Monism一元

General Information 一般信息

Monism is any doctrine based on the assumption of a single underlying principle. Metaphysical monism allows that only one being or type of being exists.論是任何理論依據的假設一個單一的基本原則。 玄學論使只有一個鍵入正在或正在存在。 A substantial metaphysical monism asserts that the variety in our phenomenal experience is due to the different states of a single all-encompassing substance, for example, Parmenides' Plenum or Baruch Spinoza's God or Nature. 大量形而上學論聲稱,在我們的各種經驗現象是由於不同國家的一個單一的無所不包的內容,例如,巴門尼德'中全會或巴魯克斯賓諾莎的上帝或自然。 An attributive monism admits many substances but asserts that they are all of the same kind, for example, atoms or GW von Leibniz's monads. 定語論的許多物質的承認,但聲稱,它們都是同類型,例如,原子或毛重馮萊布尼茨的monads 。

Epistemological monism identifies that which is immediately present to the knowing mind with the real object known. Either the content of the mind is equated with the object known (epistemological realism), or the object known is equated with the knowing mind (epistemological idealism). Monism as a philosophical term was first used by Christian Wolff to designate philosophies that attempted to eliminate the mind-body dichotomy. 認識論論確定這是立即向銘記知道真正的目的眾所周知的。要么內容的心靈是等同的對象稱為(認識論的現實主義) ,或已知的對象是等同於明知銘記(認識論的唯心論) 。論作為一個哲學術語最早是由基督教沃爾夫指定哲學,試圖消除身心二分法。

Donald Gotterbarn唐納德Gotterbarn

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件

Monism一元

General Information 一般信息

Monism (Greek monos,"single"), in philosophy, is a doctrine that ultimate reality is entirely of one substance.一元(希臘monos , “單” ) ,在哲學,是一個理論,最終是完全現實的一個內容。 Monism is thus opposed to both dualism and pluralism.一元,因此反對這兩個二元和多元化。 Three basic types of monism are recognized: materialistic monism, idealistic monism, and the mind-stuff theory.三種基本類型的論承認:唯物主義論,理想主義論和思想理論的東西。 According to the first doctrine, everything in the universe, including mental phenomena, is reduced to the one category of matter.根據第一原則,一切都在宇宙中,包括精神現象,是減少到一類問題。 In the second doctrine, matter is regarded as a form of manifestation of mind; and in the third doctrine, matter and mind are considered merely aspects of each other.在第二個學說,此事被看作是一種形式表現的心態;和第三學說,此事,並考慮到被認為只是方面的對方。 Although monistic philosophies date from ancient Greece, the term monism is comparatively recent.雖然一元哲學的日期從古代希臘,任期論是比較近期的事。 It was first used by the 18th-century German philosopher Christian von Wolff to designate types of philosophical thought in which the attempt was made to eliminate the dichotomy of body and mind.它最早是由18世紀德國哲學家克里斯蒂安馮沃爾夫指定類型的哲學思想,其中有人企圖以消除分歧的身體和心靈。

Although he was not known by the term, the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza was one of the most influential monists. He taught that both material and spiritual phenomena are attributes of one underlying substance.雖然他不知道的來看, 17世紀荷蘭哲學家斯賓諾莎巴魯克是一個最有影響力的monists 。他教這兩個物質和精神現象的屬性的基本內容之一。 His doctrine strongly anticipated the mind-stuff theory.他的理論的強烈預期心理的東西的理論。


Monism一元

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Although the term was first used by German philospher Christian Wolff (1679-1754), monism is a philosophical position with a long history dating back to the pre-Socratic philosophers who appealed to a single unifying principle to explain all the diversity of observed experience. Notable among these thinkers is Parmenides, who maintained that reality is an undifferentiated oneness, or unity, and that consequently real change or individuality of things are there?雖然長期最早是由德國philospher克里斯蒂安沃爾夫( 1679年至1754年) ,論是一種哲學的立場有著悠久的歷史可以追溯到前蘇格拉底哲學家誰呼籲一個單一的統一原則來解釋所有的多樣性觀察體驗。值得注意的是這些思想家巴門尼德,誰主張,實際上是一種未分化的同一性,或統一,因此真正的改變或個性的東西呢?

Substantival monism ("one thing") is the view that there is only one substance and that all diversity is ultimately unreal. Substantival論( “一件事” )的觀點,即只有一個實質內容,而且所有的多樣性最終是不現實的。 This view was maintained by Spinoza, who claimed that there is only one substance, or independently existing thing, and that both God and the universe are aspects of this substance.這種觀點是保持斯賓諾莎,誰聲稱,只有一個內容,或獨立存在的東西,這兩個上帝和宇宙是這方面的內容。 In addition to having many eminent proponents in the Western philosophical tradition, substantival monism is a tenet of Hinduism and Buddhism.除了有許多著名的支持者在西方哲學的傳統, substantival論是一個宗旨,印度教和佛教。 In Hinduism each element of reality is part of maya or prakriti, and in Buddhism all things ultimately comprise an interrelated network.在印度教的各組成部分的現實是馬亞或prakriti ,在佛教的一切事物最終組成一個相互聯繫的網絡。

Attributive monism ("one category") holds that there is one kind of thing but many different individual things in this category. Materialism and idealism are different forms of attributive monism.定語論( “一類” )認為,有一種事情,但許多不同的個人的東西這一類。唯物論與唯心論是不同形式的定語論。 The materialist holds that the one category of existence in which all real things are found is material, while the idealist says that this category is mental.在唯物主義者認為,一類存在於所有真實的東西被發現是物質的,而唯心主義說,這一類是精神。 All monisms oppose the dualistic view of the universe, which holds that both material and immaterial (mental and spiritual) realities exist.所有monisms反對二元認為的宇宙,它認為,這兩個物質和非物質(心理和精神)的現實存在。 Attributive monism disagrees with substantival monism in asserting that reality is ultimately composed of many things rather than one thing.定語論不同意substantival論中聲稱的現實是最終組成的許多事情,而不是一回事。 Many leading philosophers have been attributive monists, including Bertrand Russell and Thomas Hobbes on the materialistic side, and GW Leibniz and George Berkeley in the idealist camp.許多領導哲學家已定語monists ,包括羅素和托馬斯霍布斯的唯物主義一邊,毛重萊布尼茨和喬治伯克利分校的唯心主義陣營。

The Christian intellectual tradition has generally held that substantival monism fails to do justice to the distinction between God and creature, and that of attributive monisms only idealism is theologically acceptable.基督教的傳統普遍認為substantival論沒有做司法之間的區別,上帝和動物,而定語monisms只有唯心論是神學接受的。

DB Fletcher數據庫弗萊徹
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
FC Copleston, "Spinoza," in A History of Philosophy, IV; FH Bradley, Appearance and Reality; R. Hall, "Monism and Pluralism," Encyclopedia of Philosophy; J. Passmore, A Hundred Years of Philosophy; AM Quinton, "Pluralism and Monism," in EncyBrit; B. Spinoza, Ethics.俱樂部Copleston , “斯賓諾莎”中的哲學史,四;跳頻布拉德利,外觀和現實; R霍爾, “一元和多元, ”哲學百科全書;學者帕斯莫爾,百年哲學;上午昆頓“多元主義和一元“ ,在EncyBrit ;灣斯賓諾莎,倫理學。


Monism一元

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(From the Greek monos, "one", "alone", "unique"). (從希臘monos , “一” , “獨立” , “獨一無二的” ) 。

