Monarchianism, Sabellianism, Patripassionism, Modalism神格唯一論,撒伯流主義, Patripassionism , Modalism

General Information 一般信息

Monarchianism is a Christian heretical doctrine of the 2nd and 3rd centuries opposed to the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity; it strongly maintained the essential unity of the Deity and was intended to reinforce monotheism in Christianity.神格唯一論是一個基督教異端學說的第2和第3世紀反對正統學說的三位一體;它堅決維護的基本統一的神,目的是加強一神教的基督教。 Monarchians were divided into two groups, the Adoptionists, or Dynamic Monarchians, and the Patripassians, or Modalistic Monarchians. Monarchians分為兩組,在Adoptionists ,或動態Monarchians ,並Patripassians ,或形態Monarchians 。

The Adoptionists taught that Christ, although of miraculous birth, was a mere man until his baptism when the Holy Spirit made him the Son of God by adoption.該Adoptionists告訴我們,基督,但神奇的誕生,是一個純粹的人,直到他的洗禮時,聖靈使他上帝之子的通過。 This doctrine was taught by Paul of Samosata, at one time bishop of Antioch.這一理論是由保羅教的薩莫薩塔,一次性安提阿主教。 Adoptionism, or adoptianism, was revived in Spain about the end of the 8th century, when it was again condemned as heresy. Adoptionism ,或adoptianism ,是恢復有關在西班牙結束的八世紀時,再次譴責為異端。

The Patripassians believed in the divinity of Christ, but regarded the Trinity as three manifestations, or modes, of a single divine being.該Patripassians相信基督的神性,但認為三一三個表現,或模式,一個神。 They taught that the Father had come to earth and suffered and died under the appearance of the Son; hence their name (Latin pater; patris,"father"; passus,"to suffer"). This doctrine was taught by the Roman Christian prelate Sabellius and is thus sometimes referred to as Sabellianism.他們告訴我們,父親已經到了地球和遭受痛苦和死亡的外觀兒子,因此他們的名字(拉丁文父;祖國報“父親” ; passus , “受苦” ) 。這一理論是教導羅馬基督教主教撒伯流,因此有時也被稱為撒伯流主義。

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Monarchianism, Sabellianism, Patripassionism, Modalism神格唯一論,撒伯流主義, Patripassionism , Modalism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

In its most general sense monarchianism (also called patripassianism or Sabellianism) refers to the primarily Western attempts in the third century to defend monotheism against suspected tritheism by denying the personal distinctiveness of a divine Son and Holy Spirit in contrast to God the Father.在最一般意義上神格唯一論(也稱為patripassianism或撒伯流主義)指的主要是西方企圖在第三個世紀捍衛一神教對涉嫌tritheism否認個人的獨特的神聖子和聖靈相反,聖父。 The term is first used by Tertullian to describe those who desired to protect the monarchy (of the one God) from improper thoughts about the economy (of the three: the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). There were two forms of monarchianism which were not only distinctly independent but even opposed to each other.這個詞是第一次使用的良來描述那些誰想要保護君主立憲制(一個上帝)由不適當的思考經濟(三個:父親,兒子,和聖靈) 。 有兩種形式的神格唯一的不僅是獨立的,但明顯甚至反對對方。

Dynamic, or adoptionistic, monarchianism proposed a monotheism of God the Father in relation to which Jesus was viewed as a mere man who was endowed with the Holy Spirit. 動態,或adoptionistic ,神格唯一論提出了一個一神教的聖父與耶穌被看作是一個單純的人是誰賦予了聖靈。 This view was first put forward in Rome about 190 by Theodotus of Byzantium and continued by his successor, Artemon (also called Theodotus), who tried to argue that this teaching was the heir of the apostolic tradition. Artemon was refuted by Hippolytus, who condemned the teaching as an innovative attempt to rationalize the Scripture according to the systems of hellenic logic (most likely that taught by the physician and philosopher Galen).這種觀點是首先提出在羅馬約190所Theodotus的拜占庭,並繼續由他的繼任者,阿特蒙(也稱為Theodotus ) ,誰試圖爭辯說,這種教學是繼承人的使徒傳統。阿特蒙是駁斥西波呂,誰譴責教學作為一個創新嘗試合理化的聖經根據系統的希臘邏輯(最有可能的是教的醫生和哲學家蓋倫) 。

Although there has been some disagreement on exactly how to classify him, it seems most likely that Paul of Samosata held to a more advanced form of this dynamic monarchianism.雖然出現了一些分歧究竟如何分類他,但似乎最有可能是保羅薩莫薩塔舉行更先進的形式,這個充滿活力的神格唯一論。 He depersonalized the Logos as simply the inherent rationality of God, which led him to formulate a doctrine of the homoousia of the Logos and the Father which necessarily denied the personal subsistence of the preincarnate Word.他人格化的標識只是固有的合理性,上帝,這使他制定一個理論homoousia的標誌和必然之父否認了個人生活的preincarnate字。 It was for this reason that both his teaching as a whole and the use of the word homoousia were condemned by the Synod of Antioch in 268.正是由於這個原因,他的教學作為一個整體一詞的使用homoousia被譴責的安提阿主教在268 。 Also in working out the consistency of the dynamic monarchian position, Paul taught that the Holy Spirit was not a distant personal entity but simply a manifestation of the grace of the Father.另外,在工作的連貫性monarchian的動態位置,保羅告訴我們,聖靈不是一個遙遠的個人實體,而只是體現了優雅的父親。

