Monotheism一神教

General Information 一般信息

Monotheism is the religious conception of a single and transcendent God. It contrasts particularly with Polytheism, belief in many gods, and Pantheism, belief in God as synonymous with the universe. 一神教的宗教概念,一個單一的和至高無上的上帝。反差特別是它同多神教,信仰在許多神,和泛神論,對上帝的信仰作為等同於宇宙。 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the principal monotheistic religions.猶太教,基督教和伊斯蘭教的主要一神教。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Bibliography 目錄
Albright, William F., From the Stone Age to Christianity: Monotheism and the Historical Process, 2d ed.奧爾布賴特,威廉F ,從石器時代到基督教:一神教的歷史進程中, 2版。 (1957); Niebuhr, H. Richard, Radical Monotheism and Western Culture (1960). ( 1957年) ;尼布爾,理查德閣下,根治一神教和西方文化( 1960年) 。


Monotheism一神教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

[[6]] Topics: Monotheism Monotheism is the belief that there is only one God. [ [ 6 ] ]話題:一神教一神教的信念,即只有一個上帝。 Related terms are polytheism (the belief that there are many gods), henotheism (belief in one supreme god, though not necessarily to the exclusion of belief in other lesser gods), monolatry (worship of only one god, though not necessarily denying that other gods exist), and atheism (denying or disbelieving in the existence of any gods at all).相關條款多神教(相信有許多神) , henotheism (信仰的最高神之一,但不一定要排斥其他信仰的神較小) , monolatry (禮拜只有一個神,雖然不一定不可否認,其他神的存在) ,和無神論(否認或1848中存在任何神在所有) 。

Atheism was not particularly attractive to the Israelite people in ancient times.無神論是不是特別有吸引力的以色列人人民自古以來。 They were convinced that only fools would be so spiritually ignorant as to deny the existence of a supreme being (Pss. 14:1; 53:1).他們深信,只有傻子會如此無知的精神,以否認存在一個最高的( Pss. 14點零一; 53:1 ) 。 For the people of God, the fear of the Lord was the beginning of wisdom and knowledge (Ps. 111:10; Prov. 1:7; 9:10).人民的上帝,害怕上帝是開始的智慧和知識(詩篇111:10 ;省。 1時〇七; 9:10 ) 。 But if the Israelites did not doubt that there was at least one God, the nations on their borders faced them with the tantalizing possibility that there might be more than one.但是,如果以色列人不懷疑至少有一位上帝,國家對它們的邊界面臨他們誘人的可能性,可能有一個以上。 Egypt, Phoenicia, Aram, Ammon, Moab, Edom, these and other nations were polytheistic, henotheistic, or monolatrous throughout their history in ancient times.埃及,腓尼基,亞蘭,阿蒙,摩押,以東,這些和其他國家都多神教, henotheistic ,或monolatrous在其整個歷史源遠流長。 One of the questions raised by the OT is whether Israel would remain monotheistic or be attracted by the religious options preferred by its pagan neighbors.其中一個問題所提出的催產素是以色列是否將繼續一神教或吸引的宗教偏好選擇其異教徒的鄰居。

Students of comparative religion have suggested that the religions of mankind evolved from lower stages to ever higher stages, the highest of all being monotheism.學生比較宗教人士建議,宗教對人類進化從較低階段向更高階段,最高的是一神論。 They have proposed that Israelite religion began as animism, the belief that every natural object is inhabited by a supernatural spirit.他們建議,以色列人的宗教開始萬物有靈論,認為每一個自然對象是居住的一個超自然的精神。 After animism, we are told, the idea developed in Israel that some spirits were more powerful than others and deserved to be called "gods."在萬物有靈,我們被告知,發達國家的想法在以色列,一些精神功能更強大的比別人的,值得被稱為“神” 。 Eventually the most powerful of all became preeminent above the others, and the people believed in his supreme authority and worshipped him alone.最終,最強大的都成了傑出的上述其他人,和人民相信在他的最高權威和崇拜他莫屬。 Finally, Israel became willing to admit that the lesser gods had no existence whatever.最後,以色列願意成為承認,小神已經不存在什麼。 Comparative religion, then, often teaches that Israel's religion underwent a process of evolution from animism to polytheism to henotheism to monotheism.比較宗教,然後,常常教導我們,以色列的宗教經歷了的演變過程,從萬物有靈,以多神教,以henotheism向一神教。

