Mariology

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The commonly held teachings of Mariology can be derived from her function as Mother of God (Theotokos), a term first used around 320 and formally approved by the Council of Ephesus in 431.共同舉行的教誨Mariology可從她的功能天主之母(子) ,任期首次使用約320個,並正式批准了理事會以弗所在431 。 Mariologists argue that Mary, who enabled God the Savior to be born, has a position more exalted than any other creature. Mariologists爭辯說,瑪麗,誰使上帝的救世主誕生,有一個更崇高的立場比任何其他動物。 She is the Queen of Heaven.她是英國女王的天堂。 Moreover, since her motherhood was indispensable to God's redemptive activity, Mary is essential to the final, spiritual perfection of every creature.此外,由於她的母親是必不可少的上帝的拯救活動,瑪麗是必不可少的決賽中,精神完美的每一個動物。 Accordingly, although she was not involved in their original physical creation, Mary is, in this ultimate sense, the Mother of God's Creatures.因此,儘管她並沒有參與其原始物質創造,瑪麗是,在這個終極意義上說,天主之母的動物。 This includes being Mother of Humans, a title found in Ambrose but popularized around 1100, and Mother of Angels, a term first found in the thirteenth century.這包括被人類的母親,標題中發現,劉漢銓,但在1100年普及,和母親的天使,這個詞首次發現的13世紀。

Mary's involvement in salvation makes her co - redemptrix along with Christ.瑪麗參與拯救她的同事讓-r edemptrix隨著基督。 Irenaeus contrasted Eve's disobedience, which brought humanity's downfall, with Mary's obedience, which "became the cause of salvation both for herself and the human race."依對比除夕的反抗,使人類的垮台,與瑪麗的服從,而“成為事業為拯救自己和人類。 ” Beginning in the twelfth century references appear to her redemptive work not only in Christ's birth but also at the cross.從十二世紀似乎提到她買回的工作不僅在基督誕生,而且在交叉。 Most Mariologists insist on both.大多數Mariologists堅持兩者兼而有之。 While Jesus offered his sinless person to appease God's wrath, Mary, whose will was perfectly harmonious with his, offered her prayers.雖然耶穌提出了無罪的人為了安撫上帝的憤怒,瑪麗,他將是完美的和諧與他提供了她的祈禱。 Both atoned for our sins, although Christ's satisfaction was primary and wholly sufficient.這兩個我們彌補的罪過,但基督的滿意度小學和完全足夠了。 Mary's mediatory role includes her present intercession for sinners.瑪麗的調解作用包括她本調解的罪人。 This was seldom mentioned before the twelfth century, when popular piety regarded Mary as more lenient than her Son, the Judge.這是以前很少提到的12世紀,當時流行的孝道視為瑪麗更寬鬆的比她的兒子,法官。

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Mary's exalted role implies Mariological assertions about her life. If Mary had ever been stained by sin, she would have been God's enemy and unfit to bear him.瑪麗的崇高作用意味著Mariological斷言她的生命。如果瑪麗過染色罪孽,她本來上帝的敵人,不適合承擔他。 Consequently, she must have been "immaculate" (wholly free from any sin) from the instant she was conceived.因此,她必須是“完美無缺” (全不受任何罪過)由即時她的構想。 The immaculate conception, hotly debated in the Middle Ages and early modern era, was opposed by Thomas Aquinas and his followers.在完美無暇的概念,激烈的辯論在中世紀和近代早期的時代,是反對的托馬斯阿奎那和他的追隨者。 But in 1854 Pius IX declared it an official dogma.但是,在1854年碧岳九宣布正式教條。