Although in basic agreement with dynamic monarchianism on the foundational issue of limiting the term theos to the person of the Father alone, modalistic monarchianism, also known simply as modalism, nevertheless attempted to speak of the full deity of the Son.雖然在基本協議的動態神格唯一論的基本問題,限制了長期上帝的人的父親,僅形態神格唯一論,也稱為僅僅作為modalism ,但試圖發言充分神的兒子。 The earlier modalists (operating between the second and third centuries), such as Noetus, Epigonus, and Praxeas, achieved this objective by identifying the Son as the Father himself.早先的modalists (業務之間的第二次和第三次世紀) ,如Noetus , Epigonus ,並Praxeas ,達到這個目標確定了兒子的父親本人。 This led to the charge of patripassianism, which became another label for modalism. Patripassianism is the teaching that it was the Father who became incarnate, was born of a virgin, and who suffered and died on the cross.這導致負責patripassianism ,成為另一個標籤modalism 。 Patripassianism是教學,這是爸爸誰是化身,出生的處女,誰遭受痛苦和死亡在十字架上。 Praxeas attempted to soften this charge by making a distinction between the Christ who is the Father and the Son who was simply a man. Praxeas試圖軟化此費用之間作出區別,基督誰是父子誰只不過是一個男人。 In this way the Father cosuffers with the human Jesus.這樣,父親cosuffers的人力耶穌。

A more sophisticated form of modalism was taught by Sabellius in Rome early in the third century and was given the name Sabellianism. Although much of his teaching has been confused historically with that of Marcellus of Ancyra (fourth century), some elements can be reconstructed.一個更複雜的形式modalism是由撒伯流教授在羅馬早在3世紀,並定名為撒伯流主義。雖然他的教學一直混淆歷史與瑪爾凱的Ancyra ( 4世紀) ,有些內容可以重建。 It seems that Sabellius taught the existence of a divine monad (which he named Huiopator), which by a process of expansion projected itself successively in revelation as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.看來,撒伯流教存在的神聖單子(他命名為Huiopator ) ,該進程的預測本身的擴展先後在啟示作為父親,兒子,和聖靈。 As Father it revealed itself as Creator and Lawgiver.作為父親揭示本身Creator和立法者。 As Son it revealed itself as Redeemer.至於它的兒子透露自己是救世主。 As Spirit it revealed itself as the giver of grace.作為精神揭示了自己作為給予的寬限期。 These were three different modes revealing the same divine person.這是三個不同的模式揭示了同樣神聖的人。 Sabellius as well as the modalists preceding him shared the same view of the Logos as that of Paul of Samosata.撒伯流以及modalists前他有著相同看法的徽標作為的保羅薩莫薩塔。 This along with the fact that modalism was much more popular than dynamic monarchianism (so much so that it alone is sometimes simply called monarchianism) is perhaps why Paul is classified by later patristic writers as a modalist.這與事實modalism更是受歡迎的比動態神格唯一論(以至於它有時僅僅是簡單地稱為神格唯一)也許是為什麼保羅歸類後教父作家作為一個modalist 。

CA Blaising加利福尼亞州Blaising
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
Eusebius, Church History 5.25; 7.27 - 30; Hippolytus, Contra Noetum; Tertullian, Against Praxeas; R Seeberg, Text book of the History of Doctrines; JND Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines.優西比烏,教會歷史5.25 ; 7.27 -3 0;西波呂,魂斗羅N oetum;良,反對P raxeas; R西貝爾格,文字書史的理論; J ND凱利,早期基督教教義。


Monarchians

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Heretics of the second and third centuries.異端的第二和第三世紀。 The word, Monarchiani, was first used by Tertullian as a nickname for the Patripassian group (adv. Prax., x), and was seldom used by the ancients.這個詞, Monarchiani ,最早是由良作為一個暱稱為Patripassian組( adv.普凱。 , x )的,並且很少使用的古人。 In modern times it has been extended to an earlier group of heretics, who are distinguished as Dynamistic, or Adoptionist, Monarchians from the Modalist Monarchians, or Patripassians [Sabellians].近代以來它已擴大到一個較早的一批異端,誰是傑出的Dynamistic ,或Adoptionist , Monarchians從Modalist Monarchians ,或Patripassians [ Sabellians ] 。