But it cannot be shown that polytheistic religions always gradually reduce the number of their gods, finally arriving at only one.但是它並不能成為表明,多神教的宗教總是逐漸減少他們的神,終於到達只有一個。 For example, there are innumerable Hindu deities (estimates range from several hundred thousand to 800 million, depending on how deity is defined), and the number seems actually to be increasing.例如,有無數的印度教神(估計範圍從幾十萬到800萬美元,取決於如何定義是神) ,這個數字似乎確實在增加。 Since a religion may add more and more deities as it followers become aware of more and more natural phenomena to deify, it is just as plausible to assume that polytheism is the end product of evolution from an original monotheism as it is to assume the reverse.由於宗教可以添加越來越多的神的追隨者,因為它意識到越來越多的自然現象,以神化,它只是作為合理的假設,多神教是終端產品的演變過程,從原始一神教,因為它是假設相反。

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)


Monotheism一神教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Monotheism (from the Greek monos "only", and theos "god") is a word coined in comparatively modern times to designate belief in the one supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the world, the eternal Spirit, All-powerful, All-wise, and All-good, the Rewarder of good and the Punisher of evil, the Source of our happiness and perfection.一神教(從希臘monos “只有” ,並神“神” )是一個詞在創造比較近代指定的信念,一個最高的上帝,造物主和上帝的世界,永恆的精神,所有強大的,在所有,明智的,全好, Rewarder良好的懲罰者和邪惡的來源我們的幸福和完善。 It is opposed to Polytheism, which is belief in more gods than one, and to Atheism, which is disbelief in any deity whatsoever.這是反對多神教,這是信仰的神更比一,並無神論,這是不相信神的任何何。 In contrast with Deism, it is the recognition of God's presence and activity in every part of creation.與此相反的自然神論,它是承認上帝的存在和活動的每一個部分創作。 In contrast with Pantheism, it is belief in a God of conscious freedom, distinct from the physical world.與此相反的泛神論,這是一個信仰上帝的意識自由,不同於物理世界。 Both Deism and Pantheism are religious philosophies rather than religions.這自然神論和泛神論宗教哲學而不是宗教。

On the other hand, Monotheism, like Polytheism, is a term applying primarily to a concrete system of religion.另一方面,一神教一樣,多神教,是一個長期,主要適用於具體系統的宗教。 The grounds of reason underlying monotheism have already been set forth in the article GOD.理由是根本原因一神教已經所載文章的上帝。 These grounds enable the inquiring mind to recognize the existence of God as a morally certain truth.這些理由使打聽到承認上帝存在作為一個道義上的某些真相。 Its reasonableness acquires still greater force from the positive data associated with the revelation of Christianity.其合理性獲取更大的力量從正面數據與基督教的啟示。 (See REVELATION.) (見啟示。 )

PRIMITIVE MONOTHEISM原始一神教

Was monotheism the religion of our first parents?是一神教的宗教我們第一次父母? Many Evolutionists and Rationalist Protestants answer No. Rejecting the very notion of positive, Divine revelation, they hold that the mind of man was in the beginning but little above that of his ape-like ancestors, and hence incapable of grasping so intellectual a conception as that of Monotheism.許多Evolutionists和理性號新教徒拒絕回答非常積極的概念,神聖的啟示,他們認為,考慮到的男子在一開始,但略高於他的類人猿的祖先一樣,因此不能把握這樣的概念作為是一神教。

They assert that the first religious notions entertained by man in his upward course towards civilization were superstitions of the grossest kind.他們斷言,宗教的概念首次宴請的男子在他向上走向文明迷信的最嚴重的一種。 In a word, primitive man was, in their opinion, a savage, differing but little from existing savages in his intellectual, moral, and religious life.總之,原始的男子,他們認為,野蠻,不同的,但很少從現有的野蠻人在他的智力,道德和宗教生活。 Catholic doctrine teaches that the religion of our first parents was monotheistic and supernatural, being the result of Divine revelation.天主教教義教導我們,教我們的第一個父母是一神教和超自然的,是由於神的啟示。 Not that primitive man without Divine help could not possibly have come to know and worship God.不是原始人沒有神聖的幫助不可能來認識和崇拜上帝。 The first man, like his descendants today, had by nature the capacity and the aptitude for religion.第一名男子一樣,他的後代今天,已經從本質的能力和性向的宗教。 Being a man in the true sense, with the use of reason, he had the tendency then, as men have now, to recognize in the phenomena of nature the workings of a mind and a will vastly superior to his own.作為一個人的真正意義上說,與使用的原因,他的趨勢之後,男人現在已承認在自然現象的工作心態和將大大優於自己。 But, as he lacked experience and scientific knowledge, it was not easy for him to unify the diverse phenomena of the visible world.但是,正如他缺乏經驗和科學知識,這是不容易的,他以統一的各種現象可見的世界。 Hence he was not without danger of going astray in his religious interpretation of nature.因此,他並非沒有危險誤入歧途在他的宗教解釋的性質。 He was liable to miss the important truth that, as nature is a unity, so the God of nature is one. Revelation was morally necessary for our first parents, as it is for men today, to secure the possession of true monotheistic belief and worship. The conception that Almighty God vouchsafed such a revelation is eminently reasonable to everyone who recognizes that the end of man is to know, love, and serve God.他很可能錯過了重要的事實是,自然是一個團結,因此,上帝的本質就是其中之一。道義上的啟示是必要的我們的第一個家長,因為它是今天的男子,以確保擁有真正的一神教信仰和崇拜。構想是萬能的上帝vouchsafed這樣一個啟示是非常合理的每個人都承認,誰結束男子知道,愛情和服務的上帝。 It is repugnant to think that the first generations of men were left to grope in the dark, ignorant alike of the true God and of their religious duties, while at the same time it was God's will that they should know and love Him.這是令人厭惡認為,第一代人留下在黑暗中摸索,愚昧都真正的上帝和他們的宗教義務,同時這是天意,他們應該知道,愛他。 The instruction in religion which children receive from their parents and superiors, anticipating their powers of independent reasoning, and guiding them to a right knowledge of God, being impossible for our first parents, was not without a fitting substitute.在教學中的宗教,兒童從他們的父母和上級,預計其權力的獨立推理,並指導他們以正確的知識的上帝,是不可能為我們的第一次家長,並非沒有一個適當的替代品。 They were set right from the first in the knowledge of their religious duties by a Divine revelation.他們從成立的第一明知其宗教義務的神聖啟示。 It is a Catholic dogma, intimately connected with the dogma of original sin and with that of the Atonement, that our first parents were raised to the state of sanctifying grace and were destined to a supernatural end, namely, the beatific vision of God in heaven.這是一個天主教教條,密切聯繫在一起的教條原罪和與救贖,我們首先提出了父母的狀況sanctifying寬限期,並注定要一個超自然結束,即幸福的遠景上帝在天上。 This necessarily implies supernatural faith, which could come only by revelation.這必然意味著超自然的信仰,這只能由啟示。