Monism is a philosophical term which, in its various meanings, is opposed to Dualism or Pluralism.論是一個哲學術語,在其各種含義,反對二元或多元化。 Wherever pluralistic philosophy distinguishes a multiplicity of things, Monism denies that the manifoldness is real, and holds that the apparently many are phases, or phenomena, of a one.無論多元化的哲學區別於眾多的事情,一元否認manifoldness是真實的,並認為顯然許多階段,或現象,對一個。 Wherever dualistic philosophy distinguishes between body and soul, matter and spirit, object and subject, matter and force, the system which denies such a distinction, reduces one term of the antithesis to the other, or merges both in a higher unity, is called Monism.只要二元哲學區分身體和靈魂,物質和精神,目的和主題,物質和力量,系統否認這種區別,降低一個任期的對立面其他,或合併在更高的統一,被稱為一元。

I. IN METAPHYSICS一,在形而上學

The ancient Hindu philosophers stated as a fundamental truth that the world of our sense-experience is all illusion (maya), that change, plurality, and causation are not real, that there is but one reality, God.古老的印度教哲學家指出的一個基本事實,即世界上的憂患意識,經驗是所有的幻想(瑪雅) ,這一變化,多元化,和因果關係是不是真實的,即只有一個現實,上帝。 This is metaphysical Monism of the idealistic-spiritual type, tending towards mysticism. Among the early Greek philosophers, the Eleatics, starting, like the Hindus, with the conviction that sense-knowledge is untrustworthy, and reason alone reliable, reached the conclusion that change, plurality, and origination do not really exist, that Being is one, immutable, and eternal.這是形而上學的一元的理想,精神型,走向神秘主義。在早期希臘哲學家的Eleatics開始,如印度教徒,與信念這個意義上講,知識是不可信的,而且唯一的原因可靠,得出的結論是,改變,多元化,並發起真的不存在,存在是其中之一,一成不變的,和永恆的。 They did not explicitly identify the one reality with God, and were not, so far as we know, inclined to mysticism.他們沒有明確確定一個現實的上帝,沒有,所以就我們所知,神秘主義傾向。 Their Monism, therefore, may be said to be of the purely idealistic type.他們的一元,因此,可以說是純粹的理想類型。

These two forms of metaphysical Monism recur frequently in the history of philosophy; for instance, the idealistic-spiritual type in neo-Platonism and in Spinoza's metaphysics, and the purely idealistic type in the rational absolutism of Hegel.這兩種形式的形而上學的一元中經常發生的歷史哲學;舉例來說,理想主義的精神輸入新柏拉圖主義和斯賓諾莎的形而上學,與純粹的理想主義型的合理絕對黑格爾。

Besides idealistic Monism there is Monism of the materialistic type, which proclaims that there is but one reality, namely, matter, whether matter be an agglomerate of atoms, a primitive, world-forming substance (see IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY), or the so-called cosmic nebula out of which the world evolved. There is another form of metaphysical Monism, represented in these days by Haeckel and his followers, which, though materialistic in its scope and tendency, professes to transcend the point of view of materialistic Monism and unite both matter and mind in a higher something.除了理想主義的一元是一元的物質類型,其中宣稱,只有一個現實,即此事,此事是否是一個原子的凝聚,一種原始的,世界形成物質(見愛奧尼亞海學院哲學) ,或使所謂的宇宙星雲,其中世界的變化而變化。是另一種形式的形而上學的一元,派代表參加這些天的海克爾和他的追隨者,雖然物質在其範圍和傾向,聲稱要超越的角度來看,唯物主義一元和團結都銘記此事,並在更高的東西。 The weak point of all metaphysical Monism is its inability to explain how, if there is but one reality, and everything else is only apparent there can be any real changes in the world, or real relations among things.薄弱點的所有形而上學的一元是它無法解釋如何,如果只有一個現實,一切只是表面就不可能有任何真正的世界變化,或真實的事情之間的關係。 This difficulty is met in dualistic systems of philosophy by the doctrine of matter and form, or potency and actuality, which are the ultimate realities in the metaphysical order.這種困難是滿足二元體系的哲學的理論問題和形式,或效價和現狀,這是最終現實的形而上學的秩序。 Pluralism rejects the solution offered by scholastic dualism and strives, with but little success, to oppose to Monism its own theory of synechism or panpsychism (see PRAGMATISM).多元化的解決辦法拒絕提供學術二元,並盡力與但收效甚微,反對以一元自己的理論synechism或panpsychism (見實用主義) 。 The chief objection to materialistic Monism is that it stops short of the point where the real problem of metaphysics begins.首席反對唯物主義一元的是,它停止短的地步,真正的問題形而上學的開始。

II.二。 IN THEOLOGY神學

The term Monism is not much used in theology because of the confusion to which its use would lead.任期一元是沒有多大用,因為在神學的混亂,其使用將導致。 Polytheism, the doctrine that there are many gods, has for its opposite Monotheism, the doctrine that there is but one God.多神教,學說,有許多神,有其相反的一神教,原則上只有一個上帝。 If the term Monism is employed in place of Monotheism, it may, of course, mean Theism, which is a monotheistic doctrine, or it may mean Pantheism, which is opposed to theism.如果一元是長期從事地方一神教,它可能,當然,有神論的意思,這是一個一神教理論,也可能意味著泛神論,這是反對有神論。 In this sense of the term, as a synonym for Pantheism, Monism maintains that there is no real distinction between God and the universe.在這個意義上的任期,作為一個同義詞泛神論,一元堅持認為,沒有真正區分上帝和宇宙。 Either God is indwelling in the universe as a part of it, not distinct from it (pantheistic Immanentism), or the universe does not exist at all as a reality (Acosmism), but only as a manifestation or phenomenon of God.不管上帝是留置在宇宙中的一部分,而不是有別於它( pantheistic Immanentism ) ,或宇宙並不存在於所有的現實( Acosmism ) ,但只作為一種表現或現象的上帝。 These views are vigorously combated by Theism, not only on considerations of logic and philosophy, but also on considerations of human life and conduct.這些意見大力打擊有神論,不僅考慮的邏輯和哲學,而且還考慮人的生命和行為。 For the ethical implications of pantheism are as detrimental to it as its shortcomings from the point of view of consistency and reasonableness.對於道德問題的泛神論是有損於它作為其缺點的觀點的一致性和合理性。 Theism does not deny that God is indwelling in the universe; but it does deny that He is comprised in the universe.有神論並不否認留置上帝是宇宙中,但它確實否認,他是由在宇宙中。 Theism does not deny that the universe is a manifestation of God; but it does deny that the universe has no reality of its own.有神論並不否認宇宙是體現了上帝,但它確實否認,宇宙沒有現實的自己。 Theism is, therefore, dualistic: it holds that God is a reality distinct from the universe and independent of it, and that the universe is a reality distinct from God, though not independent of Him.有神論因此,二元:它認為上帝是一個現實不同的宇宙和獨立,並認為宇宙是一個現實不同於上帝,但不是獨立的他。 From another point of view, theism is monistic; it maintains that there is but One Supreme Reality and that all other reality is derived from Him.從另一個角度來看,有神論是一元,它堅持認為,只有一個現實和最高法院,所有其他的現實是來自他。 Monism is not then an adequate equivalent of the term Theism.一元不那麼適當相當於長期有神論。