I. DYNAMISTS, OR ADOPTIONISTS一DYNAMISTS ,或ADOPTIONISTS

All Christians hold the unity (monarchia) of God as a fundamental doctrine.所有基督徒舉行的統一( monarchia )上帝作為一項基本原則。 By the Patripassians this first principle was used to deny the Trinity, and they are with some reason called Monarchians.由Patripassians第一原則是用來剝奪三位一體,他們與一些所謂的Monarchians原因。 But the Adoptionists, or Dynamists, have no claim to the title, for they did not start from the monarchy of God, and their error is strictly Christological.但Adoptionists ,或Dynamists ,沒有索賠的標題,因為他們沒有從上帝的君主立憲制,其錯誤是嚴格基督。 An account of them must, however, be given here simply because the name Monarchian has adhered to them in spite of the repeated protests of historians of dogma.一個帳戶,其中然而,必須考慮僅僅是因為這裡的名字Monarchian堅持,儘管他們的一再抗議歷史學家的教條。 But their ancient and accurate name was Theodotians.但他們的古老的和準確的名字是Theodotians 。 The founder of the sect was a leather-seller of Byzantium named Theodotus.的創始人節是一個皮革賣方拜占庭命名Theodotus 。 He came to Rome under Pope Victor (c. 190-200) or earlier.他來到羅馬教皇維克多(角190-200 )或更早。 He taught (Philosophumena, VII, xxxv) that Jesus was a man born of a virgin according to the counsel of the Father, that He lived like other men, and was most pious; that at His baptism in the Jordan the Christ came down upon Him in the likeness of a dove, and therefore wonders (dynameis) were not wrought in Him until the Spirit (which Theodotus called Christ) came down and was manifested in Him.他教( Philosophumena ,七,三十五) ,耶穌是一位出生的處女根據律師的父親,說他住像其他男人,是最虔誠的; ,在他的洗禮在約旦基督下來後他的肖像的鴿子,因此奇觀( dynameis )沒有對他造成的,直到精神(其中Theodotus所謂的基督)下來,並體現於他。 They did not admit that this made Him God; but some of them said He was God after His resurrection.他們不承認這使他上帝,但其中一些人說他是上帝後,他的復活。 It was reported that Theodotus had been seized, with others, at Byzantium as a Christian, and that he had denied Christ, whereas his companions had been martyred; he had fled to Rome, and had invented his heresy in order to excuse his fall, saying that it was but a man and not God that he had denied.據報導, Theodotus被扣押,與他人一起,在拜占庭作為一個基督徒,他否認基督,而他的同伴犧牲了,他逃到了羅馬,並發明了他的異端邪說,以他的藉口下降,認為這只不過是一個男人,而不是神,他已經否認。 Pope Victor excommunicated him, and he gathered together a sect in which we are told much secular study was carried on.維克多教皇逐出教會他,他聚集一節中,我們被告知很多世俗的研究進行。 Hippolytus says that they argued on Holy Scripture in syllogistic form.西波呂說,他們認為在聖經中syllogistic形式。 Euclid, Aristotle, and Theophrastus were their admiration, and Galen they even adored.歐幾里德,亞里士多德,並泰奧弗拉斯托斯是他們的欽佩,並蓋倫他們甚至崇拜。 We should probably assume, with Harnack, that Hippolytus would have had less objection to the study of Plato or the Stoics, and that he disliked their purely literal exegesis, which neglected the allegorical sense.我們也許應該承擔,與哈納克,這西波呂將不得不減少異議的研究柏拉圖或Stoics ,他不喜歡他們的純粹的文字註釋,它忽視了寓言意義。 They also emended the text of Scripture, but their versions differed, that of Asclepiodotus was different from that of Theodotus, and again from that of Hermophilus; and the copies of Apolloniades did not even tally with one another.他們還emended文聖經,但他們的版本不同,即Asclepiodotus不同於Theodotus ,並再次從該的Hermophilus ;和副本Apolloniades甚至不符合彼此。 Some of them "denied the law and the Prophets", that is to say, they followed Marcion in rejecting the Old Testament.其中一些“否認法律和先知” ,這就是說,他們採取了拒絕馬吉安舊約。 The only disciple of the leather-seller of whom we know anything definite is his namesake Theodotus the banker (ho trapezites).唯一的弟子的皮革賣方人,我們知道什麼明確的是他的同名Theodotus銀行家(浩trapezites ) 。 He added to his master's doctrine the view that Melchisedech was a celestial power, who was the advocate for the angels in heaven, as Jesus Christ was for men upon earth (a view found among later sects).他補充說,以他主人的學說認為, Melchisedech是一個天體力量,誰是倡導者的天使在天堂,因為耶穌基督是男性對地球(一期後來發現教派) 。 (See MELCHISEDECHIANS). (見MELCHISEDECHIANS ) 。 This teaching was of course grounded on Hebrews, vii, 3, and it is refuted at length by St. Epiphanius as Heresy 55, "Melchisedechians", after he has attacked the leather-seller under Heresy 54, "Theodotians".這種教學當然是希伯來人的基礎上,七, 3 ,這是在駁斥長聖埃皮法尼烏斯作為異端55 , “ Melchisedechians ”後,他已經攻擊了皮革賣方根據54異端“ , Theodotians ” 。 As he meets a series of arguments of both heretics, it is probable that some writings of the sect had been before Hippolytus, whose lost "Syntagma against all heresies" supplied St. Epiphanius with all his information.正如他滿足了一系列的論點既異端,這是可能的,有些著作的節已收到西波呂,他失去了“錫塔瑪反對一切歪理邪說”提供的聖埃皮法尼烏斯他的所有信息。 After the death of Pope Victor, Theodotus, the banker, and Asclepiodotus designed to raise their sect from the position of a mere school like those of the Gnostics to the rank of a Church like that of Marcion. They got hold of a certain confessor named Natalius, and persuaded him to be called their bishop at a salary of 150 denarii (24 dollars) a month.去世後,教皇維克多, Theodotus ,銀行家,並Asclepiodotus旨在提高他們的教派的立場僅僅是學校一樣的Gnostics的秩的教會一樣,馬吉安。他們掌握一定的懺悔命名Natalius ,並說服他被稱為主教,月薪150 denarii ( 24歲美元)一個月。 Natalius thus became the first antipope. Natalius從而成為第一個對立教皇。 But after he had joined them, he was frequently warned in visions by the Lord, Who did not wish His martyr to be lost outside the Church.但是,他加入了他們,他經常警告理想的主,誰不希望他的烈士喪失以外的教會。 He neglected the visions, for the sake of the honour and gain, but finally was scourged all night by the holy angels, so that in the morning with haste and tears he betook himself in sackcloth and ashes to Pope Zephyrinus and cast himself at the feet of the clergy, and even of the laity, showing the weals of the blows, and was after some difficulty restored to communion.他忽略了的理想,為了榮譽和利益,但最終是scourged晚上所有的神聖的天使,所以,在今天匆忙和眼淚,他本人betook在麻布和骨灰,教皇Zephyrinus及演員在自己腳下神職人員,甚至的俗人,顯示weals的打擊,並在一定程度上難以恢復到共融。 This story is quoted by Eusebius II (VI, xxviii) from the "Little Labyrinth" of the contemporary Hippolytus, a work composed against Artemon, a late leader of the sect (perhaps c. 225-30), whom he did not mention in the "Syntagma" or the "Philosophumena".這個故事是由優西比烏引用二(六,二十八)從“小迷宮”當代西波呂,組成一個工作對阿特蒙,一個已故領導人的節(也許角225-30 ) ,他沒有提及在的“錫塔瑪”或“ Philosophumena ” 。 Our knowledge of Artemon, or Artemas, is limited to the reference to him made at the end of the Council of Antioch against Paul of Samosata (about 266-268), where that heretic was said to have followed Artemon, and in fact the teaching of Paul is but a more learned and theological development of Theodotianism (see Paul of Samosata).我們的知識阿特蒙,或Artemas ,僅限於向他提到了在年底安理會對安保的薩莫薩塔(約266-268 ) ,在該邪教據說其次阿特蒙,事實上,教學保羅不過是一個更加教訓和神學發展Theodotianism (見保羅薩莫薩塔) 。