Nor is there anything in sound science or philosophy to invalidate this teaching that Monotheistic belief was imparted by God to primitive man.也不是有什麼可靠的科學或哲學廢除這一教學一神教信仰是上帝傳授給原始人。 While it may be true that human life in the beginning was on a comparatively low plane of material culture, it is also true that the first men were endowed with reason, ie, with the ability to conceive with sufficient distinctness of a being who was the cause of the manifold phenomena presented in nature.雖然它可能是真實的,人類生活在一開始是一個比較低平面的物質文化,這也是真正的第一人賦有理性,即有能力想像有足夠清晰的被誰是原因多方面的現象,提出的性質。 On the other hand, a humble degree of culture along the lines of art and industry is quite compatible with right religion and morality, as is evident in the case of tribes converted to Catholicism in recent times; while retaining much of their rude and primitive mode of living, they have reached very clear notions concerning God and shown remarkable fidelity in the observance of His law.另一方面,謙虛程度的文化大致相同的藝術和行業是非常符合正確的宗教和道德,這是明顯的情況下部落改信天主教在最近倍; ,同時保留大量的粗魯和原始模式的生活,他們已達到非常明確的關於上帝的觀念和表現出顯著的保真度,完全遵守他的法律。 As to the bearing of the Evolutionistic hypothesis on this question, see FETISHISM. It is thus quite in accordance with the accredited results of physical science to maintain that the first man, created by God, was keen of mind as well as sound of body, and that, through Divine instruction, he began life with right notions of God and of his moral and religious duties.至於軸承Evolutionistic假設在這個問題上,見拜物教。因此,相當符合經認可的結果,物理科學保持第一的人,上帝創造的,渴望的心情,以及健全的機構,而且,通過神的指示,他開始生命權的概念與上帝和他的道德和宗教義務。 This does not necessarily mean that his conception of God was scientifically and philosophically profound. Here it is that scholars are wide of the mark when they argue that Monotheism is a conception that implies a philosophic grasp and training of mind absolutely impossible to primitive man.這並不一定意味著他的觀念是上帝的科學和哲學的深刻。這裡是學者們不著邊際當他們爭辯說,一神教是一種觀念,意味著一種哲學的把握和培訓的心態絕對不可能原始人。

The notion of the supreme God needed for religion is not the highly metaphysical conception demanded by right philosophy.這一概念的最高神的宗教需要的不是抽象的概念高度要求的正確的理念。 If it were, but few could hope for salvation.如果是,但很少有人能得救的希望。 The God of religion is the unspeakably great Lord on whom man depends, in whom he recognizes the source of his happiness and perfection; He is the righteous Judge, rewarding good and punishing evil; the loving and merciful Father, whose ear is ever open to the prayers of His needy and penitent children.上帝的宗教是無法形容的偉大上帝的人取決於人,在他認識的來源,他的幸福和完善;他是正義的法官,獎勵良好和懲治邪教;的愛好和仁慈的父親,其耳朵是以往任何時候都開放祈禱他的貧困兒童和懺悔。 Such a conception of God can be readily grasped by simple, unphilosophic minds -- by children, by the unlettered peasant, by the converted savage.這樣一個上帝的概念可以很容易掌握的簡單, unphilosophic頭腦-兒童,胸無點墨的農民,由野蠻的轉換。