III.三。 IN PSYCHOLOGY心理學

The central problem of rational psychology is the question of the relation between soul and body.中心問題是合理的心理問題的關係,靈魂和身體。 Scholastic dualism, following Aristotle, maintains, that man is one substance, composed of body and soul, which are respectively matter and form.士林二元論之後,亞里士多德,保持,這名男子是一個物質組成的身體和靈魂,這分別是物質和形式。 The soul is the principle of life, energy, and perfection; the body is the principle of decay, potentiality, and imperfection.靈魂的原則是生命,能源和完善;機構的原則,腐爛,潛力和缺陷。 These two are not complete substances: their union is not accidental, as Plato thought, but substantial.這兩個不完整的物質:他們的工會,不是偶然的,因為柏拉圖的思想,但巨大的。 They are, of course, really distinct, and even separable; yet they act on each other and react.他們當然,真正獨特的,甚至是可分的,但他們的行為對彼此的反應。 The soul, even in its highest functions, needs the co-operation, at least extrinsic, of the body, and the body in all its vital functions is energized by the soul as the radical principle of those functions. They are not so much two in one as two forming one compound.靈魂,即使在最高的職能,需要共同行動,至少外在的,身體,以及身體的各個重要職能是充滿活力的靈魂作為根本原則,這些職能。他們沒有這麼多兩個在一兩個形成一個大院。 In popular imagination this dualism may be exaggerated; in the mind of the extreme ascetic it sometimes is exaggerated to the point of placing a too sharp contrast between "the flesh" and "the spirit", "the beast" and "the angel", in us.在這個流行的二元論的想像可能被誇大了;在頭腦中的極端禁慾它有時是誇張點的放置也形成鮮明對比的“肉”和“精神” , “野獸”和“天使” ,在我們。

Psychological Monism tends to obliterate all distinction between body and soul.一元的心理往往抹殺所有區分身體和靈魂。

This it does in one of three ways.這它在三種方式之一。

(A) Monism of the materialistic type reduces the soul to matter or material conditions, and thus, in effect, denies that there is any distinction between soul and body. (甲)一元的物質類型減少了靈魂的物質或物質條件,因此,實際上,否認有任何區別的靈魂和身體。 The Stoics described the soul as a part of the material world-substance; the Epicureans held that it is a compound of material atoms; modern Materialism knows no substantial soul except the nervous system; Cabanis, for instance, proclaims his materialism in the well-known Crude formula: "The brain digests impressions, and organically secretes thought." Psychological materialism, as metaphysical materialism, closes its eyes to those phenomena of the soul which it cannot explain, or even denies that such phenomena exist. Stoics描述的靈魂的一部分物質世界物質;的Epicureans舉行,它是一個複合材料的原子;現代唯物主義知道沒有實質性的靈魂,但神經系統;卡巴尼斯,例如,宣布他的唯物主義的福祉眾所周知原油公式為: “腦消化展示,有機分泌的思想。 ”心理的唯物主義,作為形而上學的唯物主義,關閉它的眼睛對這些現象的靈魂它無法解釋,甚至否認這種現象的存在。

(B) Monism of the idealistic type takes an entirely opposite course. (乙)一元的理想類型需要一個完全相反的過程。 It reduces the body to mind or mental conditions.它減少了機構,以銘記或精神條件。 Some of the neo-Platonists held that all matter is non-existent, that our body is, therefore, an error on the part of our minds, and that the soul alone is the personality. John Scotus Eriugena, influenced by the neo-Platonists, held the body to be a resultant from incorporeal qualities which the soul, by thinking them and synthesizing them, creates into a body for itself.一些新Platonists舉行,所有的問題是不存在的,我們的身體,因此,錯誤的是我們的腦海中,而且單獨的靈魂是個性。約翰司各脫Eriugena ,受新Platonists舉行的機構是一個由無形由此素質的靈魂,他們的思維和綜合他們,創造成一個機構本身。 In modern times, Berkeley included the human body in his general denial of the reality of matter, and maintained that there are no substances except the soul and God.近代以來,包括伯克利人體一般在他拒絕的現實問題,並保持不存在任何物質以外的靈魂和上帝。 The grounds for this belief are epistemological.理由是這種信念的認識論。 Psychological Monism runs counter to common sense and experience.心理一元背道而馳的常識和經驗。 Historically, it is a reaction against materialism.從歷史上看,它是對唯物主義的反應。 To refute materialism it is not necessary to deny that the body is a reality.駁斥唯物論,沒有必要否認該機構是一個現實。 The unreflecting dualism of common sense and the scientific dualism which the Scholastics built on the facts of experience steer a safe and consistent course between the hasty generalization of the Materialist, who sees nothing but body, and the bold paradox of the Idealist, who recognizes no reality except mind. unreflecting二元論的常識和科學的二元Scholastics建立在事實的經驗,帶領一個安全的和一貫的課程之間的倉促概括的唯物主義,誰認為只是身體,大膽的自相矛盾的理想主義者,誰也不承認任何但考慮到現實。

(C) A third kind of psychological Monism goes by the name of psychophysical parallelism. ( c )第三樣的心理一元的推移的名字心理平行。 It maintains two principles, the one negative and the other affirmative.它堅持兩個原則,一個負面和其他扶持。 First, it denies categorically that there is, or can be, any direct causal influence of the soul on the body or of the body on the soul: our thoughts cannot produce the movements of our muscles, neither can the action of light on the retina produce in us the "thought" of a colour. Secondly, it affirms in some shape or form that both the body and the soul are phases of something else, that this something evolves its activities along two parallel lines, the physical and the psychical, so that the thought, for instance, of moving my hand is synchronous with the motion of my hand, without one in any way influencing the other.首先,它斷然否認有,也可以,任何直接的因果影響的靈魂的身體或身體上的靈魂:我們的思想不能產生運動的肌肉,也不能採取行動,鑑於在視網膜上我們生產的“思想”的一種顏色。其次,它肯定在某些形式的這兩個身體和靈魂的階段別的,這東西的發展及其活動沿著兩條平行線,物理和心理,這樣的思想,例如,移動我的手是同步的運動,我的手,沒有人以任何方式影響其他。 This is the doctrine of Occasionalists who, like Malebranche, maintain that the union of the soul and body "consists in a mutual and natural correspondence of the thoughts of the soul with the processes of the brain, and of the emotions of the soul with the movements of the animal spirits" (Rech. de la Vérité, II, v).這是理論Occasionalists誰,像馬勒伯朗士,維持該聯盟的靈魂和身體“包括在與自然的相互對應的思想靈魂的過程中大腦和情緒的靈魂與運動動物精神“ ( Rech.德拉魯阿真理,二,五) 。 It is the doctrine of Spinoza, whose metaphysical Monism compelled him to hold that body and soul are merely aspects of the one substance, God, under the attributes extension and thought, but that they unfold their modes of activity in a manner preordained to correspondence (Eth., II, ii, schol.).這是斯賓諾莎主義,形而上學的一元迫使他認為,身體和靈魂僅僅是問題的實質內容之一,上帝,按照屬性延伸和思想,但他們的方式開展活動的方式,以信函注定(乙醇。 ,二,二,學校。 ) 。 Leibniz meets the difficulty in his own characteristic way by teaching that all monads are partly material and partly immaterial, and that among all monads and their activities there exists a pre-established harmony (see LEIBNIZ; MONAD).萊布尼茨難以滿足自己特點的教學方式,所有monads的部分物質和非物質的部分,並在所有monads和他們的活動存在著一個預先確定的和諧(見萊布尼茨;單子) 。 In the so-called Identitätsphilosophic of some German Transcendentalists, such as Schelling, reality is mind in so far as it is active, and matter in so far as it is passive; mind and matter are, therefore, two harmonious, but independent, series of phases of reality.在所謂的Identitätsphilosophic一些德國Transcendentalists ,如謝林,現實情況是考慮到在迄今因為它是積極的,而且此事至今因為它是被動的;思想和問題,因此,兩個和諧,但獨立,系列階段的現實。 Fechner's view is similar: he holds that the reality pervading the whole universe is at once physical and psychical, that the physical is the "exterior" and the psychical the "interior", or "inner", side of reality, and that the body and soul in man are but one instance of a parellelism which prevails everywhere in nature.費希納的觀點是相似的:他認為普遍存在的現實整個宇宙是一次身體和心理,認為身體是“外部”和心理的“內部”或“內” ,一邊的現實,該機構和靈魂的人只不過是一個實例的parellelism各地普遍存在的性質。 Paulsen ("Introd. to Phil.", tr. Thilly, 87 sqq.) holds that "two propositions are contained in the theory of parallelism: (I) Physical processes are never effects of psychical processes; (2) Psychical processes are never effects of physical processes."保爾森( “簡介。向菲爾。 ”文。 Thilly , 87 sqq 。 )認為, “兩個命題中包含的理論並行: (一)物理過程是沒有影響的心理過程; ( 2 )心理過程是永遠影響的物理過程。 “ He adopts Fechner's panpsychism, maintaining that "everything corporeal points to something else, an inner, intelligible element, a being for itself, which is akin to what we experience within ourselves".他通過費希納panpsychism ,堅持認為“一切有形點別的,內,明了的因素,一個是為自己,這是類似於我們自己的經驗” 。 Both the corporeal and the "inner" are parts of the universal system, which is the body of God, and, though they do not interact, they act in such a way that harmony results.無論是有形的和“內在”的部分普遍制度,這是機構的上帝,但他們不互動,他們採取這樣的方式和諧的結果。