The sect probably died out about the middle of the third century, and can never have been numerous.該節可能死於大約中間的第三個世紀,絕不能出現了許多。 All our knowledge of it goes back to Hippolytus.我們所有的知識,它可以追溯到西波呂。 His "Syntagma" (c.205) is epitomized in Pseudo-Tertullian (Praescript., lii) and Philastrius, and is developed by Epiphanius (Haer., liv. lv); his "Little Labyrinth" (written 139-5, cited by Eusebius, V, 28) and his "Philosophumena" are still extant.他的“錫塔瑪” ( c.205 )是體現在偽良( Praescript. ,理)和Philastrius ,是發達國家的埃皮法尼烏斯( Haer. ,貓。閭) ;他的“小迷宮” (書面139-5 ,引由優西比烏,五, 28歲)和他的“ Philosophumena ”仍然尚存。 See also his "Contra Noetum" 3, and a fragment "On the Melchisedechians and Theodotians and Athingani", published by Caspari (Tidskr. für der Evangel. Luth. Kirke, Ny Raekke, VIII, 3, p. 307).又見他的“魂斗羅Noetum ” 3和片段“論Melchisedechians和Theodotians和Athingani ” ,出版了卡斯帕里( Tidskr.獻給德國福音。 Luth 。教堂,紐約Raekke ,第八,第3條,第307頁) 。 But the Athingani are a later sect, for which see MEDCHISEDECHIANS.但Athingani是稍後節,其中見MEDCHISEDECHIANS 。 The Monarchianism of Photinus seems to have been akin to that of the Theodotians.該神格唯一的似乎Photinus已近似於是Theodotians 。 All speculations as to the origin of the theories of Theodotus are fanciful.所有的猜測為起源的理論Theodotus是遙不可及。 At any rate he is not connected with the Ebionites.無論如何,他不是與以便尼派。 The Alogi have sometimes been classed with the Monarchians.該Alogi有時被歸類與Monarchians 。 Lipsius in his "Quelenkritik des Epiphanius" supposed them to be even Philanthropists, on account of their denial of the Logos, and Epiphanius in fact calls Theodotus an apopasma of the Alogi; but this is only a guess, and is not derived by him from Hippolytus. Lipsius在他的“ Quelenkritik萬埃皮法尼烏斯”假定他們甚至慈善家,就到他們的拒絕,標識,並在事實上埃皮法尼烏斯呼籲Theodotus一個apopasma的Alogi ;但是這只是一種猜測,而不是他所衍生的西波呂。 As a fact, Epiphanius assures us (Haer. 51) that the Alogi (that is, Gaius and his party) were orthodox in their Christology (see MONTANISTS).作為一個事實,埃皮法尼烏斯向我們保證( Haer. 51 )的Alogi (即蓋和他的黨)的正統的基督(見MONTANISTS ) 。

II.二。 MODALISTS

The Monarchians properly so-called (Modalists) exaggerated the oneness of the Father and the Son so as to make them but one Person; thus the distinctions in the Holy Trinity are energies or modes, not Persons: God the Father appears on earth as Son; hence it seemed to their opponents that Monarchians made the Father suffer and die.正確的Monarchians所謂( Modalists )誇大一體的父子,以使它們只有一個人;從而區別在聖三一的精力或模式,而不是人:聖父出現在地球之子因此,似乎他們的對手是Monarchians了父親痛苦和死亡。 In the West they were called Patripassians, whereas in the East they are usually called Sabellians.在西方,他們被稱為Patripassians而在東部他們通常被稱為Sabellians 。 The first to visit Rome was probably Praxeas, who went on to Carthage some time before 206-208; but he was apparently not in reality a heresiarch, and the arguments refuted by Tertullian somewhat later in his book "Adversus Praxean" are doubtless those of the Roman Monarchians (see PRAXEAS).第一次訪問羅馬可能是Praxeas ,誰接著迦太基一段時間206-208 ;但他顯然沒有在現實heresiarch ,並駁斥了論點後來良在他的著作“ Adversus Praxean ”是毫無疑問的羅馬Monarchians (見PRAXEAS ) 。

