Manichaeism, Manichæism摩尼教,摩尼教

General Information 一般信息

Manichaeism is a gnostic religion that originated in Babylonia in the 3d century AD.摩尼教是一個諾斯底宗教,起源於巴比倫的三維世紀的廣告。 Its founder was a Persian of noble descent called Mani (or Manes), c.216-c.276. Manichaeism was long treated as a Christian heresy, but it is more clearly understood as an independent religion, drawing on the diverse resources of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism.其創始人是一個高尚的人的後裔稱為瑪尼(或馬) , c.216 - c.276 。摩尼教是長期被視為一個基督教異端,但它是更清楚地了解作為一個獨立的宗教,利用各種不同的資源基督教,拜火教和佛教。

At about the age of 24, Mani received a special revelation from God, according to which he was called to perfect the incomplete religions founded by earlier prophets--Zoroaster, Buddha, and Christ.昨晚約24歲,摩尼收到了特殊的啟示來自上帝,根據他呼籲完善不完整的宗教較早創辦的先知-Z oroaster,佛像,和基督。 About the year 242, he undertook an extensive journey as an itinerant preacher, proclaiming himself the "Messenger of Truth," the Paraclete promised by Christ.大約242年,他進行了廣泛的旅程作為一個巡迴佈道者,宣布自己的“信使真相, ”聖靈所承諾的基督。 Traveling throughout the Persian Empire and as far as India, he gathered a considerable following.在整個旅遊波斯帝國和遠在印度,他收集了大量的下面。 He met with increasing hostility from the Zoroastrian priests and was finally executed for heresy.他會見了越來越多的敵意從拜火教神職人員和終於被處決的異端邪說。

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The essence of Manichaeism was the principle of absolute Dualism: the primal conflict between God, represented by light and spirit, and Satan, represented by darkness and the material world.其實質是摩尼教的原則,絕對的二元論:原始上帝之間的衝突為代表的輕型和精神,撒旦為代表的黑暗和物質世界。 Human beings, created by God, were divine in spirit but they carried within them seeds of darkness, sown by Satan, because of their material bodies.人,上帝創造的,是神聖的精神進行的,但他們在這些黑暗的種子,播下的撒旦,因為他們的物質機構。

Salvation, as taught by Mani, requires liberating the seed of light, the soul, from the material darkness in which it is trapped.救國,作為講授的摩尼,要求解放的種子輕,靈魂,從黑暗的物質,其中被困井下。 This is achieved by strict celibacy and ascetic practices.這是通過嚴格的獨身和禁慾主義的做法。 Those who would become perfect are to set three "seals" on their lives: on the mouth, to speak only truth and to abstain from meat or impure food of any kind; on the hands, to refrain from war, killing, or injuring life; on the breast, to render impossible the works of the flesh.這些誰將成為完美的是確定了三個“海豹”對他們的生活:對嘴,只說事實真相,並避免肉類或不潔食物的任何一種;的手,不要戰爭,殺戮,或受傷的生活;的乳房,使不可能的作品的血肉。 This triple seal applies only to the elect or pure; hearers follow a less demanding code.這三重密封只適用於選舉或純;聽眾遵循要求不高的代碼。 The imperfect are destined to continual rebirth in a world of material bodies.不完善注定要不斷再生的世界中,機構的材料。

Manichaeism, which denied the reality of Christ's body and rejected the notion of free will, adapted from Christianity baptism, the Eucharist, and a third sacrament of remission of sins at the time of death.摩尼教,它否認了現實的基督的身體和拒絕這一概念的自由意志,改編自基督教洗禮,聖體,第三聖禮緩解的罪孽時死亡。 Because of its attitude toward the material world, Manichaeism regarded evil as a physical rather than a moral entity.由於其態度物質世界,摩尼教視為邪惡的身體,而不是一種道德的實體。 Women were considered forces of darkness, binding men to the flesh.婦女被認為是黑暗勢力,有約束力的男性的血肉。

The Byzantine emperor Justinian issued an edict against the Manichaeans, and Saint Augustine, who for 9 years had been a Manichee, wrote and spoke against this heresy, as well as described his own experience in his Confessions. 在拜占庭皇帝查士丁尼頒布一項法令,對Manichaeans ,和聖奧古斯丁,誰9年了Manichee ,寫發言反對這一邪教,以及描述了他自己的經驗在他的自白。

Manichaeism disappeared in the West in about the 6th century, although its doctrines reappeared in the teachings of the Bogomils, Albigenses, and other sects during the Middle Ages. In the East, Manichaeism survived until the 13th century.摩尼教消失在西約6世紀,但其理論再現的教義的Bogomils , Albigenses ,和其他宗派在中世紀。在東方,摩尼教下來,直到13世紀。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼絲坎寧安

Bibliography 目錄
Asmussen, JP, Manichaean Literature (1975); Burkitt, FC, The Religion of the Manichaeans (1925); Jackson, AVW, Researches in Manichaeism (1932; repr. 1965); Runciman, Steven, The Medieval Manichees (1947; repr. 1961); Windengren, George, Mani and Manichaeism, trans. Asmussen ,太平紳士,摩尼教文獻( 1975年) ;伯基特, FC隊,宗教的Manichaeans ( 1925 ) ;傑克遜, AVW ,研究摩尼教( 1932年; repr 。 1965年) ;朗西曼,史蒂芬,中世紀Manichees ( 1947年; repr 。 1961年) ; Windengren ,喬治,瑪尼和摩尼教,轉。 by Charles Kessler (1965).由查爾斯凱斯勒( 1965年) 。


Manichaeism摩尼教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Manichaeism was a third century dualistic religion, founded by Mani, who fused Persian, Christian, and Buddhist elements into a major new faith. It was fought in the West as a virulent Christian heresy.摩尼教是一個三世紀二元宗教,摩尼創立的,誰融合波斯,基督教,佛教的內容納入一個重要的新的信念。這是戰鬥在西方作為一個致命的基督教異端。 Mani's religion was a complex Gnostic system offering salvation by knowledge.瑪尼的宗教是一個複雜的系統提供諾斯底得救的知識。 The main features of Manichaeism were enunciated in an elaborate cosmogonical myth of two absolute and eternal principles which manifest themselves in three eras or "moments."的主要特點是摩尼教中所闡述的精心cosmogonical神話的兩個絕對的和永恆的原則,這些原則體現在三個時代或“的時刻。 ”

The first moment describes a radical dualism in a previous age. Light and darkness (good and evil), personified in the Father of Lights and the Prince of Darkness, were both coeternal and independent.第一時刻介紹了一種激進的二元結構在以前的時代。光明與黑暗(善惡) ,人格化的父親光明和黑暗王子,均coeternal和獨立。 In the middle moment Darkness attacked and became mixed with Light in a precosmic fall of primal man.在黑暗中攻擊的時刻,成為混合光在precosmic秋季原始的人。 This resulted in a second creation of the material world and man by the evil powers in which Light is trapped in nature and human bodies. Redemption of Light occurs by a cosmic mechanism in the heavens by which particles of Light (souls) are drawn up and fill the moon for fifteen days.這導致第二次創造的物質世界和人類的邪惡力量,其中輕是被困在自然和人類屍體。贖回輕發生了宇宙機制在天上,其中粒子的光(靈魂)的制定和填補月球15天。 In the last phases of the moon Light is transferred to the sun and finally to Paradise.在最後階段的月光轉移到太陽和最後的天堂。 Ever since the fall prophets have been sent by the Father of Lights, such as Zoroaster in Persia, Buddha in India, and Jesus in the West.自從秋天先知已被送往由父親的燈光,如Zoroaster在波斯,印度的佛像,和耶穌在約旦河。

But Mani was the greatest prophet who, as the paraclete, proclaimed a salvation by knowledge (gnosis) consisting of strict ascetic practices.但是,瑪尼是最偉大的先知誰,因為聖靈,宣布了一項拯救的知識(直覺)組成的嚴格禁慾的做法。 In the last days of the second moment a great war is to be concluded with judgment and a global conflagration lasting 1,468 years.在過去兩天的第二次偉大的時刻是戰爭將要締結的判斷和一個全球性衝突的持久1468年。 Light will be saved and everything material destroyed.光將被保存和銷毀一切材料。 In the third moment Light and Darkness will be separated forever as in the primordial division.在第三時刻光明與黑暗將永遠分離的原始分工。

In Mani's myth man is lost and fallen in existence, but in essence he is a particle of Light and thus one in substance with God. Individual salvation consists in grasping this truth by illumination from God's Spirit.在瑪尼的神話男子丟失和下降存在,但在本質上他是一個粒子的光,從而在物質與上帝。個體組成得救把握這個真理的光照來自上帝的精神。 Christ appears as merely a prophet and is not really incarnate.基督似乎僅僅是一個先知,並沒有真正體現。 His teaching about Light and Darkness was falsified by his apostles, who came from Judaism.他的教學光明與黑暗是偽造的,他使徒,誰來自猶太教。 Mani restored his essential teachings.摩尼恢復了他的基本教義。

Salvation was exemplified in the Manichaen community, a hierarchy of two classes: the Elect, who consisted of Mani's successor, 12 apostles, 72 bishops, and 360 presbyters; and the Hearers.救世軍是體現在Manichaen社會,等級兩類:在電器,誰瑪尼組成的繼任者, 12使徒, 72名主教,長老和360 ;和聽眾。 The Elect were "sealed" with a threefold preservative: purity of mouth, abstaining from all ensouled things (meat) and strong drink; purity of life, renouncing earthly property and physical labor which might endanger Light diffused in nature; and purity of heart, forswearing sexual activity.該電器被“密封”的三倍,防腐劑:純潔的嘴巴,放棄所有的東西ensouled (肉類)和強有力的飲料;純度的生活,放棄人間的財產和體力勞動可能危及光散射性質;和純潔性的心, forswearing性活動。 The lower class of Hearers who lived less strenuous lives hoped for later liberation through reincarnation.低下階層的聽眾誰住那麼艱苦的生活希望通過解放以後轉世。

Manichaean worship included fasting, daily prayers, and sacramental meals which differed greatly from the Lord's Supper.摩尼教崇拜包括禁食,每日祈禱,和聖事外出而差異很大從上帝的晚餐。 Hearers served the Elect "alms", fruit such as melons believed to contain great amounts of Light.聽眾服務的電器“施捨” ,水果,如西瓜認為含有大量的光。 Baptism was not celebrated since initiation into the community occurred by accepting Mani's wisdom through preaching. Hymn cycles extolling redeeming knowledge were sung to focus believers' attention on the beauty of Paradise, where rescued souls dwelt.洗禮沒有開始慶祝,因為到社區,接受發生的瑪尼的智慧通過說教。讚美詩週期歌頌挽救知識成重點信徒們注意對美麗的天堂,在那裡住的靈魂獲救。

Manichaeism spread both east and west from Persia.摩尼教傳播東西方都來自波斯。 In the West it was vigorously fought by both the Christian church and Roman emperors.在西方國家是大力打擊都基督教教堂和羅馬帝王。 Opposition was especially strong in Africa under Augustine, who for nine years had been a Hearer.反對派尤其是在非洲的強勁下,奧古斯丁,誰九年來一直是聽話。 Augustine challenged Manichaeism by denying Mani's apostleship and condemning his rejection of biblical truth.奧古斯丁摩尼教的挑戰否定瑪尼的apostleship ,並譴責他的拒絕聖經的真理。 Other critics accused him of inventing fables which made his ideas not a theology or philosophy but a theosophy.其他批評人士指責他發明的寓言這使得他的思想不是神學或哲學,但神智學。 Manichaeism survived into the Middle Ages through such sects as the Paulicians and Cathari, which probably developed from the original tradition.摩尼教下來到中世紀通過這種教派的Paulicians和Cathari ,這可能從原來的傳統。

WA Huffecker西澳Huffecker

Bibliography 目錄
JP Asmussen, Manichaean Literature; FC Baur, Das manichaische Religionssystem nach den Quellen neu untersucht und entwikelt; FC Burkitt, The Religion of the Manichees; LJR Ort, Mani: A Religio-Historical Description of His Personality; G. Widengren, Mani and Manichaeism.太平紳士Asmussen ,摩尼教文獻;隊鮑爾,達斯manichaische Religionssystem班上大街Quellen神經untersucht與entwikelt ;隊伯基特,宗教的Manichees ; LJR端口,瑪尼:一種宗教,歷史描述他的性格;灣Widengren ,瑪尼和摩尼教。


Mani摩尼

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(216-ca. 277) ( 216鈣。 277 )

