Monasticism

General Information 一般信息

Monasticism (from the Greek monos, meaning "single" or "alone") usually refers to the way of life - communitarian or solitary - adopted by those individuals, male or female, who have elected to pursue an ideal of perfection or a higher level of religious experience through leaving the world.修(從希臘monos ,意思是“單”或“獨立” )通常指的是一種生活方式-集體或單獨-通過這些人,男性或女性,誰也當選為追求理想的完美或更高的水平宗教經驗離開世界。 Monastic orders historically have been organized around a rule or a teacher, the activities of the members being closely regulated in accordance with the rule adopted.寺院歷史上的訂單已舉辦了圍繞一個規則或教師,活動的成員正密切監管按照規則獲得通過。 The practice is ancient, having existed in India almost 10 centuries before Christ.這種做法是古老的,有在印度存在著近10個世紀公元前。 It can be found in some form among most developed religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism, the Sufi branch of Islam, and Christianity.它可以找到某種形式之間最發達的宗教:印度教,佛教,耆那教,道教,分行的蘇菲伊斯蘭教和基督教。 In the time of Christ, the Essenes at Qumran were Jewish monks.在時間的基督,愛色尼在昆蘭是猶太人僧侶。

Technically, monasticism embraces both the life of the hermit, characterized by varying degrees of extreme solitude, and the life of the cenobite, that is, the monk living in a community offering a limited amount of solitude.從技術上講,既包括修道生活的隱士,其特點是不同程度的極端孤獨和生活的cenobite ,這就是僧人生活在一個社會提供數量有限的孤獨。 Monasticism always entails Asceticism, or the practice of disciplined self - denial. This asceticism may include fasting, silence, a prohibition against personal ownership, and an acceptance of bodily discomfort.修總是需要禁慾主義,或實踐的紀律自我-否認。這項苦行可能包括禁食,沉默,禁止個人所有權,並接受身體不適。 Almost always it includes poverty, celibacy, and obedience to a spiritual leader.幾乎總是它包括貧困,獨身,並服從的精神領袖。 The goal of such practices is usually a more intense relationship with God, some type of personal enlightenment, or the service of God through prayer, meditation, or good works such as teaching or nursing.的目標這種做法通常是一個更加激烈與上帝的關係,某些類型的個人啟示,或天主服務的通過祈禱,打坐,或優秀作品,如教學或護理。

Christian monasticism began in the deserts of Egypt and Syria in the 4th century AD.基督教修道開始在沙漠的埃及和敘利亞在公元4世紀。 Saint Anthony the Great was connected with the first Egyptian hermits; Saint Pachomius (d. 346), with the first communities of cenobites in Egypt.聖安東尼大是與埃及的第一個隱士;聖帕科謬斯(草346 ) ,第一社區cenobites在埃及。 Saint Basil the Great (fl. 379), bishop of Caesarea, placed monasticism in an urban context by introducing charitable service as a work discipline.聖巴茲爾大( fl. 379 ) ,主教愷撒,把修道在城市範圍內通過引進慈善服務作為工作紀律。

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The organization of western monasticism is due primarily to Saint Benedict of Nursia (6th century), whose Benedictine rule formed the basis of life in most monastic communities until the 12th century.該組織的西部修道主要是由於聖本篤的努爾西亞( 6世紀) ,其本篤規則的基礎上形成的生活社區最寺院,直到12世紀。 Among the principal monastic orders that evolved in the Middle Ages were the Carthusians in the 11th century and the Cistercians in the 12th; the mendicant orders, or friars - Dominicans, Franciscans, and Carmelites - arose in the 13th century.各主要寺院發展訂單在中世紀的Carthusians在11世紀和熙在第12 ;的行乞的命令,或者修士-道明,方濟會,並C armelites-產生於1 3世紀。

Monasticism has flourished both in the Roman Catholic church and in the Eastern Orthodox churches from earliest Christian times to the present, being reformed and renewed periodically by dynamic individuals with new emphases or departures from current practice.修蓬勃發展在羅馬天主教和東正教教堂從最早的基督教時代到現在,正在改革和定期更新,動態的個人或新的重點偏離目前的做法。 Although Protestantism rejected monasticism in the 16th century, the Anglican church since the 19th century has sponsored a number of monastic orders.雖然拒絕修道新教在16世紀,英國聖公會教堂,因為19世紀已經主辦了一些寺院訂單。 In its present - day form, Christian monasticism is often adapted to the cultures or settings where it is located.在本-天的形式,基督教修道往往是適應文化或設置它的位置。 Buddhist monks, for their part, continue to play an important social as well as religious role in contemporary Southeast Asia and Japan.佛教僧侶而言,他們繼續發揮重要的社會以及宗教的作用,當代東南亞和日本。

Cyprian Davis塞浦路斯戴維斯

Bibliography 目錄
F Biot, The Rise of Protestant Monasticism (1961); H Dumoulin, and JC Maraldo, eds., Buddhism in the Modern World (1976); D Knowles, Christian Monasticism (1969); J Leclereq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture (1961); T Merton, The Monastic Journey, ed. F畢,在新教徒崛起修( 1961 ) ; H迪穆蘭,和JC Maraldo合編。 ,佛教在現代世界( 1976年) ; D諾爾斯,基督教修( 1969年) ; J Leclereq ,熱愛學習和慾望上帝:一個研究寺院文化( 1961年) ; Ť默頓,該寺院之旅,編輯。 by P Hart (1977), and The Silent Life (1975); DM Miller, and DC Wertz, Hindu Monastic Life (1976); E Nishimura, and G Sato, Unsul: A Diary of Zen Monastic Life (1973); MB Penningtonl, ed., One Yet Two: Monastic Tradition East and West (1976); JS Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam (1971); HB Workman, The Evolution of the Monastic Ideal (1913).以P哈特( 1977年) ,和沉默的生命( 1975年) ;馬克米勒和DC沃茨,印度教寺院生活( 1976年) ;電子郵件西村和G琢磨, Unsul :一個日記禪宗寺院生活( 1973年) ;甲基溴Penningtonl編。 ,一但兩個:寺院傳統的東方和西方( 1976年) ;江蘇Trimingham ,訂單的蘇菲在伊斯蘭教( 1971年) ;哈爾濱工人,的演變寺院理想( 1913年) 。


Monasticism

General Information 一般信息

Introduction導言

Monasticism, also monachism, is a mode of life practiced by persons who have abandoned the world for religious reasons and devote their lives, either separately or in community, to spiritual perfection.修,也monachism ,是一種生活模式的人實行誰已經放棄了世界宗教的原因,用他們的生命,單獨或在社會,精神完美。 The vows of celibacy, poverty, and obedience under which they live are termed the evangelical counsels.該發誓的獨身生活,貧窮和服從根據他們的生活被稱為福音律師。 A person bound by such vows is known as a religious (Latin religare,"to bind").一個人的約束,這種誓言被稱為宗教(拉丁文religare , “綁定” ) 。 A man who belongs to a monastic order is also called a monk.一名男子誰屬於一個寺院秩序也被稱為和尚。

History歷史

Forms of monasticism existed long before the birth of Jesus Christ.修道形式存在很久以前耶穌基督誕生的。 Among the Hindus, the laws of Manu provide that, after the rearing of a family, members of the three upper castes may retire to a hermit life and seek truth in contemplation.在印度教徒,法律的規定,馬努後,養育一個家庭成員,三高等種姓可能退休的隱居生活和追求真理的沉思。 Buddha created a monastic order, for which he drew up a set of rules that contain many analogies with the rules that were later instituted by Christian religious orders.佛寺院創造了一個命令,為他制定了一套規則,載有許多相似的規則,後來被提起的基督教宗教命令。 Among the Greeks the members of the Orphic brotherhood and the followers of Pythagoras showed marked tendencies toward the practice of monasticism.在希臘人的成員Orphic兄弟情誼和追隨者畢達哥拉斯明顯的趨勢走向實踐修道。 Among the Jews the communities of the Essenes had many of the characteristics of religious orders.在猶太人社區的愛色尼也有很多特點的宗教命令。 Later, among the followers of Islam, some communities of Sufis settled in monasteries as early as the 8th century AD.後來,在伊斯蘭教信徒,一些社區的蘇非派人解決寺廟早在公元8世紀。

The first Christian hermits seem to have established themselves on the shores of the Red Sea, where in pre-Christian times the Therapeutae, an order of Jewish ascetics, had been established. Not long afterward the desert regions of Upper Egypt became a retreat for those who fled from the persecutions of the Christians so frequent in the Roman Empire during the 3rd century, and for those who found the vices of the world intolerable.第一基督教隱士似乎已經確立了自己的海岸紅海,在那裡前基督教倍Therapeutae ,命令猶太人修行,已經成立。不久的沙漠地區的上埃及成為一個務虛會為那些誰逃離迫害的基督徒如此頻繁的羅馬帝國在3世紀,並為那些誰發現了罪惡的世界不能容忍的。 The earliest form of Christian monasticism was, probably, that of the anchorites or hermits; a later development is found in the pillar saints, called Stylites, who spent most of their time on the tops of pillars in order to separate themselves from the world and to mortify the flesh.最早的形式是基督教修道,也許,這就是anchorites或隱士;以後的發展中發現的支柱聖人,所謂Stylites ,誰度過大部分時間的頂部的支柱,以自己獨立的世界到腐壞的肉。 After a time, however, the necessities of the religious life itself led to modifications.經過一段時間,但是,生活必需品的宗教生活本身導致的修改。 In order to combine the personal seclusion of individuals with the common exercise of religious duties, the early hermits had an aggregation of separate cells called laura, to which they could retire after their communal duties had been discharged.為了把個人的個人隱居的共同行使宗教職責,早日隱士聚集了不同的細胞勞拉,因為他們可以退休後,社區的職責已出院。 From the union of the common life with personal solitude is derived the name cenobite (Greek koinos bios,"common life"), by which a certain class of monks is distinguished.從工會的共同生活是孤獨的個人所得的名稱cenobite (希臘koinos的BIOS , “共同生活” ) ,其中某些類別的僧人是傑出的。