A. History A.歷史

Noetus (from whom the Noetians) was a Smyrnaean (Epiphanius, by a slip, says an Ephesian). Noetus (從人Noetians )是一個Smyrnaean (埃皮法尼烏斯,由支路,說,以弗所) 。 He called himself Moses, and his brother Aaron.他自稱摩西,和他的弟弟阿龍。 When accused before the presbyterate of teaching that the Father suffered, he denied it; but after having made a few disciples he was again interrogated, and expelled from the Church.當被告前presbyterate教學的父親,他予以否認,但之後了幾個弟子,他再次被審問,並驅逐出教會。 He died soon after, and did not receive Christian burial.他去世後不久,並沒有得到基督教葬禮。 Hippolytus mockingly declares him to have been a follower of Heraclitus, on account of the union of the opposites which he taught when he called God both visible and invisible, passible and impassible.西波呂宣告調侃他一直跟隨的赫拉克利特,考慮到工會的對立,他教時,他要求上帝有形和無形的, passible和恝。 His pupil Epigonus came to Rome.他的瞳孔Epigonus來到羅馬。 As he was not mentioned in the "Syntagma" of Hippolytus, which was written in one of the first five years of the third century, he was not then well known in Rome, or had not yet arrived.正如他沒有提到“錫塔瑪”的西波呂,這是寫在第一個五年三世紀,他沒有那麼眾所周知在羅馬,或尚未抵達。 According to Hippolytus (Philos., IX, 7), Cleomenes, a follower of Epigonus, was allowed by Pope Zephyrinus to establish a school, which flourished under his approbation and that of Callistus.據西波呂( Philos. ,九, 7 ) , Cleomenes ,一個追隨者Epigonus ,被允許教皇Zephyrinus建立一所學校,這在他的蓬勃發展讚許和卡利斯圖斯。 Hagemann urges that we should conclude that Cleomenes was not a Noetian at all, and that he was an orthodox opponent of the incorrect theology of Hippolytus.哈格曼敦促,我們應該得出這樣的結論Cleomenes不是一個Noetian所有,而且他是一個正統的對手不正確的神學西波呂。 The same writer gives most ingenious and interesting (though hardly convincing) reasons for identifying Praxeas with Callistus; he proves that the Monarchians attacked in Tertullian's "Contra Praxean" and in the "Philosophumena" had identical tenets which were not necessarily heretical; he denies that Tertullian means us to understand that Praxeas came to Carthage, and he explains the nameless refuter of Praxeas to be, not Tertullian himself, but Hippolytus.同樣的作家提供最巧妙和有趣的(雖然難以令人信服)原因查明Praxeas與卡利斯圖斯,他證明了Monarchians襲擊良的“魂斗羅Praxean ”和“ Philosophumena ”了相同的原理而不一定是邪教,他否認良意味著我們能夠理解, Praxeas來到迦太基,他說明了無名refuter的Praxeas要,而不是良本人,但西波呂。 It is true that it is easy to suppose Tertullian and Hippolytus to have misrepresented the opinions of their opponents, but it cannot be proved that Cleomenes was not a follower of the heretical Noetus, and that Sabellius did not issue from his school; further, it is not obvious that Tertullian would attack Callistus under a nickname. Sabellius soon became the leader of the Monarchians in Rome, perhaps even before the death of Zephyrinus (c. 218).的確,人們很容易猜想良和西波呂有歪曲的意見,他們的對手,但它不能證明Cleomenes不是一個追隨者的邪教Noetus ,並撒伯流問題並沒有從他的學校;進一步,它沒有明顯的良將攻擊卡利斯圖斯下一個暱稱。撒伯流很快成為領袖Monarchians在羅馬,甚至在死亡的Zephyrinus (角218 ) 。 He is said by Epiphanius to have founded his views on the Gospel according to the Egyptians, and the fragments of that apocryphon support this statement.據說,他的埃皮法尼烏斯已成立自己的看法福音按照埃及人,以及片段的apocryphon支持這一聲明。 Hippolytus hoped to convert Sabellius to his own views, and attributed his failure in this to the influence of Callistus. That pope, however, excommunicated Sabellius c.西波呂希望轉換撒伯流自己的看法,由於他未能在此的影響卡利斯圖斯。這教皇然而,逐出教會撒伯流角 220 ("fearing me", says Hippolytus). 220 ( “怕我”說,西波呂) 。 Hippolytus accuses Callistus of now inventing a new heresy by combing the views of Theodotus and those of Sabellius, although he excommunicated them both (see CALLISTUS I, POPE).西波呂指責卡利斯圖斯現在發明了一個新的異端邪說的梳理的意見Theodotus和撒伯流,但他逐出教會他們兩個(見卡利斯圖斯我,教皇) 。 Sabellius was apparently still in Rome when Hippolytus wrote the Philosophumena (between 230 and 235).撒伯流顯然是在羅馬還是在西波呂寫了Philosophumena (介乎230和235 ) 。 Of his earlier and later history nothing is known.他以前和以後的歷史一無所知。 St. Basil and others call him a Libyan from Pentapolis, but this seems to rest on the fact that Pentapolis was found to be full of Sabellianism by Dionysius of Alexandria, c.聖巴茲爾和其他叫他從Pentapolis利比亞,但是這似乎休息的事實, Pentapolis被認為是充滿了由撒伯流主義狄奧尼修斯的亞歷山大角 260. 260 。 A number of Montanists led by Aeschines became Modalists (unless Harnack is right in making Modalism the original belief of the Montanists and in regarding Aeschines as a conservative).一些Montanists由Aeschines成為Modalists (除非哈納克是正確的決策Modalism原來信仰的Montanists和有關Aeschines是一個保守的) 。 Sabellius (or at least his followers) may have considerably amplified the original Noetianism.撒伯流(或至少他的追隨者)可大大擴增原始Noetianism 。 There was still Sabellianism to be found in the fourth century.還有撒伯流主義必須在第四世紀。 Marcellus of Ancyra developed a Monarchianism of his own, which was carried much further by his disciple, Photinus.瑪爾凱的Ancyra制定了神格唯一自己,這是進行進一步的弟子, Photinus 。 Priscillian was an extreme Monarchian and so was Commodian ("Carmen Apol.", 89, 277, 771). Priscillian是一個極端的Monarchian ,因此是Commodian ( “卡門Apol 。 ” , 89 , 277 , 771 ) 。 The "Monarchian Prologues" to the Gospels found in most old manuscripts of the Vulgate, were attributed by von Dobschütz and P. Corssen to a Roman author of the time of Callistus, but they are almost certainly the work of Priscillian. Beryllus, Bishop of Bostra, is vaguely said by Eusebius (HE, VI, 33) to have taught that the Saviour had no distinct pre-existence before the Incarnation, and had no Divinity of His own, but that the Divinity of the Father dwelt in Him.該“ Monarchian Prologues ”的福音中發現最老的手稿的武加大,是由於由馮Dobschütz和P. Corssen一個羅馬作家的時間卡利斯圖斯,但他們幾乎可以肯定的工作Priscillian 。 Beryllus ,主教Bostra ,含糊地說,是由優西比烏(何,六, 33歲)的教導救世主沒有明顯的預先存在的前道成肉身,並沒有神自己的,但神的父親談到他。 Origen disputed with him in a council and convinced him of his error.奧利爭議與他在一個委員會,並深信了他的錯誤。 The minutes of the disputation were known to Eusebius.會議紀要的爭論是眾所周知的優西比烏。 It is not clear whether Beryllus was a Modalist or a Dynamist.目前尚不清楚是否Beryllus是一個Modalist或Dynamist 。