Mani was an Iranian philosopher and painter who synthesized Persian, Christian, and Buddhist ideas to form Manichaeism, a dualistic faith which became one of the major religions of the ancient world.馬尼是伊朗哲學家和畫家誰合成波斯,基督教,佛教思想,形成摩尼教,一種雙重的信念成為一個主要宗教的古代世界。 He received his early education in a Gnostic community in southern Babylonia and claimed his first revelation at the age of twelve and his call to apostleship when he was twenty-four.他獲得早期教育在諾斯底南部巴比倫,並聲稱他首次披露的年齡為12和他的呼籲apostleship當他是2004年。 After his efforts to convert his community failed, he traveled to India, where he founded his first in religious group.經過他的努力轉換自己的社區失敗後,他遠赴印度,在那裡他成立了第一個宗教團體。 He returned in 242 to preach his faith in Babylonian provinces, and he became a vassal of the new monarch, Shapur I.他回到242宣揚他的信仰在巴比倫省,和他成為附庸的新國王,沙卜爾一 Although Mani's beliefs were never established as the official state religion, he enjoyed royal protection and sent proselytizers throughout Persia and into foreign lands.雖然瑪尼的信念從未被確立為官方宗教,王室享有的保護和發送proselytizers整個波斯和到外國的土地上。

Mani contended that he was the greatest and last prophet or paraclete sent by the Father of Light.摩尼爭辯說,他是最偉大的和最後的先知或聖靈所發出的光之父。 His teaching was claimed to be superior to prophets who preceded him because, unlike Zoroaster, Buddha, and Jesus, Mani published an authoritative canon of at least seven major works. His system includes an elaborate mythical cosmogony and eschatology conceived in terms of two absolute principles, Light and Darkness, and an ascetic way of salvation.他的教學自稱是優於前面誰先知,因為他不像Zoroaster ,佛像,和耶穌,摩尼出版的權威經典,至少7個主要工程。他的系統包括一個神秘的宇宙進化論制定和末世論的設想在兩個絕對原則,光明與黑暗,以及苦行的方式救贖。 A unique feature of Manichaeism was paintings which illustrated his system of redemption.一個獨特的摩尼教是畫這表明他的系統的贖回。 Mani claimed continuous revelations and inspiration from an angel, "the Twin," who as his heavenly alter ego prepared and protected him as a teacher and initiated him in the way of salvation.瑪尼聲稱連續揭露和靈感來自一個天使, “雙, ”誰是他的天堂改變自我保護的準備和他作為一個教師,並開始了他的救贖方式。 Miraculous healings were also attributed to Mani to authenticate his divine mission.神奇的healings也歸因於摩尼來驗證他的神聖使命。

After the death of Shapur, Mani was charged by Persian priests with perverting the traditional religion.去世後,沙卜爾,摩尼被指控的神父波斯與貪贓枉法的傳統宗教。 The new king, Vahram I, imprisoned him, and a prolonged trial ensued.新的國王, Vahram我,被監禁的他,長期審判接踵而至。 Mani was chained (known to his followers as his "crucifixion") and greatly weakened by fasting.摩尼被鐵鍊(知道他的追隨者視為自己的“十字架” ) ,並大大削弱了絕食。 He died twenty-six days after giving a final message to his church.他死於26天後,給予最後的信息,他的教會。 His followers memorialized Mani's death in their Bema festival celebrated yearly in March.他的追隨者紀念瑪尼的死亡在他們貝馬節慶祝每年3月。

WA Hoffecker西澳Hoffecker
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)


Manichæism摩尼教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Manichæism is a religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third century.摩尼教是一個宗教成立由波斯摩尼下半年第三世紀。 It purported to be the true synthesis of all the religious systems then known, and actually consisted of Zoroastrian Dualism, Babylonian folklore, Buddhist ethics, and some small and superficial, additions of Christian elements.它自稱是真正的綜合所有的宗教制度當時稱為,實際上包括拜火教二元,巴比倫的民間傳說,佛教倫理,和一些小的和膚淺的,增加的基督教內容。 As the theory of two eternal principles, good and evil, is predominant in this fusion of ideas and gives color to the whole, Manichæism is classified as a form of religious Dualism.隨著理論的兩個永恆的原則,善與邪惡,主要是在這一融合的思想,使顏色整體而言,摩尼教被列為一種形式的宗教兩重性。 It spread with extraordinary rapidity in both East and West and maintained a sporadic and intermittent existence in the West (Africa, Spain, France, North Italy, the Balkans) for a thousand years, but it flourished mainly in the land of its birth, (Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Turkestan) and even further East in Northern India, Western China, and Tibet, where, c.它以非凡的傳播速度在東方和西方保持著零星的,斷斷續續的存在,西方國家(非洲,西班牙,法國,北意大利,巴爾幹地區)的一千多年,但它主要是在蓬勃發展的土地上誕生, (美索不達米亞,巴比倫,土耳其)和東亞甚至進一步在印度北部,西部中國,西藏,在那裡,角 AD 1000, the bulk of the population professed its tenets and where it died out at an uncertain date.公元1000 ,大部分的人口宣稱其宗旨和死亡的地方在一個不確定的日期。

I. LIFE OF THE FOUNDER一,生命的創始人

Mani (Gr. Manys, gen. usually Manytos, sometimes Manentos, rarely Manou; or Manichios; Latin Manes, gen. Manetis; In Augustine always Manichaeus) is a title and term of respect rather than a personal name.瑪尼( Gr. Manys ,根。通常Manytos ,有時Manentos ,很少馬努;或Manichios ;拉丁美洲結根。 Manetis ;在奧古斯丁總是Manichaeus )是一種所有權和長期的尊重,而不是個人的名義。 Its exact meaning is not quite certain, ancient Greek interpretations were skeuos and homilia, but its true derivation is probably from the Babylonian-Aramaic Mânâ, which, among the Mandaeans was a term for a light-spirit, mânâ rabba being the "Light King".其確切含義不是很肯定的,古希臘的解釋skeuos和homilia ,但其真正的推導可能是從巴比倫,阿拉姆法力,這之間的曼德安是一個長期的輕精神,法力rabba是“輕國王“ 。 It would therefore mean "the illustrious".因此,這將意味著“傑出” 。 This title was assumed by the founder himself and so completely replaced his personal name that the precise form of the latter is not known; two latinized forms, however, are handed down, Cubricus and Ubricus, and it seems likely that these forms are a corruption of the not unusual name of Shuraik.這標題是承擔自己的創始人和完全取代他的個人名稱的確切形式,後者是不知道;兩個latinized形式,但是,流傳, Cubricus和Ubricus ,它似乎這些形式是一種腐敗在不尋常的名稱Shuraik 。 Although Mani's personal name is thus subject to doubt, there is no doubt concerning that of his father and family.雖然瑪尼的個人姓名,因此受到懷疑,這是毫無疑問的是他的父親和家人。 His father's name was Fâtâk Bâbâk (Ratekios, or the "well preserved"), a citizen of Ecbatana, the ancient Median capital and a member of the famous Chascanian Gens.他的父親的名字是Fâtâk巴巴克( Ratekios ,或“保存完好” ) ,公民Ecbatana ,古老的中位數資本和一名著名的Chascanian氏族。 The boy was born AD 215-216 in the village of Mardinu in Babylonia, from a mother of noble (Arsacide) descent whose name variously is given as Mes, Utâchîm, Marmarjam, and Karossa.這名男孩出生在公元215-216村Mardinu的東風,從一個母親的崇高( Arsacide )後裔的名字不同的是作為爾梅斯, Utâchîm , Marmarjam ,並卡羅薩。 The father was evidently a man of strong religious propensities, since he left Ecbatana to join the South Babylonian Puritans (Menakkede) or Mandaeans and had his son educated in their tenets.父親顯然是一個人的強烈的宗教傾向,因為他離開Ecbatana加入南方巴比倫的清教徒( Menakkede )或曼德安和他的兒子在他們的教育信條。 Mani's father himself must have displayed considerable activities as a religious reformer and have been a kind of forerunner of his more famous son, in the first years of whose public life he had some share.瑪尼的父親自己必須表現出相當大的活動作為一個宗教的改革者,並已是一種先行者,他更加出名的兒子,在最初幾年的公共生活,他的一些份額。 It is not impossible that some of Patekios' writing lies imbedded in the Mandaean literature which has come down to us.這不是不可能的,有些Patekios寫作是嵌入在曼達文學已下降到我們。 Through misunderstandings the Aramaic word for disciple (Tarbitha, stat abs. Tarbi), Greek and Latin sources speak of a certain Terebinthos, Terebinthus of Turbo, as a distinct person, whom they confound partially with Mani, partially with Patekios, and as they also forgot that Mani, besides being Patekios' great disciple, was his bodily son, and that in consequence the Scythian teacher, Scythianus, is but Fatak Babak of Hamadam, the Scythian metropolis, their account of the first origins of Manichæism differs considerably from that given in Oriental sources.通過誤解的阿拉姆字門徒( Tarbitha ,統計絕對值。 Tarbi ) ,希臘和拉丁來源的發言某Terebinthos , Terebinthus的Turbo ,作為一個獨特的人,他們混淆與摩尼部分,部分與Patekios ,並作為他們還忘了摩尼,除了Patekios '偉大的弟子,是他身體的兒子,因此,在老師的西徐亞人, Scythianus ,不過是Fatak巴巴克的Hamadam的西徐亞人的大都市,其帳戶中的第一起源摩尼教差別很大,鑑於在東方來源。 Notwithstanding Kessler's ingenious researches in this field, we cannot say that the relation between Oriental and Western sources on this point has been sufficiently cleared up, and it may well be that the Western tradition going back through the "Acta Archelai" to within a century of Mani's death, contains some truth.儘管凱斯勒的獨創性的研究在這方面,我們不能說之間的關係東方和西方在這一點上已得到充分的清理,這很可能是西方傳統回去通過“ Archelai學報” ,以在一個世紀的摩尼死亡,包含了一些事實真相。

Mani's father was at first apparently an idolater, for, as he worshipped in a temple to his gods he is supposed to have heard a voice urging him to abstain from meat, wine, and women.瑪尼的父親是在第一次顯然是偶像崇拜者,因為他崇拜在他的寺廟神,他是聽到一個聲音敦促他放棄肉類,酒類,和婦女。 In obedience to this voice he emigrated to the south and joined the Mughtasilah, or Mandaean Baptists, taking the boy Mani, with him, but possibly leaving Mani's mother behind.在服從這個聲音,他移居到南部和加入Mughtasilah ,或曼達浸信會,同時考慮嘛呢男孩,與他,但是離開瑪尼斯可能的媽媽落後。 Here, at the age of twelve Mani is supposed to have received his first revelation.在這裡,在12歲的瑪尼是收到了他的第一個啟示。 The angel Eltaum (God of the Covenant; Tamiel of Jewish Rabbinical lore?), appeared to him, bade him leave the Mandaeans, and live chastely, but to wait still some twelve years before proclaiming himself to the people.天使Eltaum (上帝的盟約; Tamiel猶太人猶太教傳說? ) ,似乎他,叫他離開曼德安,生活chastely ,但仍有一些等待12年前宣布自己的人民。 It is not unlikely that the boy was trained up to the profession of painter, as he is often thus designated in Oriental (though late) sources.這不是不可能,這名男孩是訓練有素的最多的職業畫家,他常常是這樣指定在東方(雖然晚)來源。