St. Anthony, who embraced solitude, established himself at Alexandria, and the fame of his sanctity, as well as his gentleness and learning, drew many disciples to him.聖安東尼,誰擁抱孤獨,確立了自己在亞歷山大和他的成名神聖不可侵犯,以及他的溫柔和學習,並提請許多弟子給他。 Most of his followers accompanied him when he retired to the desert.他的大部分追隨者陪伴在他退役後的沙漠。 One of his disciples, St. Pachomius, who established a great monastery on an island in the Nile River, is regarded as the founder of the cenobitic manner of living.他的一位弟子,聖帕科謬斯,誰建立了一個偉大的寺院一座小島上尼羅河,被視為的創始人cenobitic的方式生活。 Pachomius drew up for his subjects a monastic rule, the first regulations of the kind on record. Many thousands of disciples flocked to him, and he founded several other monasteries for men and one for women under the direction of his sister.帕科謬斯制定了對他的臣民一寺院的規則,第一次那種規章的紀錄。成千上萬的信徒聚集在他,他成立若干其他寺廟的男子和一名婦女的指導下他的妹妹。 All of these houses recognized the authority of a single superior, an abbot or archimandrite.所有這些房屋公認的權威,一個單一的上級,一個住持或修士。 They constitute the original type of the religious order.它們構成的原始類型的宗教秩序。

The cenobitic form of monasticism was first introduced into the West at Rome and in Northern Italy by St. Athanasius, in central North Africa by St. Augustine, and in Gaul by St. Martin of Tours. The religious revival effected by St. Benedict of Nursia early in the 6th century gave Western monasticism its permanent form.該cenobitic形式的修道首次引入西方在羅馬和意大利北部的聖亞他那修,在中央北非的聖奧古斯丁,並在高盧人的聖馬丁的旅遊。復甦的宗教影響的聖本篤努爾西亞早在6世紀西方修道了其常任理事國的形式。

Abbeys修道院

Typical of Western monasticism were the abbeys, self-contained communities of monks ruled by an abbot or of nuns ruled by an abbess.典型的西方修道的修道院,自給自足的社區僧侶統治的住持或修女統治的一個住持。 Within the abbey walls were the abbey church, the dormitory, the refectory, or dining hall, and the guest house for travelers.在修道院牆壁上的修道院教堂,宿舍,在食堂或餐廳,以及招待所的旅客。 The buildings enclosed a large courtyard that was usually surrounded by a cloister, or sheltered arcade.封閉的建築物一個大院子是通常四周有迴廊,或庇護商場。 The abbeys of the Middle Ages were peaceful retreats for scholars and were the chief centers of Christian piety and learning.該修道院的中世紀是和平的務虛會的學者和有中心的首席基督教的虔誠和學習。 One of the oldest and greatest of the medieval abbeys was Monte Cassino, founded by St. Benedict in 529.其中一個最古老和最大的中世紀修道院是蒙稼軒,成立由聖本篤在529 。

Of monastic orders of the West, among the most prominent are the Benedictines, Carthusians, Cistercians, and Premonstratensians.寺院的訂單西方,其中最突出的是本篤, Carthusians ,熙和Premonstratensians 。


Monasticism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The origins of early Christian monasticism are not clearly known and are, therefore, subject to controversy.的起源早期基督教修道不是很清楚,因而被受爭議。 Some scholars believe that the monastic movement was prompted by late Jewish communal and ascetic ideals, such as those of the Essenes.一些學者認為,修道士運動是由已故的提示猶太人社區和禁慾主義理想,如愛色尼。 Still others speculate that Manichaean and similar forms of dualism inspired extremes of asceticism within the Christian family.還有一些人猜測,摩尼教和類似形式的二元論的啟發極端的禁慾主義的基督教家庭。 However, the first Christian commentators on monasticism believed that the movement had truly gospel origins.然而,第一次上克里斯蒂安修道評論家認為,運動起源真正福音。

Christian monastics drew their spiritual strength from Christ's emphasis on poverty (Mark 10:21) and on the "narrow way" (Matt.7:14) to salvation.基督教monastics提請他們的精神力量來自基督的重點放在消除貧困(馬克10:21 )和“狹隘的方式” ( Matt.7 : 14 ) ,以拯救。 Early monastics believed that Paul preferred celibacy to marriage (1 Cor.7:8).早期monastics認為,保羅寧願獨身婚姻( 1 Cor.7 : 8 ) 。 Indeed, the first nuns seem to have been widows of the late Roman period who decided not to remarry.事實上,第一次修女似乎已經寡婦已故羅馬時代誰決定不再婚。 From one point of view, the decision of some Christians to live separate from the community, both physically and spiritually, was regrettable. From another, the commitment and service of the monastics made them the most valued people in early medieval society.從一個角度來看,決定某些基督教徒的生活分開的社會,在身體上和精神上,是令人遺憾的。從另一個,承諾和服務的monastics使他們成為最有價值的人在早期中世紀的社會。

The first monks of whom we have a good record represent an extreme phase in the evolution of monasticism.第一個和尚,其中我們有一個良好的記錄是一個極端階段的演變修道。 These are the so - called desert fathers, hermits, living in the eremitical style in the deserts of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine.這些都是如此-所謂的沙漠父親,隱士,居住在e remitical風格在沙漠的埃及,敘利亞和巴勒斯坦。 Enraged by sin and fearful of damnation, they left the towns for a solitary struggle against temptation.憤怒的罪惡和恐懼的詛咒,他們離開了城鎮孤獨鬥爭的誘惑。 Some, like Simeon Stylites, live very exotic lives and became tourist attractions.有些人,像西門Stylites ,生活非常奇特的生命,並成為旅遊景點。 More typical, however, was Anthony of Egypt (c. 250 - 356), whose commitment to salvation led him back to the community to evangelize unbelievers.更為典型的,然而,安東尼埃及(角250 -3 56) ,其致力於拯救使他回到社會福信教。 His extreme asceticism deeply touched the sensibilities of the age.他極端的苦行深受感動的感情的年齡。

The word "monk" is derived from a Greek word meaning "alone."單詞“和尚”是來自希臘字,意思是“獨立” 。 The question for the desert fathers was one of the lonely, individual struggle against the devil as opposed to the obvious support that came from living in some sort of community.這個問題的沙漠的父親是一個孤獨的,個人的鬥爭,而不是魔鬼的明顯支持,來自生活在某種社會。 Pachomius (c. 290 - 346), an Egyptian monk, preferred the latter.帕科謬斯(角290 -3 46) ,埃及僧人,更傾向於後者。 He wrote a rule of life for monks in which he emphasized organization and the rule of elder monks over the newly professed.他寫了法治的僧侶生活中,他強調組織和法治的老和尚的新宣稱。 The rule became popular, and the movement toward communal life was ensured.該規則開始流行,並走向社區生活得到保證。 To the idea of community Basil the Great (c. 330 - 79) added another element.的想法,社會巴茲爾大(角330 -7 9)補充另一個因素。 In his writings, and especially in his commentaries on the Scriptures, this father of Eastern monasticism defined a theory of Christian humanism which he felt was binding on the monasteries.在他的著作,特別是在他的評注聖經,這父親東修道確定了理論的基督教人文主義他認為這些是具有約束力的寺廟。 According to Basil, monastics were bound to consider their duty to the whole of Christian society.據巴西爾, monastics都必定要考慮他們的責任,整個基督教社會。 They should care for orphans, feed the poor, maintain hospitals, educate children, even provide work for the unemployed.他們應該照顧孤兒,窮人的飼料,保持醫院,教育兒童,甚至提供工作機會的失業者。

During the fourth through the sixth centuries monasticism spread throughout the Christian world.在第四通過六世紀修道擴散到整個基督教世界。 From Asia Minor to Britain its ideal flourished.從亞洲到英國本土理想的蓬勃發展。 However, the Celtic monks tended to espouse the old eremitical tradition, whereas Latin monasticism, under the Great Rule of Benedict of Nursia (c. 480 - c, 547), codified itself into a permanent, organized communal form.但是,凱爾特人隊僧侶往往信奉舊eremitical的傳統,而拉美修道,根據規則的大篤的努爾西亞(角480 -ç , 5 47) ,編纂成為一個永久的,有組織的社區形式。 To the old promises of poverty, chastity, and obedience to Christ the Benedictines added stability. Monks could no longer drift about from monastery to monastery but were bound to one for life.舊的承諾,貧窮,貞潔,服從基督的本篤會增加穩定性。僧人再也不能漂移約從寺院到寺院,但都必定要一個生命。 The essence of Benedict's rule is its sensible approach to Christian living.的本質篤的統治是其明智的做法,以基督徒的生活。 It forbade excess and provided practical advice for every aspect of monastery life.它禁止過量,並提供切實可行的諮詢意見在各個方面對寺院的生活。 It gave an elaborate description of the role of each person in the community from the abbot, who represented Christ in the community, to the lowliest postulant.它提供了詳細的說明的作用每個人在社會上的住持,誰代表基督的社會, lowliest postulant 。 For this reason the Benedictine Rule became the standard in western Europe.出於這個原因,本篤規則成為標準在西歐。 Because of their devotion to the rule, monks came to be known as the "regular" clergy, from the Latin regula, "rule."由於他們的奉獻精神的規則,僧侶來到被稱為“正規”的神職人員,從拉丁美洲調節, “規則” 。

The great work of the monasteries of the Middle Ages was the opus Dei, the work of God, prayer and praise to the Almighty throughout the day and night.偉大的工作,寺廟中世紀是主業會的工作,上帝,祈禱和讚美萬能的整個白天和夜晚。 This "work" was organized into the offices of the monastic day.這“工作”是有組織的進入辦公室的寺院一天。 These varied somewhat according to place and season, but generally vigils, lauds, terce, sext, vespers, and compline were chanted throughout Christendom.這些不同有些根據地方和季節,但一般守夜,讚揚, terce , sext ,晚禱,並高喊compline了整個基督教。 In addition, monks and nuns performed physical labor, provided charitable services, and kept learning alive.此外,僧侶和尼姑進行體力勞動,提供慈善服務,並不斷學習活著。 They studied and copied the Scriptures and the writings of the church fathers as well as classical philosophy and literature.他們研究並抄送聖經和著作的父親教會以及古典哲學和文學。 They were leaders in the so - called Carolingian Renaissance, during which time (eighth - ninth centuries) writing was reformed and the liberal arts defined.他們的領導人在做-所謂加洛林文藝復興時期,在這段時間裡(第八屆-第九屆世紀)寫作是改革和文科的界定。 In monastic hands writing became an art.在寺院手中寫作成為一種藝術。 The monasteries had a monopoly on education until the evolution of the cathedral school and the university in the High Middle Ages.該寺廟壟斷了教育,直至演變的大教堂學校和大學的高級中世紀。