Herbert Spencer uses the word parallelism in a slightly different sense: the separate impressions of the senses and the stream of inner conscious states must be adjusted by the activity of the mind, if the two series are to be of any use to the developing or evolving animal or man; that is, there must be a parallelism between a certain physical evolution and the correlative psychical evolution" (Principles of Psych., n. 179), while both mind and matter are mere "symbols of some form of Power absolutely and forever unknown to us" (op. cit., n. 63). This idea finds favour among the evolutionists generally, and has one distinct advantage: it obviates the necessity of explaining many phenomena of mind which could not be accounted for by the principles of materialistic evolution. Thus, under the name "double-aspect theory" it is adopted by Clifford, Bain, Lewes, and Huxley. Among empirical psychologists parallelism has been found satisfactory as a "working hypothesis". Experience, it is maintained, tells us nothing of a substantial soul that acts on the body and is acted upon. It does tell us, however, that psychical states are apparently conditioned by bodily states, and that states of body apparently influence states of mind. For the purposes of science, conclude the empiricists, it is enough to maintain as an empirical formula that the two streams of activity are, so to speak, parallel, though never confluent. There is no need to ground the formula on any universal metaphysical theory, such as the pan-psychism of Fechner and Paulsen. lt is enough that, as Wundt points out, the facts of experience establish a correspondence between physical and psychical, while the dissimilarity of the physical and the psychical precludes the possibility of one being the cause of the other. To all these parallelistic explanations of the relations between soul and body the Scholastic dualists take exception. First, the scholastics call attention to the verdict of experience. Up to a certain point, the facts of experience are capable of a parallelistic, as well as of a dualistic, explanation. But when we come to consider the unity of consciousness, which is a fact of experience, we find that the theory of parallelism breaks down, and the only explanation that holds is that of dualists, who maintain the substantiality of the soul. Secondly, if the parallelistic theory be true, what, ask the Scholastic dualists, becomes of the freedom of the will and moral responsibility? If our mental and bodily states are not to be referred to an immediate personal subject, but are considered phases or aspects of a universal substance, a cosmic soul, mind-stuff, or unknown "form of Power", it is not easy to see in what sense the will can be free, and man be held responsible for his mental or bodily acts.赫伯特斯賓塞使用的文字並行情況略有不同意義:單獨展示的感官和內流的意識,國家就必須調整的活動考慮到,如果這兩個系列要使用的任何向發展中國家或發展動物或人,也就是說,必須有一個平行某些物理演化及相關的心理演變“ (原則心理。 ,北179 ) ,同時考慮到與物質僅僅是”象徵的某種形式的權力絕對和永遠不知道的我們“ (同前。 ,注63 ) 。這種想法認為贊成的evolutionists普遍,並有一個明顯的優勢:它省卻了必要的解釋許多現象的心態不能佔的原則的唯物主義的演變。因此,根據名稱為“雙方面的理論”這是通過的克利福德,貝恩,劉易斯和赫胥黎。心理學家在平行的經驗發現了令人滿意的“工作假設” 。經驗,這是保持,告訴我們沒有任何實質性的靈魂行為的機構和採取行動。它告訴我們,但是,心理狀態顯然是受制於身體狀態,而且身體狀態明顯影響國家的心態。為了科學,結束empiricists ,這是足以維持作為一個經驗公式,這兩個流活動的,可以這麼說,平行,但從來沒有合流。無需地面上的公式任何普遍形而上學的理論,如泛psychism的費希納和保爾森。毒素是不夠的,因為馮特所指出的那樣,事實的經驗,建立一個對應關係身體和心理,而相異的身體和心理排除了一個是事業的其他。要所有這些parallelistic解釋之間關係的靈魂和身體的二元論者的學術採取例外。首先, scholastics呼籲關注判決的經驗。直至某一點,事實的經驗,有能力的parallelistic ,以及一個二元,解釋。但是,當我們應該考慮的團結意識,這是一個事實的經驗,我們發現,理論的並行打破了,唯一的解釋,認為是二元論,誰維護實體的靈魂。其次,如果parallelistic理論是真實的,結果是什麼,要求學校的二元論,成為自由的意志和道義上的責任?如果我們的精神和身體狀態並不被稱為立即個人問題,而是被視為階段或各方面的普遍物質,宇宙的靈魂,精神的東西,或未知的“形式的權力” ,這是不容易看到在什麼意義上說,將可以免費的,而且人被追究責任他的精神或身體上的行為。

In a minor sense the word monism is sometimes used in psychology to designate the doctrine that there is no real distinction between the soul and its faculties.在一個小常識這個詞論有時被用來在指定心理學的理論,沒有真正區分的靈魂和學院。 Psychological dualism holds that soul and body are distinct, though incomplete, substances.心理二元論認為,靈魂和身體是不同的,但不完整的,物質。 But how about the soul itself?但如何對自己的靈魂? Plato's doctrine that it has three parts has had very little following in philosophy.柏拉圖的學說,它分為三個部分已經很少下列哲學。 Aristotle distinguished between the substance of the soul and its powers (dynameis), or faculties, and bequeathed to the Schoolmen the problem whether these faculties are really, or only notionally, distinct from the soul itself.亞里士多德區分內容的靈魂和它的權力( dynameis ) ,或學院,和留下的問題Schoolmen這些科系是否真的,或只是名義上的,獨特的靈魂本身。 Those who favour the real distinction are sometimes called pluralists in psychology, and their opponents, who say that the distinction is nominal or, at most, notional, are sometimes called psychological Monists.這些誰真正有利於區別有時被稱作pluralists心理學,他們的對手,誰說,區別是名義上的,或者,最多的名義,有時被稱作心理Monists 。 The question is decided by inferences from the facts of consciousness.現在的問題是決定的推論的事實意識。 Those who hold real distinction of function argue that this is sufficient ground for a real distinction of faculties.這些誰擁有真正的區分功能認為這是足夠的理由,一個真正的區分院系。