B. Theology灣神學

There was much that was unsatisfactory in the theology of the Trinity and in the Christology of the orthodox writers of the Ante-Nicene period.有很多是不能令人滿意的神學三位一體和基督的正統作家的前廳尼西亞時期。 The simple teaching of tradition was explained by philosophical ideas, which tended to obscure as well as to elucidate it.簡單的教學傳統所解釋的哲學思想,這往往掩蓋以及闡明它。 The distinction of the Son from the Father was so spoken of that the Son appeared to have functions of His own, apart from the Father, with regard to the creation and preservation of the world, and thus to be a derivative and secondary God.這種區別的兒子的父親是這樣談到的兒子似乎已職能的他自己,除了父親,關於建立和保持世界,從而成為一個派生和中學的上帝。 The unity of the Divinity was commonly guarded by a reference to a unity of origin.統一的神聖普遍謹慎提及統一的原產地。 It was said that God from eternity was alone, with His Word, one with Him (as Reason, in vulca cordis, logos endiathetos), before the Word was spoken (ex ore Patris, logos prophorikos), or was generated and became Son for the purpose of creation.有人說,上帝是永恆的,僅與他的詞,一個是同他(作為原因,在vulca心,標誌endiathetos ) ,之前講詞(前礦石祖國報,標誌prophorikos ) ,或產生,並成為兒子為了創造。 The Alexandrians alone insisted rightly on the generation of the Son from all eternity; but thus the Unity of God was even less manifest.單獨的Alexandrians堅持正確的代子從所有永恆,但這樣的統一上帝更明顯。 The writers who thus theologize may often expressly teach the traditional Unity in Trinity, but it hardly squares with the Platonism of their philosophy.作家誰theologize因此往往可能明確教的傳統統一三一,但它幾乎廣場與柏拉圖的哲學。 The theologians were thus defending the doctrine of the Logos at the expense of the two fundamental doctrines of Christianity, the Unity of God, and the Divinity of Christ.在神學,從而捍衛原則,理性而犧牲了兩個基本理論,基督教,統一的上帝,和神的基督。 They seemed to make the Unity of the Godhead split into two or even three, and to make Jesus Christ something less than the supreme God the Father.他們似乎使統一的神體分裂成兩個或兩個甚至三個,使耶穌基督不到最高父神。 This is eminently true of the chief opponents of the Monarchians, Tertullian, Hippolytus, and Novatian.這是非常真實的首席對手的Monarchians ,良,西波呂,並Novatian 。 (See Newman, "The Causes of Arianism", in "Tracts theol. and eccles.") Monarchianism was the protest against this learned philosophizing, which to the simplicity of the faithful looked too much like a mythology or a Gnostic emanationism. (見紐曼說: “原因Arianism ” ,在“大港theol 。與埃克爾斯。 ” )神格唯一的抗議教訓哲思,這簡單的忠實期待太多像一個神話或諾斯底emanationism 。 The Monarchians emphatically declared that God is one, wholly and perfectly one, and that Jesus Christ is God, wholly and perfectly God.強調的Monarchians宣布,上帝是一個完全和完美的人,耶穌基督是上帝,完全和絕對的上帝。 This was right, and even most necessary, and whilst it is easy to see why the theologians like Tertullian and Hippolytus opposed them (for their protest was precisely against the Platonism which these theologians had inherited from Justin and the Apologists), it is equally comprehensible that guardians of the Faith should have welcomed at first the return of the Monarchians to the simplicity of the Faith, "ne videantur deos dicere, neque rursum negare salvatoris deitatem" ("Lest they seem to be asserting two Gods or, on the other hand, denying the Saviour's Godhead". - Origen, "On Titus", frag. II).這是正確的,甚至是最必要的,但很容易看到,為什麼像良神學和西波呂反對他們(對他們的抗議,正是對這些柏拉圖神學繼承了從賈斯汀和辯護士) ,同樣可理解該監護人的信仰應該首先歡迎在返回的Monarchians簡單的信念, “神經videantur deos dicere , neque rursum negare salvatoris deitatem ” ( “以免他們似乎是主張上帝或兩個另一方面, ,剝奪了救世主的神體“ 。 -奧利, ”論提圖斯“片段。二) 。 Tertullian in opposing them acknowledges that the uninstructed were against him; they could not understand the magic word oikonomia with which he conceived he had saved the situation; they declared that he taught two or three Gods, and cried "Monarchiam tenemus."良反對他們承認, uninstructed人反對他;他們無法理解的魔力詞oikonomia與他的設想,他挽救了局勢,他們宣稱,他教兩個或三個上帝,並喊道“ Monarchiam tenemus 。 ” So Callistus reproached Hippolytus, and not without reason, with teaching two Gods. Already St. Justin knew of Christians who taught the identity of the Father and the Son ("Apol.", I, 63; "Dial.", cxxviii).所以卡利斯圖斯責備西波呂,而不是沒有理由,與教學兩個上帝。聖賈斯汀已經知道誰教基督徒的身份,父子( “ Apol 。 ” ,我, 63歲; “撥號。 ” cxxviii ) 。 In Hermas, as in Theodotus, the Son and the Holy Ghost are confused.在書,如Theodotus ,子和聖靈的困惑。 But it was reserved for Noetus and his school to deny categorically that the unity of the Godhead is compatible with a distinction of Persons.但它是保留給Noetus和他的學校斷然否認說,統一的神體是符合區別的人。 They seem to have regarded the Logos as a mere name, or faculty, or attribute, and to have made the Son and the Holy Ghost merely aspects of modes of existence of the Father, thus emphatically identifying Christ with the one God.