Early medieval monasticism may have reached its height in the foundation of the abbey of Cluny in Burgundy in the tenth century. Cluny set a new standard of liturgical splendor.早期中世紀的修道可能已經達到了高度的基礎克呂尼修道院在勃艮第的10世紀。克呂尼樹立了新標準的禮儀光彩。 It also sought to escape corruption by establishing its independence from the feudal system in which all medieval institutions were rooted.它也設法逃脫腐敗,建立獨立的封建主義制度,使所有中世紀的機構是根深蒂固。 Cluny and its "daughters" (houses which it founded and disciplined) exercised enormous spiritual authority in the eleventh century.克魯尼和“女兒” (房屋,創立和紀律)行使權力巨大的精神在11世紀。 Though it is no longer acceptable to draw direct connections between the Cluniac reform movement and the reform papacy of Gregory VII(1073 - 85), both represent institutional responses to the rapid changes in medieval society.雖然它已不再接受提請之間的直接聯繫的Cluniac改革運動和經濟改革的教皇格里高利第七章(一○七三年至1085年) ,這兩個代表機構的反應,迅速變化的中世紀社會。

By 1100 monasticism was on the defensive.到1100修道是在防守上。 It was no longer clear that monastic service to God and society was commensurate with the praise and gifts which society had lavished on the monasteries.它已不再明顯,寺院服務上帝和社會相稱的讚揚和社會的禮物了慷慨的寺廟。 Great donations of land and other forms of wealth made monks rich at a time when other medieval institutions were assuming societal duties formerly the responsibility of the monasteries.大捐贈的土地和其他形式的財富了和尚豐富的時候其他中世紀的機構承擔的社會職責的責任以前的寺廟。 The popularity of the monasteries attracted less than devout postulants, and the aristocracy used the great houses as a repository for spinster daughters and younger sons.受歡迎的寺廟吸引不到虔誠的postulants和貴族用偉大的房屋作為存放獨身女兒和年輕的兒子。

Yet even as monasticism approached its crisis, new reformed orders appeared.然而,即使作為修道走近它的危機,改革後的新訂單出現。 The Cistercians, under their most influential leader Bernard of Clairvaux, sought a new life of evangelical purity. They confined membership to adults, simplified services, abandoned all feudal obligations, and tried to restore the contemplative life. The Carthusians tried to recapture the old eremitical spirit of the desert fathers.在熙,根據他們的最有影響力的領導人伯納德的伯爾納,尋求新生活的福音純潔性。成員,他們限於成年人,簡化服務,被遺棄的一切封建義務,並試圖恢復沉思的生活。的Carthusians試圖奪回老eremitical精神的沙漠父親。 They retreated from society and became an important feature of the medieval frontier, cutting down forests and opening new ground for agriculture.他們退出社會,成為一個重要特徵的中世紀邊界,減少森林和開闢新的地面用於農業。 Their role in the evolution of sheep farming and the wood industry was invaluable.他們的作用演變中的養羊業和木材業是非常寶貴的。

Perhaps the last great revival of monastic spirit came in the autumn of the Middle Ages with the appearance of the mendicant orders.也許是最後一次偉大復興的精神來到寺院秋季在中世紀的外觀行乞的訂單。 The Dominicans and Franciscans captured the collective imagination of a society in crisis.多米尼加和方濟抓獲的集體想像的社會危機。 Francis of Assisi represented the perfection of both monastic and Christian idealism in his effort to imitate the life of Christ in all its purity and simplicity.方濟各代表了完美的寺院和基督教的理想主義在他的努力模仿基督的生命在其所有的純度和簡單。 By taking the apostolic ideal outside the monastery, Francis gave it one last flowering in the culture which had given it birth.通過採取理想的使徒以外的寺院,弗朗西斯賦予它最後一次開花的文化已經賦予它出生。

In modern history monasticism has suffered three great blows; the Reformation, the Enlightenment, and twentieth century secularism. Generally, the leaders of the Reformation believed that the monastics did not in fact conform to a simple gospel rule of life, that their repetitive prayers, fasts, and ceremonies were meaningless and that they had no real value to society.在近代歷史上修道遭受了三個偉大的打擊;宗教改革,啟蒙運動,以及二十世紀的世俗主義。一般來說,領導人的改革認為, monastics其實並沒有符合一個簡單的福音規則的生活,他們反复祈禱,齋戒,和儀式都毫無意義,他們並沒有真正的社會價值。 The vast wealth which they had accumulated seemed better spent on general public needs.絕大多數的財富,他們積累了似乎更好地用在一般公眾的需要。 Those monastics who had kept their vows were seen as cut off from true Christian freedom in lives that were futile and unfulfilled.這些monastics誰一直發誓他們被視為切斷真正的基督教自由的生命是徒勞的,並沒有兌現。 Wherever the Reformation was triumphant, the monasteries were disestablished. In different terms the eighteenth century Enlightenment would also argue that the monasteries were useless.只要改革是成功的寺院被解散。在不同的角度對18世紀啟蒙也會爭辯說,寺院是毫無用處的。 Liberals saw them as corrupt and unnatural, preserving the superstition of the old regime.自由黨把他們看作腐敗和不自然,維護迷信的舊制度。 The twentieth century has seen the rapid decline of religious orders.二十世紀目睹了快速下降的宗教命令。

CT Marshall馬歇爾的CT
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
C Brooke, The Monastic World; EC Butler, Benedictine Monachism; O Chadwick, Western Asceticism; K Hughes, The Church in Early Irish Society; D Knowles, Christian Monasticism; J Leclercq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God; LJ Lekai, The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality; W Nigg, Warriors of God. ç祺,世界的寺院;歐共體巴特勒本篤Monachism ; ö查德威克,西方禁慾主義; K休斯,教會在早期愛爾蘭協會; D諾爾斯,基督教修; J勒克萊爾,熱愛學習的慾望和對上帝;軍樂凱,在熙:理想與現實; W尼格,勇士的上帝。


Monasticism

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Monasticism or monachism, literally the act of "dwelling alone" (Greek monos, monazein, monachos), has come to denote the mode of life pertaining to persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, as monks, friars, nuns, or in general as religious.修或monachism ,字面的行為“單獨居住” (希臘monos , monazein , monachos ) ,已到指的生活模式有關的人生活在與世隔絕的世界,在宗教問題的誓言和固定的規則,如僧侶,修士,修女,或一般的宗教。 The basic idea of monasticism in all its varieties is seclusion or withdrawal from the world or society.的基本理念修道在其所有品種的隔離或退出世界或社會。 The object of this is to achieve a life whose ideal is different from and largely at variance with that pursued by the majority of mankind; and the method adopted, no matter what its precise details may be, is always self-abnegation or organized asceticism.的對象,這是實現其人生理想的不同,主要差異與追求的大多數人類;和通過的方法,無論其確切的細節可始終是自我克制或有組織的禁慾主義。 Taken in this broad sense monachism may be found in every religious system which has attained to a high degree of ethical development, such as Brahmin, Buddhist, Jewish, Christian, and Moslem religions, and even in the sytem of those modern communistic societies, often anti-theological in theory, which are a special feature of recent social development especially in America.在這方面採取廣泛的意義monachism可能會發現在每一個宗教體系已達到高度的道德發展,如婆羅門,佛教,猶太教,基督教和穆斯林的宗教,而且即使在這些體系的現代共產社會,常常反神學的理論,這是一個特殊的特點,近年來社會的發展,特別是在美國。 Hence it is claimed that a form of life which flourishes in environments so diverse must be the expression of a principle inherent in human nature and rooted therein no less deeply than the principle of domesticity, though obviously limited to a far smaller portion of mankind.因此,聲稱某種形式的生命蓬勃發展的環境中,所以必須多樣化表達的原則人類所固有的性質和根源有不超過深深的原則,家庭生活,但顯然只限於小部分迄今人類。 This article and its two accompanying articles, EASTERN MONASTICISM and WESTERN MONASTICISM, deal with the monastic order strictly so called as distinct from the "religious orders" such as the friars, canons regular, clerks regular, and the more recent congregations.本文及其兩個所附條款,東部和西部修道修道,處理僧侶為了所謂的嚴格有別於“宗教命令” ,如修士,大砲經常,定期辦事員,以及最近的教會。 For information as to these see RELIGIOUS ORDERS, and the article on the particular order or congregation required.對於信息,這些見宗教界人士,而且文章的特定命令或聚集需要。

I. ITS GROWTH AND METHOD一,經濟增長和方法

(1) Origin ( 1 )起源

Any discussion of pre-Christian asceticism is outside the scope of this article. So too, any question of Jewish asceticism as exemplified in the Essenes or Therapeutae of Philo's "De Vita Contemplativa" is excluded.任何討論前基督教禁慾主義是範圍以外的文章。同樣,任何問題的猶太苦行如在愛色尼或Therapeutae的斐羅的“德簡歷Contemplativa ”是被排除在外。

It has already been pointed out that the monastic ideal is an ascetic one, but it would be wrong to say that the earliest Christian asceticism was monastic. Any such thing was rendered impossible by the circumstances in which the early Christians were placed, for in the first century or so of the Church's existence the idea of living apart from the congregation of the faithful, or of forming within it associations to practise special renunciations in common was out of the question.已經指出,僧侶的理想是一個苦行之一,但它是錯誤地說,最早的基督教禁慾主義的僧侶。任何這樣的事情是不可能的情況下,早期基督徒被安置,中二十一世紀或教會的存在的想法分開居住的眾信徒,或形成協會內部實行特殊的放棄是共同的問題。 While admitting this, however, it is equally certain that monasticism, when it came, was little more than a precipitation of ideas previously in solution among Christians.雖然承認這一點,但是,它同樣可以肯定,修道,當它來了,只不過是降水量的想法以前在基督教徒之間的解決方案。 For asceticism is the struggle against worldly principles, even with such as are merely worldly without being sinful. The world desires and honours wealth, so the ascetic loves and honours poverty. If he must have something in the nature of property then he and his fellows shall hold it in common, just because the world respects and safeguards private ownership.對於禁慾主義是鬥爭的世俗原則,即使有,如僅僅是世俗的,而罪孽深重。世界的願望和榮譽的財富,所以苦行愛和榮譽貧困。如果他必須有什麼性質的財產然後,他和他的研究員應舉行它是共同的,只是因為世界尊重和保障私人擁有。 In like manner he practises fasting and virginity that thereby he may repudiate the licence of the world.在他喜歡的方式實行禁食,從而處女說他可能拒絕牌照的世界。