Babylon was still a center of the pagan priesthood; here Mani became thoroughly imbued with their ancient speculations.巴比倫仍然是一個中心的異教徒鐸;這裡成了徹底的瑪尼充滿古老揣測。 On Sunday, 20 March, AD 242, Mani first proclaimed his gospel in the royal residence, Gundesapor, on the coronation day of Sapor I, when vast crowds from all parts were gathered together.週日, 3月20日,公元242 ,瑪尼首次宣布在他的福音王室居住地, Gundesapor ,在加冕天味一,廣大觀眾時,來自全國各地的人聚集在一起。 "As once Buddha came to India, Zoroaster to Persia, and Jesus to the lands of the West, so came in the present time, this prophecy through me, the Mani, to the land of Babylonia", sounded the proclamation of this "Apostle of the true God". “作為一次佛陀來到印度,波斯Zoroaster ,和耶穌的土地西方,所以排在現在,這一預言通過我的摩尼,對土地的東風” ,聽起來宣布這一“使徒真正的上帝。 “ He seems to have had but little immediate success and was compelled to leave the country.他似乎已經不大,但立即成功,並被迫離開該國。 For many years he traveled abroad, founding Manichæan communities in Turkestan and India.多年來,他出國旅遊,社區成立摩尼教在東突和印度。 When he finally returned to Persia he succeeded in converting to his doctrine Peroz, the brother of Sapor I, and dedicated to him one of his most important works, the "Shapurikan".當他終於回到波斯他成功地轉換到他的學說Peroz的兄弟味我和他致力於他的一個最重要的工程, “ Shapurikan ” 。 Peroz obtained for Mani an audience with the king and Mani delivered his prophetical message in the royal presence. Peroz摩尼獲得觀眾與國王和摩尼發表預言的信息,王室的存在。 We soon find Mani again a fugitive from his native land; though here and there, as in Beth Garmia, his teaching seems to have taken early root.我們很快發現瑪尼逃犯再次從他的故土;雖然這裡和那裡,在貝絲Garmia ,他的教學似乎已經提前生根。 While traveling, Mani spread and strengthened his doctrine by epistles, or encyclical letters, of which some four score are known to us by title.雖然旅遊,摩尼蔓延,並加強他的理論,書信,或通信件,其中4個評分被稱為我們的冠軍。 It is said that Mani afterwards fell into the hands of Sapor I, was cast into prison, and only released at the king's death in 274.有人說,嘛呢後落入手中的味我是演員關進監獄,只有釋放國王的死亡274 。 It seems certain that Sapor's successor, Ormuzd I, was favorable to the new prophet; perhaps he even personally released him from his dungeon, unless, indeed, Mani had already effected his escape by bribing a warder and fleeing across the Roman frontier.看來肯定,味的繼任者, Ormuzd一,有利於新的先知,也許他甚至親自釋放他從牢裡,除非確實,瑪尼已經影響他逃跑的賄賂看守,並在逃離羅馬邊界。 Ormuzd's favor, however, was of little avail, as he occupied the Persian throne only a single year, and Bahram I, his successor, soon after his accession, caused Mani to be crucified, had the corpse flayed, the skin stuffed and hung up at the city gate, as a terrifying spectacle to his followers, whom he persecuted with relentless severity. Ormuzd的青睞,然而,這是無濟於事,因為他佔領了波斯王位只有一個單一的一年,巴赫拉姆我,他的繼任後不久,他的加入,造成瑪尼是釘在十字架上,屍體已經flayed ,皮膚填充和掛在城門,作為一個可怕的景象,以他的追隨者,他的無情迫害的嚴重性。 The date of his death is fixed at 276-277.死者死亡的日期定在276-277 。

II.二。 SYSTEM OF DOCTRINE AND DISCIPLINE系統的理論和紀律

Doctrine中庸

The key to Mani's system is his cosmogony.關鍵瑪尼的系統是他的宇宙進化論。 Once this is known there is little else to learn.一旦這是已知的有沒有其他需要學習的地方。 In this sense Mani was a true Gnostic, as he brought salvation by knowledge.在這個意義上瑪尼是一位真正的諾斯底,因為他帶來救贖的知識。 Manichæism professed to be a religion of pure reason as opposed to Christian credulity; it professed to explain the origin, the composition, and the future of the universe; it had an answer for everything and despised Christianity, which was full of mysteries.摩尼教宣稱是一個純粹的宗教原因,而不是基督教輕信;它聲稱解釋的來源,成分,和未來的宇宙;它有一個答案都和鄙視基督教,這是充分的奧秘。 It was utterly unconscious that its every answer was a mystification or a whimsical invention; in fact, it gained mastery over men's minds by the astonishing completeness, minuteness, and consistency of its assertions.它完全是無意識的,它的每一個答案是一個神話或異想天開的發明,事實上,它漲主宰男子的頭腦驚人的完整性, minuteness和一致性的說法。

We are giving the cosmogony as contained in Theodore Bar Khoni, embodying the results of the study of François Cumont.我們正在使宇宙進化論中所載西奧多酒吧Khoni ,體現研究的結果弗朗索瓦Cumont 。 Before the existence of heaven and earth and all that is therein, there were two Principles, the one Good the other Bad.之前存在的天地,所有這其中,有兩個原則,一個良好的其他錯誤。 The Good Principle dwells in the realm of light and is called the Father of Majesty (Grandeur or Greatness, Megethos, Abba D'rabbutha), or the Father with the Four Faces or Persons (tetraprosopon), probably because Time, Light, Force, and Goodness were regarded as essential manifestations of the First Being by the Zervanites (see Cosmogony: Iranian).善良的原理居住領域中的輕型和被稱為陛下之父(錦繡或偉大, Megethos ,阿巴德rabbutha ) ,或父親的四個面或個人( tetraprosopon ) ,可能是因為時間,光,部隊,和善被視為重要的表現形式首先是由Zervanites (見宇宙進化論:伊朗) 。 Outside the Father there are his Five Tabernacles or Shechinatha, Intelligence, Reason, Thought, Reflection, and Will. The designation of "Tabernacle" contains a play on the sound Shechina which means both dwelling or tent and "Divine glory or presence" and is used in the Old Testament to designate God's presence between the Cherubim.以外的父親有他的五節或Shechinatha ,智力,理性,思想,思考,和意志。指定的“幕”載有發揮的良好Shechina這意味著雙方住所或帳篷和“神聖的榮耀,或存在” ,是所用的舊約指定上帝的存在之間的革魯賓。 These five tabernacles were pictured on the one hand as stories of one building -- Will being the topmost story -- and on the other hand as limbs of God's body.這五節被拍到,一方面作為一個故事的建設-將是最重要的故事-另一方面,作為上帝的四肢的屍體。 He indwelt and possessed them all, so as to be, in a sense, identical with them, yet again, in a sense, to be distinct from them.他indwelt並擁有所有這些,以便在某種意義上說,與他們相同的,再次,從某種意義上說,是有別於他們。 They are also designated as aeons or worlds, beata secula, in St. Augustine's writings.他們也被指定為aeons或世界,貝阿塔secula ,在聖奧古斯丁的著作。 In other sources the five limbs are: Longanimity, Knowledge, Reason, Discretion, and Understanding. And again these five as limbs of the Father's spiritual body were sometimes distinguished from the five attributes of His pure Intelligence: Love, Faith, Truth, Highmindedness, and Wisdom.在其他來源的五個四肢是: Longanimity ,知識,理性,自由裁量權,和理解。再次為這五個四肢父親的精神,有時身體尊敬的來自五大洲的屬性,他純粹的情報:愛,信仰,真理, Highmindedness ,和智慧。 This Father of light together with the light-air and the light-earth, the former with five attributes parallel to his own, and the latter with the five limbs of Breath, Wind, Light, Water, and Fire constitute the Manichæan pleroma.這父親的光與光氣和輕稀土,前5個屬性平行自己的,而後者的五個四肢呼吸,風,光,水,和消防構成了摩尼教pleroma 。 This light world is of infinite exrtent in five directions and has only one limit, set to it below by the realm of Darkness, which is likewise infinite in all directions barring the one above, where it borders on the realm of light.有鑑於此世界是無限的exrtent在五個方向,只有一個限制,將它下面的黑暗境界,這同樣是無限的四面八方,禁止上述之一,它的邊界境界輕。 Opposed to the Father of Grandeur is the King of Darkness.反對父爵為王的黑暗。 He is actually never called God, but otherwise, he and his kingdom down below are exactly parallel to the ruler and realm of the light above.他實際上是從來沒有所謂的上帝,但除此之外,他和他的王國樓下是完全平行的尺子和境界鑑於以上。 The dark Pleroma is also triple, as it were firmament, air, and earth inverted.黑暗Pleroma也是三倍,因為它是天空,空氣和地球倒轉。 The first two (Heshuha and Humana) have the five attributes, members, aeons, or worlds: Pestilent Breath, Scorching Wind, Gloom, Mist, Consuming Fire; the last has the following five: Wells of Poison, Columns of Smoke, Abysmal Depths, Fetid Marshes, and Pillars of Fire.頭兩個( Heshuha和Humana公司)的5個屬性,成員, aeons ,或世界: Pestilent呼吸,烈日風,股市,霧,消費火災;過去有以下五個:井毒,煙專欄,深不可測深淵,惡臭沼澤,以及消防支柱。 This last five fold division is clearly borrowed from ancient Chaldean ideas current in Mesopotamia.這最後的5倍分工顯然是借自古代迦勒思想目前在美索不達米亞。

These two powers might have lived eternally in peace, had not the Prince of Darkness decided to invade the realm of light.這兩個權力可能永遠生活在和平,沒有了黑暗王子決定入侵領域的光。 On the approach of the monarch of chaos the five aeons of light were seized with terror.論方法的君主的混亂五個aeons輕了處理恐怖活動。 This incarnation of evil called Satan or Ur-devil (Diabolos protos, Iblis Kadim, in Arabic sources), a monster half fish, half bird, yet with four feet and lion-headed, threw himself upward toward the confines of light.這邪惡的化身稱為撒旦或烏爾魔鬼( Diabolos protos , Iblis領袖,阿拉伯文來源) ,一半魔鬼魚,鳥的一半,但有四個腳和獅子的頭腦,把自己向上的局限輕。 The echo of the thunder of his onrush went through the blessed aeons until it reached the Father of Majesty, who bethinking himself said: I will not send my five aeons, made for blessed repose, to engage in this war, I will go myself and give battle.迴聲的雷聲,他猛攻經歷了得天獨厚aeons直到它達到了父親的陛下,誰bethinking自己說:我不會給我5 aeons ,為祝福寄託,進行這場戰爭,我將自己和讓戰鬥。 Hereupon the Father of Majesty emanated the Mother of Life and the Mother of Life emanated the first man.於是父親對國王陛下的母親發出的生命和母親的生活產生的第一人。 These two constitute, with the Father, a sort of Trinity in Unity, hence the Father could say: "I myself will go".這兩項構成,與父親,一種三位一體的統一,因此父親可以說: “我將去” 。 Mani here assimilates ideas already known from Gnosticism (qv, subtitle The Sophia Myth) and resembling Christian doctrine, especially when it is borne in mind that "Spirit" is feminine in Hebrew-Aramaic and thus could easily be conceived as a mother of all living.摩尼這裡同化的想法已經知道從諾斯替主義( qv ,副標題索菲亞神話)和類似基督教教義,特別是當它是銘記的是, “精神”是女性在希伯來亞拉姆語,因此可以很容易地設想作為一個母親,所有生活。 The Protanthropos or "First Man" is a distinctly Irani an conception, which likewise found its way into a number of Gnostic systems, but which became the central figure in Manichæism.該Protanthropos或“第一人”是一個明顯的伊拉尼一個概念,它同樣發現其方式分為若干諾斯底系統,但成為中心人物摩尼教。 The myth of the origin of the world out of the members of a dead giant or Ur-man is extremely ancient, not only in Iranian speculations but also in Indian mythology (Rig-Veda, X, 90), Indeed if the myth of giant Ymir in Norse Cosmogonies is not merely a medieval invention, as is sometimes asserted, this legend must be one of the earliest possessions of the Aryan race.神話的起源,世界的成員死巨頭或烏爾人是極其古老的,不僅在伊朗的猜測,而且在印度神話(鑽機,吠陀,十, 90 ) ,事實上,如果神話巨人Ymir在北歐Cosmogonies不僅是一個中世紀的發明,因為有時是斷言,這個傳奇人物必須是最早的財物雅利安種族。