IV.四。 IN EPISTEMOLOGY在認識論

As in psychology, Monism is used in various senses to signify, in a general way, the antithesis of dualism.如心理學,一元是用於各種感官,以表明,在一般方式,二元對立的。 The Dualist in epistemology agrees with the ordinary observer, who distinguishes both in theory and in practice between "things" and "thoughts".在二元認識論同意普通的觀察員,誰區別都在理論和實踐之間的“東西”和“思想” 。 Common sense, or unreflecting consciousness, takes things generally to be what they seem.常識,或unreflecting意識,考慮的事情通常是,他們似乎什麼。 It acts on the conviction that the internal world of our thoughts corresponds with the external world of reality.它行為的信念,即內部世界的對應我們的想法與外部世界的現實。 The philosophical dualist questions the extent and accuracy of that correspondence; he learns from psychology that many instances of so-called immediate perception have in them a large share of interpretation, and are, in so far, referable to the activity of the mind.二元的哲學問題的程度和準確性的函件;得知他從心理學的許多情況下所謂的直接感受他們已在相當大的解釋,並在迄今為止,參考的活動的想法。 Nevertheless, he sees no reason to quarrel with the general verdict of common sense that there is a world of reality outside us, as well as a world of representation within us, and that the latter corresponds in a measure to the former.不過,他認為沒有理由吵架的一般判決的常識,有對現實世界以外的我們,以及世界的代表性我們,後者對應措施前。 He distinguishes, therefore, between subject and object, between self and not-self, and holds that the external world exists.他區分,因此,在主體與客體之間的自我,而不是自我,並認為外部世界存在。 The Monist in one way or another eliminates the objective from the field of reality, obliterates the distinction between self and not-self, and denies that the external world is real.一元中的一種或另一種方式消除了客觀的來自外地的現實,塗區分自我,而不是自我,並否認外部世界是真實的。 Sometimes he takes the ground of idealism, maintaining that thoughts are things, that the only reality is perception, or rather, that a thing is real only in the sense that it is perceived, esse est percipi.有時,他需要在地面的唯心論,堅持思想外,唯一的現實是觀念,或者更確切地說,這事是真實的唯一的意義,這是知覺,存在就是感知。 He scornfully rejects the view of naïve realism, refers with contempt to the copy-theory (the view that our thoughts represent things) and is rather proud of the fact that he is in conflict with common sense.他輕蔑地拒絕鑑於天真現實主義,是指與蔑視的複製理論(認為我們的想法代表外)和相當自豪的是,他是在衝突的常識。 Sometimes he is a solipsist, holding that self alone exists, that the existence of not-self is an illusion, and that the belief in the existence of other minds than our own is a vulgar error.有時,他是一個惟,認為單靠自身存在的存在不是自我是一種幻想,而且相信存在的其他頭腦比我們自己是一個庸俗的錯誤。 Sometimes, finally, he is an acosmist: he denies that the external world exists except in so far as it is thought to exist: or he affirms that we create our own external world out of our own thoughts.有時,最後,他是一個acosmist :他否認外部世界的存在,除非到目前為止,因為它被認為存在:或者他申明,我們創造我們自己的外部世界在我們自己的想法。

However, the classical forum of epistemological Monism at the present time is known as Absolutism.然而,傳統的認識論論壇一元目前被稱為絕對。 Its fundamental tenet is metaphysical monism of the purely idealistic type.其基本宗旨是形而上學論的純粹的理想類型。 It holds that both subject and object are merely phases of an abstract, unlimited, impersonal consciousness called the Absolute; that neither things nor thoughts have any reality apart from the Absolute.它認為,這兩個主體與客體只是階段的一個抽象的,無限制的,所謂的客觀意識絕對;的是,無論事情的想法也不現實有任何除了絕對的。 It teaches that the universe is a rational and systematic whole, consisting of an intellectual "ground" and multiform "appearances" of that ground, one appearance being what the Realist calls things, and another what the Realist calls thoughts.它教導我們,宇宙是一個合理和有系統的整體,組成一個知識“地面”和多種形式的“外表”的地面,正在出現一個什麼現實要求外,另一個是現實主義要求的想法。 This is the doctrine of the Hegelians, from Hegel himself down to his latest representatives, Bradley and McTaggart.這是理論的黑格爾派,從黑格爾本人到他的最新代表,布拉德利和McTaggart 。 All these forms of epistemological Monism - namely, idealism, solipsism, acosmism, and absolutism - have, of course, metaphysical bearings, and sometimes rest on metaphysical foundations. Nevertheless, historically speaking, they are traceable to a psychological assumption which is, and always will be, the dividing line between Dualism and Monism in epistemology.所有這些形式的認識論的一元-即唯心論,唯我, a cosmism和專制主義-當然,形而上學的軸承,有時休息形而上學的基礎。儘管如此,歷史上說,他們追查到心理的假設是,總是將,之間的分界線二元和一元的認識論。 The Dualists, in their analysis of the act of knowing, call attention to the fact that in every process of perception the object is immediately given.的二元論,他們分析行為的了解,請注意一個事實,即在每一個進程的看法對象是立即給予。 It seems like emphasizing the obvious to say so, yet it is precisely on this point that the whole question turns.好像強調了明顯這樣說,但正是在這一點上,整個問題輪流。 What I perceive is not a sensation of whiteness but a white object.我認為不是一個白的感覺,但一個白色物體。 What I taste is not the sensation of sweetness but a sweet substance.我不是味道的感覺甜味,但甜物質。 No matter how much the activity of the mind may elaborate, synthesize, or reconstruct the data of sense-perception, the objective reference cannot be the result of any such subjective activity; for it is given originally in consciousness.不管有多少的活動銘記可能制訂,合成,或重建的數據意義的看法,客觀的參考不能因任何此類主觀活動;因為它是在原來的意識。 On the contrary, the Monist starts with the idealistic assumption that what we perceive is the sensation.相反,一元起價的理想化的假設,我們認為是轟動。 Whatever objective reference the sensation has in our consciousness is conferred on it by the activity of the mind.無論客觀參考的感覺已經在我們的意識是賦予它的活動的想法。 The objective is, therefore, reducible to the subjective; things are thoughts; we make our world.其目標是,因此,還原的主觀;事情的想法,我們使我們的世界。 In the dualist's analysis there is immediate, presentative contact in consciousness between the subject and the object.在二元的分析,有直接,表象的意識接觸之間的主體和客體。 In the Monist's account of the matter there is a chasm between subject and object which must be bridged over somehow.在一元的賬戶的問題有一個差距主體與客體必須在某種程度上彌補。 The problem of Dualism or Monism in epistemology depends, therefore, for solution on the question whether perception is presentative or representative; and the dualist, who holds the presentative theory, seems to have on his side the verdict of introspective psychology as well as the approval of common sense.這個問題的二元或一元的認識論依賴,因此,解決問題的看法是否是表象或代表,以及二元,誰擁有的表象理論,似乎已經對他身邊的判決內省心理學以及批准共同的意義。