Mary's immaculate conception implies that she possessed a "fullness of grace" from the first instant.瑪麗的完美無暇的概念意味著,她擁有“豐滿的寬限期”從第一瞬間。 Further, she was immune to the slightest sin throughout her life.此外,她是不受絲毫的罪惡整個生命。 Mariologists also stress Mary's perpetual virginity. Mariologists還強調瑪麗的永久童貞。 This includes, first, her virginity in partu: that Jesus was born without opening any part of her body; second, that she remained a virgin throughout her life.這包括,第一,她的處女在partu :耶穌出生在不打開任何部分,她的身體;第二次,她仍然是一個處女整個生命。 Though Mary's perpetual virginity, and especially her sinlessness, were challenged by some early fathers, they were generally accepted by Augustine's time.雖然瑪麗的永久處女,尤其是她的清白,受到質疑的一些早期的父親,他們被普遍接受的奧古斯丁的時間。 Proponents of perpetual virginity often assumed that anything else would contradict her purity.主張永久童貞常常想當然地認為任何違背她的純潔。 Finally, Mariologists teach that after her death Mary was assumed bodily into heaven.最後, Mariologists教導她去世後,瑪麗假定身體到天堂。 No clear reference to the assumption of Mary appears before the sixth century.沒有明確提到的假設瑪麗出現在六世紀。 It was not generally accepted until the thirteenth and was promulgated by Pius XII in 1950.這不是普遍接受,直到第十三次和頒布了庇護十二在1950年。

Protestants have criticized Mariology because many assertions apparently lack biblical foundation.新教徒Mariology批評,因為許多的說法顯然是缺乏聖經基礎。 Scripture does not mention her immaculate conception or assumption.聖經沒有提到她的完美無暇的概念,或承擔。 Her perpetual virginity is challenged by references to Jesus' sisters and brothers (Mark 3:31; 6:3; John 2:12; 7:1 - 10; Acts 1:14; Gal. 1:19; Mariologists claim they were cousins).她永遠是處女挑戰提到耶穌的兄弟姐妹(馬克3時31分; 6點03 ;約翰2時12分; 7:1 -1 0;行為1點1 4分;半乳糖。 1點1 9; M ariologists聲稱他們是表兄弟) 。 Moreover, the Gospels do not present Mary unambiguously as sinless and in continuous accord with Christ's will. Protestants have also argued that Mariology exaggerates the contribution that any human can make to divine redemption.此外,不福音本瑪麗毫不含糊地為無罪,並不斷與基督的意願。新教徒還爭辯說, Mariology誇大了貢獻,任何人可以作出神聖的贖回。 Luther and Calvin saw Mary as a human who in herself was nothing; she was enabled to bear Christ wholly through God's grace.路德和加爾文看到瑪麗作為一個人誰在自己沒有什麼;她能夠承擔全部通過基督上帝的恩典。 Conservative Protestants argue that most Mariological excesses, her roles as Mother of God's Creatures, co - redemptrix, intercessor; her immaculate conception; and her "fullness of grace", spring from overestimating the human role in redemption, which was perhaps already implied by Irenaeus.保守的新教徒認為最Mariological過火,她的角色,天主之母的動物,共同-r edemptrix, i ntercessor;她完美無暇的概念;和她的“豐滿的寬限期” ,春季從高估了人類的作用,贖回,這也許已經暗示依。 This ancient theological issue may be the most fundamental one surrounding Mariology.這個古老的神學問題可能是最根本的周圍Mariology 。

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(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
S Benko, Protestants, Catholics and Mary; L Bouyer, The Seat of Wisdom; EA Carroll, "A Survey of Recent Mariology," MarS 18, and "Theology on the Virgin Mary: 1966 - 1975," TS 37; JB Carol, Fundamentals of Mariology and Mariology; H Graef, Mary: A History of Doctrine and Devotion; R Laurentin, The Question of Mary; G Miegge, The Virgin Mary; TA O'Meara, Mary in Protestant and Catholic Theology; O Semmelroth, Mary, the Archetype of the Church; E Schillebeeckx, Mary, Mother of the Redemption.這是一種為了滿足本科,新教徒,天主教徒和瑪麗; L Bouyer所在地的智慧;電子藝界卡羅爾“ ,調查最近Mariology , ”火星18日,與“神學的聖母: 1966至75年”的TS 37 ;巴頓卡羅爾基礎Mariology和Mariology ; H Graef ,瑪麗:一個歷史主義和奉獻精神; R Laurentin ,這個問題的瑪麗; G Miegge ,聖母瑪利亞;局長歐米拉,瑪麗在新教和天主教神學; ö Semmelroth ,瑪麗,原型的教會;電子郵件Schillebeeckx ,瑪麗,母親的贖回。


Also, see:此外,見:
Virgin Mary 聖母
Assumption 假設
Immaculate Conception 聖母無染原罪堂
Virgin Birth 美屬維爾京誕生

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