According to Mani the First-Man now emanates sons as a man who puts on his armor for the combat.據摩尼第一人產生的兒子現在作為一個男人誰把他的裝甲作戰。 These five sons are the five elements opposed to the five aeons of darkness: Clear Air, Refreshing Wind, Bright Light, Life-Giving Waters, and Warming Fire.這五個兒子五行反對五年aeons的黑暗:清除空氣,刷新風,明亮的燈光,賦予生命的水和火溫。 He put on first the aerial breeze, then threw over himself light as a flaming mantle, and over this light a covering of water; he surrounded himself with gusts of wind, took light as his lance and shield, and cast himself downward toward the line of danger.他提出的第一個空中的微風,然後扔在自己輕如燃燒的地幔,並在此輕覆蓋的水;他包圍自己的陣風風力,光了他的長矛和盾牌,並自詡為對向下行的危險。 An angel called Nahashbat (?), carrying a crown of victory, went before him.所謂天使Nahashbat ( ? ) ,載有冠的勝利,他在他面前。 The First-Man projected his light before him, and the King of Darkness seeing it, thought and said: "What I have sought from afar, lo, I have found it near me."第一人預計他的光在他面前,和國王的黑暗看到它,思想和說: “我曾試圖自遠方來,看哪,我發現它靠近我。 ” He also clothed himself with his five elements, and engaged in combat with the First-Man.他還穿著自己與他五個要素,並參與戰鬥的第一人。 The struggle went in favor of the King of Darkness.去鬥爭,支持國王的黑暗。 The First-Man when being overcome, gave himself and his five sons as food to the five sons of Darkness, "as a man having an enemy, mixes deadly poison in a cake, and gives it to his foe."第一人時,得到克服,使他和他的五個兒子食品的五個兒子黑暗, “作為一個男人有一個敵人,致命的毒藥混合在一個蛋糕,並賦予它以他的敵人。 ” When these five resplendent deities had been absorbed by the sons of Darkness, reason was taken away from them and they became through the poisonous admixture with the sons of Darkness, like unto a man bitten by a wild dog or serpent.當這5個燦爛的神明已經吸收了黑暗的兒子,原因是帶走他們,他們是通過有毒外加劑與黑暗的兒子一樣,你們一個人咬了,野生的狗或蛇。 Thus the evil one conquered for a while.因此,一個邪惡征服了一段時間。 But the First-Man recovered his reason and prayed seven times to the Father of Majesty, who being moved by mercy, emanated as second creation, the Friend of the Ligh t, this Friend of the Light emanated the Great Ban, and the Great Ban emanated the Spirit of Life.但是,第一人恢復了理智和祈禱,以7倍之父陛下,誰被感動,憐憫,產生第二創建之友燈噸,這個朋友的光產生大潘基文,並禁止大產生的精神生命。 Thus a second trinity parallel to the first (Father of Light, Mother of Light, First-Man) comes into existence.因此,平行第二三位一體的第一(光之父,母燈,一人)是存在的。 The first two personages of the latter trinity have not yet been explained and particularly the meaning of the Great Ban is a puzzle, but as in the former trinity, it is the third person, who does the actual work, the Spirit of Life (To Zon Pneuma), who becomes the demi-urge or world former.頭兩個人物,後者三位一體尚未解釋和特別的意義大潘基文是一個謎,但作為前三位一體,它是第三人,誰做的實際工作中,精神的生命(要榮牛馬) ,誰當選半敦促或世界前。 Like the First-Man he emanates five personalities: from his intelligence the Ornament of Splendour (Sefath Ziva, Splenditenens, phegotatochos in Greek and Latin sources), from his reason the Great King of Honour, from his thought Adamas, Light, from his self reflection the King of Glory, and from his will the Supporter (Sabhla, Atlas and Omothoros of Greek and Latin sources).像第一人,他來自五個人物:從他的情報的飾品的輝煌( Sefath Ziva , Splenditenens , phegotatochos在希臘和拉丁來源) ,從他的原因,王大榮譽,從他的思想Adamas ,光,從他的自我反思之王的榮耀,從他的支持者( Sabhla ,阿特拉斯和Omothoros的希臘和拉丁來源) 。 These five deities were objects of special worship amongst Manichæans, and St. Augustine (Contra Faustum, XV) gives us descriptions of them drawn from Manichæan hymns.這五個神了物體之間的特殊崇拜Manichæans和聖奧古斯丁(魂斗羅Faustum , XV )號決議給我們描述他們從摩尼教讚美詩。

These five descend to the realm of Darkness, find the First-Man in his degradation and rescue him by the word of their power; his armour remains behind, by lifting him by the right hand the Spirit of Life brings him back to the Mother of Life.這五個墮落的境界黑暗中,找到一人在他的退化和營救他的話他們的權力,他的裝甲部隊仍然落後,解除他的右手精神的生命帶來了他回母生命。 The fashioning of the world now begins.在形成世界現在開始。 Some of the sons of the Spirit of Life kill and flay the archons or sons of Darkness and bring them to the Mother of Life.一些兒子的生命精神和flay殺死的執政官或黑暗的兒子,並將他們的母親生活。 She spreads out their skins and forms twelve heavens. Their corpses are hurled on the realm of Darkness and eight worlds are made, their bones form the mountain ranges.她傳播他們的皮毛和形式12天。他們的屍體被扔在黑暗的領域和8個世界是,他們的骨骼形成的山脈。 The Ornament of splendour holds the five resplendent deities by their waist and below their waist the heavens are extended.該飾品的輝煌擁有五個輝煌神其腰部和腰部以下天上的延長。 Atlas carries all on his shoulders, the Great King of Honour sits on top of the heavens and guards over all.阿特拉斯執行所有在他肩上,大國王的榮譽坐在上方的天空和警衛所有。 The Spirit of Life forces the sons of Darkness to surrender some of the light which they had absorbed from the five elements and out of this he forms the sun and the moon (vessels of light, lucidae naves in St. Augustine) and the stars.精神的生命力量的兒子交出黑暗的一些輕,他們吸收了來自五大洲的內容和擺脫這種形式,他太陽和月球(船隻的光線, lucidae naves在聖奧古斯丁)和星級。 The Spirit of Life further makes the wheels of the wind under the earth near the Supporter.精神生命的進一步使車輪下風在地球附近的支持者。 The King of Glory by some creation or other enables these wheels to mount the surface of the earth and thus prevents the five resplendent deities from being set on fire by the poison of the archons.國王的榮耀一些創造或其他使這些車輪裝入地球表面,從而阻止五年輝煌的神明被放火焚燒了毒藥的執政官。 The text of Theodore bar Khoni is here so confused and corrupt that it is difficult to catch the meaning; probably wind, water, air, and fire are considered protective coverings, encircling and enveloping the gross material earth and revolving around it.全文西奧多列Khoni在這裡如此混亂和腐敗,這是很難趕上的含義;可能風,水,空氣,火災被認為是保護艙蓋,包圍和包絡環面材料總值地球圍繞著它。

At this stage of the cosmogony the Mother of Life, the First-Man, and the Spirit of Life beg and beseech the Father of Majesty for a further creation and for a third creation he emanated the Messenger; in Latin sources this is the so-called Legatus Tertius.在這一階段的宇宙進化論的母親生活,第一人,和聖靈的生命和求求之父陛下為進一步建立和第三,他提出創造信使;在拉丁美洲來源,這是所謂的所謂Legatus特爾蒂烏斯。 This Messenger emanates twelve virgins with their garments, crowns, and garlands, namely, Royalty, Wisdom, Victory, Persuasion, Purity, Truth, Faith, Patience, Righteousness, Goodness, Justice, and Light.這通來自12個處女的服裝,冠,和花環,即忠誠,智慧,勝利,說服,純度,真理,信仰,耐心,義,善,司法部,和輕。 The Messenger dwells in the sun and, coming toward these twelve virgin-vessels he commands his three attendants to make them revolve and soon they reach the height of the heavens.信使居住在陽光下和,對這些未來12處女地,船隻,他命令他的三個服務員,使他們圍繞,並很快達到高度的天空。 All this is a transparent metaphor for the planetary system and the signs of the zodiac.這一切都是透明的比喻行星系統和標誌物。 No sooner do the heavens rotate than the Messenger commands the Great Ban to renovate the earth and make the Great Wheels (Air, Fire, and Water) to mount.沒有越早這樣做比天空旋轉信使命令禁止大整修地球,使大車輪(空氣,火,水)裝入。 The great universe now moves but as yet there is no life of plants, beasts, or man.宇宙的偉大舉動,但現在還沒有生命的植物,動物或人。 The production of vegetation, animal, and rational life on earth is a process of obscenity, cannibalism, abortion, and prize-fighting between the Messenger and the sons and daughters of Darkness, the details of which are better passed over.生產的植被,動物,和合理的地球上的生命是一個過程的淫穢,食,人工流產,並獎之間的戰鬥Messenger和兒女黑暗的細節,這是更好地通過了。 Finally, Naimrael, a female, and Ashaklun, a male devil, bring forth two children, Adam and Eve.最後, Naimrael ,一個女性, Ashaklun ,一名男子魔鬼,帶來兩個孩子,亞當和夏娃。 In Adam's body were imprisoned a vast number of germs of light.在亞當的身體被囚禁了大量細菌的光。 He was the great captive of the Power of Evil.他是偉大的俘虜的邪惡力量。 The Powers of Light had pity an d sent a Savior, the luminous Jesus.權力輕了憐憫的d發出了一個救世主,在明亮的耶穌。 This Jesus approached innocent Adam, awoke him from his sleep of death, made him move, drew him out of his slumber, drove away the seductive demon, and enchained far away from him the mighty female archon.這耶穌走近無辜亞當醒來他從睡眠中死亡,使他行動,把他從他沉睡,趕走了魔鬼的誘惑,並enchained遠離他的偉大女性執政官。 Adam reflected on himself and knew that he existed.亞當反映自己和知道他的存在。 Jesus then instructed Adam and showed him the Father's dwelling in the celestial heights, and Jesus showed him his own personality, exposed to all things, to the teeth of the panther, the teeth of the elephant, devoured by the greedy, swallowed by gluttons, eaten by dogs, mixed with and imprisoned in all that exists, encompassed by the evil odours of Darkness. Mani's weird but mighty imagination had thus created a "suffering Savior" and given him the name of Jesus.然後耶穌指示亞當和顯示他的父親住在該天體的高度,和耶穌顯示了他自己的個性,接觸到的所有東西,到了牙齒的黑豹,牙齒的大象,狼吞虎咽的貪婪吞噬的老饕,吃了狗,混合,並在所有被監禁的存在,所包含的邪惡黑暗的氣味。摩尼奇怪,但強大的想像力,因此設立了一個“痛苦的救世主” ,並給予他的名字耶穌。 But this Saviour is but the personification of the Cosmic Light as far as imprisoned in matter, therefore it is diffused throughout all nature, it is born, suffers, and dies every day, it is crucified on every tree, it is daily eaten in all food.但是,這不過是救世主的化身宇宙光就被關押在問題,因此,它是分散在所有的性質,它是出生,患有,並每天死亡,這是釘在十字架上的每一棵樹上,它每天吃的所有食物。 This captive Cosmic Light is called Jesus patibilis.這俘虜宇宙光被稱為耶穌patibilis 。 Jesus then made Adam stand up and taste of the tree of life.耶穌亞當然後站起來和味覺的生命之樹。 Adam then looked around and wept.亞當然後環顧四周,痛哭不止。 He mightily lifted up his voice as a roaring lion. He tore his hair and struck his breast and said, "Cursed be the creator of my body and he who bound my soul and they who have made me their slave."他強烈地抬起他的聲音作為一個咆哮獅子。他撕毀他的頭髮,並擊中他的胸膛,說: “詛咒是創作者自己的身體和他誰約束我的靈魂,他們誰使我他們的奴隸。 ” Man's duty henceforth is to keep his body pure from all bodily stain by practicing self-denial and to help also in the great work of purification throughout the universe.人的工作地點從今以後是讓他的身體純粹從所有身體染色練的自我否定,並幫助也很大工作,淨化整個宇宙。 Manichæan eschatology is in keeping with its cosmogony.摩尼教末世論是符合其宇宙進化論。 When, mainly through the activity of the elect, all light particles have been gathered together, the messenger, or Legatus Tertius appears, the Spirit of Life comes from the west, the First Man with his hosts comes from north, south, and east, together with all light aeons, and all perfect Manichæans.當,主要是通過活動的選舉,所有輕粒子已經聚集在一起,信使,或Legatus特爾蒂烏斯看來,精神的生命來自西部,其中一人與他的東道主來自北部,南部和東部,連同所有輕aeons ,所有完美Manichæans 。 Atlas, the World Supporter throws his burden away, the Ornament of Splendour above lets go, and thus heaven and earth sink into the abyss.地圖集,世界支架全他的負擔以外,飾品的輝煌讓上面去,因此,天地陷入深淵。 A universal confla gration ensues and burns on till nothing but lightless cinders remain.一個普遍的confla整隨之和燒傷直到只不過lightless灰燼依然存在。 This fire continues during 1486 years, during which the torments of the wicked are the delights of the just.這期間火災繼續一千四百八十六年,在此期間,折磨的邪惡是歡樂的公正。 When the separation of light from darkness is finally completed, all angels of light who had functions in the creation return on high; the dark world-soul sinks away in the depth, which is then closed forever and eternal tranquillity reigns in the realm of light, no more to be invaded by darkness. With regard to the after-death of the individual, Manichæism taught a threefold state prepared for the Perfect, the Hearers, and the Sinners (non-Manichæans). The souls of the first are after death received by Jesus, who is sent by the First-Man accompanied by three aeons of light and the Light Maiden.當分離的光從黑暗終於完成,所有的天使輕誰曾職能創造回報率高;黑暗的世界匯以外的靈魂的深度,然後關閉永遠和永恆的安寧籠罩在王國光,沒有更多的侵略的黑暗。至於後死亡的個人,摩尼教教了三倍,國家準備完善的聽眾,並罪人(非Manichæans ) 。亡靈的第一次是在死後收到的耶穌,是誰發出了第一人的陪同下三個aeons輕和輕少女。 They give the deceased a water vessel, a garment, a turban, a crown, and a wreath of light.他們給死者一個水船隻,服裝,頭巾,一個冠,並敬獻了花圈輕。 In vain do evil angels lie in his path, he scorns them and on the ladder of praise he mounts first to the moon, then to the First-Man, the Sun, the Mother of Life, and finally the Supreme Light.徒勞的邪惡天使不在於他的道路,他藐視他們的階梯上讚揚他第一次安裝到月球,然後向第一人,太陽,母親的生命,最後最高法院輕。 The bodies of the perfect are purified by sun, moon, and stars; their light-particles, set free, mount to the First-Man and are formed into minor deities, surrounding his person.該機構的完善是純化的太陽,月亮和星星;其輕粒子,設置免費的,安裝的第一人,並形成了小神,他周圍的人。 The fate of the Heavens is ultimately the same as that of the Perfect, but they have to pass through a long purgatory before they arrive at eternal bliss.的命運老天爺最終是一樣的完美,但他們必須經過一個長期煉獄才到達永恆的幸福。 Sinners, however, must, after death wander about in torment and anguish, surrounded by demons, and condemned by the angels, till the end of the world, when they are, body and soul, thrown into hell.罪人,但必須在其亡故後跑江湖的折磨和痛苦,周圍的惡魔,並譴責的天使,直到世界的盡頭,因為他們是身體和靈魂,扔進地獄。