In recent Pragmatist contributions to epistemology there is presented a different view of epistemological Monism from that given in the preceeding paragraphs, and a solution is offered which differs entirely from that of traditional dualism.在最近實用主義認識論的貢獻是提出了不同的看法從認識論的一元,考慮到前幾段,並提供解決方案是完全不同的從傳統的二元論。 In William James's works, for instance, Monism is described as that species of Absolutism which "thinks that the all-form or collective-unit form is the only form that is rational", while opposed to it is Pluralism, that is, the doctrine that "the each-form is an eternal form of reality no less than it is the form of temporal appearance" (A Pluralistic Universe, 324 sqq.).在威廉詹姆斯的作品,例如,一元被描述為這一物種的絕對的“認為,一切形式的或集體單位的形式是唯一的形式,是合理的” ,而反對它的多元化,這就是學說說: “每個形式是一個永恆形式的現實不低於它的形式出現時” (多元化的宇宙, 324 sqq 。 ) 。 The multitude of "each-forms" constitute, not a chaos, but a cosmos, because they are "inextricably interfused" into a system.眾多的“每個表格”構成,而不是混亂,而是一個宇宙,因為他們是“不可分割的interfused ”成一個系統。 The unity, however, which exists among the "each-forms" of reality is not an integral unity nor an articulate or organic, much less a logical, unity.團結,但是,這之間存在著“每個表格”的現實是沒有一個不可分割的統一,也不是一個闡明或有機,更合乎邏輯的,統一。 It is a unity "of the strung-along type, the type of continuity, contiguity, or concatenation" (op. cit., 325).這是一個團結“的發呆沿類型,類型的持續性,連續性,或串連” (同前。 , 325 ) 。 Into this unfinished universe, into this stream of successive experiences, the subject steps at a certain moment.這個未完成的宇宙,這個流歷屆的經驗,這個問題的步驟,在一定的時刻。 By a process which belongs, not to logic, but to life, which exceeds logic, he connects up these experiences into a concatenated series.通過這一過程屬於,而不是邏輯,而是生活的,超過的邏輯,他連接了這些經驗,串連成一個系列。 In other words, he strings the single beads on a string, not of thought, but of the practical needs and purposes of life.換言之,他的單串上珠子串,而不是思想,而是實際需要和宗旨的生活方式。 Thus the subject makes his own world, and, really, we are not any better off than if we accepted the verdict of the intellectualistic Idealist.因此,這一主題提出自己的世界,真的,我們沒有任何更好的比,如果我們接受了判決intellectualistic的理想主義者。 We have merely put the practical reason in place of the theoretical: so far as the value of knowledge is concerned the antithesis between Monism and Pluralism is more apparent than real, and the latter is as far from the saneness of realistic Dualism as the former.我們只是把實際到位的原因的理論:只要知識的價值而言的對立面之間的一元和多元是明顯的現實,後者是因為遠離saneness現實的二元論,因為前者。 It is true that the Pluralist admits, in a sense, the existence of the external world; but so also does the Absolutist.的確,多元承認,從某種意義上講,存在著外部世界; ,但也沒有絕對。 The trouble is that neither admits it in a sense which would save the distinction between subject and object.麻煩的是既不承認,在某種意義上這將節省區分主體和客體。 For the Pluralist as well as the Monist is entangled in the web of subjective Idealism as soon as he favours the doctrine that perception is representative, not presentative.對於多元,以及一元是糾纏在網上的主觀唯心主義盡快贊成他的理論,具有代表性的看法,而不是表象。

V. IN COSMOLOGY五,在宇宙學

The central question is the origin of the universe.中心問題是宇宙的起源。 The early Ionian philosophers assigned, as the cause or principle (arche is the Aristotelian word) of the universe, a substance which is at once the material out of which the universe is made and the force by which it was made.早期伊奧尼亞哲學家分配,因為事業或原則(本原是亞里士多德語)的宇宙,物質這是一次物質,其中的宇宙是和部隊,其中有人。 As Aristotle says, they failed to distinguish between the material cause and the efficient cause.正如亞里士多德說,他們沒有區分材料事業和高效率的事業。 They were, therefore, dynamists and hylozoists.他們因此, dynamists和hylozoists 。 That is, they held matter to be of its nature active, and endowed with life.也就是說,他們舉行了此事的積極性,並賦予了生命。 Without the aid of any extrinsic force, they said, the original substance, by a process of thickening and thinning, or by quenching and kindling, or in some other immanent way, gave rise to the universe as we now see it.沒有任何援助的外在力量,他們說,原來的內容,進程的增厚和變薄,或淬火和點燃,或在其他一些內在的方式,引起了宇宙,我們現在看到它。 This primitive cosmothetic Monism gradually gave way to a dualistic conception of the origin of the world.這種原始的一元cosmothetic逐漸讓位給一種雙重概念的起源世界。 Tentatively at first, and then more decisively, the later Ionians introduced the notion of a primitive force, distinct from matter, which fashioned the universe out of the primordial substance.暫定在第一,然後更果斷,後來Ionians介紹的概念,一種原始的力量,有別於問題,形成了宇宙的原始物質。 Anaxagoras it was, who, by clearly defining this force and describing it as mind (nous), earned the encomium of being the "first of the ancient philosophers who spoke sense".阿那克薩哥拉是,誰,通過明確界定這股力量和描述它銘記(靜脈) ,贏得了encomium成為“第一個古代哲人誰以意義” 。 Dualism, thus introduced, withstood the onslaughts of materialistic Atomism and Epicureanism, pantheistic Stoicism and emanationistic neo-Platonism.二元論,從而介紹,頂住攻擊的唯物主義的原子論和享樂主義, pantheistic堅忍和emanationistic新柏拉圖。 It was developed by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who brought to their description of the world-forming process a higher notion of cosmothetic mind than the pre-Socratic philosophers possessed. It was left for the Christian philosophers of Alexandria and their successors, the Scholastics of medieval times, to elaborate the doctrine of creation ex nihilo, and thus bring out more clearly the rôle played by the Divine Power and Will in the formation of the universe.它是由蘇格拉底,柏拉圖,亞里士多德,是誰把他們描述的世界形成過程更高的概念cosmothetic銘記比前蘇格拉底哲學家擁有。有人離開基督教哲學家亞歷山大及其繼承人,在Scholastics的中世紀時代,擬訂的理論創造無中生有,從而更清楚地所發揮的作用神聖的權力和意志的形成宇宙。 The order, harmony, and purposiveness evident everywhere in nature are cited by the creationists as evidence to show that mind must have presided at the origination of things.該命令,和諧,和針對性到處可見的性質所列舉的creationists的證據表明,考慮到必須有主持的起源的事情。 Furthermore, the question of dynamism or mechanism hinges on the problem of the nature of matter. This phase of the question has been developed especially in post-Cartesian philosophy, some maintaining that matter is essentially inert and must, therefore, have acquired force and activity from without, while others as stoutly maintain that matter is by nature active and, consequently, may have developed its own force from within.此外,問題的活力或機制,取決於問題的性質問題。這一階段的問題制定了特別是在後笛卡爾哲學,一些保持這一問題基本上是惰性的,因此必須具備力量和活動從沒有,而其他如堅決維護這一問題本質上是積極的,因此,可以開發自己的力量從內部。 Evolution of the thorough going type takes the latter view.演變型徹底將採取後一種觀點。 It holds that in the primitive cosmic matter was contained "the power and potency" of all life and movement, in such a way that no external agent was required in order to bring it to actual existence.它認為,在原始的宇宙此事載“的力量和潛力”的所有生命和運動,以這樣一種方式,任何外部代理人需要,以便使實際存在。 Here, as in the question of Theism, Christian philosophy is frankly dualistic, although it acknowledges that, since actuality antecedes potency by nature and, as a matter of fact, the world originated in time, while God is eternal, there was, before creation, but One Reality.在這裡,在有神論的問題,基督教哲學是二元坦率,但它承認,因為現狀antecedes效力的性質,事實上,世界起源的時間,而上帝是永恆的,但之前,創造,而是一個現實。