Nor are these notions of a supreme being utterly lacking even where barbarism still reigns.也不是這些概念的最高被完全缺乏,即使仍然普遍存在的野蠻行徑。 Bishop Le Roy, in his interesting work, "Religion des primitifs" (Paris, 1909), and Mr. A. Lang, in his "Making of Religion" (New York, 1898), have emphasized a point too often overlooked by students of religion, namely, that with all their religious crudities and superstitions, such low-grade savages as the Pygmies of the Northern Congo, the Australians, and the natives of the Andaman Islands entertain very noble conceptions of the Supreme Deity.羅伊樂主教,他感興趣的工作, “宗教之primitifs ” (巴黎, 1909年) ,以及郎先生,在他的“製作的宗教” (紐約, 1898年) ,都強調一點常常被忽視的學生宗教,即與所有crudities他們的宗教和迷信,這種低度野蠻人的俾格米人,北剛果,澳大利亞,以及當地人的安達曼群島娛樂非常崇高的概念,最高神。 To say, then, that primitive man, fresh from the hand of God, was incapable of monotheistic belief, even with the aid of Divine revelation, is contrary to well-ascertained fact.也就是說,那麼,原始人,新鮮的上帝之手,是無法一神教信仰,甚至借助神的啟示,是違背以及查明的事實。 From the opening chapters of Genesis we gather that our first parents recognized God to be the author of all things, their Lord and Master, the source of their happiness, rewarding good and punishing evil.從開幕式章節的成因我們收集到的,我們的第一次家長承認上帝是作者的一切事物,他們的上帝和主來源,他們的幸福,獎勵和懲治很好的罪惡。 The simplicity of their life made the range of their moral obligation easy of recognition.簡單的生活了一系列的道德義務易於識別。 Worship was of the simplest kind.宗教是最簡單的一種。

MOSAIC MONOTHEISM馬賽克一神教

The ancient Hebrew religion, promulgated by Moses in the name of Jehovah (Jahweh), was an impressive form of Monotheism.古代希伯來宗教,摩西頒布的名義耶和華( Jahweh ) ,這是一個令人印象深刻的形式一神教。 That it was Divinely revealed is the unmistakable teaching of Holy Scripture, particularly of Exodus and the following books which treat explicitly of Mosaic legislation.這是神發現是明白無誤教學的聖經,尤其是流亡和下面的書籍明確的治療花葉立法。 Even non-Catholic Scriptural scholars, who no longer accept the Pentateuch, as it stands, as the literary production of Moses, recognize, in great part, that, in the older sources which, according to them, go to make up the Pentateuch, there are portions that reach back to the time of Moses, showing the existence of Hebrew monotheistic worship in his day.即使非天主教聖經學者,誰不再接受五,因為它主張,作為文學創作的摩西,認識到,在很大一部分,這在老年人來源,據他們,去彌補五,有部分達到回來的時間摩西,顯示出存在的希伯來一神教崇拜他的一天。 Now, the transcendent superiority of this Monotheism taught by Moses offers a strong proof of its Divine origin.現在,超然的優勢,這個一神教的摩西教授提供了一個強有力的證明了它的神聖來源。 At a time when the neighbouring nations representing the highest civilization of that time -- Egypt, Babylonia, Greece -- were giving an impure and idolatrous worship to many deities, we find the insignificant Hebrew people professing a religion in which idolatry, impure rites, and a degrading mythology had no legitimate place, but where, instead, belief in the one true God was associated with a dignified worship and a lofty moral code.當時鄰近國家的最高代表文明的時間-埃及,巴比倫,希臘-被給予一個不純的崇拜和盲目崇拜許多神,我們找到希伯萊人微不足道信奉宗教的偶像崇拜,不純的儀式,和有辱人格的神話沒有合法地位,但如果相反,相信一個真正的上帝是與一個有尊嚴的崇拜和崇高的道德準則。 Those who reject the claim of Mosaic Monotheism to have been revealed have never yet succeeded in giving a satisfactory explanation of this extraordinary phenomenon.誰拒絕接受這些要求的馬賽克一神教已發現從未成功地給予令人滿意的解釋這個非同尋常的現象。 It was, however, pre-eminently the religion of the Hebrew people, destined in the fullness of time to give place to the higher monotheistic religion revealed by Christ, in which all the nations of the earth should find peace and salvation.然而,有人預先突出宗教的希伯來人,注定在適當的時間向地方較高的一神教宗教所揭示的基督,在所有國家的地球應該找到和平和拯救。 The Jewish people was thus God's chosen people, not so much by reason of their own merit, as because they were destined to prepare the way for the absolute and universal religion, Christianity.猶太人民,因此上帝的選擇,而不是這麼多的原因,自己的優點,如因為他們是注定要鋪平道路的絕對和普遍的宗教,基督教。 The God of Moses is no mere tribal deity.上帝對摩西並非僅僅是部落守護神。 He is the Creator and Lord of the world.他是造物主和上帝的世界。 He gives over to His chosen people the land of the Chanaanites.他讓到他的選擇人民的土地Chanaanites 。 He is a jealous God, forbidding not only worship of strange gods, but the use of images, which might lead to abuses in that age of almost universal idolatry.他是一個嫉妒的上帝,不僅禁止崇拜奇怪的神,但使用的圖像,這可能導致濫用,在這個年齡段的幾乎是普遍的偶像崇拜。 Love of God is made a duty, but reverential fear is the predominant emotion.上帝的愛是一種責任,但尊敬的擔心是主要的情感。 The religious sanction of the law is centred chiefly in temporal rewards and punishments.宗教制裁的法律主要是集中在顳獎懲。 Laws of conduct, though determined by justice rather than by charity and mercy, are still eminently humane.法律的行為,但確定的司法,而不是施捨和憐憫,但仍然非常人性化。