Discipline紀律

To set the light-substance free from the pollution of matter was the ultimate aim of all Manichæan life.要設置輕實質不受污染的問題,其最終目的是所有摩尼教的生活。 Those who entirely devoted themselves to this work were the "Elect" or the "Perfect", the Primates Manichaeorum; those who through human frailty felt unable to abstain from all earthly joys, though they accepted Manichæan tenets, were "the Hearers", auditores, or catechumens.這些誰完全致力於這項工作是“電器”或“完美”的靈長類Manichaeorum ;誰通過這些人的脆弱感到無法避免所有的人間歡樂,儘管他們接受了摩尼教的原則,是“聽眾” , auditores或慕道。 The former bear a striking similarity to Buddhist monks, only with this difference that they were always itinerant, being forbidden to settle anywhere permanently.前者承擔了驚人的相似之處,以佛教僧侶,只有這種差異,他們總是流動,被禁止任何永久解決。 The life of these ascetics was a hard one.生活的這些修行是一場非常艱苦的一個。 They were forbidden to have property, to eat meat or drink wine, to gratify any sexual desire, to engage in any servile occupation, commerce or trade, to possess house or home, to practice magic, or to practice any other religion.他們被禁止擁有的財產,吃肉或飲用葡萄酒,以滿足任何性慾,從事任何奴役的佔領,商業或貿易,擁有房子或家裡,到實踐魔術,或從事任何其他宗教。 Their duties were summed up in the three signacula, ie seals or closures, that of the mouth, of the hands, and of the breast (oris, manuum, sinus).其職責是在總結了三個signacula ,即印章或關閉,即嘴,手,和乳腺癌(口,癬,竇) 。 The first forbade all evil words and all evil food.首先禁止一切邪惡的話,所有邪惡的食物。 Animal food roused the demon of Darkness within man, hence only vegetables were allowed to the perfect.動物性食品引起的惡魔在黑暗的人,因此,只有蔬菜被允許的完美。 Amongst vegetables, some, as melons and fruit containing oil were specially recommended, as they were thought to contain many light particles, and by being consumed by the perfect those light particles were set free.其中蔬菜,一些,如瓜類和水果含有油特別建議,因為他們被認為載有許多輕粒子,並正在消耗的完善這些輕粒子被釋放。 The second forbade all actions detrimental to the light-substance, slaying of animals, plucking of fruit, etc. The third forbade all evil thoughts, whether against the Manichæan faith or against purity.第二禁止一切行動有損於輕實質內容,殺害動物,採摘水果等第三禁止一切邪惡的思想,無論是對摩尼教信仰或反對的純潔性。 St. Augustine (especially "De Moribus Manich.") strongly inveighs against the Manichæan's repudiation of marriage.聖奧古斯丁(尤其是“德Moribus Manich 。 ” ) inveighs強烈反對摩尼教的休妻的婚姻生活。 They regarded it as an evil in itself because the propagation of the human race meant the continual imprisonment of the light-substance in matter and a retarding of the blissful consummation of all things; maternity was a calamity and a sin and Manichæans delighted to tell of the seduction of Adam by Eve and her final punishment in eternal damnation.他們認為這是一個邪惡的本身,因為傳播人類意味著不斷監禁的輕物質的問題和阻燃的幸福圓滿的一切事物;產假的是一個災難和罪惡和Manichæans高興地告訴了引誘了亞當夏娃和她的最後處罰永恆的詛咒。 In consequence there was a danger that the act of generation, rather than the act of unchastity was abhorred, and that his was a real danger Augustine's writings testify.因此有一種危險,即行為的一代,而不是不貞潔的行為是令人憎惡,他是一個真正的危險奧古斯丁的著作證明了這一點。

The number of the Perfect was naturally very small and in studying Manichæism one is particularly struck by the extreme paucity of individual Perfecti known in history.的人數完美自然非常小,並在研究摩尼教是特別深刻的極端貧乏的個人Perfecti已知的歷史。 The vast bulk of Mani's adherents -- ninety-nine out of every hundred -- were Hearers.目前大部分的瑪尼的追隨者-9 9每1 00-被聽眾。 They were bound by Mani's Ten Commandments only, which forbade idolatry, mendacity, avarice, murder (ie all killing), fornication, theft, seduction to deceit, magic, hypocrisy, (secret infidelity to Manichæism), and religious indifference.他們是受瑪尼的十誡只,其中禁止偶像崇拜,謊言,貪婪,謀殺(即全部死亡) ,姦淫,盜竊,誘姦,以欺騙,魔術,虛偽, (秘密不忠,以摩尼教) ,和宗教冷漠。 The first positive duty seems to have been the maintenance and almost the worship of the Elect.首先積極義務似乎已經維護和幾乎崇拜的電器。 They supplied them with vegetables for food and paid them homage on bended knee, asking for their blessing.他們提供的這些蔬菜,糧食和付給他們表示敬意的彎曲膝蓋,要求他們祝福。 They regarded them as superior beings, nay, collectively, they were thought to constitute the aeon of righteousness.他們認為他們卓越的人,不,集體,他們被認為構成了億萬年的正氣。 Beyond these ten negative commandments there were the two duties common to all, prayer and fasting. Prayer was obligatory four times a day: at noon, late in the afternoon, after sunset, and three hours later.除了這些消極的誡命十有兩個職責共同所有,祈禱和禁食。祈禱是強制性的4倍一天:中午12時,晚於下午之後,日落,三個小時後。 Prayer was made facing the sun or, in the night, the moon; when neither sun nor moon was visible, then the North, the throne of the Light-King.祈禱是面臨的太陽,或在晚上,月亮當太陽也沒有月亮可見,然後北,王位的光國王。 It was preceded by a ceremonial purification with water or for lack of water with some other substance in the Mohammedan fashion.在此之前,一個象徵性的淨化與水或缺乏水與其他一些物質在穆罕默德的方式。 The daily prayers were accompanied by twelve prostrations and addressed to the various personalities in the realm of light: the Father of Majesty, the First-Man, the Legatus Tertius, the Paraclete (Mani), the Five Elements, and so on.每天的祈禱,伴隨著12 prostrations和處理的各種人物的境界輕:父親的陛下,第一人,在Legatus特爾蒂烏斯的聖靈(瑪尼) ,五行,等等。 They consist mainly of a string of laudatory epithets and contain but little supplication.他們主要是一連串的讚美辱罵和遏制,但很少祈求。 As time and attitude of prayer were intimately connected with astronomical phenomena, so likewise was the duty of fasting.隨著時間的推移和態度的祈禱是密切聯繫在一起的天文現象,所以同樣是空腹責任。 All fasted on the first day of the week in honor of the sun, the Perfect also fasted on the second day in honor of the moon.所有關於禁食的第一天,本週在榮譽的太陽,還完善禁食第二天就款待了月球。 All kept the fast during two days after every new moon; and once a year at the full moon, and at the beginning of the first quarter of the moon.所有保持了快速在兩天後每一個新的月球;和每年一次的滿月,並在年初第一季度的月球。 Moreover, a monthly fast, observed till sunset, was begun on the eighth day of the month.此外,每月快速,觀察到日落時分,開始對8天的一個月。

Of rites and ceremonies among the Manichæans but very little is known to us. They had one great solemnity, that of the Bema, the anniversary of Mani's death. This was kept with a vigil of prayers and spiritual reading.在儀式和慶典中Manichæans ,但很少是眾所周知的我們。他們有一個偉大的嚴肅性,即貝馬,紀念摩尼的死亡。這是保持一個守夜祈禱和精神閱讀。 An empty chair was placed on a raised platform to which five steps led up.一個空椅子放在提高的平台,這五個步驟導致。 Further details are as yet unknown.進一步的細節尚不為人所知。 St. Augustine complains that although Manichæans pretended to be Christians, their feast of the death of Mani exceeded in solemnity that of the Death and Resurrection of Christ.聖奧古斯丁抱怨說,儘管Manichæans假裝基督徒,他們的節日去世的嘛呢超過了莊重的死亡和復活的基督。

Manichæans must have possessed a kind of baptism and eucharist. Manichæans必須擁有一種洗禮和聖體。 The epistle on baptism, which occurred among the sacred literature of the Manichæans, is unfortunately lost, and in Oriental sources the matter is not referred to, but Christian sources suppose the existence of both these rites.在書信的洗禮,發生在神聖的文學Manichæans ,不幸的是丟失,並在東方來源的問題是沒有提及,但基督教來源假設存在的這兩個儀式。 Of greater importance than baptism was the Consolamentum or "Consolation", an imposition of hands by one of the Elect by which a Hearer was received amongst their number. The Manichæan hierarchy and constitution is still involved in obscurity.更重要的洗禮比是Consolamentum或“安慰獎” ,是強加的手由一個選舉一個聽話收到除其數量。層次的摩尼教和憲法仍是默默無聞的參與。 Mani evidently intended to provide a supreme head for the multitude of his followers. He even decided that his successor in this dignity should reside in Babylon. This high priesthood is known in Arabic sources as the Imamate.摩尼顯然旨在提供一個最高元首為眾多的追隨者。他甚至決定,他的繼任者在這尊嚴應該住在巴比倫。這種高神父被稱為阿拉伯語來源的伊斯蘭教長。 In the East it seems to have possessed at least some temporary importance, in the West it seems hardly known or recognized.在東方,似乎已經擁有至少一些臨時的重要性,在西方看來幾乎不知道或確認。 No list of these supreme Pontiffs of Manichæism has come down to us; hardly a name or two is known to history.名單中沒有這些最高Pontiffs的摩尼教已下降到我們幾乎沒有一個名稱或兩個是眾所周知的歷史。 It is doubtful even whether the chair of Mani did not remain vacant for long periods.令人懷疑的是,甚至是否主持摩尼沒有保持長期空缺。 On the duties and privileges of the Imamate we possess at present no information.在職責和權限的伊斯蘭教長,我們擁有目前沒有資料。 According to Western and Eastern sources the Manichæan Church was divided into five hierarchical classes; St. Augustine names them magistri, episcopi, presbyteri, electi, and auditores; this Christianized terminology represents in Manichæan mystical language the sons of meekness, of reason, of knowledge, of mystery, and of understanding.根據西歐和東歐來源的摩尼教教會分為五個等級類別;聖奧古斯丁magistri他們的名字, episcopi , presbyteri , electi ,並auditores ;這一術語代表Christianized在摩尼教神秘語言的兒子溫順,理性,知識,神秘和理解。 Mani's astrological predilections for the number five, so evident in his cosmogony, evidently suggested this division for his Church or kingdom of the light on earth.瑪尼的星象偏好的人數五年,所以他顯然宇宙進化論,顯然這個師建議他教會或王國光在地球上。 The Teachers and Administrators (magistri and episcopi) are probably an adaptation of the legontes and drontes, the speakers and the doers, known in Greek and Babylonian mysteries; and the name "priests" is probably taken over from the Sabian Kura.在教師和行政人員( magistri和episcopi )可能是一個適應的legontes和drontes ,發言者和執行者,稱為希臘和巴比倫的奧秘,並命名為“牧師”很可能接管了沙比亞庫拉。