VI.六。 IN ETHICS道德建設

The word Monism is very little used.字一元很少使用。 In some German works it is employed to designate the doctrine that the moral law is autonomous.在一些德國工程是受僱於指定的理論,道德法律是自發的。 Christian ethics is essentially heteronomic: it teaches that all law, even natural law, emanates from God.基督教倫理基本上是heteronomic :它教導我們,所有的法律,甚至自然法則,來自上帝。 Kantian ethics and Evolutionistic ethics hold that the moral law is either self-imposed or emanates from the moral sense which is a product of the struggle for existence.康德道德和Evolutionistic道德認為,法律是道德或是自我強加的,或來自道德感這是一個產品的生存鬥爭。 In both the Kantian and the Evolutionistic systems there is only one source of the power of moral discrimination and approval.無論是康德和Evolutionistic系統只有一個來源的力量道義上的歧視和批准。 For this reason the word Monism is here used in its generic sense.為此,這個詞在這裡一元是用於其一般意義。 In English philosophical literature, however, the word has no such signification.在英語哲學文學,然而,這個詞已經沒有這樣的意義。 In accounting for the origin of evil, a problem which, though it belongs to metaphysics, has important bearings on ethical questions, some philosophers have adopted a Dualistic doctrine and explained that good and evil originate from two distinct principles, the one supremely good, the other completely and absolutely evil.在會計的起源邪惡的,這個問題,但它屬於形而上學,具有重要的軸承的倫理問題,一些哲學家通過了二元理論,並解釋說,善惡來自兩個不同的原則,一個超級好,其他完全和絕對的罪惡。 This was the doctrine of the ancient Persians, from whom it was borrowed by Manes, the founder of the Manichean sect.這是理論的古代波斯人,從他們這是借的馬的創始人,摩尼教節。 Opposed to this is the Monistic view, that God is indeed the cause of all that is good in the universe, and that evil is not to be assigned to any supreme cause distinct from God.反對這是一元認為,這確實是上帝的事業所有,這是一個好在宇宙中,而不是邪惡的將分配給任何事業最高有別於上帝。 Whatever explanation be given of the existence of evil in the world, it is maintained that a supreme principle of evil is utterly impossible and even inconceivable.無論給予解釋的存在,邪惡的世界,這是保持一個最高原則的邪惡是完全不可能的,甚至不可想像的。

VII.七。 CONTEMPORARY MONISTIC MOVEMENTS AND SCHOOLS當代一元運動和學校

In current philosophical literature, whenever no special qualification is added, Monism generally means the modified materialistic monism of Haeckel.在當前的哲學文獻,只要沒有特別的限定是說,一元一般是指經修改的唯物主義一元論的海克爾。 Modern materialistic Monism in Germany begins with Feuerbach, a disciple of Hegel. Feuerbach was followed by Vogt and Moleschott.現代唯物主義一元開始在德國與費爾巴哈,弟子黑格爾。費爾巴哈其次是小柳和Moleschott 。 To these succeeded Haeckel, who combines Darwinian evolution with a materialistic interpretation of Spinoza and Bruno.這些成功海克爾,誰把達爾文的演化與唯物主義的解釋斯賓諾莎和布魯諾。 Haeckel's works, both in the original and in English translations, have had a wide circulation, their popularity being due rather to the superficial manner in which Haeckel disposes of the most serious questions of metaphysics than to any intrinsic excellence of content or method.海克爾的作品,無論是在原始和英文翻譯,產生了廣泛流通,其受歡迎程度是由於相當的膚淺的方式處置海克爾的最嚴重問題的形而上學,而不是任何內在優秀的內容或方法。 Haeckel is honorary president of the Monistenbund (Society of Monists), founded at Jena in 1906, for the purpose of propagating the doctrines of Monism.海克爾是名譽會長Monistenbund (社會Monists ) ,在耶拿創立於1906年,目的是傳播理論的一元。 The society is openly anti-Christian, and makes active warfare against the Catholic Church.社會是公開的反基督教,並提出積極的戰天主教。 Its publications, "Der Monist" (a continuation of the "Freie Glocken" - first number, 1906), "Blätter des deutschen Monistenbunds" (first number, July, 1906), and various pamphlets (Flugblätter des Monistenbunds), are intended to be a campaign against Christian education and the union of Church and State. The group of writers in America who, under the editorship of Dr. Paul Carus, have been identified with the "Monist" (Chicago, monthly, first number, Jan., 1891) are not, apparently, actuated by the same animosity against Christianity. Nevertheless, they hold Haeckel's fundamental tenet that Monism as a system of philosophy transcends Christianity as a form of belief, and is the only rational synthesis of science and religion.它的出版物, “明鏡一元” (繼續進行“自由Glocken ” -第一個數字, 1 906年) , “布拉特德意志M onistenbunds” (第一個數字, 7月, 1 906年) ,以及各種小冊子( F lugblätter萬M onistenbunds) ,旨在是一場對基督教教育和工會的教會和國家。小組的作家在美國誰下的編輯保羅博士卡魯斯,已確定了“一元” (芝加哥,每月第一個數字, 1月, 1891年)沒有,很明顯,驅動由同一仇視基督教。儘管如此,他們舉行海克爾的基本原則是一元作為一個系統的哲學超越了基督教作為一種信仰,並且是唯一合理的綜合科學與宗教。 "Religious progress no less than scientific progress", writes Carus, "is a process of growth as well as a cleansing from mythology. . . . Religion is the basis of ethics. . . . The ideal of religion is the same as that of science, it is a liberation of the mythological elements and its aim is to rest upon a concise but exhaustive statement of facts" (Monism, Its Scope and Import, 8, 9). “宗教的進展不少於科學的進步” ,卡魯斯寫道, “是一個過程的增長,以及清洗從神話。 。 。 。宗教的基礎是道德。 。 。 。理想的宗教是一樣的科學,它是一個解放的神話內容,其目的是要立足於簡潔,但詳盡的事實陳述“ (一元,其範圍和進口, 8日, 9日) 。 This "concise but exhaustive statement of facts" is positive Monism, the doctrine, namely, that the whole of reality constitutes one inseparable and indivisible entirety.這種“簡潔,但詳盡的事實陳述”是積極的一元,理論,即整個現實構成一個不可分割的和不可分割的整體。 Monism is not the doctrine that one substance alone, whether it be mind or matter, exists: such a theory, says Dr. Carus, is best designated as Henism.是不是一元的理論,一個單獨的實質內容,無論是想法或問題,是否存在:這種理論,卡魯斯博士說,最好是指定為Henism 。 True Monism "bears in mind that our words are abstracts representing parts or features of the One and All, and not separate existences" (op. cit., 7).真一元“考慮到我們的話代表摘錄部分或特點之一和所有,而不是單獨的存在” (同前。 , 7 ) 。 This Monism is Positivistic, because its aim is "the systematisation of knowledge, that is, of a description of facts" (ibid.).這是一元實證,因為它的目的是“ systematisation的知識,即說明事實” (同上) 。 "Radical free thought" is the motto of this school of Monism; at the same time, it disclaims all sympathy with destructive Atheism, Agnosticism, Materialism, and Negativism in general. “激進自由思考”的座右銘是這個學校的一元;在同一時間,它放棄一切破壞性的同情與無神論,不可知論,唯物主義,並否定一般。 Nevertheless, the untrained student of philosophy will be likely to be more profoundly influenced by the Monistic criticism of Christianity than by the constructive effort to put something in place of the errors referred to.然而,未受過訓練的學生的哲學將可能會更加深刻的影響,一元的批評比基督教的建設性努力,在一些地方的錯誤提及。