CHRISTIAN MONOTHEISM基督教一神教

The sublime Monotheism taught by Jesus Christ has no parallel in the history of religions.一神教的崇高教導耶穌基督沒有平行歷史上的宗教。 God is presented to us as the loving, merciful Father, not of one privileged people, but of all mankind.上帝是向我們提出的愛,慈悲之父,而不是一個有特權的人,而是全人類。 In this filial relation with God -- a relation of confidence, gratitude, love -- Christ centres our obligations both to God and to our fellow-men.在此孝道與上帝的關係-關係的信心,感激之情,愛-基督中心的義務都貢獻給上帝,我們的同胞,男子。 He lays hold of the individual soul and reveals to it its high destiny of Divine sonship.他奠定舉行個人的靈魂,揭示它的高命運的神聖sonship 。 At the same time, He impresses on us the corresponding duty of treating others as God's children, and hence as our brethren, entitled not simply to justice, but to mercy and charity.與此同時,他給我們留下深刻印象的相應義務治療其他上帝的孩子,因此,作為我們的兄弟,題為不僅僅是正義,而是要憐憫和施捨。 To complete this idea of Christian fellowship, Jesus shows Himself to be the eternal Son of God, sent by His heavenly Father to save us from sin, to raise us to the life of grace and to the dignity of children of God through the atoning merits of His life and death.如果要完成這個想法,團契,耶穌表明自己是永恆的上帝之子,他發出的天父拯救我們的罪孽,以提高我們的生活的風度和尊嚴的兒童上帝通過贖罪的優點在他的生活和死亡。 The love of God the Father thus includes the love of His incarnate Son.上帝的愛的父親因此包括愛他的化身兒子。 Personal devotion to Jesus is the motive of right conduct in Christian Monotheism.個人獻身於耶穌的動機是正確的行為基督教一神教。 Co-operating in the sanctification of mankind is the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of truth and life, sent to confirm the faithful in faith, hope, and charity.合作經營的神聖人類是聖靈,聖靈真理和生命,發出確認信眾的信仰,希望,慈善機構。 These three Divine Persons, distinct from one another, equal in all things, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, are one in essence, a trinity of persons in the one, undivided Godhead (see TRINITY).這三個神聖的人,有別於彼此平等的一切事物,父親,兒子,和聖靈,是一個本質,一個三位一體的人在一個不可分割的神體(見三一) 。 Such is the Monotheism taught by Jesus.這是一神教的耶穌教。 The guaranty of the truth of His teaching is to be found in His supreme moral excellence, in the perfection of His ethical teaching, in His miracles, especially His bodily resurrection, and in His wonderful influence on mankind for all time.該擔保的真相是他的教學中可以找到他的最高道義上的精益求精,在完善他的道德教學,在他的奇蹟,尤其是他的身體復活,並在其美妙的影響人類的所有時間。 (Cf. John 17:3; 1 Corinthians 8:4) As Christianity in its beginnings was surrounded by the polytheistic beliefs and practices of the pagan world, a clear and authoritative expression of Monotheism was necessary. (參見約翰17:3 ;哥林多前書8時04分)作為基督教在其開始被包圍的多神教信仰和習俗的異教徒的世界,一個明確的和權威性的表述一神教是必要的。 Hence the symbols of faith, or creeds, open with the words: "I [we] believe in God [theon, deum]" or, more explicitly, "I [we] believe in one God [hena theon, unum deum]".因此,象徵的信仰,或信仰,開放的話: “我[我們]相信上帝[ theon , deum ] ” ,或者更明確地說: “我[我們]認為,在一個上帝[ theon河南,一心deum ] ” 。 (See Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchiridion", 1-40; cf. APOSTLES' CREED; ATHANASIAN CREED; NICENE CREED.) Among the early heresies, some of the most important and most directly opposed to Monotheism arose out of the attempt to account for the origin of evil. (見Denzinger - Bannwart , “便覽” , 1-40 ;比照。使徒信經; ATHANASIAN信仰;尼西亞信經。 )在早期邪說,一些最重要和最直接的反對一神教產生於企圖帳戶原產地為邪惡。 Good they ascribed to one divine principle, evil to another.好,他們屬於一個神聖的原則,邪惡到另一個。 (See GNOSTICISM; MANICHÆISM; MARCIONITES.) These dualistic errors gave occasion for a vigorous defence of Monotheism by such writers as St. Irenæus, Tertullian, St. Augustine, etc. (see Bardenhewer-Shahan, "Patrology", St. Louis, 1908). (見諾斯替主義;摩尼教; MARCIONITES 。 )這些二元錯誤的機會了有力的辯護等一神教作家聖依,良,聖奧古斯丁,等等(見Bardenhewer ,沙漢“ , Patrology ” ,聖路易斯, 1908年) 。