With regard to the relation of Manichæism to Christianity two things are clear: (a) Some connection with Christianity was intended from the very first by Mani himself, it was not an after-thought, introduced when Manichæism came in touch with the West, as is sometimes asserted.關於摩尼教的關係,以基督教兩件事是明確的: (一)有些方面與基督教的目的是從一開始的嘛呢自己,這不是一個後認為,引進來時,摩尼教在觸摸與西方國家,如有時是斷言。 Christianity was the predominant religion in Osrhoene, and perhaps the principle religion in all Mesopotamia in Mani's time.基督教的主要宗教在Osrhoene ,也許宗教的原則在所有的美索不達米亞在瑪尼的時間。 Mani, whose object was to found a system, comprehensive of all religions then known, could not but try to incorporate Christianity.瑪尼,其目的是發現了系統,全面的對所有宗教然後眾所周知,不能不嘗試把基督教。 In the first words of his proclamation on the coronation day of Sapor I, he mentioned Jesus, who had come to the countries of the West.在第一個字,他就宣布加冕天味我,他提到耶穌,誰已經到了西方國家。

(b) The connection was purely external and artificial. (二)純粹是連接和外部人為的。 The substance of Manichæism was Chaldean astrology and folklore cast in a rigid dualistic mould; if Christianity was brought in, it was only through force of historical circumstances.的實質內容摩尼教是迦勒占星術和民間傳說中投下剛性二元模具;如果基督教被帶到,只有通過武力的歷史情況。 Christianity could not be ignored.基督教不能忽視。 In consequence因此

Mani proclaimed himself the Paraclete promised by Jesus; rejected the whole of the Old Testament, but admitted as much of the New as suited him; in particular he rejected the Acts of the Apostles, because it told of the descent of the Holy Ghost in the past.摩尼自封的聖靈所承諾的耶穌;否決整個舊約,但承認了新的適合他,尤其是他拒絕了使徒行傳,因為它說的後裔的聖靈在過去。 The gospels were corrupted in many places, but where a text seemed to favor him the Manichee knew how to parade it.福音被損壞,在許多地方,但在文字似乎有利於他的Manichee知道如何閱兵它。 One has to read St. Augustine's anti-Manichæan disputes to realize the extreme ingenuity with which scripture texts were collected and interpreted.一個讀聖奧古斯丁的反摩尼教的爭端,以實現極端的聰明才智與經文文本收集和解釋。

Though Mani called himself the Paraclete he claimed no divinity but with show of humility styled himself "Apostle of Jesus Christ by the providence of God the Father"; a designation which is obviously adapted from the heading of the Pauline Epistles.雖然摩尼自稱的聖靈他聲稱沒有神,但表現出的謙卑自稱“使徒耶穌基督的普羅維登斯的上帝之父” ;指定這顯然是改編自標題波利娜書信。 Mani, however, was the Apostle of Jesus Christ, ie the messenger of Christ's promise, that Paraclete whom he sent (apostolos from apostellos, to send) Mani's blasphemous assumption was thus toned down a little to Christian ears.摩尼然而,使徒耶穌基督,即信使基督的許諾,即聖靈他發送(卡克拉從apostellos ,發送)瑪尼的褻瀆假設,因此低調一些基督教的耳朵。

Jesus Christ was to Mani but an aeon or persistent personification of Light in the world.; as far as it had already been set free it was the luminous Jesus, or Jesus patibilis.耶穌基督是摩尼但永世或持續人格化的光的世界。 ;而言,它已經被釋放,這是明亮的耶穌,或耶穌patibilis 。

The historical Jesus of Nazareth was entirely repudiated by Mani.歷史拿撒勒的耶穌是完全否定瑪尼。 "The son of a poor widow" (Mary),"the Jewish Messias whom the Jews crucified", "a devil who was justly punished for interfering in the work of the Aeon Jesus", such was, according to Mani, the Christ whom Christians worshipped as God. “兒子的一個貧窮的寡婦” (瑪麗) , “猶太弭賽亞人的猶太人釘在十字架上” , “魔鬼誰是公正懲罰干擾的工作Aeon的耶穌” ,例如,根據瑪尼,基督人基督信徒崇拜的上帝。 Mani's Christology was purely Docetic, his Christ appeared to be man, to live, suffer, and die to symbolize the light suffering in this world.瑪尼的基督純粹是Docetic ,他的基督似乎是男人,生活,受苦,和死亡的象徵鑑於痛苦在這個世界上。 Though Mani used the term "Evangel" for his message, his Evangel was clearly in no real sense that of the Christians.雖然摩尼使用了“福音”的訊息,他的福音顯然是在沒有真正意義上的基督徒。

Mani finally beguiled the unwary by the use of such apparently Christian terms as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to designate divine personalities, but a glance at his cosmogony shows how flimsy was the disguise.摩尼終於受騙的輕率使用這種顯然是基督教用語父親,兒子,和聖靈指定神聖的人物,但看了一眼他的宇宙進化論表明站不住腳的偽裝。 Nevertheless, spoke so cautiously, urging only faith in god, His light, His power, and His wisdom (in reality" the Father of Majesty"; the sun and moon; the five blessed aeons, his sons, and the Manichæan religion), that they deceived many.然而,以如此謹慎,並敦促只有對上帝的信仰,他的光,他的權力,以及他的智慧(在現實中“之父陛下” ;太陽和月亮;五個祝福aeons ,他的兩個兒子,摩尼教和宗教) ,他們騙了很多。

III.三。 HISTORY IN THE EAST歷史在東部

Notwithstanding the bitterest persecution by the Sassanides in Persia as well as by the emperors at Rome, Manichæism spread very rapidly.儘管在激烈的迫害Sassanides波斯以及皇帝在羅馬,摩尼教蔓延十分迅速。 Its greatest success was achieved in countries to the east of Persia.其最大的成功是實現國家東部的波斯。 In AD 1000 the Arab historian Al-Beruni wrote: "The majority of the Eastern Turks, the inhabitants of China and Tibet, and a number in India belong to the religion of Mani".在公元1000阿拉伯歷史學家基地貝魯尼寫道: “大多數東歐土耳其人,居民的中國和西藏,和一些在印度屬於宗教的嘛呢” 。 The recent finds of Manichæan literature and painting at Turfan corroborate this statement. Within a generation after Mani's death his followers had settled on the Malabar Coast and gave the name to Minigrama, ie "Settlement of Mani".最近發現的摩尼教文學和繪畫在吐魯番證實這一聲明。內一代又瑪尼的死亡他的追隨者已經解決的馬拉巴爾海岸和給Minigrama名稱,即“爭端的嘛呢” 。 The Chinese inscriptions of Kara Belgassum, once thought to refer to the Nestorians, doubtless have reference to the existence of Manichæism.在中國的卡拉題詞Belgassum ,一旦認為指的是Nestorians ,無疑提及存在的摩尼教。 The great Turkish tribe of the Tuguzguz in 930 threatened reprisals on Mohammedans in their power if the Manichæans in Samarcand were molested by the Prince of Chorazan, in whose dominion they were very numerous.偉大的土耳其部落Tuguzguz在930威脅報復伊斯蘭教在其權力,如果Manichæans在Samarcand被騷擾的王子Chorazan ,在其統治他們非常多。 Detailed information on the extreme Eastern Manichæans is still lacking.詳細資料極端東歐Manichæans仍然缺乏。 In Persia and Babylonia proper, Manichæism seems never to have been the predominant religion, but the Manichæans enjoyed there a large amount of prosperity and toleration under Mohammedan rule.在波斯和巴比倫適當,摩尼教似乎從來沒有被主要宗教,但Manichæans享有有大量的繁榮和容忍根據伊斯蘭教的規則。 Some caliphs were actually favorable to Manichæism, and it had a number of secret sympathizers throughout Islam.一些caliphs實際上是有利的摩尼教,而且有一些秘密的同情者整個伊斯蘭教。 Though not numerous in the capitol, Bagdad, they were scattered in the villages and hamlets of the Irak.雖然沒有眾多的首都,巴格達,他們散佈在村莊的義。 Their prosperity and intimacy of social intercourse with non-Manichæans aroused the indignation of the Puritan party amongst Mani's followers, and this led to the formation of the heresy of Miklas, a Persian ascetic in the eighth century.他們的繁榮和親密的社會交往與非Manichæans引起憤慨清教徒之間的嘛呢黨的追隨者,這導致形成的邪說米克拉斯,一隻波斯苦行在第八世紀。

As Manichæism adopted three Christian apocrypha, the Gospel of Thomas, the Teaching of Addas, and the Shepherd of Hermas, the legend was soon formed that Thomas, Addas, and Hermas were the first great apostles of Mani's system.由於摩尼教通過了三項基督教偽經,福音的托馬斯,教學Addas ,以及牧人書,傳說是盡快形成托馬斯, Addas ,和書的第一個偉大的使徒瑪尼的系統。 Addas is supposed to have spread it in the Orient (ta tes anatoles), Thomas in Syria, and Hermas in Egypt. Addas理應已經蔓延它在東方(大檢驗anatoles ) ,托馬斯在敘利亞和埃及的書。 Manichæism was certainly known in Judea before Mani's death; it was brought to Eleutheropolis by Akouas in 274 (Epiph., "Haer.", LXVI, I).摩尼教肯定是已知的在朱迪亞摩尼前去世,它被帶到Eleutheropolis的Akouas在274 ( Epiph. , “ Haer 。 ” LXVI ,我) 。 St. Ephrem (378) complained that no country was more infected with Manichæism than Mesopotamia in his day, and Manichæism maintained its ground in Edessa even in AD 450.聖弗雷姆( 378 )抱怨說,沒有一個國家能感染更多的摩尼教比在他的美索不達米亞的一天,摩尼教保持其在埃德薩即使是在公元450 。 The fact that it was combated by Eusebius of Emesus, George and Appolinaris of Laodicea, Diodorus of Tarsus, John (Chrysostom) of Antioch, Epiphanius of Salamis, and Titus of Bostra shows how early and ubiquitous was the danger of Manichæism in Western Asia.事實上,這是鬥爭的優西比烏Emesus ,喬治和Appolinaris的老底嘉,狄奧的塔爾蘇斯,約翰(金口)的安提阿,埃皮法尼烏斯薩拉米斯,並泰特斯的Bostra說明早期和無處不在的危險是摩尼教在西亞。 About AD 404, Julia, a lady of Antioch, tried by her riches and culture to pervert the city of Gaza to Manichæism, but without success.大約公元404 ,朱莉亞,一個老太太的安提阿,審判由她的財富和文化妨礙城市加沙的摩尼教,但沒有成功。 In Jerusalem St. Cyril had many converted Manichæans amongst his catechumens and refuted their errors at length.在耶路撒冷的聖西里爾了許多中間轉換Manichæans他慕道和批駁其錯誤的長度。 St. Nilus knew of secret Manichæans in Sinai before AD 430.聖Nilus知道的秘密Manichæans前在西奈公元430 。

In no country did Manichæism enter more insidiously into Christian life than in Egypt.在任何國家沒有摩尼教輸入更多不知不覺到基督徒的生活比在埃及。 One of the governors of Alexandria under Constantine was a Manichæan, who treated the Catholic bishops with unheard-of severity.一個州長亞歷山大根據君士坦丁是摩尼教,誰處理的天主教主教與前所未聞的程度。 St. Athanasius says of Anthony the Hermit (330) that he forbade all intercourse with "Manichæans and other heretics".聖亞他那修說,安東尼的隱士( 330 ) ,他禁止所有的交往與“ Manichæans和其他異教徒” 。

In the Eastern roman Empire it came to the zenith of its power about AD 375-400, but then rapidly declined.在東羅馬帝國它的頂峰的電力約公元375-400 ,但隨後迅速下降。 But in the middle of the sixth century it once more rose into prominence.但是,中六世紀它再次上升到突出的地位。 The Emperor Justinian himself disputed with them; Photinus the Manichæan publicly disputed with Paul the Persian.查士丁尼皇帝本人與他們有爭議的; Photinus公開的摩尼教與保羅有爭議的波斯。 Manichæism obtained adherents among the highest classes of society.摩尼教信徒中獲得的最高等級的社會。 Barsymes the Nestorian prefect of Theodora, was an avowed Manichæan. Barsymes的景教省長多拉,這是一個公開摩尼教。 But this recrudescence of Manichæism was soon suppressed.但是,這復燃的摩尼教很快被壓制。