All Monism may be described as resulting from the tendency of the human mind to discover unitary concepts under which to subsume the manifold of experience.所有的一元可稱為造成的傾向人的頭腦發現統一的概念下,以包含多方面的經驗。 So long as we are content to take and preserve the world of our experience as we find it, with all its manifoldness, variety, and fragmentation, we are in the condition of primitive man, and little better than brute animals.只要我們採取的內容和維護世界的經驗,我們認為,其所有manifoldness ,品種,和分裂,我們的條件原始人,並略優於野蠻的動物。 As soon as we begin to reflect on the data of the senses, we are led by an instinct of our rational nature to reduce manifold effects to the unity of a causal concept. This we first do in the scientific plane.當我們開始對反映的數據的意義上講,我們是由本能的合理性,以減少多方面影響的統一的因果概念。這是我們第一次做的科學飛機。 Afterwards, carrying the process to a higher plane, we try to unify these under philosophical categories, such as substance and accident, matter and force, body and mind, subject and object.此後,執行的過程向更高飛機,我們嘗試以統一的哲學根據這些類別,如物質,意外,問題和力量,身體和精神,主體與客體。 The history of philosophy, however, shows with unmistakable clearness that there is a limit to this unifying process in philosophy.歷史上的哲學,然而,與無誤的顯示清晰,有限制這一統一進程的哲學。 If Hegel were right, and the formula, "The rational alone is real", were true, then we should expect to be able to compass all reality with the mental powers which we possess.如果黑格爾是正確的,而且公式, “合理的是真正的獨立” ,是真的,那麼我們就應該將能夠羅盤所有的現實與精神的權力,我們擁有。 But, Christian philosophy holds, the real extends beyond the domain of the (finite) rational.但是,基督教哲學認為,真正的延伸的領域(有限)理性的。 Reality eludes our attempt to compress it within the categories which we frame for it.現實看不到我們嘗試壓縮它的類別內,我們為它。 Consequently, Dualism is often the final answer in philosophy; and Monism, which is not content with the partial synthesis of Dualism, but aims at an ideal completeness, often results in failure.因此,二元往往是最終的答案在哲學;和一元,這不是內容的部分合成的二元論,但目標是一個理想的完整性,結果往往以失敗告終。 Dualism leaves room for faith, and hands over to faith many of the problems which philosophy cannot solve.二元餘地的信念,並移交信仰許多哲學問題不能解決。 Monism leaves no room for faith.論留下任何餘地的信念。 The only mysticism that is compatible with it is rationalistic, and very different from that "vision" in which, for the Christian mystic, all the limitations, imperfections, and other shortcomings of our feeble efforts are removed by the light of faith.唯一的神秘主義是符合它是理性的,非常不同, “願景” ,其中,基督教神秘主義,所有的限制,不完善之處,和其他缺點的微弱努力消除鑑於信念。

Publication information Written by William Turner.出版信息撰稿威廉特納。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,卷十, 1911年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

See works referred to under METAPHYSICS; also, VEITCH, Dualism and Monism (London, 1895): WARD, Naturalism and Agnosticism (2 vols., London, 1899); ROYCE, The World and the Individual (New York, 1901); BAKEWELL, Pluralism and Monism in Philos.見工程所指的形而上學;也維奇,二元和一元(倫敦, 1895年) :區,自然主義和不可知論( 2第一卷和第二卷。 ,倫敦, 1899年) ;羅伊斯,世界和個人(紐約, 1901年) ;貝克韋爾,多元性和一元的哲學。 Rev., VII (1898), 355 sqq.; BOWEN, Dualism, Materialism or Idealism in Princeton Rev., I (1878), 423 sqq.; GURNEY, Monism in Mind, VI (1881), 153 sqq.; Articles in Monist (1891-); ADICKES, Kant contra Haeckel (Berlin, 1901); GUTBERLET, Der mechanische Monismus (Paderborn, 1893); ENGERT, Der naturalistiche Monismus Haeckels (Berlin, 1907); DREWS, Der Monismus (Leipzig, 1908); Articles by KLINIKE in Jahrbuch für Phil.牧師,第七章( 1898年) , 355 sqq 。 ;鮑文,二元論,唯物主義或唯心主義在普林斯頓牧師,我( 1878年) , 423 sqq 。 ;擔架,一元的心靈,第六章( 1881年) , 153 sqq 。 ;文章一元( 1891年-) ; A DICKES,康德禁忌海克爾(柏林, 1 901年) ; G UTBERLET,德國機械M onismus(帕德博恩, 1 893年) ; E NGERT,明鏡n aturalisticheM onismusH aeckels(柏林, 1 907年) ;德魯斯,明鏡M onismus(萊比錫, 1 908年) ;文章KLINIKE在年鑑獻給菲爾。 u.美國 Spek. Spek 。 Theol. Theol 。 (1905, 1906); MALTESE, Monismo e nichilismo (2 vols., Vittoria, 1887); ABATE, Il monismo nelle diverse forme (Catania, 1893); HAECKEL, Der Monismus als Band zwischen Religion und Wissenschaft, tr, GILCHRIST (London, 1894); IDEM, Die Welträthsel, tr. McCABE (London, 1900). ( 1905年, 1906年) ;馬耳他語, Monismo é nichilismo ( 2第一卷和第二卷。 ,維多利亞, 1887年) ;減弱,金正日monismo nelle不同形式(卡塔尼亞, 1893年) ;海克爾,德國Monismus帶zwischen作為宗教與科學,文,里斯特(倫敦, 1894 ) ;同上,模具Welträthsel ,文。麥凱布(倫敦, 1900年) 。 On Carus's School of Monism, besides The Monist (1891-) and The Open Court (pub. fortnightly, first number, Feb. 17, 1887), cf.在卡魯斯學院的一元,除了一元( 1891年-)和開放法院( p ub.半月刊,第一個數字, 1 887年2月1 7日) ,比照。 CARUS, Primer of Philosophy (Chicago. 1896); IDEM, Fundamental Problems (Chicago, 1894); IDEM, Monism, Its Scope and Import (Chicago. 1891).卡魯斯,引哲學( Chicago. 1896年) ;同上,基本問題(芝加哥, 1894年) ;同上,一元,其範圍和導入( Chicago. 1891年) 。


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在