The same doctrine naturally held the foremost place in the teaching of the missionaries who converted the races of Northern Europe; in fact, it may be said that the diffusion of Monotheism is one of the great achievements of the Catholic Church.同樣的理論當然最主要的舉行地點教學中的傳教士誰轉換站的北歐,事實上,可以說,傳播是一神教的偉大成就之一的天主教教會。 In the various conciliar definitions regarding the Trinity of Persons in God, emphasis is laid on the unity of the Divine nature; see, eg, Fourth Council of Lateran (1215), in Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchiridion", 428.在定義各種conciliar關於三位一體之神,重點是放在統一的神聖性質;例如,見理事會第四次拉特蘭( 1215 ) ,在Denzinger - Bannwart , “便覽” , 428 。 The medieval Scholastics, taking up the traditional belief, brought to its support a long array of arguments based on reason; see, for instance, St. Thomas, "Contra Gentes", I, xlii; and St. Anselm, "Monol.", iv.中世紀Scholastics ,同時考慮了傳統信仰,提請其支持一個長期爭論的一系列原因的基礎上;見,例如,聖托馬斯, “魂斗羅Gentes ” ,我四十二;和聖安瑟倫, “ Monol 。 ” ,四。 During the last three centuries the most conspicuous tendency outside the Catholic Church has been towards such extreme positions as those of Monism and Pantheism in which it is asserted that all things are really one in substance, and that God is identical with the world.在過去的三個世紀最顯眼的趨勢外,天主教會一直對這種極端的立場那些一元和泛神論在它斷言,一切事物都是真正的實質內容之一,而且,上帝是相同的世界。 The Church, however, has steadfastly maintained, not only that God is essentially distinct from all things else, but also that there is only one God. "If any one deny the one true God, Creator and Lord of all things visible and invisible, let him be anathema" (Conc. Vatican., Sess. III, "De fide", can. i).教會,但一直保持著,不僅是上帝基本上是有別於其他所有的事情,但也只有一個上帝。 “如果任何一個否定一個真正的上帝,與上帝創造的一切有形和無形的,讓他被詛咒“ ( Conc.梵蒂岡。 , Sess 。三, ”德善意“ ,可以。一) 。

MOHAMMEDAN MONOTHEISM伊斯蘭教一神教

Of Mohammedan Monotheism little need be said. The Allah of the Koran is practically one with the Jehovah of the Old Testament. Its keynote is islam, submissive resignation to the will of God, which is expressed in everything that happens.一神教的伊斯蘭教沒有必要說。 真主的古蘭經實際上是一個與耶和華舊約。及其主旨是伊斯蘭教,順從辭職上帝的意志,這是中發生的一切。 Allah is, to use the words of the Koran, "The Almighty, the All-knowing, the All-just, the Lord of the worlds, the Author of the heavens and the earth, the Creator of life and death, in whose hand is dominion and irresistible power, the great all-powerful Lord of the glorious throne. God is the mighty . . . the Swift in reckoning, who knoweth every ant's weight of good and of ill that each man hath done, and who suffereth not the reward of the faithful to perish. He is the King, the Holy, . . . the Guardian over His servants, the Shelterer of the orphan, the Guide of the erring, the Deliverer from every affliction, the Friend of the bereaved, the Consoler of the afflicted, . . . the generous Lord, the gracious Hearer, the Near-at-hand, the Compassionate, the Merciful, the Forgiving" (cited from "Islam", by Ameer Ali Syed).真主是,要使用的話可蘭經“的萬能的,全知道,全剛,上帝的世界,作者的天地,造物主的生命和死亡,在其手是自治領和不可抗拒的力量,偉大的所有強大的魔戒的光榮王位。上帝是強大的。 。 。的斯威夫特在推算,誰knoweth每一個螞蟻的重量和良好的虐待,每個人做上帝,誰不suffereth獎勵的忠實亡。他是國王,羅馬, 。 。 。監護他的僕人,在Shelterer的孤兒,本指南對犯錯誤的送每一個苦惱的朋友失去親人的Consoler受影響的, 。 。 。慷慨的主,殷勤聽話,近在手的同情心,仁慈的寬恕“ (引自”伊斯蘭教“ ,由阿米爾阿里賽義德) 。 The influence of the Bible, particularly the Old Testament, on Mohammedan Monotheism is well known and need not be dwelt on here.的影響聖經,尤其是舊約,關於伊斯蘭教一神教是眾所周知的,而且不必談到這裡。

