覺, “聯合國化名compris ” (丹納) , “一個長期的習慣與其他許多特別的想法” (休謨) , “聯合國知識潛能emmagasiné “ (裡) 。 The problem of the correspondence of the concept to reality is thus at once solved, or rather it is suppressed and replaced by the psycological question: What is the origin of the illusion that induces us to attribute a distinct nature to the general concept, though the latter is only an elaborated sensation?這個問題的信件的構想到現實,因此一下子解決,或者更確切地說它是壓制和取代的心理問題:什麼是原產地的幻覺,引誘我們的屬性不同性質的一般概念,但後者僅是一個詳細的感覺? Kant distinctly affirms the existence within us of abstract and general notions and the distinction between them and sensations, but these doctrines are joined with a characteristic Phonmenalism which constitutes the most original form of modern Conceptualism.康德明顯申明在我們存在的抽象和一般的概念和兩者之間的區別和感覺,但這些理論是同一個特點Phonmenalism它構成了最原始形式的現代概念。 Universal and necessary representations have no contact with external things, sinct they are produced exclusively by the structual functions (a priori forms) of our mind. Time and space, in which we frame all sensible impressions,cannot be obtained from expierence, which is individual and contigent; they are schemata which arise from our mental organization.通用和必要的交涉沒有與外部聯繫的東西, sinct他們的生產完全由結構性職能(先驗形式)我們的想法。時間和空間,我們的所有合理的範圍內展示,無法得到expierence ,這是個人和contigent ;它們所產生的圖式從我們的精神組織。 Consequently, we have no warrant for establishing a real correspondence between the world of reality.因此,我們也沒有令為建立一個真正的對應關係世界的現實。 Science, which is only an elaboration of the data of sense in accordance with other structural determinations of the mind (the categories), becomes a subjective poem, which has value only for us and not for a world outside us.科學,這僅是一個制定數據的意義按照確定的其他結構的思想(類) ,成為一種主觀的詩,它的價值不僅為我們而不是我們的外部世界。 A modern form of Platonic or Exaggerated Realism is found in the ontologist doctrine defended by certain Catholic philosophers in the middle of the nineteenth century, and which consist in identifying the objects of universal ideas with the Divine ideas or the archetypes on which the world was fashioned.一種現代形式的柏拉圖式的或誇大的現實,發現了ontologist在辯護理論的某些天主教哲學家在十九世紀中葉,其中包括在確定物體的普遍想法與神的想法或原型就在世界老式。 As to Moderate Realism, it remains the doctrine of all those who have returned to Aristotleanism or adopted the neo-Scholastic philosophy.至於普通的現實主義,它仍然是理論,所有這些誰已經返回Aristotleanism或通過了新士林哲學。

III.三。 THE CLAIMS OF MODERATE REALISM索賠的溫和現實主義

This system reconciles the characteristics of external objects (particularity) with those of our intellectual representations (universality), and explains why science, though made up of abstract notions, is valid for the world of reality. To understand this it suffices to grasp the real meaning of abstraction.該系統兼顧的特點,外部對象(特殊性)與我們的交涉(普遍性) ,並解釋了為什麼科學,雖然取得了抽象的概念,有效期為世界的現實。要理解這一點,就足以把握實質含義抽象的概念。 When the mind apprehends the essence of a thing (quod quid est; tò tí en eînai), the external object is perceived without the particular notes which attach to it in nature (esse in singularibus), and it is not yet marked with the attribute of generality which reflection will bestow on it (esse in intellectu).當銘記apprehends的本質的東西(獄吏嚼1-5 ;德州儀器恩eînai ) ,外部對象被認為沒有特別注意到它重視它的性質(中存在singularibus ) ,這是沒有標明屬性一般性的反映將賦予它(存在於intellectu ) 。 The abstract reality is apprehended with perfect indifference as regards both the individual state without and the universal state within: abstrahit ab utroque esse, secundum quam considerationem considerattur natura lapidis vel cujus cumque alterius, quantum ad ea tantum quæ per se competunt illi naturæ (St Tomas, "Quodlibeta", Q. i, a. 1).抽象的現實與完美的逮捕冷漠關於個人狀態,而不和普遍的國家範圍: abstrahit從頭utroque存在,孔型華富considerationem considerattur自然lapidis威賽cujus cumque alterius ,量子廣告大海tantum quæ本身competunt伊利自然(聖托馬斯“ Quodlibeta ” ,問:我,字母a. 1 ) 。 Now, what is thus conceived in the absolute state (absolute considerando) is nothing else than the reality incarnate in any give individual: in truth, the reality, represented in my concept of man, is in Socrates or in Plato.現在,這樣的設想是在絕對狀態(絕對considerando )是沒有別的比現實體現在任何給個人:說實話,現實,我代表概念的人,是蘇格拉底或柏拉圖。 There is nothing in the abstract concept that is not applicable to every individual; if the abstract concept is inadequate, because it does not contain the singular notes of each being, it is none the less faithful, or at least its abstract character does not prevent it from corresponding faithfully to the objects existing in nature.沒有什麼抽象的概念,並不適用於每一個人,如果抽象的概念是不夠的,因為它不包含奇異注意到每一個被,這是任何不忠實,或者至少其抽象的性質並沒有阻止它忠實地從相應的對象現有的性質。 As to the universal form of the concept, a moment's consideration shows that it is subsequent to the abstraction and is the fruit of reflection: "ratio speciei accidit naturæ humanæ".至於普遍形式的概念,片刻的審議表明,這是以後的抽象,是果實的反思: “比speciei accidit自然humanæ ” 。 Whence it follows that the universality of the concept as such is the work purely of the intellect: "unde intellectus est qui facit universalitatem in rebus" (St. Thomas, "De ente et essentia," iv).何處有如下的普遍性的概念是這樣的工作純粹的智慧: “ unde intellectus東方歸仁facit universalitatem在情勢” (聖托馬斯, “德小腸和本質, ”四) 。