Hereafter the various items of this renunciation will be dealt with in detail, they are mentioned at this time merely to show how the monastic ideal was foreshadowed in the asceticism of the Gospel and its first followers.此後的各個項目的放棄將詳細論述,他們都提到在這個時候僅僅是為了顯示如何寺院預示的理想是在禁慾主義的福音和其第一追隨者。 Such passages as I John, ii, 15-17: "Love not the world, nor the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the charity of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world is the concupiscence of the flesh, and the concupiscence of the eyes, and the pride of life, which is not of the father but is of the world. And the world passeth away and the concupiscence thereof. But he that doeth the will of God abideth forever" -- passages which might be multiplied, and can bear but one meaning if taken literally.這樣的段落,我約翰,二, 15日至17日: “不愛世界,也不是東西,是在世界。如果任何人愛的世界裡,慈善的父親不是他。對於所有的在世界是concupiscence肉體和concupiscence的眼睛,驕傲的生活,這不是父親,但世界各地。與世界passeth以外和concupiscence人。但他認為doeth的意願abideth永遠上帝“ -通道可能成倍增加,並能承受,但一個意思,如果從字面上看。 And this is precisely what the early ascetics did.而這正是早期腹水了。 We read of some who, driven by the spirit of God, dedicated their energies to the spread of the Gospel and, giving up all their possessions passed from city to city in voluntary poverty as apostles and evangelists.我們讀到的一些誰的推動下,精神的上帝,他們的精力致力於傳播福音,並放棄所有的財產通過從城市自願貧困作為使徒和福音派。 Of others we hear that they renounced property and marriage so as to devote their lives to the poor and needy of their particular church.對他人,我們聽到,他們放棄財產和婚姻,以獻身窮人和有需要的特殊教堂。 If these were not strictly speaking monks and nuns, at least the monks and nuns were such as these; and, when the monastic life took definite shape in the fourth century, these forerunners were naturally looked up to as the first exponents of monachismm.如果這些人不是嚴格意義上講僧侶和尼姑,至少是僧侶和尼姑被這些; ,當寺院生活了一定的形狀在第四世紀,這些先行者自然抬起頭來,以作為第一個指數的monachismm 。 For the truth is that the Christian ideal is frankly an ascetic one and monachism is simply the endeavour to effect a material realization of that ideal, or organization in accordance with it, when taken literally as regards its "Counsels" as well as its "Precepts" (see ASCETICISM; COUNSELS, EVANGELICAL).對於事實真相是,基督教的理想是坦率的苦行和monachism之一就是努力效果的材料實現這一理想,或組織按照它時,從字面上看是關於它的“律師” ,以及它的“訓“ (見禁慾主義;律師,福音派) 。

Besides a desire of observing the evangelical counsels, and a horror of the vice and disorder that prevailed in a pagan age, two contributory causes in particular are often indicated as leading to a renunciation of the world among the early Christians.除了觀測的願望福音律師,和一個恐怖的副總裁和普遍存在的紊亂在一個異教徒的年齡,兩個繳費的原因,特別是常常被視為導致放棄世界之間的早期基督教徒。 The first of these was the expectation of an immediate Second Advent of Christ (cf. 1 Corinthians 7:29-31; 1 Peter 4:7, etc.) That this belief was widespread is admitted on all hands, and obviously it would afford a strong motive for renunciation since a man who expects this present order of things to end at any moment, will lose keen interest in many matters commonly held to be important.其中第一項是期望立即第二次降臨的基督(見哥林多前書7:29-31 ;彼得前書4時07等) ,這種信念是廣泛被接納所有的雙手,顯然將使一個強有力的動機放棄,因為一個人誰預計本命令的事情,結束在任何時候,就會失去濃厚的興趣許多問題,普遍具有重要意義。 This belief however had ceased to be of any great influence by the fourth century, so that it cannot be regarded as a determining factor in the origin of monasticism which then took visible shape.然而這種信念已不再是任何重大影響的第四世紀,因此,它不能被視為一個決定性因素的原產地修道,然後在可見的形狀。 A second cause more operative in leading men to renounce the world was the vividness of their belief in evil spirits.第二次手術造成更多的領導放棄男子世界是生動的,他們認為在辟邪。 The first Christians saw the kingdom of Satan actually realized in the political and social life of heathendom around them.第一次看到基督徒的國度撒旦真正實現在政治和社會生活中heathendom他們周圍。 In their eyes the gods whose temples shone in every city were simply devils, and to participate in their rites was to join in devil worship.在他們的心目中神的廟宇照在每一個城市,只是魔鬼,並參加他們的儀式是加入魔鬼崇拜。 When Christianity first came in touch with the Gentiles the Council of Jerusalem by its decree about meat offered to idols (Acts 15:20) made clear the line to be followed.當基督教第一次接觸外邦人安理會對耶路撒冷的有關法令,其肉提供給偶像(使徒15:20 )明確了行應遵循的。

Consequently certain professions were practically closed to believers since a soldier, schoolmaster, or state official of any kind might be called upon at a moment's notice to participate in some act of state religion.因此某些專業幾乎封閉的信徒,因為一名士兵,校長,或國家官員的任何一種可能被要求在一個時刻的通知參加某種行為的國家宗教。 But the difficulty existed for private individuals also.但是,存在的困難個人也。 There were gods who presided over every moment of a man's life, gods of house and garden, of food and drink, of health and sickness.有神誰主持的每一刻一個人的生命,神的房子和花園,食物和飲料,保健和疾病。 To honour these was idolatry, to ignore them would attract inquiry, and possibly persecution.為了履行這些是偶像崇拜,無視這些將吸引調查,並可能迫害。 Ans so when, to men placed in this dilemma, St.答所以當,男子放置在這種兩難境地,聖 John wrote, "Keep yourselves from idols" (I John,v,21) he said in effect "Keep yourselves from public life, from society, from politics, from intercourse of any kind with the heathen", in short, "renounce the world".約翰寫道: “請你們從偶像” (我約翰,五, 21 )他說效應“請你們從公共生活,從社會,從政治,從交往的任何種類的異教徒” ,簡言之, “放棄世界“ 。

By certain writers the communitarian element seen in the Church of Jerusalem during the years of its existence (Acts 4:32) has sometimes been pointed to as indicating a monastic element in its constitution, but no such conclusion is justified.某些作家的共產主義因素出現在耶路撒冷教會期間,它的存在(使徒4時32分) ,有時被指出這表明作為寺院組成部分的憲法,但沒有這樣的結論是有道理的。 Probably the community of goods was simply a natural continuation of the practice, begun by Jesus and the Apostles, where one of the band kept the common purse and acted as steward.也許是社會的商品只是一個自然延續的做法,開始耶穌和使徒,其中一個帶保持共同的錢包,並擔任管家。 There is no indication that such a custom was ever instituted elsewhere and even at Jerusalem it seems to have collapsed at an early period.沒有任何跡象表明這樣一個習慣是以往任何時候都建立在其他地方,甚至在耶路撒冷它似乎已經崩潰處於早期階段。 It must be recognized also that influences such as the above were merely contributory and of comparatively small importance.必須認識到還影響,如上述僅僅是繳費和相對較小的重要性。 The main cause which begot monachism was simply the desire to fulfill Christ's law literally, to imitate Him in all simplicity, following in His footsteps whose "kingdom is not of this world".主要原因begot monachism這只是願望滿足基督的法律字面上看,模仿他的所有操作簡便,以下他的腳步,其“王國不是這個世界。 ” So we find monachism at first instinctive, informal, unorganized, sporadic; the expression of the same force working differently in different places, persons, and circumstances; developing with the natural growth of a plant according to the environment in which it finds itself and the character of the individual listener who heard in his soul the call of "Follow Me".所以,我們找到monachism首先本能的,非正式的,無組織的,零星的;表達了同樣的工作不同的部隊在不同的地方,人,和情況;發展與自然生長的植物根據環境,它認為自己和性質的個別聽眾聽到誰在他的靈魂的呼籲, “大家跟我來。 ”

(2) Means to the End ( 2 )手段的終結

It must be clearly understood that, in the case of the monk, asceticism is not an end in itself.它必須清楚地認識到,如和尚,禁慾主義是本身不是目的。 For him, as for all men, the end of life is to love God. Monastic asceticism then means the removal of obstacles to loving God, and what these obstacles are is clear from the nature of love itself.對於他來說,為所有的人,結束生命是愛的上帝。寺院然後禁慾主義的手段消除障礙,熱愛上帝,這些障礙是很清楚的性質愛情本身。 Love is the union of wills.愛情是工會的意願。 If the creature is to love God, he can do it in one way only; by sinking his own will in God's, by doing the will of God in all things: "if ye love Me keep my commandments".如果動物是熱愛上帝,他可以做到這一點的唯一的一種方式;的下沉自己將在上帝的,這樣做上帝的意志在所有的事情: “如果你們愛我,讓我的誡命。 ” No one understands better than the monk those words of the beloved disciple, "Greater love hath no man than this that a man lay down his life", for in his case life has come to mean renunciation.沒有人理解優於和尚這些話的心愛的弟子, “大愛上帝沒有比這名男子,一名男子放下他的生命” ,因為在他的案子生活已經到來意味著放棄。 Broadly speaking this renunciation has three great branches corresponding to the three evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience.從廣義上說放棄了這三個偉大的分支機構相應的三個福音律師貧窮,貞潔,服從。