他們似乎認為標誌僅僅是一個名稱,或教師,或屬性,並取得了子和聖靈只是方式方面存在的父親,從而確定重點基督同一個上帝。 "What harm am I doing", was the reply made by Noetus to the presbyters who interrogated him, "in glorifying Christ?" “什麼傷害,我這樣做” ,對方回答Noetus所作的長老誰審問他說: “在歌頌基督? ” They replied: "We too know in truth one God; we know Christ; we know that the Son suffered even as He suffered, and died even as He died, and rose again on the third day, and is at the right hand of the Father, and cometh to judge the living and the dead; and what we have learned we declare" (Hippol.; "Contra Noetum", 1).他們回答說: “我們也知道真相一個上帝;我們知道基督;我們知道,遭受的兒子,他甚至遭受死亡甚至在他去世,再次上升的第3天,並在右邊父親,來了來判斷的生活和死亡;和我們有什麼經驗教訓我們宣布“ ( Hippol. ; ”魂斗羅Noetum “ , 1 ) 。 Thus they refuted Noetus with tradition - the Apostles' Creed is enough; for the Creed and the New Testament indeed make the distinction of Persons clear, and the traditional formulas and prayers were equally unmistakable.因此,他們反駁Noetus與傳統-在使徒信經是不夠的;的信念和新約全書確實作出區分的人清楚,傳統的公式和祈禱也同樣明顯。 Once the Monarchian system was put into philosophical language, it was seen to be no longer the old Christianity.一旦Monarchian系統投入哲理的語言,它被認為是不再是舊基督教。 Ridicule was used; the heretics were told that if the Father and the Son were really identified, then no denial on their part could prevent the conclusion that the Father suffered and died, and sat at His own right hand. Hippolytus tells us that Pope Zephyrinus, whom he represents as a stupid old man, declared at the instance of Callistus: "I know one God Christ Jesus, and besides Him no other Who was born and Who suffered"; but he added: "Not the Father died, but the Son".用嘲笑的異端被告知,如果父子真的確定了,然後就沒有剝奪他們的部分可以防止的結論是,父親遭受痛苦和死亡,坐在他自己的右手。西波呂告訴我們,教皇Zephyrinus ,他表示作為一個愚蠢的老頭,宣布在實例卡利斯圖斯: “我知道一個上帝基督耶穌,而且他沒有其他的誰是誰出生和受” ,但他補充說: “不是父親去世,但兒子“ 。 The reporter is an unsympathetic adversary; but we can see why the aged pope was viewing the simple assertions of Sabellius in a favorable light.記者是一個缺乏同情心的對手,但我們可以看到,為什麼老年人觀看教皇是簡單的說法撒伯流在一個良好的光。 Hippolytus declares that Callistus said that the Father suffered with the Son, and Tertullian says the same of the Monarchians whom he attacks.西波呂宣布,卡利斯圖斯說,父親與兒子,和良說,在同一的Monarchians他的攻擊。 Hagemann thinks Callistus-Praxeas especially attacked the doctrine of the Apologists and of Hippolytus and Tertullian, which assigned all such attributes as impassibility and invisibility to the Father and made the Son alone capable of becoming passible and visible, ascribing to Him the work of creation, and all operations ad extra.哈格認為卡利斯圖斯,尤其是攻擊Praxeas理論的辯護士和西波呂和良,其中分配所有這些屬性impassibility和隱形的父親和兒子了單獨能夠成為passible和可見的,歸咎於他的工作,創造,所有業務和額外的廣告。 It is true that the Monarchians opposed this Platonizing in general, but it is not evident that they had grasped the principle that all the works of God ad extra are common to the Three Persons as proceeding form the Divine Nature; and they seem to have said simply that God as Father is invisible and impassible, but becomes visible and passible as Son. This explanation brings them curiously into line with their adversaries.誠然, Monarchians反對這一Platonizing一般,但並不明顯,他們已經掌握了原則,即所有的作品上帝的廣告額外的共同三人作為訴訟形式的神性,他們似乎已經說只是,上帝的父親是無形的,恝,而是變成可見光和passible的兒子。這種解釋使他們好奇地符合它們的敵人。 Both parties represented God as one and alone in His eternity.雙方代表上帝作為一個獨自在他的烙印。 Both made the generation of the Son a subsequent development; only Tertullian and Hippolytus date it before the creation, and the Monarchians perhaps not until the Incarnation.這使得一代的兒子以後的發展;只有良和西波呂日期之前設立,並Monarchians也許不是,直到化身。 Further, their identification of the Father and the Son was not favourable to a true view of the Incarnation.此外,其身份的父親和兒子是不利於真正鑑於體現。 The very insistence on the unity of God emphasized also the distance of God from man, and was likely to end in making the union of God with man a mere indwelling or external union, after the fashion of that which was attributed to Nestorius.非常堅持的團結也強調上帝的距離從上帝的人,並有可能最終使工會上帝與男子僅僅留置或外部工會,在時尚的原因是聶斯脫裡。 They spoke of the Father as "Spirit" and the Son as "flesh", and it is scarcely surprising that the similar Monarchianism of Marcellus should have issued in the Theodotianism of Photinus. It is impossible to arrive at the philosophical views of Sabellius.他們談到了父親的“精神”和兒子的“肉” ,這是幾乎令人吃驚的是,類似的神格唯一的瑪爾凱應該發出Theodotianism的Photinus 。是不可能達成的哲學觀點撒伯流。 Hagemann thought that he started from the Stoic system as surely as his adversaries did from the Platonic.哈格曼以為他是從斯多葛系統必將成為他的對手也來自柏拉圖。 