MONOTHEISM AND POLYTHEISTIC RELIGIONS一神論宗教和多神教

What has thus far been said leads to the conclusion that Christian Monotheism and its antecedent forms, Mosaic and primitive Monotheism, are independent in their origin of the Polytheistic religions of the world.什麼迄今尚未表示,得出的結論是,基督教一神論和其前身的形式,馬賽克和原始一神教,是獨立的在其原產地的多神教的宗教世界。 The various forms of polytheism that now flourish, or that have existed in the past, are the result of man's faulty attempts to interpret nature by the light of unaided reason. Wherever the scientific view of nature has not obtained, the mechanical, secondary causes that account for such striking phenomena as sun, moon, lightning, tempest, have invariably been viewed either as living beings, or as inert bodies kept in movement by invisible, intelligent agents.各種形式的多神教,現在蓬勃發展,或者說過去存在,是由於人的錯誤試圖解釋性質的參照外援的原因。只要科學自然觀還沒有得到,機械,次要原因是帳戶等突出現象,太陽,月亮,雷電,暴風雨,總是被認為無論是作為活生生的人,或作為惰性機構存放在由看不見的運動,智能代理。 This personalizing of the striking phenomena of nature was common among the highest pagan nations of antiquity.這種個性化的突出現象的本質是共同的最高異教徒國家的文物。 It is the common view among peoples of inferior culture today.這是共同的看法各國人民之間的文化差今天。 It is only since modern science has brought all these phenomena within the range of physical law that the tendency to view them as manifestations of distinct personalities has been thoroughly dispelled.這只是因為現代科學已經把所有這些現象的範圍內的人身法律的傾向,認為它們的表現形式不同人士已徹底消除。 Now such a personalizing of nature's forces is compatible with Monotheism so long as these different intelligences fancied to produce the phenomena are viewed as God's creatures, and hence not worthy of Divine worship.現在,這種個性化的大自然的力量是符合一神教,只要這些不同的智能想像產生的現象被視為上帝的動物,因而不值得神崇拜。 But where the light of revelation has been obscured in whole or in part, the tendency to deify these personalities associated with natural phenomena has asserted itself.但是,在根據已揭露掩蓋的全部或部分的傾向神化這些人物相關的自然現象聲稱本身。