(a) Poverty (一)貧困

There are few subjects, if any, upon which more sayings of Jesus have been preserved than upon the superiority of poverty over wealth in His kingdom (cf. Matthew 5:3; 13:22; 19:21 sq.; Mark 10:23 sq.; Luke 6:20; 18:24 sq., etc.), and the fact of their preservation would indicate that such words were frequently quoted and presumably frequently acted upon.有幾個問題,如有的話後,更多的諺語耶穌已超過保存的優勢,貧困在他的財富王國(參見馬修5點03分, 13時22分; 19:21平方米;馬克10:23平方米;盧克6:20 ; 18:24面積等) ,以及其保存表明,這樣的話經常被引用,並推測經常採取行動。 The argument based on such passages as Matthew 19:21 sq., may be put briefly thus.這個論點基於這種通道的馬修19:21平方米,可提出簡短從而。 If a man wish to attain eternal life it is better for him to renounce his possessions than to retain them.如果一個人要達到永恆的生命是更好地為他放棄財產,而不是保留。 Jesus said, "How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God", the reason being no doubt that it is difficult to prevent the affections from becoming attached to riches, and that such attachment makes admission into Christ's kingdom impossible.耶穌說: “應如何,他們幾乎已經進入財富王國的上帝” ,其原因是毫無疑問,這是難以避免的感情成為重視財富,而且這種依戀使進入基督的王國是不可能的。 As St. Augustine points out, the disciples evidently understood Jesus to include all who covet riches in the number of "the rich", otherwise, considering the small number of the wealthy compared with the vast multitude of the poor, they would not have asked, "Who then shall be saved"?正如聖奧古斯丁指出,弟子顯然理解耶穌到包括所有誰覬覦財富的數目“富國” ,否則,考慮到少數富人相比,與廣大眾多的窮人,他們就不會問, “誰那麼應保存” ? "You cannot serve God and Mammon" is an obvious truth to a man who knows by experience the difficulty of a whole-hearted service of God; for the spiritual and material good are in immediate antithesis, and where one is the other cannot be. “你不能和瑪蒙上帝”是一個明顯的事實真相,以一個人誰知道經驗的困難,整個心天主服務的;的精神和物質上良好的立即對立面,而一個是其他不能。 Man cannot sate his nature with the temporal and yet retain an appetite for the eternal; and so, if he would live the life of the spirit, he must flee the lust of the earth and keep his heart detached from what is of its very nature unspiritual.人不能狀態的性質與他的時間,但保留了胃口的永恆; ,因此,他是否會生活的生命精神,他必須逃離慾望的地球,保持他的心臟是脫離是其本身的性質非精神。 The extent to which this spiritual poverty is practised has varied greatly in the monachism of different ages and lands.這在多大程度上精神貧窮的做法已大不相同monachism在不同年齡和土地。 In Egypt the first teachers of monks taught that the renunciation should be made as absolute as possible.在埃及的第一位老師教僧人的放棄應作出絕對的。 Abbot Agathon used to say, "Own nothing which it would grieve you to give to another".阿加埃伯特用來說, “自己沒有它你會感到悲痛給另一個” 。 St. Macarius once, on returning to his cell, found a robber carrying off his scanty furniture.聖馬卡里烏斯後,返回自己的囚室,發現了劫匪攜帶了他微薄的家具。 He thereupon pretended to be a stranger, harnessed the robber's horse for him and helped him to get his spoil away. Another monk had so stripped himself of all things that he possessed nothing save a copy of the Gospels.他隨即假裝是一個陌生人,利用了強盜的馬為他和幫助他讓他破壞了。另一個和尚因此剝奪了自己的所有事情,他有沒有保存一份福音。 After a while he sold this also and gave the price away saying, "I have sold the very book that bade me sell all I had".過了一陣子他賣掉,這也給價格以外說: “我已經賣出的書,叫我賣我所有” 。

As the monastic institute became more organized legislation appeared in the various codes to regulate this point among others.由於寺院研究所變得更加有組織的立法中出現的各種法規,以規範這一點等等。 That the principle remained the same however is clear from the strong way in which St. Benedict speaks of the matter while making special allowance for the needs of the infirm, etc. (Reg. Ben., xxxiii).這一原則不變但很清楚的強有力的方式,聖本篤談到這個問題時作出特殊津貼的需要,體弱等(註冊本。 ,三十三) 。 "Above everything the vice of private ownership is to be cut off by the roots from the monastery. Let no one presume either to give or to receive anything without leave of the abbot, nor to keep anything as his own, neither book, nor writing tablets, nor pen, nor anything whatsoever, since it is unlawful for them to have their bodies or wills in their own power". “高於一切的副私有製是被切斷的根系從修道院。讓任何人都假定給予或接受任何未經批准的住持,也不讓任何事情作為自己的,無論是書籍,也沒有書面片,也不筆,也不任何東西,因為它是非法的,他們有他們的機構或遺囑在自己的權力“ 。 The principle here laid down, viz., that the monk's renunciation of private property is absolute, remains as much in force today as in the dawn of monasticism.這裡的原則規定,即。 ,該和尚放棄私有財產是絕對的,仍然是很大的力量在今天的黎明修道。 No matter to what extent any individual monk may be allowed the use of clothing, books, or even money, the ultimate proprietorship in such things can never be permitted to him.不管在何種程度上的任何個人僧人有可能被允許使用的衣物,書籍,甚至金錢,最終的獨資企業在這種事情永遠不能被允許給他。 (See POVERTY; MENDICANT FRIARS; VOW.) (見貧窮;行乞修士; VOW ) 。

(b) Chastity (二)貞操

If the things to be given up be tested by the criterion of difficulty, the renunciation of material possessions is clearly the first and easiest step for man to take, as these things are external to his nature.如果事情得到了檢驗標準的困難,放棄物質財產顯然是第一次和最簡單的步驟,採取人,因為這些東西是外部對他的性質。 Next in difficulty will come the things that are united to man's nature by a kind of necessary affinity. Hence in the ascending order chastity is the second of the evangelical counsels, and as such it is based upon the words of Jesus, "If any man come to me and hate not his father and mother and wife and children and brethren and sisters yea and his own soul also, he cannot be my disciple" (Luke 14:26).下一步將在今後困難的事情是統一的,以人的性質的一種必要的親和力。因此在升序排列貞操是第二個福音律師,因此它依據的是耶穌的話, “如果任何人來找我和仇恨的不是他的父親和母親及妻子和子女和兄弟姐妹的酵母和他自己的靈魂也,他不能成為我的門徒“ (路14:26 ) 。 It is obvious that of all the ties that bind the human heart to this world the possession of wife and children is the strongest.很明顯,所有的關係,把人的心靈這個世界擁有的妻子和孩子是最強大的。 Moreover the renunciation of the monk includes not only these but in accordance with the strictest teaching of Jesus all sexual relations or emotion arising therefrom.此外,放棄僧侶不僅包括這些,但按照嚴格的教學耶穌所有的性關係或由此產生的情緒。 The monastic idea of chastity is a life like that of the angels.該寺院的貞操觀念是一種生活像天使。 Hence the phrases, "angelicus ordo", "angelica conversatio", which have been adopted from Origen to describe the life of the monk, no doubt in reference to Mark, xii, 25.因此,詞組, “ angelicus秩序” , “當歸conversatio ” ,其中已通過了由奧利來描述生活的喇嘛,毫無疑問,在提到馬克, 12 , 25 。 It is primarily as a means to this end that fasting takes so important a place in the monastic life.這主要是作為一種手段,為此,空腹考慮如此重要的一個地方的寺院生活。 Among the early Egyptian and Syrian monks in particular fasting was carried to such lengths that some modern writers have been led to regard it almost as an end in itself, instead of being merely a means and a subordinate one at that.在早期埃及和敘利亞的僧侶特別是空腹進行這種長度,一些現代作家已導致方面,它幾乎作為目的本身,而不是僅僅是一個手段和下屬的一個。 This error of course is confined to writers about monasticism, it has never been countenanced by any monastic teacher.這個錯誤當然是僅限於作家的修道,從未贊同任何寺院的老師。 (See CELIBACY OF THE CLERGY; CHASTITY; CONTINENCE; FAST; VOW.) (見獨身神職人員;貞操;節制;快速; VOW ) 。

(c) Obedience (三)服從

"The first step in humility is obedience without delay. This benefits those who count nothing dearer to them than Christ on account of the holy service which they have undertaken...without doubt such as these follow that thought of the Lord when He said, I came not to do my own will but the will of Him that sent me" (Reg. Ben.,v). “第一步是順從謙卑,不要拖延。這是誰的利益沒有任何指望昂貴他們比耶穌就到了神聖的服務,他們開展了...毫無疑問,這些遵循這一思想時,上帝他說,我不這樣做我自己的意願,而是意志的他,給我“ (註冊本。 ,五) 。 Of all the steps in the process of renunciation, the denial of a man's own will is clearly the most difficult.所有的步驟的過程中,放棄,剝奪一個人的自己的意願顯然是最困難的。 At the same time it is the most essential of all as Jesus said (Matthew 16:24), "If any man will come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me".同時這是最重要的是耶穌說(馬太16:24 ) , “如果任何人將我之後,讓他否認自己和他的十字架,跟我來。 ” The most difficult because self-interest, self-protection, self-regard of all kinds are absolutely a part of man's nature, so that to master such instincts requires a supernatural strength.最困難的,因為自身利益,自我保護,自我方面的各種絕對是一部分人的性質,以便掌握這種本能需要一個超自然的力量。 The most essential also because by this means the monk achieves that perfect liberty which is only to be found where is the Spirit of the Lord.最重要的還因為這意味著僧人達到完美的自由是唯一被發現的是精神的上帝。 It was Seneca who wrote, "parere deo libertas est", and the pagan philosopher's dictum is confirmed and testified on every page of the Gospel.這是塞涅卡誰寫道: “ parere視頻libertas東方”和異教徒哲學家的名言是確認和證明的每個網頁上的福音。 In Egypt at the dawn of monasticism the custom was for a young monk to put himself under the guidance of a senior whom he obeyed in all things.在埃及的開端修道的習慣是一個年輕的僧人把自己的指導下,高級服從他的一切事情。 Although the bond between them was wholly voluntary the system seems to have worked perfectly and the commands of the senior were obeyed without hesitation.雖然它們之間的債券是完全自願的制度似乎已經完全和命令的高級是毫不遲疑地服從。 "Obedience is the mother of all virtues": "obedience is that which openeth heaven and raiseth man from the earth": "obedience is the food of all the saints, by her they are nourished, through her they come to perfection": such sayings illustrate sufficiently the view held on this point by the fathers of the desert. “服從是母親的所有優點” : “服從的是,這openeth天堂與raiseth男人來自地球” : “服從是糧食的所有聖人,她的這些營養,通過她,他們來完善” :如諺語充分說明認為,舉行了這一點,他的父親的沙漠。 As the monastic life came to be organized by rule, the insistence on obedience remained the same, but its practice was legislated for.作為僧侶的生活來組織規則,堅持服從保持不變,但其做法是法定的。 Thus St. Benedict at the very outset, in the Prologue to his Rule, reminds the monk of the prime purpose of his life, viz., "that thou mayest return by the labour of obedience to Him from whom thou hast departed by the sloth of disobedience".因此,聖本篤在一開始,在他的序規則,提醒僧人的主要目的,他的生命,即。說, “你mayest返回勞動力服從他的人離開祢的懶惰對不服從“ 。 Later he devotes the whole of his fifth chapter to this subject and again, in detailing the vows his monks must take, while poverty and chastity are presumed as implicitly included, obedience is one of the three things explicitly promised.後來,他把整個他的第五章對這一問題,並再次,在詳細介紹了他的誓言僧侶必須考慮,而貧困和貞操被推定為隱含,服從是一個三件事明確承諾。