Dorner has drawn too much upon his imagination for the doctrine of Sabellius; Harnack is too fanciful with regard to its origin. Dorner引起太多他的想像力的理論撒伯流;哈納克太荒誕就其原產地。 In fact we know little of him but that he said the Son was the Father (so Novatian, "De. Trin." 12, and Pope Dionysius relate).事實上,我們所知甚少的他,但他說,兒子是父親(所謂Novatian , “德。草。 ” 12日,教皇修斯涉及) 。 St. Athanasius tells us that he said the Father is the Son and the Son is the Father, one is hypostasis, but two in name (so Epiphanius): "As there are divisions of gifts, but the same Spirit, so the Father is the same, but is developed [platynetai] into Son and Spirit" (Orat., IV, c. Ar., xxv).聖亞他那修告訴我們,他說,父親是兒子和兒子的父親,一個是本質,但有兩個名稱(以便埃皮法尼烏斯) : “作為有分歧的禮物,但本著同樣的精神,所以父親是相同的,但開發[ platynetai ]成子和聖靈“ ( Orat. ,四,角氬。 , 25 ) 。 Theodoret says he spoke of one hypostasis and a threefold prosopa, whereas St. Basil says he willingly admitted three prosopa in one hypostasis. Theodoret說,他以一個本質和prosopa了三倍,而聖巴西爾說,他願意承認三個prosopa在一個本質。 This is, so far as words go, exactly the famous formulation of Tertullian, "tres personae, una substantia" (three persons, one substance), but Sabellius seems to have meant "three modes or characters of one person".這是迄今為止的話去,正是著名的制定良, “三個人,烏納質” (三個人,一個物質) ,但撒伯流似乎意味著“三種模式或字符的一個人。 ” The Father is the Monad of whom the Son is a kind of manifestation: for the Father is in Himself silent, inactive (siopon, hanenerletos), and speaks, creates, works, as Son (Athan., 1. c., 11).父親的單子,其中的兒子是一種表現:父親是在自己無聲的,無效( siopon , hanenerletos ) ,並說,創造,作品,作為兒子( Athan. , 1 。角, 11 ) 。 Here again we have a parallel to the teaching of the Apologists about the Word as Reason and the Word spoken, the latter alone being called Son.這裡,我們有一個平行於教學的辯護士的Word作為理性和Word口語,後者僅被稱為兒子。 It would seem that the difference between Sabellius and his opponents lay mainly in his insisting on the unity of hypostasis after the emission of the Word as Son.看來,區別撒伯流和他的反對者主要在於他堅持團結,本質後排放的Word作為兒子。 It does not seem clear that he regarded the Son as beginning at the Incarnation; according to the passage of St. Athanasius just referred to, he may have agreed with the Apologists to date Sonship from the creative action of God.它似乎沒有明確表示,他認為,兒子開始在道成肉身;按照通行的聖亞他那修剛才提到的,他可能已經同意辯護士迄今Sonship的創造性行動的上帝。 But we have few texts to go upon, and it is quite uncertain whether Sabellius left any writings.但是,我們很少去文時,它是相當不確定是否撒伯流留下任何著作。 Monarchianism is frequently combated by Origen.神格唯一往往是打擊奧利。 Dionysius of Alexandria fought Sabellianism with some imprudence.狄奧尼修斯的亞歷山大打撒伯流主義與一些輕率。 In the fourth century the Arians and Semi-Arians professed to be much afraid of it, and indeed the alliance of Pope Julius and Arhanasius with Marcellus gave some colour to accusations against the Nicene formulas as opening the way to Sabellianism.在第四世紀Arians和半Arians宣稱十分害怕,實際上聯盟教皇朱利葉斯和Arhanasius與瑪爾凱了一些色彩指控尼西亞公式開闢了道路撒伯流主義。 The Fathers of the fourth century (as, for instance, St. Gregory of Nyssa, "Contra Sabellium", ed. Mai) seem to contemplate a more developed form than that known to Hippolytus ("Contra Noetum" and "Philosophumena") and through him, to Epiphanius: the consummation of creation is to consist in the return of the Logos from the humanity of Christ to the Father, so that the original unity of the Divine Nature is after all held to have been temporally compromised, and only in the end will it be restored, that God may be all in all.父親的第四世紀(如舉例來說,聖格雷戈里的果樹, “魂斗羅Sabellium ”版。清邁)似乎考慮到一個較發達的形式比已知西波呂( “魂斗羅Noetum ”和“ Philosophumena ” )和通過他向埃皮法尼烏斯:完善的創造是包括在返回的標誌從基督人類的父親,使原來的統一的神聖本質畢竟是舉辦時間已損害,只有在年底才能恢復,這可能是上帝所有的一切。

Our chief original authorities for early Monarchianism of the Modalist type are Tertullian, "Adversus Praxean", and Hippolytus, "Contra Noetum" (fragment) and "Philosophumena".我們的主要原始當局早日神格唯一的Modalist類型的良, “ Adversus Praxean ” ,並西波呂, “魂斗羅Noetum ” (片段)和“ Philosophumena ” 。 The "Contra Noetum" and the lost "Syntagma" were used by Epiphanius, Haer.在“魂斗羅Noetum ”和失去“錫塔瑪”所用的埃皮法尼烏斯, Haer 。 57 (Noetians), but the sources of Epiphanius's Haer. 57 ( Noetians ) ,但來源的埃皮法尼烏斯的Haer 。 62 (Sabellians) are less certain. 62 ( Sabellians )是那麼肯定。 The references by Origen, Novatian, and later Fathers are somewhat indefinite.提到了奧利, Novatian ,後來父親有些無限期的。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息撰稿:約翰查普曼。 Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.轉錄由安東尼基林。 Aeterna, non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.永恆,非caduca的天主教百科全書,卷十, 1911年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Sabellianism 撒伯流主義
Adoptionism Adoptionism

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