Concerning Nominalism, Conceptualism, and Exaggerated Realism, a few general considerations must suffice.關於唯名論,概念,現實主義和誇大,一些一般性的考慮必須就夠了。 Nominalism, which is irreconcilable with a spiritualistic philosophy and for that very reason with scholasticism as well, presupposes the ideological theory that the abstract concept does not differ essentially from sensation, of which it is only a transformation.唯名論,這是不可調和的spiritualistic哲學和出於這個原因與院以及,前提是思想理論的抽象的概念並沒有從本質上不同的感覺,它只是一種轉變。 The Nominalism of Hume, Stuart Mill, Spencer, Huxley, and Taine is of no greater value than their ideology.在唯名論休謨,密爾,斯賓塞,赫胥黎和丹納是沒有更大的價值比他們的思想。 The confound essentially distinct logical operations--the simple decomposition of sensible or empirical representations with abstraction properly so called and sensible analogy with the process of universalization.本質的混淆不同的邏輯運算-簡單分解的合理或經驗與抽象的陳述所謂正確和明智的類推的過程中普遍化。 The Aristotleans recognize both of these mental operations, but they distinguish carefully between them.該Aristotleans承認這兩種精神和行動,但他們仔細區分它們之間。 As to Kant, all the bounds that might connect the concept with the external world are destroyed in his Phenomenalism.至於康德,跨越所有可能的概念連接與外部世界被摧毀他的Phenomenalism 。 Kant is unable to explain why one and the same sensible impression starts or sets in operation now this, now that category; his a priori forms are unintelligible according to his own principles, since they are beyond experience.康德是無法解釋為什麼同一個明智的啟動或印象套在現在這個手術,現在這一類;他的先驗形式是不知所云根據他自己的原則,因為它們是超越經驗。 Moreover, he confuses real time and space, limited like the things they develop, with ideal or abstract time and space, which alone are general and without limit.此外,他還混淆真正的時間和空間,有限的一樣,他們開發的東西,理想或抽象的時間和空間,這僅僅是一般,沒有限制。 For in truth we do not create wholesale the object of our knowledge, but we beget it within us under the causal influence of the object that reveals itself to us. Ontologism, which is akin to Platonic Realism, arbitrarily identifies the ideal types in our intellect, which come to us from the sensible world by means of abstraction, with the ideal types consubstantial with the essence of God.在真理我們不能創造的批發對象的我們的知識,但我們才會有它在我們的因果影響的對象,揭示本身給我們。 Ontologism ,這是類似於柏拉圖式的現實主義,任意確定了理想的類型在我們的智慧,這是我們從理性世界的手段抽象的理想類型同質同上帝的本質。 Now, when we form our first abstract ideas we do not yet know God.現在,當我們形成我們的第一個抽象的概念我們還不知道上帝。 We are so ignorant of Him that we must employ these first ideas to prove a posteriori His existence.我們正在做他的無知,我們必須首先使用這些想法,事後證明他的存在。 Ontologism has lived its life, and our age so enamoured of observation and experiment will scarcely return to the dreams of Plato. Ontologism一直住其生命,而我們的年齡,使迷戀的觀察和實驗將幾乎回到柏拉圖的夢想。

Publication information Written by M. De Wulf.出版信息書面由M.德伍爾夫。 Transcribed by Drake Woodside, Atom M. Eckhardt, and Yaqoob Mohyuddin. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄的德雷克伍德賽德,原子Eckhardt先生和雅各布Mohyuddin 。天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat二月一日1911 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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Scholasticism 士林
Scholasticism 士林
Protestant Scholasticism 新教士林

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