Indeed the saint even legislates for the circumstance of a monk being ordered to do something impossible.事實上,聖甚至立法的情況下被僧人責令做些什麼不可能的。 "Let him seasonably and with patience lay before his superior the reasons of his incapacity to obey, without showing pride, resistance or contradiction. If, however, after this the superior still persist in his command, let the younger know that it is expedient for him, and let him obey the law of God trusting in His assistance" (Reg. Ben.,lxviii). “讓他seasonably與耐心面前他的上司的原因,他喪失工作能力的服從,沒有表現出自豪感,抵抗或矛盾。然而,如果後上級仍堅持他的指揮下,讓年輕人知道,這是合宜他,讓他守法相信上帝在他的援助“ (註冊本。 , lxviii ) 。 Moreover "what is commanded is to be done not fearfully, tardily, nor coldly, nor with murmuring, nor with an answer showing unwillingness, for the obedience which is given to superiors is given to God, since He Himself hath said, He that heareth you heareth Me" (Reg. Ben., v).此外“什麼是指揮是做不可怕,慢慢地,也冷冷地,也不與淙淙,也有不願回答顯示,在服從這是給上級給上帝,因為上帝他本人說,他認為heareth您heareth我“ (註冊本。 ,五) 。 It is not hard to see why so much emphasis is laid on this point.不難看出為什麼這麼多的重點是放在了這一點。 The object of monasticism is to love God in the highest degree possible in this life.對象的修道是熱愛上帝的最高程度可能在此生活。 In true obedience the will of the servant is one with that of his master and the union of wills is love.在真正的服從意願的僕人是一個與他的主人和工會的意願是愛。 Wherefore, that the obedience of the monk's will to that of God may be as simple and direct as possible, St. Benedict writes (ch. ii) "the abbot is considered to hold in the monastery the place of Christ Himself, since he is called by His name" (see OBEDIENCE; VOW).何故,該服從的僧人的意願,認為上帝可能是簡單和直接的可能,聖本篤寫道(章二) “的住持認為是舉行在修道院的地方基督本人,因為他是所謂的他的名字“ (見服從; VOW ) 。 St. Thomas, in chapter xi of his Opusculum "On the Perfection of the Spiritual Life", points out that the three means of perfection, poverty, chastity, and obedience, belong peculiarly to the religious state.聖托馬斯,在第十一章他Opusculum “關於完善精神生活”指出,這三個手段的完善,貧窮,貞潔,服從,屬於特有的宗教國家。 For religion means the worship of God alone, which consists in offering sacrifice, and of sacrifices the holocaust is the most perfect.對於宗教的手段崇拜上帝,其中包括提供犧牲,犧牲的大屠殺是最完美的。 Consequently when a man dedicates to God all that he has, all that he takes pleasure in, and all that he is, he offers a holocaust; and this he does pre-eminently by the three religious vows.因此當一個人用了上帝所有,他所有,他高興地和所有,他是,他提供了一個大屠殺,這他不預先突出三個宗教的誓言。

(3) The Different Kinds of Monks ( 3 )不同種類的僧人

It must be clearly understood that the monastic order properly so-called differs from the friars, clerks regular, and other later developments of the religious life in one fundamental point.它必須清楚地認識到,修道院為了妥善所謂不同於修士,辦事員經常和其他後來的事態發展宗教生活的一個基本點。 The latter have essentially some special work or aim, such as preaching, teaching, liberating captives, etc., which occupies a large place in their activities and to which many of the observances of the monastic life have to give way.後者主要是一些特殊的工作或目的,如講道,教學,解放俘虜等,佔據了大量發生在他們的活動和其中的許多慶祝活動的寺院生活讓路。 This is not so in the case of the monk.這不是如此和尚。 He lives a special kind of life for the sake of the life and its consequences to himself. In a later section we shall see that monks have actually undertaken external labours of the most varied character, but in every case this work is extrinsic to the essence of the monastic state.他的生命一種特殊的生命,為了生命和其後果對自己說。在後來的節中,我們應看到,和尚實際上已經開展外部勞動最不同的特點,但在任何情況下這項工作是外在的實質在寺院的狀態。 Christian monasticism has varied greatly in its external forms, but, broadly speaking, it has two main species (a) the eremitical or solitary, (b) the cenobitical or family types.基督教修道有很大的差別在其外部形式,但大致來說,它有兩個主要物種(一) eremitical或單獨, ( b )在cenobitical或家庭類型。 St. Anthony may be called the founder of the first and St. Pachomius of the second.聖安東尼可能被要求的創始人第一次和聖帕科謬斯的第二次。

(a) The Eremitical Type of Monasticism (一) Eremitical類型修

This way of life took its rise among the monks who settled around St. Anthony's mountain at Pispir and whom he organized and guided.這樣的生活了崛起的僧人解決圍繞誰聖安東尼山Pispir和他組織和指導。 In consequence it prevailed chiefly in northern Egypt from Lycopolis (Asyut) to the Mediterranean, but most of our information about it deals with Nitria and Scete.因此它主要流行在北部埃及Lycopolis (艾斯尤特)到地中海,但我們的大多數關於它的資料處理Nitria和Scete 。 Cassian and Palladius give us full details of its working and from them we learn that the strictest hermits lived out of earshot of each other and only met together for Divine worship on Saturdays and Sundays, while others would meet daily and recite their psalms and hymns together in little companies of three or four. Cassian和帕拉丟斯給我們的全部細節的工作,並從他們,我們知道,嚴格的隱士生活的聽不到對方,只有共同會見了神聖的崇拜在星期六和星期日,而另一些將滿足每天和他們的詩歌朗誦和讚美詩一起在小公司的三個或四個。 There was no Rule of Life among them but, as Palladius says, "they have different practices, each as he is able and as he wishes".沒有規律的生活,但它們之間,作為帕拉丟斯說, “他們有不同的做法,每一個,因為他能夠和他的願望。 ” The elders exercised an authority, but chiefly of a personal kind, their position and influence being in proportion to their reputation for greater wisdom.長老行使的權力,但主要是個人實物,其地位和影響正在比例的聲譽更大的智慧。 The monks would visit each other often and discourse, several together, on Holy Scripture and on the spiritual life. General conferences in which a large number took part were not uncommon. Gradually the purely eremitical life tended to die out (Cassian, "Conf.", xix) but a semi-eremitical form continued to be common for a long period, and has never ceased entirely either in East or West where the Carthusians and Camaldolese still practise it.僧侶將訪問對方往往和話語,有幾個在一起,對聖經和精神生活。秘書長會議,其中有大量參加了並不少見。逐步純粹eremitical生活趨於消亡( Cassian , “設置。 “十九) ,但一個半eremitical形式仍然是常見的很長一段時間,也從未完全停止無論是在東方或西方的Carthusians和Camaldolese仍然信奉它。 It is needless here to trace its developments in detail as all its varieties are dealt with in special articles (see ANCHORITES; ANTHONY,ST.; ANTHONY, ORDERS OF ST.; CAMALDOLESE; CARTHUSIANS; HERMITS; LAURA; MONASTICISM, EASTERN; STYLITES OR PILLAR SAINTS; PAUL THE HERMIT, ST.).這是不必要的在這裡追踪事態發展,其詳細的所有品種都涉及的特別條款(見ANCHORITES ;安東尼,意法半導體。 ;安東尼,意法半導體訂單。 ; CAMALDOLESE ; CARTHUSIANS ;隱士;吳英;修道,東部地區; STYLITES或柱聖人;鄭明隱士,意。 ) 。

(b) The Cenobitical Type of Monasticism This type began in Egypt at a somewhat later date than the eremitical form. (二)型Cenobitical修這種類型在埃及開始在稍後的日期有點比eremitical形式。 It was about the year 318 that St. Pachomius, still a young man, founded his first monastery at Tabennisi near Denderah.這是約318年,聖帕科謬斯,仍然是一個年輕人,他首先創立於Tabennisi寺院附近Denderah 。 The institute spread with surprising rapidity, and by the date of St. Pachomius' death (c. 345) it counted eight monasteries and several hundred monks.該學院以驚人的蔓延速度,和日期的聖帕科謬斯逝世(角345 )這8個寺廟和幾百名僧侶。 Most remarkable of all is the fact that it immediately took shape as a fully organized congregation or order, with a superior general, a system of visitations and general chapters, and all the machinery of a centralized government such as does not again appear in the monastic world until the rise of the Cistercians and Mendicant Orders some eight or nine centuries later.最引人注目的是事實,立即形成了作為一個完全有組織的教會或命令,與上級一般而言,一個系統的visitations和一般章節,和所有的機械的中央集權政府,如不再次出現在寺院直到世界的崛起熙乞討令一些八,九世紀後。 As regards internal organization the Pachomian monasteries had nothing of the family ideal.至於內部組織的Pachomian寺廟沒有什麼家庭的理想。 The numbers were too great for this and everything was done on a military or barrack system.數字過於巨大,並都做了軍事或營房系統。 In each monastery there were numerous separate houses, each with its own praepositus, cellarer, and other officials, the monks being grouped in these according to the particular trade they followed.在每個寺院有許多單獨的房子,每一個都有自己的praepositus ,窖,和其他官員,僧侶被歸類在這些根據特定行業,他們遵循。 Thus the fullers were gathered in one house, the carpenters in another, and so on; an arrangement the more desirable because in the Pachomian monasteries regular organized work was an integral part of the system, a feature in which it differed from the Antonian way of life.因此,福樂聚集在一所房屋,木匠在另一等等;的安排更為可取,因為在Pachomian寺廟經常組織工作的一個組成部分,系統,功能,它不同於Antonian方式生命。 In point of austerity however the Antonian monks far surpassed the Pachomian, and so we find Bgoul and Schenute endeavouring in their great monastery at Athribis, to combine the cenobitical life of Tabennisi with the austerities of Nitria.在點的緊縮但Antonian僧侶遠遠超過了Pachomian ,所以我們找到Bgoul和Schenute努力在其偉大的寺院在Athribis ,結合cenobitical生活Tabennisi與austerities的Nitria 。