Soon, however, whether under the name of Paulicians, or Bogomiles, it again invaded the Byzantine Empire, after having lain hidden for a time on Musselman territory.不久,但是,不論是根據名稱Paulicians ,或Bogomiles ,再次入侵拜占庭帝國之後,睡過一個隱藏的時間穆塞爾曼領土。 The following are the Imperial edicts launched against Manichæism: Diocletian (Alexandria, 31 March, 296) commands the Proconsul of Africa to persecute them, he speaks of them as a sordid and impure sect recently come from Persia, which he is determined to destroy root and branch (stirpitus amputari). Its leaders and propagators must be burnt, together with their books; the rank and file beheaded, people of note condemned to the mines, and their goods confiscated.以下是帝國法令發動摩尼教:戴克里先(亞歷山大, 3月31日, 296 )指揮Proconsul非洲迫害,他談到了它們作為一個骯髒和不純節最近來自波斯,他決心破壞根和分支機構( stirpitus amputari ) 。及其領導人和傳播者必須被燒毀,連同他們的書籍;級和文件砍頭,說明人民的譴責的地雷,並沒收其貨物。 This edict remained at least nominally in force under Constantine, and Constantius.這法令仍至少在名義上根據君士坦丁武力,並君。 Under Julian the Apostate, Manichæism seems to have been tolerated.在朱利安的叛教者,摩尼教似乎已經不能容忍的。 Valentinian I and Gratian, though tolerant of other sects, made exception of the Manichæans.瓦倫蒂安我和格拉提安,但寬容的其他教派,提出除Manichæans 。 Theodosius I, by an edict of 381, declared Manichæans to be without civil rights and incapable of testamentary disposition. In the following year he condemned them to death under the name of Encratites, Saccophores, and Hydroparastates.狄奧多西一世,通過一項法令, 381宣布將Manichæans沒有公民權利和能力遺囑性質的處置。第二年,他譴責這些人的名字Encratites , Saccophores ,並Hydroparastates 。 Valentinian II confiscated their goods, annulled their wills, and sent them into exile.瓦倫蒂安第二沒收其貨物,其遺囑無效,並把他們送到流亡國外。 Honorius in 405 renewed the edicts of his predecessors, and fined all governors of cities or provinces who were remiss in carrying out his orders; he invalidated all their contracts, declared them outlaws and public criminals.挪留在405延長法令他的前任,並罰款省長的所有城市或省份有失職誰在執行他的命令,他所有的無效合同,宣布這些不法分子和公眾的罪犯。 In 445 Valentinian III renewed the edicts of his predecessors; Anastasius condemned all Manichæans to death; Justin and Justinian decreed the death penalty, not only against Manichæans who remained obstinate in their heresy, but even against converts from Manichæism who remained in touch with their former co-religionists, or who did not at once denounce them to the magistrates.在445瓦倫蒂安三新法令他的前任;達西譴責一切Manichæans死刑;賈斯汀和查士丁尼頒布死刑,不僅對Manichæans誰仍然頑固的異端邪說,但即使對轉換從摩尼教誰保持聯繫與前公司教友,或誰沒有立即譴責他們的法官。 Heavy penalties were likewise decreed against all State officials who did not denounce their colleagues, if infected with Manichæism, and against all those who retained Manichæan books.重罰也同樣下令對所有的國家官員誰沒有譴責他們的同事,如果感染了摩尼教,以及對所有誰保留摩尼教的書籍。 It was a war of extermination and was apparently successful, within the confines of the Byzantine Empire.這是一場戰爭的滅絕和顯然是成功的,在局限的拜占庭帝國。

IV.四。 HISTORY IN THE WEST歷史上在西部

In the West the special home of Manichæism was in Proconsular Africa, where it seems to have had a second apostle inferior only to Mani, a further incarnation of the Paraclete, Adimantus.在西部地區的特殊家庭的摩尼教Proconsular是在非洲,在那裡它似乎產生了第二使徒只下瑪尼,進一步體現了聖靈, Adimantus 。 Previous to 296 Julian the Proconsul had written to the emperor that the Manichæans troubled the peace of the population and caused injury to the towns.前296朱利安的Proconsul曾寫信給皇帝的Manichæans困擾的和平居民和造成損害的城鎮。 After the edict of Diocletian we hear no more of it until the days of St. Augustine.在戴克里先的法令,我們沒有聽到更多的,直到天的聖奧古斯丁。 Its most notorious champion was Faustus of Mileve. Born at Mileve of poor parents, he had gone to Rome, and being converted to Manichæism he began to study rhetoric somewhat late in life.其最臭名昭著的冠軍是浮士德的Mileve 。 Mileve出生在貧困的父母,他去了羅馬,並正在轉化為摩尼教,他開始研究的言論有點晚的生活。 He was not a man of profound erudition, but he was a suave and unctuous speaker.他不是一個人深刻的學問,但他是一個溫文爾雅和油膩的發言。 His fame in Manichæan circles was very great.他的名聲在摩尼教界是非常大的。 He was a Manichæan episcopus and boasted of having left his wife and children and all he had for his religion.他是摩尼教episcopus和吹噓離開他的妻子和孩子以及所有他對他的宗教。 He arrived at Carthage in 383, and was arrested, but the Christians obtained the commutation of his sentence to banishment and even that was not carried out.他於383迦太基,並逮捕,但基督徒獲得了減刑的刑期,以流放,甚至是沒有進行。 About AD 400 he wrote a work in favor of Manichæism, or rather against Christianity, in which he tried to wrest the New Testament to the support of Manichæism.大約公元400他寫了工作,有利於摩尼教,或者對基督教,他在試圖奪取新約的支持摩尼教。 St. Augustine answered him in thirty-three books embodying verbally much of his teaching.聖奧古斯丁回答他在33本書體現了辱罵他的大部分教學。 On 28 and 29 August 392, St. Augustine had refuted a certain Fortunatus in public discussion held in the Baths of Sossius. 28日和8月29日392 ,聖奧古斯丁曾駁斥某福圖納圖斯在公共討論中的溫泉Sossius 。 Fortunatus acknowledged defeat and disappeared from the town.福圖納圖斯承認失敗,並消失在城市。 On 7 Dec., 404, St. Augustine held a dispute with Felix, a Manichæan priest.在12月7日, 404 ,聖奧古斯丁爭端舉行了一次與費利克斯,一個摩尼教神父。 He convinced him of the error of his ways and he made him say: Anathema to Mani.他相信他的錯誤,他和他的方式,他說:詛咒瑪尼。 St. Augustine knew how to use severity to extirpate the heresy.聖奧古斯丁知道如何使用的嚴重性消滅的異端邪說。 Victorinus, a deacon had become an auditor and propagandist of the Manichæans. Victorinus ,執事已成為審計員和宣傳的Manichæans 。 He was discovered, upon which he apparently repented and asked for reconciliation, but St. Augustine punished him and banished him from the town, warning all people against him.他被發現時,他顯然是懺悔,並要求和解,但聖奧古斯丁懲罰他,放逐他從鎮,並警告所有的人對他。 He would not hear of his repentance unless he denounced all the Manichæans he knew in the province.他沒有聽到他的懺悔,除非他譴責所有Manichæans他知道在該省。 St. Augustine did not write against Manichæism during the last twenty five years of his life; hence it is thought that the sect decreased in importance during that time.聖奧古斯丁沒有對摩尼教寫在過去二十五年的生命,因此有人認為,該教派的重要性降低在這段時間。 Yet in 420, Ursus, the imperial prefect, arrested some Manichæans in Carthage and made them recant.然而,在420名,熊,帝國省長,逮捕了一些Manichæans在迦太基,使他們撤回。 When the Arian Vandals conquered Africa the Manichæans thought of gaining the Arian clergy by secretly entering their ranks, but Huneric (477-484), King of the Vandals, realizing the danger, burnt many of them and transported the others.當阿里安汪達爾人征服非洲的Manichæans思想獲得阿里安神職人員的秘密進入他們的行列,但Huneric ( 477-484 ) ,國王的汪達爾人,實現了危險,燒毀許多人和運輸的其他人。 Yet at the end of the sixth century Gregory the Great looked upon Africa as the hotbed of Manichæism.然而,在結束的第六屆世紀大格里高利看待非洲作為摩尼教的溫床。 The same warning was repeated by Gregory II (701), and Nicholas II (1061).同樣的警告,重複了格雷戈里二( 701 )和尼古拉二世( 1061年) 。

The spread of Manichæism in Spain and Gaul is involved in obscurity on account of the uncertainty concerning the real teaching of Priscillian.傳播的摩尼教在西班牙和高盧人是默默無聞的參與就到了不確定性的實際教學中的Priscillian 。

It is well known how St. Augustine (383) found a home at Rome in the Manichæan community, which must have been considerable.眾所周知,如何聖奧古斯丁( 383 )家庭找到了在羅馬的摩尼教社會,必須有相當大。 According to the "Liber Pontificalis" Pope Miltiades (311-314) had already discovered adherents to the sect in the city.據“書Pontificalis ”教皇米裡基阿德( 311-314 )已發現的信徒節的城市。 Valentinian's edict (372), addressed to the city prefect, was clearly launched mainly against Roman Manichæans.瓦倫蒂安的法令( 372人) ,給城市行政區,顯然是推出主要是針對羅馬Manichæans 。 The so called "Ambrosiaster" combated Manichæism in a great many of his writings (370-380).所謂的“ Ambrosiaster ”摩尼教在打擊很大,他的許多著作( 370-380 ) 。 In the years 384-388 a special sect of Manichæans arose in Rome called Martari, or Mat-squatters, who, supported by a rich man called Constantius, tried to start a sort of monastic life for the Elect in contravention of Mani's command that the Elect should wander about the world preaching the Manichæan Gospel.在未來的幾年384-388段特別的Manichæans節出現在羅馬呼籲Martari ,或者墊,棚戶區,誰的支持下,富人所謂君,試圖啟動一種僧侶生活電器違反瑪尼的命令說,選舉應跑江湖世界摩尼教宣揚福音。 The new sect found the bitterest opposition amongst their co-religionists.新發現的節激烈反對派之間的合作教友。 In Rome they seem to have made extraordinary endeavors to conceal themselves by almost complete conformity with Christian customs.在羅馬,他們似乎做出了不平凡的事業來掩蓋自己的幾乎完全符合基督教習俗。 From the middle of the sixth century onward Manichæism apparently died out in the West.來自中東的第六屆世紀摩尼教顯然起事件發生在西方。 Though a number of secret societies and dualistic sects may have existed here and there in obscurity, there is apparently no direct and conscious connection with the Prophet of Babylon and his doctrine.雖然一些秘密社團和二元教派可能存在這裡和那裡默默無聞,但顯然是沒有直接的和自覺與巴比倫的先知和他的學說。 Yet when the Paulicians and Bogomili from Bulgaria came in contact with the West in the eleventh century, and eastern missionaries driven out by the Byzantine emperors taught dualist doctrines in the North of Italy and the South of France they found the leaven of Manichæism still so deeply pervading the minds of the many that they could make it ferment and rise into the formidable Catharist heresies.然而,當Paulicians和Bogomili由保加利亞排在與西方在11世紀,東部傳教士趕出了拜占廷皇帝二元理論講授在北意大利和法國南部,他們發現了酵母的摩尼教仍然深深地普遍存在的頭腦中的許多,他們可以使發酵和上升到可怕的Catharist邪說。

V. MANICHÆAN WRITERS五,摩尼教作家

Manichæism, like Gnosticism, was an intellectual religion, it despised the simplicity of the crowd.摩尼教一樣,諾斯替主義,這是一個智慧的宗教,它輕視的簡單的人群。 As it professed to bring salvation through knowledge, ignorance was sin.因為它宣稱將通過知識得救,愚昧是罪惡。 Manichæism, in consequence, was literary and refined, its founder was a fruitful writer, and so were many of his followers.摩尼教,因此,是文學和完善,其創始人是一個富有成果的作家,因此有許多他的追隨者。 Of all this literary output only fragments are at present extant.所有這一切只能輸出文學片段,目前現存的。 No Manichæan treatise has come down to us in its entirety.沒有摩尼教論文已下降到我們的全部內容。 Mani wrote in Persian and Babylonian Aramaic, apparently using either language with equal facility.摩尼寫在波斯和巴比倫阿拉姆,顯然使用的語言平等的設施。 The following seven titles of works of his have come down to us:以下七個冠軍的作品,他已經給我們:

"Shapurakan", Ie "Princely", because it was dedicated to Peroz, the brother of Sapor I (written in Syrian). “ Shapurakan ” ,即“王國” ,因為它是專門用於Peroz的兄弟味口(寫在敘利亞) 。 It was a kind of Manichæan eschatology, dealing in three chapters with the dissolution of Hearers, Elect, and Sinners. It was written about AD 242.它是一種摩尼教末世論,處理三個章節中與聽眾解散,電器,和罪人。有人寫公元242 。

"The Book of Mysteries", polemical and dogmatic in character. “書之謎” ,論戰和教條式的性質。

"The Book of the Giants", probably about cosmogonic figures. “這本書的巨人” ,大概cosmogonic數字。

"The Book of Precepts for Hearers", with appendix for the Elect. “書訓的聽眾” ,附錄的電器。

"The Book of Life-giving", written in Greek, probably of considerable size. “這本書的生命” ,寫在希臘,可能具有相當規模。

"The Book of Pragmateia", contents totally unknown. “書Pragmateia ” ,內容完全不明。

"The Gospel", written in Persian, of which the chapters began with successive letters of the alphabet. “福音” ,波斯文寫成的,其中的章節開始,連續封信的字母。

Besides these more extensive works, no less than seventy-six letters or brief treatises are enumerated, but it is not always clear which of these are by Mani himself, which by his immediate successors.除了這些更廣泛的工程,不得少於76字母或簡短的論文列舉,但它並不總是很清楚哪些是自己的摩尼,其中由他立即接班人。 The "Epistola Fundamenti", so well known in Latin writers, is probably the "Treatise of the Two Elements", mentioned as first of the seventy-six numbers in Arabic sources.在“書信集Fundamenti ” ,以便眾所周知在拉丁美洲作家,也許是“傷寒的兩個要素” ,首先提到的76多阿拉伯文來源。 Small and often unintelligible fragments in Pahlevi and in Sogdian(?) have recently been found in Chinese Turkestan by TWK Mueller.小,常常不知所云的碎片Pahlevi和粟特( ? )最近已發現的中國東突TWK穆勒。 The "Epistola Fundamenti" is extensively quoted in St. Augustine's refutation and also in Theodore bar Khoni, and Titus of Bostra, and the "Acta Archelai".在“書信集Fundamenti ”是在廣泛引用聖奧古斯丁的反駁,並在西奧多列Khoni ,並泰特斯的Bostra和“學報Archelai ” 。 Of Manichæan writers the following names have come down to us: Agapius (Photius, Cod. 179), of Asia Minor; Aphthonius of Egypt (Philostorgium, "Hist. Eccl.", III, 15) Photinus refuted by Paul the Persian (Mercati, "Per la vita de Paulo il Persiano"), Adimantus, refuted by Augustine.摩尼教的作家下列名稱來給我們: Agapius ( Photius ,鱈魚。 179 ) ,小亞細亞; Aphthonius埃及( Philostorgium , “組織胺。傳道書。 ” ,第三章, 15條) Photinus保羅駁斥了波斯( Mercati “每次拉生活的聖保羅一Persiano ” ) , Adimantus ,駁斥了奧古斯丁。

VI.六。 ANTI-MANICHÆAN WRITERS反摩尼教作家

St. Ephraem (306-373); his treatise against the Manichæans was published in poems (59-73) in the Roman edition with Latin translation and again by K. Kessler in his "Mani", I, 262-302; Hegemonius is said by Heracleon of Chalcedon to be the author of the "Acta disputationis Archelai episcopi Mesopotamiae et Manetis haeresiarchae".聖Ephraem ( 306-373 ) ;他的論文對Manichæans出版詩集( 59-73 )在羅馬與拉丁美洲版的翻譯,並再次由K.凱斯勒在他的“嘛呢” ,我262-302 ; Hegemonius是說Heracleon迦克墩是作者的“學報disputationis Archelai episcopi Mesopotamiae等Manetis haeresiarchae ” 。 This important work on Manichæism, written originally in Greek or perhaps in Syriac, between AD 300 and 350 has come down to us only in a Latin translation, though small fragments exist in Greek.這項重要的工作,摩尼教,書面最初在希臘或者在敘利亞,在公元300和350已下降到我們只有在拉丁美洲的翻譯,但小片段存在於希臘。 The most recent edition is that of M. Beeson (Berlin, 1906).最新一版是貝先生(柏林, 1906年) 。 It contains an imaginary dispute between Archalaus, Bishop of Charcar, and Mani, himself.它包含一個假想Archalaus之間的爭端,主教Charcar ,並摩尼本人。 The dispute is but a literary device, but the work ranks as the first class authority on Manichæism. It was translated into English in the Ante-Nicene library.爭議,但文學的設備,但隊伍的工作作為頭等權威摩尼教。有人翻譯成英文在前廳尼西亞圖書館。

Alexander of Lycopolis published a short treatise against Manichæism, last edited by A. Brinkmann (Leipzig, 1895).亞歷山大Lycopolis發表了簡短的論文對摩尼教,最後編輯由A.布林克曼(萊比錫, 1895年) 。 Serapion of Thmuis (c. 350) is credited by St. Jerome with an excellent work against Manichæans.謝拉皮翁的Thmuis (角350 )記入由聖杰羅姆的出色工作對Manichæans 。 This work has recently been restored to its original form by A. Brinkmann "Sitz. ber der Preuss. Acad. Berlin"(1895), 479sqq.這項工作最近已經恢復到原來的形式,由A.布林克曼“ Sitz 。誤碼率之普羅伊斯。中山。柏林” ( 1895年) , 479sqq 。 Titus of Bostra (374) published four books against the Manichæans, two containing arguments from reason and two arguements from Scripture and theology against the heresy.泰特斯的Bostra ( 374 )四本書出版對Manichæans ,兩載的論點從理性和兩個論點從聖經和神學的異端邪說。 They have come down to us complete only in a Syriac version (LaGarde, "Tit. Bost. contra Manichaeos Libri IV", Berlin, 1859), but part of the original Greek is published in Pitra's "Analecta sacra. et class."他們歸結為我們完成只有在敘利亞的版本(拉加德, “山雀。 Bost 。禁忌Manichaeos利布里四” ,柏林, 1859年) ,但部分原來希臘出版的羅弗的“ Analecta薩克拉。等類別。 ” (1888), I, 44-46. ( 1888 ) ,我, 44-46 。 St. Epiphanius of Salamis devoted his great work "Adversus Haereses" (written about 374) mainly to refutation of Manichæism. The other heresies receive but brief notices and even Arianism seems of less importance.聖埃皮法尼烏斯薩拉米斯專門討論他的偉大的工作“ Adversus Haereses ” (書面約374 )主要是為了駁斥摩尼教。其他接受,但歪理邪說簡短的告示,甚至Arianism似乎那麼重要。 Theodoret of Cyprus (458), "De haereticorum fabulis", in four books (PG LXXXIII), gives an exposition of Manichæism. Theodoret塞浦路斯( 458 ) , “德haereticorum fabulis ” ,在四本書(中央社LXXXIII號) ,給出了一個博覽會的摩尼教。 Didymus the Blind, president of the catechetical school at Alexandria (345-395), wrote a treatise in eighteen chapters against Manichæans. Didymus盲人主席問答學校在亞歷山德里亞( 345-395 ) ,寫了論文18章中對Manichæans 。 St. John Damascene (c.750) Wrote a "Dialogue against Manichæans" (PG XCIV), and a shorter "Discussion of John the Orthodox with a Manichæan" (PG XCVI); Photius (891) wrote four books against the Manichæans, and is a valuable witness of the Paulician phase of Manichæism.聖約翰大馬士革( c.750 )寫了“反對Manichæans對話” (指引第九十四) ,以及較短的“約翰探討東正教與摩尼教” (前列腺素XCVI ) ; Photius ( 891 )寫四本書對Manichæans ,和是一種寶貴的見證Paulician階段的摩尼教。 Paul the Persian (c.529) "Disputation with Photinus the Manichæan" (PG LXXXVIII, 528).保羅波斯( c.529 ) “爭議與Photinus的摩尼教” (前列腺素LXXXVIII , 528 ) 。 Zacharias Rhetor (c.536), "Seven theses against Manichæans", fragments in PG LXXXV, 1143-.撒迦利亞修辭( c.536 ) , “七對Manichæans論文”片段指引LXXXV , 1143 -. Heraclian (c.510) wrote twenty books against Manichæans (Photius, Cod. 86). Heraclian ( c.510 )寫21本書對Manichæans ( Photius ,鱈魚。 86 ) 。 Amongst Latin writers St. Augustine is foremost, his works being "De utilitate credendi"; "De moribus Manichaeorum"; "De duabus animabus"; "Contra Fortunatum"; "De actis cum Felice", "De Natura Boni", "Contra Secundinum", "Contra Adversarium Legis et Prophetarum" in "Opera", VIII (Paris, 1837).其中拉丁美洲作家聖奧古斯丁是最重要的是,他的作品是“德utilitate credendi ” , “德moribus Manichaeorum ” , “德duabus animabus ” , “魂斗羅燈籠” , “德兼菲菲的Actis ” , “德自然渤泥” , “魂斗羅Secundinum “ , ”魂斗羅Adversarium立法等Prophetarum “中的”戲曲“ ,第八章(巴黎, 1837年) 。 Some in English.一些英語。 "De Genesi contra Manichaeos lib. II." “德Genesi禁忌Manichaeos解放。二。 ” Ambrosiaster (370-380): for his commentaries on St. Paul's Epistles and his "Quaestiones V. et N. Testamenti" see A. Souter, "A Study of Ambrosiaster" (1907); Marcus Victorinus (380), "Ad Justinum Manichaeum". Ambrosiaster ( 370-380 ) :他的評注聖保祿書信和他的“五等Quaestiones北Testamenti ”見A.蘇特“ ,研究Ambrosiaster ” ( 1907年) ;馬庫斯Victorinus ( 380 ) , “廣告Justinum Manichaeum “ 。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.出版信息書面由JP Arendzen 。 Transcribed by Tom Crossett. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.轉錄湯姆克羅塞特。天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

SOURCES.--Theodore bar Khoni, Nestorian Bishop of Cascar (c. end of sixth century), wrote a book of "Scholia" or Memoirs.來源.--西奧多列Khoni ,景教主教Cascar (角結束六世紀) ,寫了一本書的“ Scholia ”或回憶錄。 Book XI of this work contains a list of "sects which arose at different times"; among these he gives an account of the Manichæans and relates at length the Manichæan cosmogony.圖書第十一這項工作包含一個清單“教派產生在不同的時間” ;當中,他敘述的Manichæans ,涉及了詳細的摩尼教宇宙進化論。 This is especially interesting and valuable as he retains the original Syriac designations of the cosmogonic figures and probably gives Mani's own account verbally from the Fundamental Epistle; in Pognon, Inscriptions mandaites des coupes de Khouabir (Paris, 1898), French tr.這是特別有意義和有價值的,他保留了原來的敘利亞指定的cosmogonic數字,可能使瑪尼的辱罵自己的賬戶從基本書信;在Pognon ,碑刻mandaites萬德Khouabir轎跑車(巴黎, 1898年) ,法語文。 (see also M. Noldere Wiener, Zeitsch. Kund. Morg., XII, 355); Abu' Lfaradsh usually called En Nadim ("The Shining One"), an Arab historian who in AD 908 wrote his Firhist al'ulum or Compendium of Sciences". The chapters dealing with the Manichæans were published in German tr. by Fluegel in his Mani. Al Biruni, an Arabic chronologist (AD 1000), in his Chronology of Eastern Nations, Eng. ed. Sachau, Or transl. Fund (London, 1879), and India, Eng. ed. Sachau, truebn, Or. ser. (London, 1888) (亦見先生Noldere維納, Zeitsch 。 Kund 。 Morg 。 ,第十二章, 355 ) ;阿布' Lfaradsh通常稱為恩納迪姆( “閃靈一” ) ,一個阿拉伯歷史學家誰在公元908寫下Firhist al'ulum或簡編科學。 “章節處理Manichæans被刊登在德國文。由弗呂格爾在他的嘛呢。基地比魯尼,一個阿拉伯語chronologist (公元1000 ) ,在他的年表東歐國家,英。版。 Sachau ,或譯。基金(倫敦, 1879年) ,以及印度,楊永強。版。 Sachau , truebn ,或。服務。 (倫敦, 1888 )

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