In this way polytheistic nature-worship seems to have arisen.這樣性質的多神教崇拜似乎已經出現。 It arose from the mistaken application of a sound principle, which man everywhere seems naturally to possess, namely, that the great operations of nature are due to the agency of mind and will.它是由錯誤的應用健全的原則,即世界各地的人似乎擁有自然,即偉大的行動的性質是由於該機構的心態和意志。 Professor George Fisher observes: "The polytheistic religions did not err in identifying the manifold activities of nature with voluntary agency. The spontaneous feelings of mankind in this particular are not belied by the principles of philosophy. The error of polytheism lies in the splintering of that will which is immanent in all the operations of nature into a plurality of personal agents, a throng of divinities, each active and dominant within a province of its own" ("Grounds of Christian and Theistic Belief", 1903, p. 29). Polytheistic nature-worship is to be found among practically all peoples who have lacked the guiding star of Divine revelation.喬治費希爾教授指出: “宗教的多神教不犯錯確定多方面活動的性質與志願機構。自發感情的人類在這個特別不掩飾的原則理念。誤差的多神教在於分裂的將這是內在的所有業務的性質為多元化的個人代理商,一大群神,每一個積極的和主導的一個省範圍內自己的“ ( ”理由基督教和神信仰“ , 1903年,第29頁) 。多神教性質的崇拜是可以找到的幾乎所有民族誰也缺乏指導的明星神聖的啟示。 Such history of these individual religions as we possess offers little evidence of an upward development towards Monotheism: on the contrary, in almost every instance of known historic development, the tendency has been to degenerate further and further from the monotheistic idea.這種歷史上的這些個別的宗教,我們擁有提供什麼證據表明向上發展的走向一神教:相反,幾乎在每一個實例的已知歷史發展的趨勢已經進一步惡化,並進一步從一神教的想法。 There is, indeed, scarcely a Polytheistic religion in which one of the many deities recognized is not held in honour as the father and lord of the rest.的確,約多神教宗教在其中的許多神不承認舉行的榮幸作為父親和大人的休息。 That this is the result of an upward development, as non-Catholic scholars very generally assert, is speculatively possible.這是由於向上的發展,因為非天主教學者斷言非常普遍,可能是推測。 But that it may as well be the outcome of a downward development from a primitive monotheistic belief cannot be denied.但是,它可能也將結果向下發展的一種原始一神教信仰不能否認的。 The latter view seems to have the weight of positive evidence in its favour.後一種觀點似乎已經重量的積極證據贊成票。 The ancient Chinese religion, as depicted in the oldest records, was remarkably close to pure Monotheism.古老的中國宗教,所描繪最早記錄,是非常接近純粹的一神教。 The gross Polytheistic nature-worship of the Egyptians of later times was decidedly a degeneration from the earlier quasi-Monotheistic belief.毛多神教性質崇拜的埃及人後來時間是決定性的一豆狀核變性從早期的準一神教信仰。 In the Vedic religion a strong Monotheistic tendency asserted itself, only to weaken later on and change into Pantheism.在吠陀宗教強有力的一神教趨勢斷言本身,不僅削弱以後,改變成泛神論。 The one happy exception is the upward development which the ancient Aryan Polytheism took in the land of the Iranians.一個幸福的例外是向上的發展,古老的雅利安人多神教了土地的伊朗人。 Through the wise reform of Zoroaster, the various gods of nature were subordinated to the supreme, omniscient spirit, Ormuzd, and were accorded an inferior worship as his creatures.通過明智的改革Zoroaster ,各種神靈的性質是服從於最高權力機構,無所不知的精神, Ormuzd ,並給予了劣勢崇拜他的生物。 Ormuzd was honoured as the creator of all that is good, the revealer and guardian of the laws of religious and moral conduct, and the sanctifier of the faithful. Ormuzd很榮幸作為創造這一切是好的, revealer和監護人的法律,宗教和道德的行為,並sanctifier的忠誠。 The sense of sin was strongly developed, and a standard of morality was set forth that justly excites admiration.的罪孽感強烈的發展,一個標準的道德是提出,公正地激發欽佩。 Heaven and hell, the final renovation of the world, including the bodily resurrection, were elements in Zoroastrian eschatology.天堂與地獄,最後的裝修世界,包括身體的復活,是元素的拜火教末世論。 A nobler religion outside the sphere of revealed religion is not to be found.更崇高的宗教以外的領域發現宗教是不被發現。 Yet even this religion is rarely classed by scholars among monotheistic religions, owing to the polytheistic colouring of its worship of the subordinate nature-spirits, and also to its retention of the ancient Aryan rite of fire-worship, justified by Zoroastrians of modern times as a form of symbolic worship of Ormuzd.然而,即使這種宗教是很少歸類學者之間的一神教,由於多神教色彩的崇拜服從自然的精神,同時也保留了古代雅利安人成年禮的消防崇拜,合理的拜火教徒的現代倍一種形式的象徵性的崇拜Ormuzd 。

The so-called survivals in higher religions, such as belief in food-eating ghosts, pain-causing spirits, witchcraft, the use of amulets and fetishes, are often cited as evidence that even such forms of Monotheism as Judaism and Christianity are but outgrowths of lower religions.所謂的生存率較高的宗教,信仰等食品中食鬼,疼痛引起的精神,巫術,使用護身符和fetishes ,也經常被引用作為證據,即使是這種形式的一神教的猶太教和基督教的,但outgrowths較低的宗教。 The presence of the greater part of these superstitious beliefs and customs in the more ignorant sections of Christian peoples is easily explained as the survival of tenacious customs that flourished among the ancestors of European peoples long before their conversion to Christianity.在場的情況下,大部份這些迷信的信仰和習俗在更無知的部分基督教人民很容易解釋為生存的頑強的習俗,盛行祖先之間的歐洲人民很久以前他們改信基督教。 Again, many of these beliefs and customs are such as might easily arise from faulty interpretations of nature, unavoidable in unscientific grades of culture, even where the monotheistic idea prevailed.再次,許多這些信仰和習俗的,如可能很容易產生錯誤的解釋,性質,不可避免的不科學年級的文化,即使在一神教的想法佔了上風。 Superstitions like these are but the rank weeds and vines growing around the tree of religion.迷信一樣,但這些軍銜雜草和藤蔓越來越圍繞樹的宗教。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查爾斯鄧巴艾肯。 Transcribed by Gerald Rossi. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄由杰拉爾德羅西。天主教百科全書,卷十, 1911年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

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