In the Pachomian monasteries it was left very much to the individual taste of each monk to fix the order of life for himself.在Pachomian寺院是非常左的個人品味每一個和尚來修復命令為自己的生活。 Thus the hours for meals and the extent of his fasting were settled by him alone, he might eat with the others in common or have bread and salt provided in his own cell every day or every second day.因此,用餐時間以及在多大程度上他的空腹定居由他單獨吃飯,他可能與其他人共同或有麵包和鹽提供了自己的細胞每天或每個第二天。 The conception of the cenobitical life was modified considerably by St. Basil.這個概念的cenobitical生活是相當大的修改聖巴西爾。 In his monasteries a true community life was followed.在他的寺院一個真正的社區生活之後。 It was no longer possible for each one to choose his own dinner hour.這是再也不可能為每個人選擇自己的晚餐小時。 On the contrary, meals were in common, work was in common, prayer was in common seven times a day.相反,吃飯是共同的,工作是共同的,祈禱是在共同的7倍一天。 In the matter of asceticism too all the monks were under the control of the superior whose sanction was required for all the austerities they might undertake.在這個問題上的禁慾主義太所有僧侶被控制下的優越的制裁所需的所有austerities他們可能進行。 It was from these sources that western monachism took its rise; further information on them will be found in the articles BASIL THE GREAT; RULE OF SAINT BASIL; SAINT BENEDICT OF NURSIA; SAINT PACHOMIUS; SAINT PALLADIUS.正是從這些來源,西方monachism了其上升;進一步資料,他們將找到的文章羅勒大;規律聖羅勒;聖本篤的努爾西亞;聖帕科謬斯;聖帕拉第阿斯。

(4) Monastic Occupations ( 4 )寺院職業

It has already ben pointed out that the monk can adopt any kind of work so long as it is compatible with a life of prayer and renunciation.它已經本指出,僧侶可以採用任何種類的工作,只要是符合生活的祈禱和放棄。 In the way of occupations therefore prayer must always take the first place.在這樣的職業祈禱因此,必須始終放在首位。

(a) Monastic PrayerFrom the very outset it has been regarded as the monk's first duty to keep up the official prayer of the Church. (一)寺院PrayerFrom一開始它已被視為和尚的第一責任跟上正式祈禱的教會。 To what extent the Divine office was stereotyped in St. Anthony's day need not be discussed here, but Palladius and Cassian both make it clear that the monks were in no way behind the rest of the world as regards their liturgical customs.在何種程度上神聖的辦公室是定型在聖安東尼每天不必在這裡討論,但帕拉丟斯和Cassian都明確指出,僧侶被絕不落後世界其他地方的關於他們的禮儀習俗。 The practice of celebrating the office apart, or in twos and threes, has been referred to above as common in the Antonian system, while the Pachomian monks performed many of the services in their separate houses, the whole community only assembled in the church for the more solemn offices, while the Antonian monks only met together on Saturdays and Sundays.實踐慶祝辦公室之外,或三三兩兩,已上文提到的共同的Antonian系統,而Pachomian僧侶進行的許多服務在各自的房子,整個社會不僅聚集在教堂的更莊嚴的辦事處,而只有Antonian僧侶共同會見了星期六和星期日。 Among the monks of Syria the night office was much longer than in Egypt (Cassian, "Instit.", II,ii; III,i,iv,viii) and new offices at different hours of the day were instituted.在敘利亞僧侶夜間辦事處遠遠長於在埃及( Cassian , “ Instit 。 ”二,二,三,一,四,八)和新的辦事處,在不同的時間,每天有制度。 In prayer as in other matters St. Basil's legislation became the norm among Eastern monks, while in the West no changes of importance have taken place since St. Benedict's rule gradually eliminated all local customs.在祈禱中的其他事項的聖巴西爾的法律規範,成為中東歐僧侶,而在西方沒有任何變化的重要性發生了自聖本篤的統治逐漸消除所有當地的習俗。 For the development of the Divine office into its present form see the articles, BREVIARY; CANONICAL HOURS; and also the various "hours", eg, MATINS, LAUDS, etc.; LITURGY, etc. In the east this solemn liturgical prayer remains today almost the sole active work of the monks, and, though in the west many other forms of activity have flourished, the Opus Dei or Divine Office has always been and still is regarded as the preeminent duty and occupation of the monk to which all other works, no matter how excellent in themselves, must give way, according to St. Benedict's principle (Reg.Ben., xliii) "Nihil operi Dei praeponatur" (Let nothing take precedence of the work of God).發展的神聖的辦公室到目前的形式看到的文章,祈禱;典型小時; ,也是各種“分” ,例如, MATINS ,讚揚等;禮儀等在東部這個莊嚴的禮儀祈禱今天仍然是幾乎唯一的積極工作的僧侶,以及,儘管西部地區許多其他形式的活動已蓬勃發展,在主業會或神的辦公室一直是並且仍然被看作是卓越的工作地點和佔領和尚這是所有其他作品無論多麼出色的本身,必須讓位,根據聖本篤的原則( Reg.Ben 。 , XLIII )號“ Nihil operi棣praeponatur ” (讓沒有優先考慮的工作的上帝) 。 Alongside the official liturgy, private prayer, especially mental prayer, has always held an important place; see PRAYER; CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE.除了官方禮儀,私人祈禱,尤其是心理祈禱,一直佔有重要位置;見禱告;沉思的生活。

(b) Monastic labours (二)寺院勞動

The first monks did comparatively little in the way of external labour.第一個和尚也相對較少的道路外部勞動力。 We hear of them weaving mats, making baskets and doing other work of a simple character which, while serving for their support, would not distract them from the continual contemplation of God.我們聽到他們編織草蓆,使籃子和從事其他工作的一個簡單性質的,而服務的支持,不會分散他們從不斷沉思的上帝。 Under St. Pachomius manual labour was organized as an essential part of the monastic life; and since it is a principle of the monks as distinguished from the mendicants, that the body shall be self-supporting, external work of one sort or another has been an inevitable part of the life ever since.根據聖帕科謬斯手工勞動組織作為一個重要組成部分僧侶生活;和因為這是一個原則的僧侶作為區別於乞丐,該機構應自我支持,外部工作的這種或那種一直一個不可避免的一部分,生活至今。

Agriculture, of course, naturally ranked first among the various forms of external labour.農業,當然,自然排名第一之間的各種形式的外來勞動力。 The sites chosen by the monks for their retreat were usually in wild and inaccessible places, which were left to them precisely because they were uncultivated, and no one else cared to undertake the task of clearing them.該網站所選擇的僧侶為他們撤退,通常在野生和交通不便的地方,這是留給他們,正是因為他們耕種,並沒有其他人承擔照顧的任務交換他們。 The rugged valley of Subiaco, or the fens and marshes of Glastonbury may be cited as examples, but nearly all the most ancient monasteries are to be found in places considerable uninhabitable by all except the monks.崎嶇的山谷薩伯卡,或沼澤地和濕地的格拉斯頓伯里可引的例子,但是幾乎所有的最古老的寺廟都可以找到相當多的地方居住,除非所有的僧侶。 Gradually forests were cleared and marshes drained, rivers were bridged and roads made; until, almost imperceptibly, the desert place became a farm or a garden.森林被逐步清理和沼澤地排水,河流被橋和道路情況; ,直到幾乎不知不覺地,沙漠的地方成為一個農場或花園。 In the later Middle Ages, when the black monks were giving less time to agriculture, the Cistercians reestablished the old order of things; and even today such monasteries as La Trappe de Staoueli in northern Africa, or New Nursia in western Australia do identically the same work as was done by the monks a thousand years ago.在後來的中世紀,當黑色僧侶被給予更短的時間內,以農業,熙重建舊秩序的事情;和即使在今天這樣的寺廟作為香格里拉黴德Staoueli在北部非洲,或新努爾西亞在澳大利亞西部做相同相同工作就是這樣做的僧侶一千多年前。 "We owe the agricultural restoration of a great part of Europe to the monks" (Hallam, "Middle Ages", III,436); "The Benedictine monks were the agriculturists of Europe" (Guizot, "Histoire de la Civilisation", II,75); such testimony, which could be multiplied from writers of every creed, is enough for the purpose here (see Cistercians). “我們應該恢復農業的很大一部分歐洲僧侶” (哈勒姆, “中世紀” ,第三章, 436 ) ; “的本篤會僧侶是農民的歐洲” (基佐, “史文明之光” ,二, 75 ) ;這種證言,可以成倍從每一個作家的信仰,是足以讓這裡的目的(見熙) 。

Copying of Manuscripts複製的手稿

Even more important than their services to agriculture has been the work of the monastic orders in the preservation of ancient literature.更重要的不是他們的服務,農業一直是工作的寺院訂單保存古代文學。 In this respect too the results achieved went far beyond what was actually aimed at.在這方面也取得的成果遠遠超出了實際旨在。 The monks copied the Scriptures for their own use in the Church services and, when their cloisters developed into schools, as the march of events made it inevitable they should, they copied such monuments of classical literature as were preserved.僧侶複製聖經供自己使用在教會服務,並在其cloisters已發展成為學校,為3月的事件,不可避免地,他們應該,他們複製古蹟等古典文學作為被保存。 At first no doubt such work was solely utilitarian, even in St. Benedict's rule the instructions as to reading and study make it clear that these filled a very subordinate place in the disposition of the monastic life. Cassiodorus was the first to make the transcription of manuscripts and the multiplication of books an organized and important branch of monastic labour, but his insistence in this direction influenced western monachism enormously and is in fact his chief claim to recognition as a legislator for monks.首先毫無疑問,這些工作僅僅是功利的,甚至在聖本篤的統治的指示,以閱讀和研究清楚地表明,這些填補了非常從屬地位的處置的寺院生活。 Cassiodorus是第一次,使轉錄手稿和書籍乘法有組織,有重要分支寺院勞動,但他堅持這個方向西部monachism影響巨大,事實上他的主要主張承認作為一個立法者的僧侶。 It is not too much to say that we today are indebted to the labours of the monastic copyists for the preservation, not only of the Sacred Writings, but of practically all that survives to us of the secular literature of antiquity (see MANUSCRIPT; CLOISTER; SCRIPTORIUM).這是並不過分地說,我們今天的感激辛勤的寺院copyists保存,不僅是神聖的著作,但幾乎所有的生存,我們的世俗文獻文物(見手稿;迴廊;寫字間) 。

Education教育

At first no one became a monk before he was an adult, but very soon the custom began of receiving the young.起初沒有人成為僧人之前,他是一個成人,但很快習慣開始接收年輕人。 Even infants in arms were dedicated to the monastic state by their parents (see Reg. Ben., lix) and in providing for the education of these child-monks the cloister inevitably developed into a schoolroom (see Oblati).即使嬰兒武器致力於國家的修道院他們的父母(見條例。本。 ,柳) ,並提供教育這些孩子的寺院僧侶不可避免地發展成為一個教室(見Oblati ) 。 Nor was it long before the schools thus established began to include children not intended for the monastic state.也不是很久以前的學校因此建立開始,包括兒童不打算為寺院的狀態。 Some writers have maintained that this step was not taken until the time of Charlemagne, but there is sufficient indication that such pupils existed at an earlier date, though the proportion of external scholars certainly increased largely at this time.有些作者堅持認為,這一步驟是沒有考慮到時間的查理曼,但有足夠的跡象表明,這類學生存在的一個較早的日期,但外部的比例學者肯定增加主要在這個時候。 The system of education followed was that known as the "Trivium" and "Quadrivium" (see ARTS, THE SEVEN LIBERAL), whih was merely a development of that used during classical times.教育系統遵循的是,被稱為“ Trivium ”和“ Quadrivium ” (見藝術,七個LIBERAL ) , whih僅僅是一個發展的過程中使用古典時期。 The greater number of the larger monasteries in western Europe had a claustral school and not a few, of which St.更大數量較大的寺廟在西歐有claustral學校,而不是少數,其中街 Gall in Switzerland may be cited as an example, acquired a reputation which it is no exaggeration to call European.戈爾在瑞士可引為榜樣,獲得了聲譽,可以毫不誇張地呼籲歐洲。 With the rise of the universities and the spread of the mendicant orders the monastic control of education came to an end, but the schools attached to the monasteries continued, and still continue today, to do no insignificant amount of educational work (see ARTS, THE SEVEN LIBERAL; CLOISTER; EDUACTION; SCHOOLS).隨著大學和蔓延的行乞修道士命令控制的教育已經結束,但學校十分向寺院繼續,今天仍在繼續,這樣做沒有任何微不足道教育工作(見藝術,七LIBERAL ;迴廊; EDUACTION ;學校) 。

Architecture, painting, sculpture and metal work建築,繪畫,雕塑和金屬工作

Of the first hermits many lived in caves, tombs, and deserted ruins, but from the outset the monk has been forced to be a builder.第一隱士許多居住在洞穴,古墓,並遺棄的廢墟,而且從一開始和尚已被迫成為一個建設者。 We have seen that the Pachomian system required buildings of elaborate plan and large accommodation, and the organized development of monastic life did not tend to simplify the buildings which enshrined it.我們看到, Pachomian系統需要制定建築計劃和大型住宿,並有組織地發展,寺院的生活並不容易,以簡化建築物載入它。 Consequently skill in architecture was called for and so monastic architects were produced to meet the need in the same almost unconscious manner as were the monastic schoolmasters.因此在建築的技能要求,因此寺院建築生產來滿足需要在同一幾乎失去知覺的方式是寺院校長。 During the medieval period the arts of painting, illuminating, sculpture, and goldsmiths' work were practised in the monasteries all over Europe and the output, must have been simply enormous.在中世紀時期的繪畫藝術,照明,雕塑,和金飾工作實行寺院整個歐洲和輸出,必須是巨大的。 We have in the museums, churches, and elsewhere such countless examples of monastic skills in these arts that it is really difficult to realize that all this wealth of bountiful things forms only a small fraction of the total of artistic creation turned out century after century by these skilful and untiring craftsmen.我們在博物館,教堂和其他地方,如無數的例子僧侶的技能在這些藝術,這是真的難以實現,這一切財富的形式豐富的東西只有一小部分總額的藝術創作成為世紀後世紀這些熟練的和不懈的工匠。 Yet it is cetainly true that what has perished by destruction, loss and decay would outweigh many times the entire mass of medieval art work now in existence, and of this the larger portion was produced in the workshop of the cloister (see ARCHITECTURE; ECCLESIASTICAL ART; PAINTING; ILLUMINATION; RELIQUARY; SHRINE; SCULPTURE).然而,這是cetainly確實已經滅亡的破壞,損失和衰變將超過許多倍的整個大規模的中世紀藝術作品現在存在,為此,大部分是生產車間的迴廊(見結構;教會藝術;繪畫;照明; RELIQUARY ;靖國神社;雕塑) 。

Historical and patristic work歷史和教父工作

As years passed by the great monastic corporations accumulated archives of the highest value for the history of the countries wherein they were situated.至於通過幾年的偉大寺院企業積累檔案的最高值歷史的國家,其中位於他們。 It was the custom too in many of the lager abbeys for an official chronicler to record the events of contemporary history.這是自定義過於在許多修道院的啤酒進行正式chronicler記錄事件的當代歷史。 In more recent times the seed thus planted bore fruit in the many great works of erudition which have won for the monks such high praise from scholars of all classes.最近倍的種子就此承擔水果種植中的許多偉大的作品,博學而獲得的僧侶等的高度讚揚學者的所有課程。 The Maurist Congregation of Benedictines which flourished in France during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the supreme example of this type of monastic industry, but similar works on a less extensive scale have been undertaken in every country of western Europe by monks of all orders and congregations, and at the present time (1910) this output of solid scholarly work shows no signs whatever of diminution either in quality or quantity.該教會的Maurist其中蓬勃發展本篤在法國期間, 17和18世紀是最高的例子這種類型的寺院的產業,但類似的工程,那麼大規模開展了在每個國家西歐的僧侶的所有命令和教會,並在本時間( 1910年)這一產出的固體學術工作沒有跡象顯示任何的減少無論是在質量和數量。

Missionary work宣教工作

Perhaps the mission field would seem a sphere little suited for monastic energies, but no idea could be more false.也許外地的使命似乎沒有一個球體適合寺院的精力,但不知道可以更假的。 Mankind is proverbially imitative and so, to establish a Christianity where paganism once ruled, it is necessary to present not simply a code of morals, not the mere laws and regulations, nor even the theology of the Church, but an actual pattern of Christian society. Such a "working model" is found preeminently in the monastery; and so it is the monastic order which has proved itself the apostle of the nations in western Europe.人類正在廣泛地模仿,因此,建立一個基督教的異教曾經統治,有必要本不只是道德準則,而不是單純的法律和規章,甚至也不神學教會,但實際的模式,基督教社會。這樣的“工作模式”被發現preeminently在修道院; ,所以是寺院秩序已經證明了自己的使徒的國家在西歐。 To mention a few instances of this -- Saints Columba in Scotland, Augustine in England, Boniface in Germany, Ansgar in Scandinavia, Swithbert and Willibrord in the Netherlands, Rupert and Emmeran in what is now Austria, Adalbert in Bohemia, Gall and Columban in Switzerland, were monks who, by the example of a Christian society, which they and their companions displayed, led the nations among whom they lived from paganism to Christianity and civilization.舉幾個例子本-聖科倫巴在蘇格蘭,英格蘭,奧古斯丁,博尼法斯在德國, A nsgar在斯堪的納維亞半島, S withbert和威利布羅德在荷蘭,魯珀特和E mmeran在現在的奧地利,阿德爾伯特在波西米亞,戈爾在和C olumban瑞士,誰是僧侶,例如由基督教社會,他們和他們的同伴顯示,導致國家間他們住來自異教的基督教和文明。 Nor did the monastic apostles stop at this point but, by remaining as a community and training their converts in the arts of peace, they established a society based on Gospel principles and firm with the stability of the Christian faith, in a way that no individual missionary, even the most devoted and saintly, has ever succeeded in doing.也沒有停止修道院使徒在這一點上,但餘下的作為一個社區和訓練他們的轉換在藝術的和平,他們設立了一個基礎的社會福音的原則和堅定的穩定性,信仰基督教的方式,任何個人傳教,即使是最有獻身精神和聖潔,曾經成功地這樣做。

It must be clearly understood however, that monasticism has never become stereotyped in practice, and that it would be quite false to hold up any single example as a supreme and perfect model.必須清楚地理解然而,修道從來沒有成為定型在實踐中,這將是非常虛假舉行了任何一個單一的例子作為一個最高和完善的模式。 Monasticism is a living thing and consequently it must be informed with a principle of self-motion and adaptability to its environment.修是有生命的,因此它必須被告知與自決原則的議案和適應環境。 Only one thing must always remain the same and that is the motive power which brought it into existence and has maintained it throughout the centuries, viz., the love of God and the desire to serve Him as perfectly as this life permits, leaving all things to follow after Christ.只有一件事必須始終保持相同的,那就是動力使之生存和保持它在整個世紀,即。 ,上帝的愛和希望他的服務完美,因為這生命的許可證,使所有的事情按照基督之後。

Publication information Written by G. Roger Huddleston.出版信息撰稿,由G.羅傑爾斯頓。 Transcribed by Marie Jutras. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄的瑪麗Jutras 。天主教百科全書,卷十, 1911年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教訂單
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌
Benedictines
Trappists Trappists
Cistercians
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Carmelites Carmelites
Discalced Carmelites Discalced Carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁
Dominicans 多米尼加
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟會

Nuns 修女
Friars 修士
Convent 修道院
Ministry
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 羅馬訂單


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